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 British Columbia
Historical News
Journal ofthe British Columbia Historical Federation
Volume 33, No. 1
Winter 1999/2000
$$.00
ISSN 1195-8294
Courtesy Elsie {Tilt) Daniels
The Tilt family in front of their home in New Westminster in 1907.
Nelly Tilt wrote in her diary: "I was quite charmed with my little
wooden house, with wild raspberries growing outside the front, and
bracken and bulrushes." NeUy Tilt was an amateur photographer and
produced her own prints, but this time she must have asked someone
else to release the shutter.
We thank Gavin Halkett, past president of the Nanaimo Historical
Society, for submitting NeUy Tilt's lively account of her trip from
England to New Westminster, starting on page 22.
Disaster in Balmer South
Nelly Tilt goes to BC
Steamboats on the Peace
Torino's ways
Bowen Island's first hotel
The elusive Strait of Anian
Tokens
Index 1998 British Columbia Historical News
Journal of the B.C. Historical Federation
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ISSN 1195-8294
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The British Columbia Heritage Trust  has
provided financial assistance to this project to
support conservation of our heritage resources, gain
further knowledge and increase public understanding
ofthe complete history of British Columbia.
British Columbia Historical Federation
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British Columbia Historical News
Publishing Committee see column on left side
Visit our website: http://www.selkirk.bc.ca/bchf/mainl.htm British Columbia
Historical News
Journal ofthe British Columbia Historical Federation
Volume 33, No. 1
Winter 1999/2000
$5.00
ISSN 1195-8294
2 Steamboating on the Peace River
by Edward L. Affleck
8 Three Tough Men: Surviving the 1969 Balmer
South Flood and Cave-in
by Michael Saad
13 Strait of Anian: In Search ofthe Northwest Passage
in British Columbia
by Paul G. Chamberlain
16 The Road to Tofino
by Walter Guppy
19 Bowen Island's Howe Sound Hotel
by Robert f. Cathro
22 Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster
25 Glanville s Dairy of Grand Forks, BC
by Ronald Greene
26 Book Reviews
31 Archives & Archivists - Gary A. Mitchell, CRM
32 Historians of Discovery Visit Nootka
by Michael Layland
33 Malaspina Research Centre opening in Nanaimo
by Nick Doe
34
Anderson's Brigade Trail
by Charles Hou
35
News and Notes
37
Federation News
38
Index Vol. 31
Historians rely on written and
spoken words. The collection
and preservation of primary documents
concerns everyone interested in history.
Archival records are not simply "artifacts," or "heritage items." They are
above all messengers from the past.
BC Historical News intends to present
under the direction of Fran Gundry
a regular feature called "Archives & Archivists," providing insight in the "archival" world, the first of which appears
in this issue.
Melva Dwyer prepared, with her
usual tenacity and skill, the index for
1998, which is included in this issue.
Read Ron Greene's first contribution of a series of histories about tokens from his collection.
Articles published in this issue called
for an unusual number of maps. A
chance(?) encounter with her husband,
Patrick, introduced us to Cathy
Chapin ofthe Geography Department
of Lakehead University in Thunder Bay
and we are very fortunate that she volunteered to do maps for us. Readers
will recognize her name from maps
published in The Beaver.
Manuscripts keep coming in and we
look forward to more. Don't be shy and
share your slice of BC history with us,
as the contributors to this issue did.
With this issue I have completed my
first year as editor. Many volunteers—
named or not named—have contributed to the success of our journal. A
warm "thank you" to all.
the editor
Any country worthy of a future
should be interested in its past.
W. Kaye Lamb, 1937
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 1999/2000 Steamboating on the Peace River
by Edward L. Affleck
Ted Affleck is well-
known for his extensive research on the
steamers on the inland
waters of British
Columbia. He is
working on the
publication of a book
containing the names
ofabout a thousand
steamers, titled:
A Century of
Paddlewheelers in the
Pacific Northwest, the
Yukon and Alaska.
Steamboating arrived late on the Upper Peace River and was soon overtaken by the frenetic settlement and railway development which took place prior to and during World War I.The topography
ofthe Peace River country militated against the development of a chain of neat little communities
nestling on the riverside. In these days of magnificent industrial highways sweeping over the plateau
in the Peace River country, providing a speedy fink with Prince George and other British Columbia
centres, the era of meandering steamboats seems as far removed as that of the York boat.
The history of freshwater steamboating in
British Columbia involves navigation on
at least 20 different stretches of water.
Many of these stretches have a similar history
dating from the second half of the nineteenth
century. Prospectors discovered gold on the banks
of hitherto uncharted creeks and rivers and
hordes of adventurers followed in on foot. Then
the white man's inimitable invasion craft, the
sternwheeler, steamed up the Pacific Coast to
enter the mouth of major rivers and proceeded
to work heavy cargo up white water to service
the mushrooming mining camps on or near the
river. This is true of watercourses which rise west
ofthe continental divide and discharge into the
waters ofthe Pacific Ocean such as the Stikine,
the Skeena, the Fraser, and the Columbia. It is
however, not true at all for the Peace River, which
pierces the continental divide to join the vast
Slave-Mackenzie drainage system to the Arctic.
Between 1794 and 1823 the Upper Peace
River area was the scene of active fur trading and
also of intense rivalry between the North West
Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. The
massacre of five HBC men by natives at St. Johns
in 1823, combined with a depletion of fur and
food resources in the area, ended the Upper Peace
River trade for four and one-half decades. Fort
Dunvegan became the western outpost in the
area for the Hudson's Bay Company.
In the 1860s and 1870s prospectors, fanning
out from the Cariboo and Omineca diggings,
scoured the Finlay and Parsnip, headwaters ofthe
Peace, for gold, but no findings were sufficiently
enticing to prompt a major rush to the area. In
any event, had discoveries of gold triggered a rush
to the Finlay and Parsnip the Peace River would
not have permitted a sternwheeler invasion from
the Pacific Coast. As said, the Peace River pierces
the continental divide from the west to discharge
its waters far from the Pacific Coast. The mighty
waters of the Peace, flowing eastward, drain the
southern part ofthe vast northeast corner of British Columbia. The huge body of water now
backed up by the Peace River power development today masks the turbulent water, which
formerly poured through a wild canyon gouged
through the Rocky Mountains. A few miles east
ofthe canyon, at Hudson's Hope, the velocity of
the huge volume of water slackened sufficiendy
to permit navigation. Over 100 miles into Northern Alberta, the River takes a broad sweep north,
then east again to describe a wide arc through
the vast northern plateau ofthe prairie province.
Throughout the centuries, the relendess erosive
force of the mighty waters of the Peace scoured
out a huge trough, so that the upper part ofthe
navigable reaches ofthe river Ue several hundred
feet below the level ofthe surrounding plateau.
More than five hundred miles downstream, in
the far north of Alberta, the River approaches
basaltic formations near FortVermiUon. Here the
scoured trough becomes decidedly more shallow and the River more swift, until several miles
further east it tumbles over theVermiUon Chutes.
Below the Chutes, the River flows on serenely
north and east to its confluence with the Great
Slave River.
The Peace River thus has two navigable
stretches; both mind boggling in their length
when compared to the typical reach of most of
British Columbia's other navigable rivers. The
upper navigable stretch extends almost 600 miles
from Hudson's Hope, BC to FortVermiUon, far
to the north and east in Alberta.The lower stretch,
below VermiUon Chutes, forms part ofthe vast
Athabasca-Slave River system which begins at
Athabasca Landing. About 90 miles north of Edmonton the river tumbles over a series of rapids
on its way northeast to calmer water at Fort
McMurray, then extends well over 1,000 miles
in northeastern Alberta as it meanders its way
north to drain into the Mackenzie River system.
The navigable stretches are long, but the naviga-
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. tion seasons short in the vast subarctic plateau of
Northern Alberta.
Steamboating around Peace Raver Crossing, a
settlement on the Peace River almost midway
between Hudson's Hope andVerrniHon Chutes,
was essentially a May-to-September operation.
To avoid being crushed by the massive movement of ice during spring breakup, vessels had to
be pulled out of the water over the winter, then
the winter-dried wooden hulls made watertight
each spring before being launched for the coming season.This annual start-up procedure, common to steamboating in all freshwater areas of
Canada experiencing long and rigorous winters,
added greatly to the cost.
During the 1860s and 1870s, when the
sternwheeler was invading the navigable reaches
of the Fraser, the Columbia, the Skeena and the
Stikine river systems, the Peace River remained
serene. First Nations people in the Peace had long-
developed trails, which skirted the southern shore
of Lesser Slave Lake south to the Edmonton area.
Traditionally the Hudson's Bay Company during the short navigation season worked vessels
propelled by large sweep oars.York boats, to ship
goods to its forts located throughout the
Athabasca, Slave, Peace, and Mackenzie river system and to bring out furs. Over the winter of
1882-1883, however, the Bay took a giant navigation stride by constructing at Fort Chipewyan,
near the foot of Lake Athabasca, a small stout
sternwheeler called the Grahame. In succeeding
navigation seasons the Grahame, stuffed with cargo,
steamed hundreds of miles up and down the
Athabasca and Great Slave systems, including the
200-mile run up the Peace from its mouth to
the foot of the Vermilion Chutes.Above the portage around the Chutes, York boats and canoes
continued to move goods up the Peace as far as
Hudson's Hope. To the eyes of the white man,
the Upper Peace River area was gradually awakening again after decades of fur trade inactivity.
In the 1880s, the early years of settlement in
what was then the Athabasca District of the
Northwest Territories, the Grahame gave the
Hudson's Bay Company a relatively free hand in
setting transportation rates and conditions. By the
1890s, however, the black-robed missionaries of
the Oblate Order of Mary Immaculate were encouraged by the doughty Catholic bishop, Emile
Grouard, to establish a rival steamer service to
afford themselves and some struggling settlers
some defence against the HBC monopoly. The
Carolyn Affleck
brothers built a fleet of small primitive steamers,
extending by 1903 to the waters ofthe Peace
above theVerrrulion Chutes. In that year the pint-
sized sternwheeler St. Charles began to work the
526 mile stretch from Fort Vermilion to Hudson's Hope, carrying lumber and suppUes for the
Mission at Fort St. John in British Columbia, as
well as goods for the Northwest Mounted PoUce. One trip per season usually sufficed for the
60-mile stretch between Fort St. John and Hudson's Hope, but on one such trip the St. Charles
could match the efforts of a whole fleet ofYork
boats. The brothers worked the St. Charles until
1910, selling her to other interests in the face of
increasing competition on the river.
In 1905, government took steps to open the
Peace River area to settlement. The prospect of
expanded settlement plus the competition ofthe
Grouard fleet spurred the Hudson's Bay Company to expand its fleet on the vast Athabasca-
Great Slave system. In 1905, the Company carried out an act of faith by calling up shipbuilder
Alexander Watson, Jr. from Victoria to superin-
Above: Peace River
country.
Sources:
Affleck, Edward L.
Affleck's list of
Sternwheelers Plying the
Inland Waters of British
Columbia 1858-1980.
(Vancouver: 1994)
Government of Canada.
List ofVessels on the
Shipping Registry
Books.
Hannaford, Nigel. "The
D.A.Thomas," Canada
West Magazine, Vol. 6,
No 2, Spring 1976.
Hansen, Evelyn. Where
Go The Boats. Peace
River Centennial
Museum.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000 Right: The substantial
162-foot steamer
D.A.Thomas, launched
by David Alfred Thomas's
Peace River Development
Company in 1916.
Vancouver Public Library, Special Collections,VPL 56821
tend the construction of a 110-foot sternwheeler,
the Peace River at Fort VermiUon. Pint-sized by
comparison with vessels in the Skeena River fleet
of the HBC, the Peace River nonetheless was
stoudy constructed of spruce lumber and possessed top class interior fittings which included
Unen sheets for stateroom bunks, and Unen table
cloths and sterUng silverware for the elegant Utde dining room. Freight and passengers destined
for Fort St. John would now set out from Edmonton on the wagon road to Athabasca Landing. Freight would Ukely continue on by water
down the rapids of the Athabasca River to Fort
McMurray, then embark on the meandering
Athabasca-Great Slave waterway, and would eventually end up at the foot of theVermiUon Chutes.
A portage of some twenty miles would permit
transfer of cargo to the main deck ofthe steamer
Peace River. Passengers, however, electing a shorter
route involving a series of wagon road portages
and short steamboat hauls, would make their way
up the Athabasca into the Lesser Slave Lake and
Slave River system, thence into the Peace River
area. At Peace River Crossing the traveUer would
thankfully abandon wagonroad travel for the
comforts of the steamer Peace River for a run of
about 150 miles upstream to Fort St. John.
The litde Peace River reigned supreme for a
few years, but the pace of immigration to the
rich plateau lands west of Lesser Slave Lake was
ever quickening. Alberta, in company with its
neighbouring Prairie provinces, was now in the
grip of the mad pre-World War I frenzy of railway building which was to criss-cross the expansive lands ofthe prairies. Mackenzie & Mann
built a railway between Edmonton and Athabasca
Landing in 1911. In the following year
McLennan's Edmonton, Dunvegan & British
Columbia Une began to finger its way north-west
from Edmonton towards the south shore of Lesser
Slave Lake and the Peace River Country beyond.
Early in 1915 this line was completed to
McLennan, less than 50 miles by wagon road
south of Peace River Crossing. In 1916, the last
wartime year in which railway building was carried on, the rail reached Peace River Crossing.
The estabUshment of a railhead at Peace River
Crossing, now dignified by the streamUned name
of "Peace River," altered radically the
steamboating situation on the Upper Peace River.
The long steaming stretch down to Fort Vermilion, the portage down the Chutes and the even
longer steaming stretch up to Fort McMurray
was no longer involved. Steamboating on the
Upper Peace during the navigation season was
now a matter of making shorter, more frequent
runs upstream from the railhead at Peace River
to Hudson's Hope and downstream from Peace
River to FortVermiUon. It was the upstream run
from Peace River which belongs in British Co-
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. ESS-ABU
HopeFredetteBalke
lumbia's steamboating annals.
On the freighting front steamboat competition really began to nibble at the Hudson's Bay
Company's trade in 1912.The Peace RiverTrad-
ing & Land Co., one of a series of lofty promotions organized to develop the wealth ofthe Peace
River country, launched the spunky little
sternwheeler Grenfell at West Peace River. The
Grenfell possessed few ofthe amenities ofthe Peace
Riverbut she proved a ruthless rival on the freighting front until, in September 1914, she grounded
on a sandbar 15 miles above Fort St. John, caught
fire, and burned to the waterUne. In the winter
of 1914-1915, the HBC, losing ground to the
railways in other parts of the Athabasca-Great
Slave system, retired the Peace River. The HBC"
winched its larger sternwheeler Athabasca River
up over the ice-covered VermiUon Chutes. The
steamer was built in 1912 for the Upper
Athabasca trade between Mirror Landing and
Grand Rapids. The Peace River maintained HBC
standards of service on the Peace, but even in
that area, she was shordy to be outclassed. In the
meantime,in 1915, she had to fight competition
on the freighting front from two screw-propelled
diesel-powered vessels, the Peace River Boy and
the Pine Pass. Potentially more irksome to the
HBC was the action of J. K. Cornwall, a rival on
the Athabasca River front, who organized the
Peace River Navigation Company in 1915 and
had the pint-sized 80-foot sternwheeler, the
Northland CaU, constructed at West Peace River.
The Northland Call, however, proved to be ajinxed
vessel, causing her owners a variety of griefs.
The reaUy formidable rival to the HBC, David
Alfred Thomas, Lord Rhondda.aWelsh coal mil-
Uonaire, made his hand felt in 1916.Thomas was
a man of sound vision, but his early death and
the post-World War I recession frustrated his efforts. Thomas envisioned a railway from Prince
Albert, SK through the heart ofthe Peace River
Country and Pine Pass to the waters of the Pacific Ocean on Kitimat Arm. Such a railway would
open up oil exploration in the Peace River and
tap immense coal deposits in the Sukunka VaUey.
Thomas's company, the Peace River Development Company Ltd., launched two vessels at West
Peace River in 1916: the substantial 162-foot
sternwheeler D.A.Thomas, which approached the
Canadian Pacific Railway's Okanagan and
Kootenay District sternwheelers in class, and the
60-foot tunnel-screw-propelled motor vessel Lady
Macworth, named after Thomas's daughter
Margaret, built on the lines of vessels beginning
to work on the Stikine River. At the time ofthe
building of the D.A. Thomas, the powerful engines and fittings of the retired Kootenay Lake
sternwheeler Kaslo were seeking a market, but
for some reason similarly powerful engines were
ordered from Poison Iron Works ofToronto for
Left: Hudson's Bay
Company's steamer Peace
River at Hudson's Hope,
July 1912. Source: Peace
River Chronicles,
Gordon E. Bowles ed.,
Prescott Publishing
Company, Vancouver,
1964.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000 1 Nigel Hannaford, in his
article entided "The D.A.
Thomas" published in
Canada West Magazine,
Vol.6, No. 2, Spring,
1976, provides the following graphic description ofthe vessel's 1927
mishap:
"...The following
year, under the command
of Captain Myers, she
failed to complete even
one trip. On her way
downstream from Hudson's Hope her pilot put
her on the rocks in mid-
channel while Myers was
asleep. Despite the strenuous efforts ofthe frantic
crew to plug the gaping
hole with a tarpaulin,
Myers was unable to
beach her in time and she
sank in deep water only
50 feet from the shore. By
the time she came to rest
she was submerged up to
her main deck. A cargo of
catde was forced to swim
to shore although her passengers left in style in her
lifeboats...."
the D.A. Thomas. Lord Rhondda apparendy was
not a man to skimp on ouday.
The Lady Macworth was an instant success, proving to be a considerable boon to Peace River
setders on the British Columbia side ofthe border. She was easy to manoeuvre and economical
to operate. On the other hand the superbly appointed DA. Thomas was cosdy to operate and
shared the fate ofthe CPR's World War I vintage
Okanagan Lake sternwheeler Sicamous in being
impressive to look at but somewhat out of sync
with Spartan wartime conditions and decidedly
out of sync with post-World War I labour costs.
Thomas died four months before the 1918 armistice, leaving his estate to his only child, Lady
Margaret Macworth. In 1919 she visited the Peace
River Country, apparendy wilUng to support her
father's plans, but failed to receive much encouragement from the BC Government.
By 1920, the Peace River Development Co.
by default had practicaUy a monopoly on Upper
Peace River shipping. The HBC had in 1919
converted the Athabasca River into a barge, the
Peace River Boy had been wrecked in 1916, while
the Pine Pass had been destroyed by fire at Peace
River. The Peace River Development Company
acquired the rival Northland Call, rebuilt her as
the Hudson's Hope, but had no success with her
and laid her up at the end ofthe 1920 season.
The Lamson and Hubbard Canadian Company, which had taken over the posts ofthe Peace
River Trading Company in 1920, organized a
subsidiary company, the Alberta & Arctic Transportation Company and in 1921 acquired the
D.A. Thomas and the Lady Macworth. In the same
year the HBC, alert to trade prospects stirred up
by the Fort Norman oil strike, re-entered the
shipping picture with a modest 32-foot screw-
propeUed vessel, the Weenusk, capable of pushing
freight barges. UtiUzing smaller vessels of this class,
HBC remained in the Peace River shipping picture until 1925, when it shipped out its steel-
huUed screw-propelled vessel Watson Lake to
Waterways on the Athabasca River. Lamson and
Hubbard, finding the Alberta & Arctic Transportation Company something of a white elephant,
sold its shares in the company to the Hudson's
Bay Company in 1924. The HBC, apparendy
yearning to restore elegant pre-World War I standards of service, refitted the D.A.Thomas and proceeded to work her on the river, replete with
linen sheets, linen table cloths, sterling silverware
and aU the trimmings. Railway development had
reduced much ofthe trade upstream from Peace
River [Crossing], but existing roads in cash-
strapped British Columbia and Alberta were stiU
so primitive that for heavy duty transport settlements not served by rail were largely dependent
on horse and wagon, or horse and sleigh. Such
were the perils of slogging through miles of
gumbo that the steamboat service continued to
be welcomed by settlements located near navigable waters. The D.A. Thomas, drawing far too
much water for easy navigation on the Peace, enjoyed a fair trade over a brief navigation season
in the 1920s, but costs for operating a labour-
intensive sternwheeler were so high, that HBC
elected to withdraw her from service. Two
strandings, in 19271 and 1929, spurred on this
decision. What river cargo couldn't be handled
by the HBC freight service was taken care of by
smaU outfits with very modest motor vessels. In
June, 1930, during high water, the D.A. Thomas
made an epic run down theVermiUon Chutes,
suffering minor damage only. After some temporary repairs, she steamed on downstream, bound
for Fort Fitzgerald, 300 miles distant. Approaching Fort Fitzgerald, she was caught in an eddy
and stranded in the mud. Her boiler, engines and
fittings were removed and her huU left to disintegrate. Her engines went to a lumber miU and
her upper-works went for firewood. Her ignoble end matches that meted out to a number of
Kootenay District sternwheelers in the post-
World War I era.
In 1930 the Hudson's Bay Company made a
last brief foray into the passenger business on the
Upper Peace River by commissioning an attractive double deck 90-foot twin-screw motor vessel, the Buffalo Lake. She proved to be a fuel hog,
so in short order was cut down for the freight
trade. One last sternwheeler, the motor vessel
Alcan, appeared in 1940 to assist in the construction of the highway bridge over the Peace at
Taylor Flats. She was later sold to Imperial Oil,
ran down over theVermiUon Chutes, and put to
work on the Mackenzie.
In this last year of the 20th century perhaps
we can muster a few words of gratitude first to
the Oblate Brothers for their pioneering
steamboating efforts to open up the Upper Peace
and secondly to the Hudson's Bay Company
which took pains from the outset to operate a
high-class steamer service, and later, in the face
of rising costs, persisted in offering such
service.'<5i»'
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 List of steam-powered sternwheelers and other vessels
worked on the Peace River above Vermilion Chutes
ATHABASCA RIVER #130277 wood[en hulled]
sternwheel [propelled, built in] 1912 [in] Athabasca
Landing, Alta. by and for Hudson's Bay Company.
[Length of hull in feet exclusive of sternwheel]
136.0 x [breadth of hull in feet] 28.0 x [depth of
hull in feet] 3.6. 341.21 Gr[oss tonnage]. 230.29.
Registered tonnage] Engines: [built in] 1901 [by]
Albion Iron Works two hor. h.p. cyl. [horizontal
high pressure cylinders each] 12" [diameter by] x
48"[length] 9.6 NHP [Nominal Horsepower] from
Skeena River sternwheeler Hazelton #107834.
Winched up Vermilion Rapids 1914-15 and
worked on Peace River run up to Hudson's Hope
until 1919. She was then beached at Peace River
Crossing and used as a warehouse.
BUFFALO LAKE #156567 (motor vessel) wood
twin-screw 1930 Peace River Alta. by George
Askew for Hudson's Bay Company. 91.0 x 19.5 x
4.55.176.67 Gr. 157.55.Reg.Engines: 1930Vivian
Gas Engine Works, Vancouver. 4.5 N.H.P. Converted from passenger & freight vessel to tug, 1938.
Register closed 1950.
D.A. THOMAS #138429 wood sternwheel 1916
Peace River, Alta. by George Askew for Peace River
Development Co. Ltd. 161.9x37.0x6.3 1.114.45
Gr. 798.10 Reg. Engines: 1915 Poison two hor.
h.p. cyl. 18" x 84" 21.6 NHP. 1921 sold to Alberta
& Arctic Transportation Co. Ltd. Acquired 1924
by HBC. Foundered 1927 but raised. 1930 hauled
successfully over Vermilion Rapids, but stranded
and abandoned at the approach to Fort Fitzgerald.
GRENFELL # ? wood sternwheel 1912 West Peace
River by George Magar for Peace River Trading
& Land Co. 139 Gr. 81 Reg. Engines: 2.7 NHP.
Destroyed by fire September 1914 15 miles above
Fort St. John.
HUDSON'S HOPE #138024 (ex Northland Call)
wood sternwheel 1915 West Peace River, Alta. Acquired 1919-20 by the Peace River Development
Co. from the Peace River Navigation Co., substantially rebuilt, reengined and renamed Hudson's
Hope. Original dimensions: 99.5 x 18.0 x 4.0.192
Gr. Ill Reg. Engines: 3.5 NHP. Not successful;
abandoned after 1920 season; broken up 1924.
LADY MAC WORTH #138621 (motor vessel) wood
twin-screw 1916 Peace River Alta. by George E
Askew for Peace River Development Corp. 56.9
x 11.0 x 3.7.21.05. Gr. 14/31 Reg. Engines:Auto
Engine Works, St. Paul, Minn. 7.34 N.H.P. Sold
Mar 21, 1921 to Alberta & Arctic Transportation
Co. Ltd. of Edmonton. Dismanded and broken up,
August, 1930.
NORTHLAND CALL #138024 wood sternwheel
1915 West Peace River for Peace River Navigation Co.99.5 x 18.0 x 4.192.04 Gr. Ill Reg.Engines: 3 NHP. Engines, boiler and fittings from retired Athabaska River steamer Northland Call
#134312, Sold 1919-1920 to Peace River Development Corporation, who substantially rebuilt and
reengined her and renamed her Hudson's Hope.
PEACE RIVER #121777 wood sternwheel 1905 Fort
Vermilion, Alta. by Alex Watson, Jr. for HBC
110.0 x 24.0 x 4.5. 282.02 Gr. 183.98 Reg. Engines: 1905 Marine Engine Works, Chicago two
hor. h.p. cyl 10" x 48" 6.7 NHP Abandoned 1916
at Fort Vermilion.
PEACE RIVER BOY #134604 (motor vessel) wood
screw 1915 Prudence Crossing, Alta. by and for
Clifford Smith. 68.6 x 14.0 x 2.5.16.49 Gr. 11.21
Reg. Engines: 1913 Brook Motor Works, Lowestoft, U.K. 6.6 N.H.P.Wrecked, 1917.
PINE PASS #134606 (motor vessel, ex Beaver) wood
screw tug, 1915 Prudence Crossing by James
Cooley for the Smoky & Peace River Boat Company Ltd. 74.0 x 15.1 x 2.5.42.20 Gr. 29.70 Reg.
Engines: one 4-cyclegas engine, 1914 Sterling Engines Works, Buffalo, N.Y. 6.05 N.H.P. Certificate
issued in 1918. Destroyed by fire, Peace River.Alta.,
1920.
wood sternwheel 1903
ST. CHARLES #	
Dunvegan for Bishop Emile Grouard.Vicar Apostolic of Athabasca. 67 x 12 x _. 28.79 Gr. 19.5
Reg. Sold 1911 to Ford & Lawrence. Peace River
Record, Apr 29,1915: "Grounded on a bar in the
river during freeze-up, was thrown high and dry
on the bank when the ice went out and is undamaged." Dismanded 1916-17.
WATSON LAKE #175563 (motor vessel) steel(?)
screw 1946 Edmonton 55 x 12 x 2.9 26. Gr. 21
Reg. Engines: 220 IHP
WEENUSK #138630 wood screw 1921 Vancouver
for Hudson's Bay Company. 59.9 x 11.1 x 4.2.29
Gr. 18 Reg.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000 Three Tough Men:
Surviving the 1969 Balmer South Flood and Cave-in
by Michael Saad
Michael Saad was born
in Michel and grew up
in Sparwood.
He teaches in
Lethbridge, Alberta.
Interest in the history ofthe south-eastern British Columbia region is steadily increasing and forgotten stories about the trials and tribulations ofthe men who worked the underground coal mines of
the Elk Valley are remembered, this time to be shared with an audience larger than the immediate
families ofthe courageous miners involved.This piece presents one such story, perhaps one ofthe
most dramatic in the 100 years of coal mining in the Elk River Valley.
The author would like to
thank the following individuals whose assistance
and generosity made this
article possible:
Frank and Larry Kutcher,
Joe Tuza, Harvey Travis,
Patsy Chatterson (daughter of Don Evans), Ethel
& Beagen Krall, John
Kinnear.ArnoldWebster,
Arlene Gaal, and the staff
at the British Columbia
Department of Mines in
Fernie, BC.
1 I have provided a far
more detailed account of
the causes and consequences of these particular
disasters in my article
"Mining Disasters and
Rescue Operations at
Michel Before World War
II," in The Forgotten Side of
the Border: British Columbia's Elk Valley and
Crowsnest Pass, Plateau
Press, 1998.Wayne Norton
and Naomi Miller, eds.
1 ibid. An excellent explanation ofthe Balmer
North explosion is presented in John Kinnear's
article "The Balmer Mine
Disaster of 1967."
5 "No Blame Attached in
Mine Deaths," The Fernie
Free Press, Thursday, 3 July
1969.
4 Florence E.Kerr,
"Kutcher, Frank Sr. and
Frank Jr." in Crowsnest and
Its People (Coleman, Alberta: Crowsnest Pass Historical Society, 1980), 654.
Explosions caused by excessive
build-ups of methane gas plagued the
mines of the Michel-Natal region in the
twentieth century.Three such disasters—in 1904,
1916, and 1938—were believed to be caused by
pockets of gas that, once ignited, flared up suspended packages of coal dust which literally blew
apart the interior ofthe Michel Colliery.1 The
most devastating explosion to strike Michel-Na-
tal's mines was the Balmer North Explosion in
1967, which killed 15 miners and was believed
to be caused by gas ignited by a spark from a
rock fall.2 With coal mining constituting the economic backbone throughout their 70-year existence, the twin communities of Michel and
Natal lost 147 men to mining accidents, many of
them in small, isolated incidents. The common,
unfortunate feature of these accidents is that they
all ended sadly, with the death of one or more
men, tragically cutting short the lives of fathers,
sons, and husbands. Indeed, a "disaster" cannot
be classified as such without the untimely loss of
life. However, the last major underground mining disaster to afflict the Elk Valley's mines was to
end so extraordinarily that many old-timers of
the area still hold back smiles when relating the
story.
Only two years after the Balmer North catastrophe, the Michel-Natal mines were once again
the scene of another traumatic accident, this time
at Balmer South, approximately one kilometre
across the narrow Michel Valley from the site of
the 1967 explosion. Balmer South was newly
owned by the California-based Kaiser Industries,
which purchased the entire Michel mining operation from Crowsnest Industries in 1968.
For the day crew assigned to Balmer South on
that Thursday, 19 June 1969, the morning began
like any other. Led by veteran foreman John Krall,
age 55 at the time, the ten-man crew was assigned to collect coal from a pillared working
which sat diagonally underneath a 45-foot thick
coal seam, the last workable seam that that section ofthe mine offered. Although the mine was
notorious for being unusually wet from such
causes as surface water seepage, underground
streams, and moisture condensation there was no
sign of danger as the men worked through an
uneventful morning.3 Stationed approximately
1,700 feet beneath the mountain, seven ofthe
miners were to drill 200 feet into the pillared
working, creating a "room" held up only by the
timber pillars. Gradually withdrawing from their
"room," the men were to drill and blast the coal
in front and above them while carefully pulling
out the pillars, a common practice to incite small
cave-ins, after which time the miners would load
the coal with a continuous miner machine. The
other three men remained along the diesel rail-
line leading out ofthe mine to load up the shut-
de cars and haul them to the surface.
At about 11 o'clock the miners working at
the seam prepared to blast the rooftop of their
newly drilled room. The only mechanic of the
crew, Frank Kutcher, 53, was assigned to replace
a jack on the continuous miner, not far from
where foreman Krall and his second, Donald
Evans, were setting the charge.The blast was detonated at 11:30 and shook the mountain slighdy.
Taking the first lunch of the shift, Krall and
Kutcher plopped into a slighdy inclined tunnel
around the corner from the seam—a spot chosen by the two men because it was the only section in the immediate area that was dry.4 The
other five men—EvansJoeTuza, Steve Tkachuk,
Jerry Heath, and Robert Dancoisne—began
working with the continuous miner that had just
been repaired by Kutcher.
8
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 Elkford/    /
Sparwood/£
>
1
i
)
\
iNatal           J
^Michel      j
^^^Y ^ni CrOBBOBSl
jp Fernie
Crowsnest Coal
Mining District
o       to      20
'        i        I
^           Kilometres         j
Courtesy Crowsnest Archives
At approximately 12 o'clock, not long into
their lunch, Krall and Kutcher felt the beginnings of what appeared to be a minor "bump"—
a regular settling ofthe earth's crust, quite common in underground mines. However, as the five
men at the seam began to feel the rumblings,
they realized that this bump was far more severe
than usual. As the rooftop above them shook vio-
lendy, the five miners at the working face were
hit with a sudden blast of coal dust. Then, without warning, a powerful gush of water and mud
exploded downward through the face, catching
all five men off guard.
Situated 54 feet above the working face where
the five men were labouring was a mined-out
gob, another pillared area that had been completely mined of its coal and closed off four years
earlier. During that time, however, a large accumulation of water, believed to have formed from
percolation and condensation, built up inside the
gob, rilling over three-quarters of it. The vibrations from the bump shook loose the gob floor
and created a major opening for the water to
pour through—direcdy onto the unfortunate
men underneath.
Driving a string of coal cars back towards the
surface, motorman Matt Sadlish was approaching Balmer South's entrance, when he suddenly
felt a large, silent "gust of wind" hitting his back.5
He immediately knew that something was wrong.
Hank Joinson and Mac Masluk, the final two men
of the crew, were outside the mine at the time,
and together with Sadlish, quickly summoned
help. Rescue crews arrived on the scene within
Cathy Chapln - Lakehead University
minutes, and saw the grim sight of water gushing out ofthe main entrance. Walking a few feet
into the portal, the rescuers determined that a
flood had occurred, and with it, a substantial cave-
in.
Miner Joe Tuza, one of the five men at the
face when the flood occurred, was working with
the continuous miner when he saw the water
hit. He instandy sprinted down the mineshaft and
then, with a rush of water about to engulf him,
made a quick detour into an inclining side shaft
and waited until the water subsided. When it was
at about ankle level, he managed to make his way
out of the rubble as timbers and rocks behind
him collapsed. Once at the surface.Tuza informed
rescuers ofthe devastation inside the mine,6 and
claimed that the washout occurred "all too fast"
and that "all anybody had time to do was run."7
More than ready to assist in the rescue effort any
way possible, a frustrated Tuza was rebuffed by
Kaiser officials.8
As rescue crews began assessing the best way
to enter the mine, the possibility that Tuza might
be the only man to walk out of Balmer South
seemed a very disheartening reality. Fading to
penetrate the rubble along the main supply road
where the seven miners were working, the crew
chose to blast through the shaft adjacent to it. At
approximately 1:30 p.m., rescuers found the body
of 26-year-old Robert Dancoisne, along the mine
floor.Two hours later the bodies of Steve Tkachuk,
55, and Jerry Heath, 28, were also recovered. The
cause of death for all three men was announced
as suffocation by drowning.9 By late evening, there
Above left: A group of
unidentified underground
miners putting a roof set in
place. It is timbers such as
these that dislodged from
the roof of Balmer South
during the washout and
formed a logjam that kept
Donald Evans above
water.
5 Matt Sadlish, Personal
Account, "I Felt a Big
Gust ofWind," Tlie Vancouver Province, 19 June 1969.
5 "Mine Survivor Had No
Chance to Help," The
Lethbridge Herald, 21 June
1969.
7 See note 6.
8 See note 6.
' Mines and Petroleum Resources Report, 1969, British
Columbia Department of
Mines, 1969.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000 Right: Rescue team goes
underground at Balmer
South Mine.
1(1 Ron Dyck, "Search
Continues For Bodies of
Missing Miners," Tlie
Lethbridge Herald, 21 June
1969.
" Donald Evans'Testi-
mony, Balmer South Inquest and Press Conference as quoted in "Natal
Miner: 'AU Hell Broke
Loose," Tlie Lethbridge Herald, 25 June 1969.
12 Paul Grescoe, "Missing
and Believed Dead are..."
Tlie Canadian Magazine, 13
September 1969.
Courtesy The Lethbridge Herald
was still no sign of their three co-workers, as horrified families were forced to wait in anxiety.The
three men were officially designated as "lost", and
as one day solemnly turned into two and then
three, newspapers like the The Lethbridge Herald
began reporting sombre and disheartening headlines like "Search Continues For Bodies of Missing Miners."1"
When suddenly engulfed by over ten feet of
moving water, not much else entered the mind
of 54-year-old Donald Evans, than staying alive.
When the water hit, Dancoisne leaped across the
shaft to Evans's side, and the two grabbed onto a
coal wagon. Unable to see the fate of their fellow
workers, Evans and Dancoisne were within three
feet of one another when Dancoisne lost his grip
and was instandy carried away.11 Helplessly pinned
against the side of the wagon by the crushing
weight of the water, Evans could only watch as
Dancoisne was swept down an accessory shaft.
Desperately trying to fight the cold, harsh gush,
Evans gripped the edge of the wagon as hard as
he could, but the water proved too much and it
swung him down the main supply road. Forced
to struggle for his life, Evans swam to the top,
where there existed about one foot of air between the rooftop and certain death. His nose
aching from all the water he had taken in, Evans
managed to keep his head up by partially swimming, and by pulling himself along ceding pipes
normally used for compression drilling. He was
carried nearly 300 feet by the current until he
was swept into a jam of fallen timbers. Shouting
out loud that he would not allow the jam to drag
him under, Evans wresded and clawed his way
around the mess of broken wood, and eventually
climbed onto the top of it.12With the frigid water still biting at his back, Evans wedged a one-
foot airspace between the roof and the top ofthe
jam, and waited for the flow to subside.
Krall and Kutcher were the two other men
still unaccounted for.The water lucidly could not
climb the incline of the side tunnel where the
two were eating their lunch. Unfortunately, the
tunnel led to a dead end, leaving the men to face
the torrent in front of them. As the water receded to about neck-level, Krall and Kutcher
headed out of their tunnel towards a higher spot
in the mine. Fighting the icy flow, the two men
made their way to yet another inclining shaft. As
the water running down the supply road dwindled to about ankle level, the men walked down
the main road, where they met a disorientated
Donald Evans. The three men quickly tried to
find a way out ofthe mine but, after attempting
five different routes, were discouraged to discover
each path blocked by washed out timbers or collapsed tunnels. They knew they were trapped.
Frightened, though they would not admit it
to each other, the three miners realized it was up
to them to survive, and their first task was to find
a dry, secure living environment. When they
searched for a way out, the three men remembered a 12-x-12-foot chamber, originally cut into
the coal to hold a compressor. Fortunately, the
compressor had been pulled out ofthe chamber,
giving them a wet and narrow, but more impor-
tandy a sturdy, bungalow to set up what Krall
would later call "our own litde Hotel Windsor."
Using dirty pieces of plywood as mattresses and
a leftover set of sack cloths as blankets, they set
up beds along the inside walls ofthe chamber. To
keep leaking water from the rooftop from dripping direcdy onto them, the three men held a
scrap piece of long, pliable sheet-iron over their
heads. Miraculously, all three men, though losing
their lunches and hard hats, retained their safety
lamps which, even after being submerged, still
functioned properly. However, to conserve energy, the men used only Krall's safety lamp, nor-
10
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 Calgary Herald / Glenbow Archives. Calgary, AB NA-2864-2494#5-5A
mally used by foremen to test for gas, and kept it
on its lowest setting.
By working together, Evans, Krall, and Kutcher
not only kept themselves alive, but they maintained each other's sanity as well. Familiar with
one another only as colleagues on the job, the
three rugged men developed closeness as they
waited to be rescued. Krall and Evans had drunk
together before in Michel-Natal, but had never
been to each other's houses.13 Kutcher was from
Coleman, Alberta, and commuted 35 kilometres
each day to work in Michel; therefore, he knew
very litde about his crew mates. In the first day
of their captivity, the men recovered from their
shock and could only make small talk. However,
they soon opened up to one another, and chatted about their pasts, the women in their lives,
their families, and their hopes of being rescued.
With their clothes and underpants still thoroughly
soaked from the water, Kutcher and Evans even
agreed to huddle together to keep themselves
warm while Krall, the only bachelor ofthe group,
stubbornly refused.14
On the second day of captivity, the water level
in the mine fully receded as the gob emptied.
Krall, Evans, and Kutcher occasionally wandered
around, trying to assist rescue workers by banging on the radway tracks and ceding pipes that
led to the main entrance. None ofthe men could
sleep very much, only getting an hour or two at
best.To kill time the three men scrounged about
the desolate shafts, looking for anything that
would help them to combat the cold and the
dampness. Kutcher found plastic sheeting, which
the three men layered over their wet plywood
beds. During their resting periods, Kutcher and
Evans huddled together uncomfortably and
warned each other whenever one had to shift a
leg or an arm, much to Krall's amusement.15
As the hours grew longer, the men, who remained cold and wet throughout their ordeal,
would sporadically see imaginary lights flashing
before their eyes, a common symptom of shock,
hunger, and insomnia. All three men had doubts
about their survival, but refused to say them
aloud.16 When they spoke, the three continued
to express faith in their comrades on the surface,
and reaffirmed to one another that they were
going to be rescued.Though the conspicuous lack
of sound from the outside world suggested that
the rescuers were well off the mark, the three
men continued to tap on the tracks, the pipes,
and even the rock around them in the hope that
the outside crews would know that they were
still alive.
While Evans, Krall, and Kutcher were busy trying to adapt to their "little Hotel Windsor," rescue teams continued to work around the clock,
refusing to quit until the three men were found,
dead or alive. The crews were indeed frustrated
about their misfortune and lack of progress. The
rescue effort was even suspended for a short period of time when two workers were injured
when caught between a tunnel wall and a continuous miner. However, the efforts of Krall,
Evans, and Kutcher to attract the attention ofthe
rescuers finally paid off. At 5:15 a.m. Sunday
morning, draggerman Henry Eberts heard a faint
tapping sound coming from an unknown distance within the mountain. As a result, rescuers
for the next fifteen hours maintained a rigorous
pace of drilling, blasting, and removing rock with
the hopes of finding at least one of the missing
miners alive. Several of the crewmen worked
hours after their shift ended, determined to get
at whoever was making the tapping noise at the
other end of the rock,
Working at a feverish pace, the crews blasted
through nearly 70 feet of solid rock, normally
2Yz days work, in 15 hours. Following the detonation ofthe final six feet of coal, mine manager
Irv Morgan crawled through a four-foot square
Left: Natal citizens
standing below the entrance
to the Balmer South Mine,
anxiously awaiting word of
the fate of the trapped
miners. From left to right:
Marcello and Selina
Romano, Alav and Mickey
Mannion, and Freddy
Venzi.
13 See note 12.
14 See note 12.
15 See note 12.
16 See note 12.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
11 Kight.from left to right:
fohn "Tolsin" Krall, Frank
Kutcher, and Donald
Evans meet the media
outside Michel Hospital
one day after being rescued.
17 As quoted in Joe Will,
"Trapped Natal Miners
Found Alive," Tlie Victoria
Daily Times, 23 June 1969.
Right: Jo/jm Krall, Frank
Kutcher, and Don Evans
at the mine site in 1971.
Calgary Herald / Glenbow Archives, Calgary, AB NA-2864-2494 #16-16A
opening in the rubble and was elated to find the
three men alive and leaning against the far wall
to avoid being hit by debris from the final blast.
Suffering from sleep deprivation and mild
shock, but amidst cheers and praises from the audience outside the mine entrance, the three men
were in good spirits as they emerged from their
three-day prison. Leaving the mine, Kutcher asked
his two partners "wouldn't a beer taste good?" to
which Krall replied, "if you're going to the
Kootenay, get me one."17 The men were taken to
Michel Hospital for observation and to get
cleaned up. Krall, in appropriate style for a rugged coal miner, refused to be washed by the nurses
and demanded to be taken to the washhouse,
where he showered alone.
After a hectic week of press conferences and
interviews, the three men moved on with their
lives, finding different ways to put the harrowing
incident behind them. John Krall suffered from
recurring nightmares of the ordeal, and though
he did leave the mine for a short period of time,
returned as a fire boss less than a year later. When
he finally retired in 1977, he was the longest serving underground coal miner ofthe Michel Mines.
He died in 1980 after a brief respiratory illness.
Donald Evans would also return underground
but refused to admit that the ordeal changed him
in any way; unfortunately, one year later he was
seriously injured when a lump of coal fell on his
back, breaking several vertebrae. Unable to walk
or lift, Evans had to go on Workers' Compensation and was eventually forced to retire. He passed
away in 1990, after a valiant batde with cancer.
Kutcher, at the insistence of his wife and children, never returned to the underground mine.
He later found employment working as a popular custodian for the Crowsnest School Division
in the 1970s and 1980s, and has since retired, living peacefully at the Crowsnest Pass.
"They are three tough men," said an amazed
Irv Morgan, describing the courage of Krall,
Evans, and Kutcher. In August 1969, the section
where the three men had been trapped was sealed
off permanendy by Kaiser executives, who subsequently announced that no more coal would
be mined in its Balmer mines using conventional
mining methods. Instead, a much safer hydraulic
system was to be put in place in both mines by
the early 1970s. In light ofthe two Balmer disasters ofthe late 1960s, the procedures of underground mining changed forever in the Michel
mines. Balmer South was finally forced to close
due to fire in 1985, and its boarded entranceway
remains an ominous reminder ofthe other "three
tough men," Dancoisne, Tkachuk, and Heath,
who sacrificed their lives in the pursuit of coal in
the Elk Valley. •^
The Edmonton Journal / Ariene Gaal
12
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 Strait of Anian: In Search ofthe
Northwest Passage in British Columbia
by Paul G. Chamberlain
A glance at a map ofthe coasdine of British Columbia today yields the names of
a plethora of English, Spanish, and
French explorers, but the name of the mythical
Strait of Anian is conspicuously absent.1 An important reminder of this geographical legacy,
however, is captured on a stone monument overlooking the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Walbran
Park in Victoria. The plaque tells us that the first
maritime explorers to visit British Columbia
came for a variety of reasons. Among them were
the lure of commerce and the desire for territorial expansion, but of perhaps greater importance
to some nations was the prospect of finding an
entrance to the long-sought-after Northwest
Passage.
The search for this mythical strait, linking Europe with the Orient, had fired the imagination
of European explorers since the end ofthe Middle Ages, and by the eighteenth century mounting evidence suggested that a western entrance
to this elusive passage might exist along the coastline of what is now the Province of British Columbia. Motivated primarily by scientific curiosity, national pride, and a hunger for adventure,
Britain, Spain, and France converged on the Pacific Northwest to investigate this possibility.
Speculative geographers encouraged these voyages by concocting all kinds of reasons why such
a passage should exist.2 Indeed, the belief in the
existence of the Strait of Anian was so deeply
rooted in some scientific circles that it had been
elevated to the status of a Law of Nature, and the
colourful accounts of several legendary voyages
provided some tantalizing empirical evidence to
support such an hypothesis.
The first report was by a Spanish explorer
named Lorenzo Ferrer Maldonado, who claimed
to have discovered the entrance to this passage
on a voyage up the West Coast in 1588. The second account was that of an English merchant in
Venice, named Michael Lok, who was informed
by a Greek pdot, ApostolosValerianos, also known
as Juan de Fuca, that he had actually sailed through
this legendary strait, between a latitude of 47 and
48 degrees North, whde in the service of Spain
in 1592. By far the most colourful account, however, was the supposed voyage of a Spanish Ad-
miral of New Spain and Peru named
Bartholomew de Fonte, which first appeared in
a letter in an obscure English magazine in 1707
entided The Monthly Miscellany or Memoirs for the
Curious. According to this letter, de Fonte left
Callao, Peru, in 1640, and saded up the coast of
North America, entering a passage at a latitude
of 53 degrees North, which led into a series of
lakes that took him so far to the east that he eventually encountered a Boston merchantman. Fonte
implied that he had actually sailed through the
Northwest Passage.3 To further compound international intrigue, cartographers persisted in
depicting their own versions of this mythical strait
with an imagination that only served to intensify
the speculation of those nations vying to locate
it first.4
The British were anxious to verify these accounts. In 1745 the House of Commons offered
a reward of twenty thousand pounds to anyone
who could find the fabled strait, and a decision
by the Northwest Committee of ParUament to
extend this offer to the Royal Navy met with an
immediate response. The Admiralty chose James
Cook, a veteran of two highly successful circumnavigations ofthe globe. Focusing his search exclusively in the Pacific Northwest, his instructions were:
.. .to proceed northward along the coast as far as
the latitude of 65 degrees North... [and] very carefully to search for and to explore such rivers or
inlets as may appear to be of a considerable extent
and pointing towards Hudson's Bay or Baffin's
Bay....5
Cook made his landfall at Nootka on the West
Coast ofVancouver Island in the spring of 1778.
After refurbishing his ships, replenishing necessary victuals, and bartering for furs, he continued
his voyage northwards towards the Arctic Ocean.
Cook carefully observed the coasdine, but became increasingly sceptical about finding an entrance to the mythical strait. He shrewdly concluded that any passage that did exist would certainly be much farther north than previously
anticipated. Despite this temporary setback, how-
Paul G. Chamberlain,
who lives in Victoria, is
a cultural theorist who
specializes in the study
of landscape, literature,
and cartography. His
most recent research
involves the representation of landscape in
Elizabethan literature,
the iconography of
castles, and the
geography of mystic
places. He is a Fellow of
the Royal Geographical
Society.
1 The first reference to
"Anian" is found in The
Travels of Marco Polo, where
Anian is identified as a
province of China, possibly "Anan." See Book III,
ChapterV. An unnamed
arctic strait appears on a
globe of Gemma Phrysius
in 1537, as Fretum articum
sive Fretum triumfratrum.
The globe is purported to
be based on the travels of
Marco Polo, the voyage of
Gaspar Cortereal, the
Cantino Chart, and some
Spanish and Portuguese
sources. The Strait of
Anian is named, specifically, on a map by
Mercator in 1569. By this
time the term was in common usage in Europe. See
E.G.R.Taylor, Tudor Geography 1485-1583 (London:
Methuen & Co. Ltd.,
1930),pp.80-landpp.
274-5.
2 Evidence of a passage
had long been suspected
because ofthe high tidal
range in Hudson Bay, indicating there might be a
navigable river to the west.
Barrington was convinced
that an ice-free strait ex-
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
13 Cathy Chapin - Lakehead University
Above: A tracing of
Thomas Jeffery's map of
1768 imaginatively
depicting the Strait of Juan
de Fuca as the western
entrance to the Northwest
Passage.
ever, Cook's voyage clearly demonstrated the feasibility of a fur trade along the coast, and laid the
foundations for further British expansion in the
region.
News of Cook's voyage filtered back to Europe, and France decided to dispatch her own
expedition under the command of Compte de
la Perouse in 1786.This voyage might have made
an important contribution to solving the puzzle,
but after visiting Nootka the expedition was never
heard from again. Although this was the last voyage of the French in these waters, speculation
over the existence ofthe fabled Strait of Anian
continued. Barkley's discovery ofthe entrance to
a hitherto unknown strait in 1787, at approximately the same latitude as the one supposedly
seen by Juan de Fuca, only compounded international intrigue further. Explorers were convinced that this strait, later named the Strait of
Juan de Fuca, was the entrance to the long-
sought-after passage, a part ofthe coast ironically
passed by unnoticed during Cook's earlier voyage in 1778.
Spain had been increasingly concerned about
the growing frequency of traffic in the Pacific
Northwest since the voyage ofjuan Perez in 1774.
In the spring of 1789, her worst fears were confirmed when Esteban Martinez was dispatched
from Mexico to Nootka, and discovered the presence of three foreign ships in the area. The signing ofthe Nootka Convention the following year
temporardy ameliorated these difficulties. In the
spring of that year Manuel Quimper visited
Nootka, penetrating the Strait ofjuan de Fuca as
far as the present-day site ofVictoria. A year later
Francisco de Eliza returned to this strait, extending Spanish exploration north into what is today
the Strait of Georgia, still optimistic about finding the elusive passage. This optimism was given
a further boost in 1791 when the legendary account of Maldonado's purported voyage of 1588
came to the attention of Spain. Alejandro
Malaspina was immediately diverted from surveying the coast of South America to conduct a
more detaded investigation, but still no passage
was found. Nevertheless, Malaspina recommended that further explorations be conducted,
and he dispatched two more vessels to continue
with this search under the command of Alcala
Galiano and Cayetano Valdes. By this time, however, the Spanish were seriously beginning to
doubt the veracity of these legendary voyages;
Jacinto Caamano cynically noted in his journal
that such accounts:
.. .seem to have no other foundation than the madness or ignorance of some one devoid of all knowledge of either navigation or geography.. ..6
The apogee of Spanish involvement in the
Pacific Northwest was reached in 1792 with the
arrival ofjuan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra,
who was instructed to setde some outstanding
issues of sovereignty with the British at Nootka.
This having been done, the Spanish soon departed
the Pacific Northwest permanendy
Unaware ofthe extent of Spanish exploration,
due to the inherent secrecy of Spanish naval activity, Britain was still hopeful of the possibility
of finding the entrance to the fabled Strait of
Anian. In 1792 Captain George Vancouver un-
14
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 dertook the most intensive exploration to date.
Vancouver was instructed to conduct a definitive
search for the entrance to the Northwest Passage, paying particular attention to the Strait of
Juan de Fuca and Cook Inlet. There were still
some reasons for optimism.Vancouver was already
aware of the rumour that Barkley had actually
found the entrance to the long-sought-after passage after he entered the Strait ofjuan de Fuca in
1787; even more startling was the news about an
American fur trader named Robert Gray, who
had also entered these waters in 1789 in his sloop
Washington. Commander John Meares, R.N. (Retired), anxious to solicit British help over a claim
of damages inflicted on his ships by the Spanish
at Nootka, circulated reports that Gray had actually saded through the legendary passage into an
immense inland sea. This information proved to
be false.Vancouver accidentally met Gray in 1792,
and the latter vehemendy denied Meares' allegations. Despite being disappointed.Vancouver began a systematic exploration ofthe adjacent waters, including Puget Sound, the Strait of Georgia, and Vancouver Island, but the British soon
experienced the pessimism of the Spanish explorers who had preceded them:
.. .Anyone entering to survey these channels will
be surprised, and perhaps will think he has found
the desired communication with the other sea.. .but
all his hopes will fade, where.. .he will find on turning a bend that the mountains have closed up on
both sides....7
Vancouver returned to England in 1795, after
one of the longest voyages in maritime history.
His scepticism over the existence ofthe mythical
strait had, like that of his predecessorjames Cook,
been well founded, and speculation among European explorers over the existence of a practical
sea route linking Europe with the Orient was
silenced forever.<<**'
isted; he argued that the
ice encountered in high
latitudes came from rivers
when they broke up in
summer, and that the route
was, consequendy, only
impassable near land. Others believed that because
Asia was elongated so
much along a NE-SW
axis, that a passage was a
geometrical certainty. See
GlyndwrWilliams, Tlie
British Search for the Northwest Passage In the Eighteenth Century (London:
Longmans, 1962), p. 164.
5 For a detailed discussion
of these colourful episodes,
see H.R.Wagner, "Apocryphal Voyages to the
Northwest Coast of North
America," Proceedings ofthe
American Antiquarian Society,
New Series, XLI (1931),
pp. 179-234.
4 Thomas Jeffery's map is
one ofthe most imaginative representations of
eighteenth-century aspirations, but others are
equally intriguing. See also
maps by J.B. Nolin (1708);
J.Senex(1725);J.N.de
l'Isle(1752);P.Bauche
(1752); and G. Muller
(1758). Jeffery borrowed
liberally from all of them.
5 Cook's original instructions, dated 6 July 1776,
are in the British Museum,
Eg. MSS. 21 77B.
' H.R.Wagner andWA
Newcombe (eds.), "The
Journal of Jacinto
Caamano," (trans. H.
Grenville), British Columbia
Historical Quarterly, II,
(1938), p. 299.
7 H.R.Wagner, Spanish
Explorations in the Strait of
Juan de Fuca, (Santa Ana:
n.p., 1933), pp. 264-5.
Left: His Majesty's Ships
Discovery and Resolution at Nootka, 1778.
Detail of a painting by
fohn Webber.
Courtesy BC Archives
Walbran Park, a litde patch of parkland on
Gonzales Hill in Victoria, is named after Captain
John Walbran, author of British Columbia Coast
Names.The cairn in the park was reached in September of this year, 1999, after a short but very
steep climb by John E. (Ted) Roberts—a well-
known "friend of Captain Vancouver"—, risking
Ufe and limb to transcribe on behalf of the readers of BC Historical News the EngUsh version of
the text written on a 24-x-30-inch plaque attached to the south facing side ofthe cairn. The
text reads:
Exploration of the Strait of Juan de Fuca
—Charles Barkley in 1787 discovered the entrance to a strait which he identified with the
legendary transcontinental passage ofjuan de
Fuca. Within two years the British (Meares),
Americans (Gray), and Spaniards (Martinez), had
all entered the strait, and in 1790 Manuel
Quimper explored it to this point. He was followed in 1791 by another Spaniard, Francisco
Eliza, who reached the Strait of Georgia, and
the next year exploration of these waters was
completed by George Vancouver, who discovered Puget Sound, then circumnavigated the
island, closely followed by the Spaniards, Galiano
and Valdez.—Historic Sites and Monuments
Board of Canada. Government of Canada-1925
A few meters along the trail is another, larger
bronze plaque telling the story of early exploration in more detail.The view from Walbran Park
ofthe islands and the channels is reportedly fantastic and for our agile readers weU worth the
effort. Mr. Roberts is recovering nicely.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
15 The Road to Tofino
by Walter Guppy	
Walter Guppy of Tofino
is the author of
ClayoquotSoundings,
the only comprehensive history of the
Clayoquot Sound area,
and two previous
books: Westcoast
Ventures, a history of
mining on Vancouver
Island, and Wilderness
Wandering on Vancouver Island, which covers
some of his own
experiences with
prospecting and crosscountry treks.
Above: Tofino ca. 1925.
Main Street. Note the
plank sidewalk.
Early in the morning of 22 August 1959,
every driveable motor vehicle of the vd-
lage ofTofino—perhaps about a dozen in
all—was driven to the junction of the road to
the neighbouring village of Ucluelet and the new
road branching off to Port Alberni and the outside world.There the cars joined a cavalcade consisting of just about every other driveable vehicle
in this section of the West Coast ofVancouver
Island to be escorted by logging company vehicles out over the newly constructed road to Port
Alberni.
There were a total of 74 vehicles filled with
eager passengers in the convoy. It was a gala event.
Many of these people had waited all their lives to
see a road constructed to the outside world and
some were descendants of homesteaders who had
setded on the stretch of coastal plain between
Tofino Inlet and Long Beach and on the peninsula at the southern entrance to Clayoquot Sound
where the village ofTofino is now situated.
To start with there was no village ofTofino
and there were no roads. All transportation was
by water and the main centre of trade and commerce for Clayoquot Sound was the trading post
of Clayoquot on nearby Stubbs Island. Wrigley's
British Columbia Directory for 1898 lists the population of Clayoquot as 60 people, consisting of
52 adult white males with 8 wives and daughters. Few of these, however, actually lived at
Clayoquot; they just came there from their scattered homesteads to pick up their mail and supplies. Unless they obtained transportation on the
steamer owned and operated by the management
ofthe trading post, which also had a salmon cannery up the inlet, they came in boats powered by
Courtesy Walter Guppy
oars and sad. There was also a hotel at Clayoquot
which was the only social centre for the area, and
the only tourist accommodation in a later period.
Clayoquot was a busy place around the turn
ofthe century. Sealing schooners came there for
supplies and to pick up Native hunters from the
nearby villages of Opitsaht and Ahousaht. There
was a budding mining boom as well which is
illustrated by the diary kept by Mrs. C. A. Rolston,
the wife of a doctor who came up to Clayoquot
on the steamer Willapa in 1898. It reads as follows:
There is plenty on all sides. By and by no doubt
there will be men and means to make this a Western port of great importance. It seems strange that
so Uttle is known of this part of the Island, a part
that can easdy be reached for many miles beyond
this. No doubt this ignorance will not last long.
Every day brings fresh miners and prospectors who
with feverish desire to get gold and other precious
metals will push their way through mountains of
difficulty, and the country soon will be opened up.
However, this euphoria faded.The mining boom
petered out and, although there was some seasonal fishing activity, the difficulties involved in
eking out an existence by growing produce and
raising livestock on isolated homesteads without
markets being avadable became more evident as
time went on.The homesteaders had anticipated
that a road being constructed as far as Alberni
would be continued right out to this outer coast.
There was even talk of a radway. But the years
went by and there was still no indication that this
hoped-for link with the outside world would materialize.
In 1906 there was a development which raised
16
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33  No. 1 high expectations. An American company which
had purchased the timber holdings ofthe Sutton
Lumber and Trading Company of Ucluelet started
construction of a large sawmill at Mosquito Harbour on Meares Island in Clayoquot Sound.This
was to be an operation that would employ a large
workforce and might even have made Mrs.
Rolston's expectations of "a western port of great
importance" become a reality. However, after getting into production and shipping 4 Y2. miUion
board feet of lumber and shingles around Cape
Horn to New York —there was no Panama Canal then—the operation was deemed to be uneconomical and was abandoned.
Water transportation, however, improved considerably as time went by. Locally power boats
started to come into use and, in 1912, the Canadian Pacific Radway Company took over the
coastal steamship service and replaced the small
freighters, such as the already mentioned Willapa,
and its successor, the Queen City, with the Princess Maquinna, a much larger vessel, budt especially for the West Coast Vancouver Island service. This ship had day accommodation for 400
passengers and sleeping berths for 100 as well as
dining facilities comparable with a first class restaurant, and a spacious recreational lounge.
The townsite ofTofino was surveyed in 1912
and, when the First World War broke out two
years later, most of the remote homesteads were
abandoned in favour of acquiring budding sites
in this centralized community. Before long, there
were a general store near at hand, a government
telephone and telegraph service, a community
hall, a church, and a school, all within easy walking distance over a track through the bush. The
outbreak of war was the catalyst that caused the
homesteaders to face reality: to realize that the
hope of a road connection to the outside world
was a futde dream and to give up maintaining
the isolated homesteads in the face of a lack of
markets for local produce and a continuous struggle against the elements. Some ofthe young men
left for the war and some people left the area to
seek less arduous Uving conditions elsewhere.
Most of the remaining people were Norwegians who adapted weU to conditions in this isolated outpost, as being not much different to what
they had been used to in their mother country.
The Japanese fishermen, who with their famiUes
became estabUshed here during the 1920s, were
also content to make their living from the sea
using their own boats for travel and communica-
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/ 2000
Kilometres
Cathy Chapin - Lakehead University
tion to and from other points. However, the sons
and daughters of the pioneers, perhaps some of
the wives, and many ofthe newcomers who had
arrived since the war, desired better access to the
outside world, and agitation for the road was revived. A local Board ofTrade (later Chamber of
Commerce) was organized to make representations to the two senior levels of government and,
in 1926, Tofino was officiaUy designated as the
Pacific Terminus of the Trans Canada Highway.
Of course, at the time, there was Utde prospect of
a highway to the Pacific Coast actually being budt.
The 1920s were a time of expansion and prosperity for the fishing industry on the Coast.Tour-
ism also flourished in this period and, although
there was not much in the way of tourist facdi-
ties at up-coast points, the Princess Maquinna on
its bi-monthly trips was popular with vacationers
from Victoria and Lower Mainland points.To cater to this trade, the CPR had a second ship budt
for this West Coast service, more commodious
than the Princess Maquinna.The Princess Norah was
simdar to the Princess Maquinna in huU dimen-
-about 75 metres long with a beam in pro-
sions-
portion—but with more superstructure and pas-
17 Courtesy Walter Guppy - source unknown
Above: Cavalcade of cars
near Sproat Lake on the
day ofthe opening ofthe
road, 22 August 1959.
senger accommodation. Its introduction
into this
service in
19 2 8
marked the
acme of
marine
transportation on the upper West Coast ofVancouver Island and was an indication of the prosperity of that period. With two vessels having
the semblance of floating hotels alternately making trips up and down the coast every ten days—
one would be calUng at Tofino, either going upcoast or returning every two or three days—the
lack of a road was not of such great concern.
During the Depression period foUowing the
economic coUapse of 1929, canneries and pd-
chard processing plants along the coast closed,
tourism declined and the Princess Norah was diverted to service elsewhere.The people ofTofino
reverted to dependence on the monthly trips of
the Princess Maquinna.
At the same time, however, an overland link to
the outside world was graduaUy developing.There
were annual aUocations of government funds for
road work as a means of aUeviating local hardship and a road construction camp was estabUshed at Long Beach to provide employment for
refugees from the breadlines and soup kitchens
of the cities. A serviceable gravel track was constructed Unking Ucluelet with Long Beach. The
beach could be used as a somewhat precarious
roadway, and a muddy track was hacked and
blasted through the rain forest to Tofino.
At the Tofino end, the track leading up from
the government wharf through the cluster of
buildings that comprised the village had also
evolved into the semblance of a road.Two or three
Model-T Fords or vehicles of similar vintage had
at various times been transported to Tofino on
the deck of the Princess Maquinna and were able
to negotiate this track over a distance of a mde
or two. A plank sidewalk facditated the use of
wheelbarrows and aUowed pedestrians to avoid
the ruts and mudholes.
Between 1936 and the outbreak ofWorldWar
II in 1939, a gold-mining boom developed further up the coast at Zeballos.This activity spread
to other points, such as BedweU River and other
sections of Clayoquot Sound, creating consider
able employment and stimulating local business
opportunities. For a time, this mining activity was
also of benefit to the coastal steamship service,
and resulted also in the extensive use of aircraft
for transportation to points along the coast. The
subsequent National Defence activity and the further development of overland road routes ultimately put an end to steamship transportation
on the coast.
In the post-war period, there was a fresh influx of newcomers to Tofino and Ucluelet and
some ofthe war-time estabUshment remained so
that there was renewed agitation for "the road."
The local Chamber of Commerce was revived, a
joint road committee formed with the Ucluelet
Chamber, and a concerted effort made to get this
overland Unk with the outside world completed.
When the Trans Canada Highway was finaUy
constructed to the Pacific Coast, hopes that Tofino
would be made the terminus were dashed when
Victoria was chosen instead. The provincial government surveyed the route through the mountains from Alberni and concluded that the cost
would not be justified to serve two smaU communities. Tofino and Ucluelet might stiU be dependant on air and water transportation had it
not been for the demand for the timber resources
of the surrounding area. Two major companies
and a number of smaU operators wanted this timber and the people of the coastal communities
wanted the road. The outcome was that the government negotiated an agreement with the logging companies whereby they would construct
sections of the road in exchange for timber and
this resulted in the road being pushed through as
a Umited access road in 1959 giving rise to the
celebrations on that August day in 1959 and the
cavalcade of cars heading for Port Alberni. The
road was completed as a pubUc highway by 1964.
However, there is a downside to everything.
Completion of the overland transportation Unk
made the coastal steamship service uneconomical and, when the old Princess Maquinna's boders
gave out, she was taken out of service and not
replaced. The influx of newcomers also changed
the sociological make-up ofthe communities. It
was great to be able to drive, or take the bus to
town at any time, but fewer were the social events
where everyone knew everyone else, and gone
was the anticipation of what the next trip ofthe
steamer would bring, as weU as the gatherings on
the wharf to greet its arrival. <**»>
18
BC HISTORICAL NEWS-Vol. 33 No. i Bowen Island's Howe Sound Hotel
byRobertJ.Cathro
The Howe Sound Hotel, which operated from 1901 to 1908, was the first
hotel on Bowen Island1 and only the
second built on Howe Sound. The first was built
at Squamish about 1892 and was operated in
connection with a post office and general store
by WiUiam Mashiter.2
The first pre-emption on Bowen occurred in
18743 but setdement proceeded very slowly on
the island. In 1900 the population, most of whom
lived near Snug Cove, was probably between 80
and 100, including chddren.4
The register from the Howe Sound Hotel, one
of the oldest records in existence from the early
commercial life on the island, is preserved at the
City of Vancouver Archives (CVA).5 This hotel
register was acquired by the CVA in 1941 through
the initiative of Major J. S. Matthews, the archivist, who was a friend of several men who owned
summer homes near the former hotel. A note
attached to the register by the major states that
Captain W.J.Twiss, who owned the former hotel
property, was the donor. Twiss was a former Vancouver alderman (1933-34) who, according to
Matthews, was largely responsible for the estabUshment ofthe archives.6 Another note inserted
in the register in 1990 states that the donor was
not Twiss, but rather his neighbour W Howard
Wilson, who found it inside the old hotel when
he purchased it in 1931.7
The Howe Sound Hotel, built by Arthur
Newland was located at Hood Point, at the northeast end of the island. Hood Point was an odd
location for a pioneer hotel because it was only
accessible by boat from the other settlements on
Bowen and population centers such as Vancouver, Squamish and Gibson's Landing, or the Britannia Mine and the numerous logging camps.
The hotel was situated on a prime waterfront
site leased from James C. Keith, a pioneer Vancouver banker and land developer.The Keith fam-
dy purchased the 355 acre property in 1891 from
the original owners, the Simpson brothers, who
had budt a smaU cabin and put in a vegetable
garden. Newland leased the Keith property from
1895 until about 1910, when he ran into financial difficulties.8
Courtesy Bowen Island Museum & Archive. Photograph No.315
The hotel was budt of sawn lumber barged
over from Vancouver, according to William
Grafton, a member of a pioneer Bowen famdy. It
was a two-story house painted black with a white
trim. It sat in the middle of a three or four acre
clearing and there was a boat shed on the beach
by the wharf. A small bar and a dining room were
run by Newland and his wife, with a handyman
to do the chores.9
Arthur Newland was born in England on 8
May 1855 and arrived in British Columbia just
before the turn ofthe century.10 He had bought
or leased the Central Hotel at 42-44 West
Cordova Street in Vancouver. After he left Bowen
Island, Newland managed the Australasian Club
in 1908.'1 In 1910 he was a partner in the real
estate and timber brokerage firm of Croot,
Newland & Stewart.12 When he died in Vancouver on 15 April 1927, his death certificate gave
his occupation as a fishery officer.
The formal opening ofthe Howe Sound Hotel was held on 8 July 1901, when a number of
weU-known citizens accompanied James Keith
and Captain John A. Cates on the steamer Defi-
ance,with stops at the cannery near Point Atkinson
Ughthouse and Mr. Caulfedd's summer resort on
the shore of West Vancouver. Among those on
board were City Clerk McGuigan and Alderman
Foreman.13
Above: Howe Sound
Hotel. This photo was
taken about 1911 when
the hotel was converted by
the James Keith family for
their use as a summer
cottage and renamed
"Invercraig."
Bob Cathro is a retired
geological engineer
whose interest in
history was stimulated
by a career in mineral
exploration in Yukon
Territory and northern
British Columbia. He is
a director ofthe British
Columbia Historical
Federation and the
Bowen Island Historians.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/ 2000
19 Right: Steam yacht Mou
Ping shown in First
Narrows outbound from
Burrard Inlet. Note the
undeveloped shoreline of
West Vancouver.
1 Howard, Irene Bowen Island 1872-1972, Bowen Island Historians, Bowen Is
land, 1973, p. 56.
2 Armitage, Doreen, Around
Howe Sound : A History of
Howe Sound-Wliistler. Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1997, pp. 71, 85. In
1890, Squamish was known
as Mashiter's Landing.
'Howard, 1973, ibid.,p.32.
4 It is impossible to determine the number of people
living on Bowen Island in
1900-1901 with any accuracy. Henderson's British Columbia Gazetteer and Directory
(1900-1901) shows the
population as 70 but lists
only 25 adults. On the other
hand, the 1901 Census of
Canada, Howe Sound Sub-
district, contains only 58
names, including 21 children. To add to the confusion, only five ofthe names
recorded in the census appeared in the directory.
5 CVA, ADD MSS 143.
'' CVA, ADD MSS 143.
Memo by Matthews dated
30 November 1941. Born in
County Kerry, Ireland in
1870, Twiss was a military
officer who founded the
Kaslo Rifle Company in
1898 and became a Vancouver insurance manager and
a Langley dairy farmer before his death in February
1953. Vancouver Province, 3
February 1953.
7 CVA, ADD MSS 143.
Memo by J.Turner dated 19
September 1990. Twiss actually owned "Tulameen", a
log cabin beside the former
hotel. It was an old favourite which the Captain John
Cates family had dismantled
and shipped log by log from
a mining claim neat
Tulameen. Vancouver News-
Norns coNTiNiii.n on iouowinc: pagi;.
Photo by P.TImms,ca.1910. Vancouver Publlce Llbrary,5pedal Collections,VPL 2968
The register for the Howe Sound Hotel kept
by the City ofVancouver Archives was a register
from the Central Hotel in which Newland's
name was speUed Newlands. According to the
register Keith visited nine times. His last entry is
on 13 September 1908. Many of those who visited the hotel were yachtsmen from the city and
loggers headed for the camps in smaU boats, who
stopped in only for a meal and a drink or to use
the outhouse.Although some of those who signed
the register stayed in the hotel, many anchored
and slept on their boats.14
WhUe searching the register for the names of
island pioneers, the writer noticed that one of
the signatures, dated 6 September 1904, belonged
to the governor-general of Canada, Lord Minto.
The register was signed by Lord Minto on his
fareweU visit to British Columbia. It is the only
known viceregal visit to Bowen Island. The stop
on Bowen has not been previously documented
in either island history or contemporary newspaper accounts. His ExceUency's trip to Howe
Sound, while enroute from Victoria to Vancouver, was made on the Royal Navy's HMS Grafton.
Major Matthews didn't notice Lord Minto's
signature, which was almost obUterated by later
entries, but he did recognize several names in the
register, including those of Premier WJ. Bowser,
Vancouver Treasurer H.J. Painter, Vancouver Alderman George Buscombe.and City Assessor A. T.
Dalton.15 Dalton, George Martin and AtweU D.
King were dropped off at the hotel on 10 June
1903 by Captain Cates. The next day, a hotel
worker rowed them across Howe Sound so they
could make the first ascent of the western peak
ofthe Lions.16 Several ofthe guests had an island
connection, such as Norah Mannion, the daughter of Bowen Island pioneer Joseph Mannion,
who signed the register in September 1902.17
Benjamin T. Rogers, the founder of British Columbia Sugar Refinery Ltd., was certainly the
best customer. He signed the register 21 times,
starting on 30 August 1901, accompanied on that
occasion by his wife, Mary IsabeUa (BeUa), her
relative A.N.Angus, and Osborne Plunkett.They
were traveUing on the 64-foot famdy yacht Mou
Ping, an 8-horsepower steam launch of 33 gross
tons (22 net) budt in Hong Kong in May 1899.18
Ben, as his wife caUed him, was a frequent visitor
to the Orient to purchase raw sugar for the refinery and often used these short cruises up Howe
Sound to entertain visiting business associates.19
BeUa Rogers was prone to seasickness and
didn't go on many of these trips. According to
her, Ben graduaUy adopted a costume of "fuU
yachting rig" over the years and she began to
refer to him as "the Commodore" after he was
elected to that position at the Royal Vancouver
Yacht Club. Seven years after his death in June
1918, BeUa purchased a large property at Point
Cowan on the south shore of Bowen Island and
named it "Fairweather Bay" after her mother's
maiden name.20 The Rogers name is stiU quite
prominent on Bowen today.
Osborne "Plunk" Plunkett accompanied Ben
Rogers on at least seven ofthe visits to the hotel
20
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 on the Mou Ping. The two men were business
associates as weU as close friends. Described as
six and a half feet tall, "Plunk" was a promising
lawyer from Nova Scotia. He died suddenly from
pneumonia on 23 November 1910, at the age of
39. He was president of theVancouver Conservative Club and had just returned from Nelson,
where he had been elected second vice-president of the Conservative Association of British
Columbia.21 His wife, Harriett AmeUa Beatrice,
was the daughter of Harry B.Abbott, retired general superintendent ofthe Canadian Pacific Rad-
way, and one ofthe leaders of theVancouver estabUshment.22 The radway was a strong supporter
ofthe federal Conservative Party and several CPR
directors were large financial backers of B.C.
Sugar.
In 1910, when Newland was forced to abandon the hotel, the property reverted to the Keith
family.Their daughter, Mary IsabeUa, recalled that
"somehow the land came back into father's hands
and then we used it as a summer house and caUed
it 'Invercraig,' between the rocks".23 The Keiths
started to budd retaining waUs and lay out tennis
courts and a golf course but this work ended
after James died in 1914.1n 1924, his widow Anne
sold the property to Captain Cates, the retired
head ofTerminal Steamships. Captain Cates sold
it in 1927 to Hood Point Estates, which subdivided it a few years later.24 It is ironic that the
fine bay on which the hotel was budt is named
after Cates, even though he made such a small
contribution to the local history.
The Howe Sound Hotel was, in modern terminology, a destination resort which anticipated
the tourist potential that would be developed
years later at Snug Cove by the Union Steamship Company. Unfortunately for Arthur
Newland his hotel was far ahead of its time. Today, what remains of the old hotel is hidden inside a modern home in an upscde waterfront
neighborhood. '<*^
The author wishes to acknowledge the help and
encouragement of the Bowen Island Historians
and their archives. Special thanks are due to the
City ofVancouver Archives and the Special Collections Division of theVancouver PubUc Library.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/ 2000
Britannia
Mine
Kilometres
Cathy Chapin - Lakehead University (after a map by Brian Hall]
Notes continued.
Herald, 18 August 1942.
Twiss sold the cabin to R.
E. Standfield, manager ofthe
Hudson's Bay Company
store inVancouver, in 1942.
Vancouver Sun, 17 July
1950.
»Howard, 1973, i'Wrf.,p.l69.
After 1908 the hotel appears
to have been looked after by
a watchman. In 1910 that
position was held by Frank
M. Brown, according to
Henderson's British Columbia
Gazetteer & Directory (1910).
Howard stated that John
Lister was the watchman in
1911.
' CVA, Major Matthews
Collection, Memo of conversation with William A.
Grafton, City Hall Employee, 15 September 1942.
'" Death Certificate.
11 Henderson's British Columbia Directory (1908).The address for the club was 534
W Cordova Street,Vancouver.
12 Henderson's British Colum
bia Directory (1910). The office address was 417
Richards Street,Vancouver.
13 Vancouver Province, 9 July
1901.
14 CVA, Matthews conversation with Grafton, 1942,
ibid.
15 Vancouver News-Herald, 4
December 1941.
16 Howard, 1973, itorf.,p.56.
17 The register was signed by
several other men who were
involved in mineral claim
staking and development on
the island and were also important Vancouver pioneers,
such as Benjamin Springer,
Lewis G. McPhillips, Percy
Evans, R.H.H. Alexander,
Dr. Alfred Poole, and surveyor W.A. Bauer, as well as
pioneer island prospector
and miner J.J. Moore.
18 Kluckner, Michael. M.I.
Rogers, 1869-1965, published privately. 1987. The
ship was registered as Mou
Ping and the same spelling
was used in the hotel directory. However, the name was
spelled Mouping by Mrs.
Rogers in her diary and as
Mow Ping in theVancouver
Public Library photo file.
19 Some of these are listed
in the register, including the
Captain of the SS Empress
of China, and a visitor from
Hong Kong in July 1902,
the Captain of the SS
Coranji, as well as visitors
from Australia, Hawaii, and
England in September 1902,
the Captain ofthe Empress
of China in May 1903, and
two visitors from Australia
in July 1904.
20 Kluckner, 1987, ibid.
21 Tlie Daily Province, 24 November 1910.
22 VancouverVoters, 7SS6,Brit-
ish Columbia Genealogical
Society, Vancouver, 1944,
399.
23 CVA, Major Matthews
Collection, J.C. Keith file.
Conversation with Mary
Keith in 1939.
24 Howard, 1973, ibid., pp
73-74.
21 Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster
Following is the delightful travel account of Mrs. Nelly Tilt
who migrated to New Westminster in 1907 from Birmingham,
England, to join her husband, Peter Tilt. She had with her on the
trip from England to New Westminster her two young children,
two-year old Elsie, and five-year old Harry.
Gavin E. Halkett, past president ofthe Nanaimo Historical
Society, came across this diary as part of a continuing program of
the society to expand their document collection. Mrs. Elsie (Tilt)
Daniels, the two-year old daughter mentioned in the diary, and
Gavin Halkett have been working on an account of Elsie's teenage years in Nanaimo. The following information on Nelly Tilt
and her husband Peter comes from Mrs. Elsie Daniels, who will
be 95 years in Aprd 2000. She is in good health with a dear
memory of the past. She Uves in Nanaimo with her son, Jack
Daniels, and his wife.
Peter Tilt learned his trade as carpenter, paperhanger, and
painter in Birmingham, England. He left England to work his
way across Canada with the intention of going to Australia. His
wife and children joined him in the summer of 1907 at the
CPR station in New Westminster.
Peter learned about better employment opportunities in
Nanaimo, so he moved his family there in 1908 and built a home
on the corner of St. George Street and Stewart Avenue, near the
location of the present BC Ferry docks in Departure Bay. He
found employment with the coal company, maintaining the miners' cabins. Peter built a second house for his family when the
first one burned down.
When World War I started, Peter was one ofthe first to join
up and he served four years overseas with the Scottish regiment
from Nanaimo.Job opportunities were scarce in Nanaimo when
he returned in 1919 because of miners' strikes. So Peter moved
his family back to theVancouver area where he did various jobs
in his trade along the waterfront. Elsie recalls the time when he
painted the outside window frames of the Marine Building in
Vancouver.
Peter died in Shaugnessy MiUtary Hospital at the age of 86 in
1958. His wife, Nelly Tdt, died in Burnaby a year later.
What is published here is Elsie's son Jack's transcription of
Nelly Tilt's account of her trip to BC.The original text is continuous, marked out only by a few dates or a change of writing
tool— pen or pencil. As usual in these manuscripts punctuation
is erratic and it has been changed to improve readability. Only a
few obvious spelling mistakes have been corrected. As the facsimile of the first page shows, the text is hard to read and Jack
Daniels should be congratulated for his efforts.
The diary starts with the date 15 July, which is perhaps the
date Nelly Tilt began writing the diary, some ten days after her
departure from England. Only the entries of the first few days
are dated. During her trip Nelly Tilt may not have found the
opportunity to work regularly on her diary and some text was
written after her arrival in New Westminster. She referred to her
journal as a diary but its ending suggests that it is also a letter, or
a draft of a letter, to the folks back home.
I shall not forget the 5th of July [1907] very
soon. We had been up nearly all night, merry
making and getting ready for a long journey to Vancouver. The train left New St. [Birmingham] station at 9:20
and we managed to get a comfortable seat, for aU it was so
crowded.There was only one thing that upset me. My mother
got her foot hurt with one ofthe troUeys. It was a hard fight
to keep up before our friends, but one comfort, Mother came
to Liverpool to see us off, and she stayed in Liverpool until
the steamer started.When we were some distance out I came
on deck again, to have another glance at dear mother. It was
some time before I could see where she was. I waved my
handkerchief to her but I do not know if she could see me.
May God be with her till we meet again.
When I went below deck every one [was] ready for tea. I
was glad when it was over, and I put the Utde ones in bed. It
had been a trying day for them. Then I went to try and find
my baggage. I went aU round, lots of times, and sorted the
baggage over. Mine was nowhere to be seen. I began to think
it had gone. One or two of the stewards had been looking
for it too, but could not find it. It was 9:30 before it was
found at the foreigner's end ofthe ship.
Then, I retired. It was not long before I went to sleep, but
oh, what an awakening! Seasickness had begun. The poor
chUdren were the same. Sometimes we were aU at it together.
There were very few [that] made an appearance at the table
that day 6th. I felt so sorry for the steward who had to come
with the mop and bucket. He was not used to the job. He
was an elec[trical] engineer, by trade from Liverpool. His
trade was short, so he thought he would do a trip to Canada
and back. He was suffering with seasickness, yet had to look
after others. Such is Ufe.
7th Sunday, although it was hard to beUeve it. I struggled to
the table, with the chddren at dinnertime, but neither of us
could eat, we had to come away. Then I took them on deck.
It was dreadfuUy cold, and I had to come down and get some
more wraps. We found a seat, and there we stayed, until tea.
After tea, I brought them on deck again, then Mr. Timms
came and found us. His Utde boy had been very poorly, and
this was the first time that I had seen them since he helped
look for my baggage. He did not stay long. He and I soon
went and put the chddren to bed.
[8?]* We had aU got used to the ship by Monday, except
Harry, and he was stiU on the sick Ust. Although it was cold,
the weather was fine and we were going at such a rate. If we
had been able to keep that speed up it would have been a
record voyage. The young men and girls seemed to enjoy
themselves. There was plenty of singing in the music room
and skipping on deck, and aU kinds of games. At night, danc-
22
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. i ing and flirting. The children who were big
enough could swing and spend a fortune on
sweets and oranges.The only ones, who did not
have much pleasure, were those with Utde mites,
who had their work set out for them.
9th Tuesday was wet and we had to stop below,
aU day. It seemed endless and such a din of chddren, playing and crying. Mr. Timms came and
had a chat. I must say he was devoted to his boy,
trying to get him weU and brightening him up
After he put him to bed, he did not leave him, to
go on deck Uke some men would have done.
10th More rain and at night, we went into fog.
AU who were on deck were ordered below and
we were going very slowly, at last we were at a
stand stiU. And the same nearly aU the next day
and night. It was awful hearing the fog signals aU
the time. We were then near BeUe Isles. When
the fog had cleared it was a pretty sight to see,
and we were glad to see land once again. Although
not very near we had passed by four big icebergs.
I only saw one and someone looked to the chddren whde I went to look at it. They told me the
one we had been waiting to pass in the fog was
such a size—half as big as the ship—and it was a
grand sight. It was near New Foundland where I
saw one. We saw land for a good distance then
and had we been able to go straight on, should
have landed on Friday. But better to be delayed
for a short time than to have met with an accident. The Ionia had run into the iceberg and I
heard 23 Uves were lost I heard they were signal-
Ung to us.That is why we were delayed. We went
very slowly through the straits, and we were glad
when Sunday came and we were to land. The
heat that day was overpowering.
On Saturday night Mr. Timms had strapped
my baggage up and on Sunday morning he
strapped the wraps up and some food I had
bought ofthe ship steward for our train journey.
Then we aU went on deck to stay there tiU we
landed, at 2:30. We were not dressed for hot
weather and we felt fit to drop. I want to keep a
diary, but I could not. I had my hands fuU. But I
am trying to remember aU that I can to send
word to you. Now I wiU wait tiU tea is over before I write more.
How glad we were to find ourselves, on the
landing stage. We went straight to the radway to
get our tickets. Then we went back to the goods
shed, to try to find my baggage and have a hunt
for the packing cases. I should have been met by
someone from the Trav-Aid and I did not see
■at. e*&>f ■■#?
any one. So Mr. Tfimms]
helped all he could. I
found my cabin baggage,
but I could not get anyone for money to take
them to the station. So we
put them safe and went in
search of my luggage. We
were getting pretty done
up by then.
I had left Harry in care
of a gendeman belonging
to the YMCA I believe
and I had to carry Elsie aU
ofthe time. I was looking
for my things. Mr.
Tfimms]'s little boy felt
bad, and he had to take
him to get something. So
I was left on my own. At
last to my reUef, I saw Uds
by letters come up and I
hurried up to claim the
baggage   and   have   it
checked off and the bedding, but I had to wait
tiU about 10 minutes to six before I got to the
other.
Mr. T[imms] was back again. He was anxious
to see me right before he went. He was to travel
by the Grand Trunk Radway at 6:30. He got
someone to help carry my baggage on. Oh, how
thankful I was and just as he was going they found
me from Trav-Aid. He had gone when I went to
wish them goodbye and thank him. So I have
heard no more of Mr. Timms I wish that he and
his Utde son had been traveUing on the same Une
as we. During this time I had left Harry to mind
Elsie in this General waiting room. When I returned he had forev—[?] himself so I had a nice
treat. This was 6:30 and I was dying for a cup of
tea. After I had seen it off, I fairly coUapsed on a
seat.
The Lady from Trav-Aid had helped me change
my money, and introduced me to a young woman
who had landed the day before. She was staying
there because her boy had broken his leg the last
day on the ship and he was in hospital. I felt so
sorry for her. She went and got me a cup of tea
and some cake and then I was told that the train
would not start before 11 o'clock.
I saw some children that were being sent from
the waifs and strays homes being put comfortable night on the train, before the crush came.
a^f
%zj
Above: An example of
the original text: the
initial page ofthe
diary. The original
calender pad is 9 x 6
inches.
Gavin E. Halkett, past
president of the
Nanaimo Historical
Society, submitted the
diary and photographs
for publication with
kind agreement of
Mrs. Elsie (Tilt) Daniels
and her family.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/ 2000
23 Courtesy Elsie (Tilt) Daniels
Above: Nell Tilt in a
special corner of her first
home in New Westminster
in 1907. She was proud of
her "little bit of England,"
displaying family pictures
and letters.
I asked someone
and we were put in
as comfortable [a]
part as there was. I
took the chddren's
things off and put
them to sleep and
washed off knickers before anyone
got in. And I sat
down not caring if
it snowed.
A motherly sort
of person came and
roused me up and
puUed the seat out
so that I could rest.
She could see that
I was done-up.The
seats were not upholstered, and I had
put all wraps for
the comfort ofthe
chicks. I do not
know or care how
the time went. I
got the meals
when we felt hungry and put them
to sleep when tired. The rocking ofthe train was
worse than the ship. It took one aU their time to
keep on their feet. The seats could be puUed out
and met. This answered for a bed. Over these
seats was a rack, on which to put our baggage.
But those who had not been able to find seats
and those with big chddren used them for sleeping as weU. It was so hot and close aU ofthe time.
Just when you were dozing in the middle of
the night you were woke up with someone shouting, "tickets please."The scenery was prime.The
railway riding upset the children. Elsie could not
eat.
We had to change trains at Winnipeg. On the
Wednesday it was [? ] there. (The girls and
chddren.[?]) I took Elsie into a chemist, and he
said he could do nothing for her. It was the journey. Most of the people went and had a good
med, and a look round. But I only went just
outside the station. I could not manage the Utde
ones. They charged 5 p for a cup of tea in the
station and I bought some dainties to try to tempt
my poor[?] baby. But she wanted nothing but
something to drink. I found some friends to help
me into the nicest train and get me a comfortable seat.
We had a much happier time the last part of
our journey. This gendeman and his wife and son
were good singers and I got them to sing. They
sang in parts and one night we played cards.They
did not mind looking to the children for a few
minutes.The scenery was grand after Cdgary.We
had passed mdes of Prairie and I did not like that.
But after Calgary the scenery got more and more
beautiful. I could not describe the grandeur of
the place.
Golden was lovely and near the great divide
of Alberta and British Columbia; Banff and
Revelstoke and the Rockies. As I came through,
it was worth the money to just see that sight.
How can I teU you of its beauty? I felt Uke it says
in that old song enraptured, charmed, and amazed.
I was. My inmost soul was stirred. I could not
take my eyes off, yet some parts were so terrify-
ingly dangerous. Some of the Ladies dared not
look. I was fascinated and, as I look[ed] out of
the windows, I could only see the carriage we
were in [as] our train went through the mountains, some covered with snow. Sometimes the
train was in the shape of an SS as we bent round
and in and out of those wonderful mountains.
First the carriage would be aU on slope the one
side and almost instandy it would slope the other
side. We were travelling dong the middle ofthe
mountain in some parts, and it seemed so dangerously lovely to look into the depths beneath.
The madly rushing faUs were a sight to see as we
passed by and over them. And I thank God that
we got through safe and sound. We changed at
Western Junction and came to New
Westminster].
Sam had lost time every time a train was expected, to see if we had arrived. Our ship was 60
hours late, so he did not know when to expect
us. We had not waited long in the station when
he came, and his house was only five minutes off
the station.
I was quite charmed with my litde wooden
house, with wdd raspberries growing outside the
front, and bracken and bulrushes. And rats, dso
under the wood shed. I am getting as used to
them now as to the flies and mosquitoes, and the
Chinks for neighbours.
God Bless you one and aU, I trust to see you
again someday. Your loving NeU.**^
24
BC HISTORICAL NEWS-Vol. 33  No. i Glanville's Dairy of Grand Forks, BC
by Ronald Greene
This article about a well-known and respected
BCHF family, Jim and AUce Glanville, starts a series
of histories of tokens in Ronald Greene's collection.
William Bedford GlanviUe was born at
MaUahide, Elgin County, Ontario in
1880. At an early age he accompanied his parents when they moved to England.
He returned to Canada before the age of twenty,
first stopping at Montreal and then moving to
Winnipeg where he Uved and worked for a year
on the small dairy farm of an uncle, John Newby.
Newby had two brothers Uving in the Grand
Forks area and early in 1900 they wrote stating
the opportunities they believed were opening up.
In the company of his uncle John, GlanviUe arrived in Grand Forks in February 1900 where
he was to spend the rest of his Ufe. From another
uncle, Len Newby, he bought a piece of land
which was located up the North Fork of the
Ketde River, at the top end of Smelter Lake. This
purchase took aU his money so he found a job
with George W Floyd of Rose HiU Dairy. Later
he worked at the Granby Smelter. He also hauled
powder up to the old Union Mine at FrankUn
Camp and cut wood at the Denver Fraction and
had several other jobs over the next few years,
BiU GlanviUe married CaroUne Utas in 1907
and went to Uve on his land. He started operating the dairy from that time. Untd he acquired a
horse BiU GlanviUe carried two cans of mdk to
make his deUveries. In 1921 he was able to obtain a Model T Ford and in 1923 another one.
His son, Jim, can remember his father coming
home from the mdk route, butchering a steer
from 10:30 until 11:00 am and then deUvering
the meat in the afternoon.
About 1913 the GlanviUes' house caught fire.
They were visiting the Forresters, another dairy
famdy who Uved at the other end of Smelter
Lake and saw the flames from there. They were
burnt out and until the new house was ready in
1915 the family Uved in the chicken house. The
GlanviUes had five children, Ranulph, Laurajim,
Jean, and WiUiam, of whom the latter three were
born after the fire.
When WiUiam GlanviUe retired in 1941, Jim
and the youngest brother, BiU, took over the farm.
GlanviUe passed away in 1966 and his wife in
1978. Jim and BiU ran the farm for a year or two
until Jim bought his brother out. Bill subsequendy
moved to Francois Lake and cleared Ootsa Lake.
During the war the GlanviUes also planted some
onion seed.The dairy herd was largely composed
of Holstein and some Shorthorn cross. Jim
GlanviUe milked approximately 20 cows.
Jim GlanviUe introduced the tokens after he
was married to AUce Clark in 1943 and used them
until he gave up delivering in 1951. The routes
were sold to Sunshine VaUey Dairy. He continued to produce milk for two or three years after
he stopped retailing. The milk was shipped to
Sunshine VaUey Dairy and also to the United
Dairy ofTrad.
In the winters they would put up forty tons of
ice cut from Smelter Lake. The ice on the lake
was up to 26 inches thick. Smelter Lake was
drained in 1948 and the GlanviUes were able to
purchase 300 acres ofthe lake bottom in 1953.
Previously they had sixty acres, twenty in farmland and forty in sidehdl or bush. In the 1930s
WiUiam GlanviUe had lost the timber land to
taxes.
The GlanviUes switched to beef catde about
the time they added to the farm and ran beef
catde until 1961, also having 100 acres in alfalfa
towards the end. They sold the farm and moved
closer to Grand Forks where they built their
present home in 1963. Today Jim and Alice
GlanviUe are enjoying a very busy retirement.
Both have been active in the Boundary Historical Society and AUce is the past-president of the
British Columbia Historical Federation.
Sources: Jim Glanville interview of 19 AprU 1992.
William Glanville, "The Glanville Story," in the Fifth
Report ofthe Boundary Historical Society, 1967.
Ron Greene, treasurer
ofthe British Columbia
Historical Federation is
interested in BC tokens
and their history.
isiiS
In the days of door-to-
door delivery there were
several advantages for a
dairy to use tokens. The
first was that the dairy
could get their money
up-front, which always
helped the cashflow.
Secondly, tokens were
less likely to be stolen
from the milk botdes
than cash was. Paper
rickets were also used,
but printing was a recurring expense and the
tickets tended to stick
inside the bottle.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/ 2000
25 Book Reviews
Books for review and book reviews should be sent to:
Anne Yandle, Book Review Editor BC Historical News, 3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver BC
V6S1E4
Charles Kahn
Salt Spring: the Story of an Island.
Reviewed by Rachel Grant
E.A. Heaman
The Inglorious Arts of Peace:
Exhibitions in Canadian Society
During the Nineteenth Century.
Reviewed by Jim rainer
Hugh Haliday
Wreck! Canada's Worst Railway
Accidents.
Reviewed by Bill McKee
Robert Swanson
Whistle Punks & Widow Makers;
Tales ofthe B.C. Woods.
Reviewed by Bill McKee
Terry Reksten
Rattenbury.
Reviewed by Jana Tyner
Betty O'Keefe and Ian Macdonald
The Final Voyage ofthe Princess
Sophia. Did they have to die?
Reviewed by Gord Miller
Andrea Laforet and Annie York
Spuzzum: Fraser Canyon
Histories, 1808-1939.
Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve
Also Noted
Hudson's Bay to Haro Strait; books on Western
Canada and the Pacific Northwest; a collectors'guide.
G.J. Kim Whale. Victoria: Rockland Books,
1998.315 pp. $100 hardcover.
A masterful description and price guide to approximately 1,800 ofthe most important and
collectible books on Western Canada, the Arctic, and the North Pacific. Includes extensive
information on Indians, the fur trade, gold
rushes and early voyages and settlement. Also
includes a history ofthe Hudson's Bay Record
Society and its books, and the Geological Survey of Canada Guidebooks. Compiled byVic-
toria bookseller Kim Whale, based on over 40
years of browsing in used book shops. Available from Rockland Books, 1706 Rockland
Ave., Victoria, BCV85 1W8.
Salt Spring: the Story of an Island.
Charles Kahn. Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1998.310 pp. Illus. $29.95 hardcover.
Reviewed by Rachel Grant.
To capture the nature of a place and bring
forth its unique character is an accomplishment. Charles Kahn has done this in Salt
Spring:The Story of an Island. The book traces
the history and development of Salt Spring
from its earliest known settlement by aboriginal peoples all the way to its status in 1998.
As explained in the acknowledgements,
beginning in the late 1980s, a group from
the Salt Spring Island Historical Society conducted a considerable amount of historical
research on the island's history, with the idea
to have it published. Material gathered from
an array of printed primary and secondary
sources, along with many taped interviews
with locals formed the basis of essays written on various subjects such as farming or
logging, or on identifiable groups of immigrants such as the Black or the Hawaiian
communities. In 1996, Kahn was offered the
job of structuring this research into a
publishable narrative of the island's history,
The result is this fast-paced chronicle of probably the most popular ofthe Gulf Islands.
Alter describing the pre-existing aboriginal presence by Coast Salish and other peoples, Kahn provides the historical and poUtical atmosphere in the Pacific Northwest during the mid-nineteenth century.The tensions
between Washington and the British Government over colonial expansion are well explained, as is the role of the Hudson's Bay
Company as it estabUshed itself as the dominant fur trading company. In this tumultuous atmosphere the first settlers enter.
The story of Salt Spring's settlement begins in 1859, when the government on Vancouver Island, under the direction of Governor James Douglas, pre-empted land to prospective settlers for 5 shilUngs(!) an acre. The
hardships the first setders endured as they
tried to estabUsh their homes are described
in detail. Kahn presents a bleak scenario for
these mainly single men who were forced to
contend with the problems of moving to a
relative wilderness, many with Utde farming
experience, let alone equipment or money,
and with next to no means of transportation
or communication. A community had to be
UteraUy carved out of the forest and mountains.
The book chronicles the early difficulties
not only of Unking the island to the mainland (the first roads were not built until 1872),
but linking communities. This isolation
forced communities to develop quite independently of each other, a factor which Kahn
contends is still evident today. Differences
between the northern and southern residents
over issues such as the Island's incorporation
in 1873, have always been a factor. According to Kahn, "this difference is a constant
source of mostly good-natured discussion and
banter".
The various agricultural and resource-
based industries Salt Spring has supported
are quite amazing, with everything from coal
mining to cheese production. Kahn appears
to touch on all of them, including the well-
known sheep farms. As the story moves further into the twentieth century and especiaUy to the period after World War II, Kahn
describes the island's growing pains as it is
forced to accommodate more people, while
coping with slow economic growth.
During the 1960s, the economy began
picking up with the influx of new arrivals.
Various people, including American draft
dodgers and gays and lesbians, made their
way to Salt Spring for different reasons.
Squatters and hippies seemed to infuse the
Island with an idyllic sense and the advent of
"Alternative Communities" was born. This
idea of leaving the city to Uve in a more natural environment is very well presented and
seems to hold true. Although by now, well-
heeled mainlanders are able to build large
homes and Ufe is less staid, Kahn beUeves that
the Island's beauty still remains. It is pleasant
to think that there are still no traffic lights
on Salt Spring in 1998.
The book is rife with colourful and driven
individuals who constitute the foundation of
this community. Some of these personaUties
include: Winnie Watmough, who drove logging trucks and had "arms on her like
Popeye;" Harry BuUock, "The Squire" to
26
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 whom an entire chapter is devoted; and
Kimiko Murakami, who returned to Salt
Spring after being interned duringWorldWar
II.
Each chapter is prefaced with a concise
timeUne of key dates and events covered. Interspersed through the narrative are text boxes
varying in length, which read Uke smaU vignettes and give additional insights into a
particular theme in the chapter. Photographs,
which are plentiful, have detailed captions
and credits which impress this reader gready.
Endnotes are informative and Unk well with
an extensive bibUography. The bibUography
itself is a valuable resource for anyone who
may wish to delve deeper into the history
not only of Salt Spring, but British Columbia.The index is lengthy and well organized,
which is another very positive factor, and one
that other potential local historians would
be wise to take into consideration.
Though there is a basic map of Salt Spring
Island and its geographic location within the
province on the book's fining papers, I would
have preferred to find the detailed map, located on page 292 ofthe penultimate chapter, at the book's outset.'*51''
Reviewer Rachel Grant is librarian at the Vancouver Maritime Museum.
The Inglorious Arts of Peace: Exhibitions
in Canadian Society During ihe Nineteenth Century.
E.A. Heaman.Toronto: University ofToronto
Press, 1999. 412 pp. Illus. $50 hardcover.
Reviewed by Jim Rainer.
Imagine a single cheese, dubbed the "Canadian Mite," weighing 22,000 pounds, standing six feet high and measuring 28 feet in
circumference. This was one of Canada's exhibits in the 1893 Chicago World's Fair! So
big it was, that a Canadian Pacific Radway
train was fitted out to carry it through the
country with much fanfare. In Chicago, when
it was installed, the floor collapsed under its
weight. Although heat affected the outside
of the cheese, judges bored two feet into it
and found it of "remarkably good" flavour
and "extraordinardy fine" body. Canada's
great triumph at this exhibition was cheese.
The government-sponsored "Mite," and the
many fine cheeses exhibited by private producers created a mental association between
Canada and cheese which persists today.This
nugget is one of many humorous, successful,
or inglorious stories in the book which enrich our understanding of the history of
Canada.
The exhibition was one ofthe great nineteenth-century projects for improving the
world. Combining the Victorian virtues of
communication, co-operation and competition, it promised to advertise the choice
products of civiUzation to a receptive pubUc.
The Inglorious Arts of Peace is the first comprehensive look at the history of these cultural extravaganzas in Canada and on the
world scene.
The book is divided into three parts. Part
one: "Exhibitions in Central Canada;" part
two: "Canada at the International Exhibitions;" and part three:"Exhibitions and Identities," covering the role of women and abo-
riginals.The curious tide ofthe book is taken
from a verse from "A Horatian Ode upon
Cromwell's Return from Ireland," written in
1650 by Andrew Marvell, EngUsh poet and
satirist.
Early in the nineteenth century, provincial governments began to sponsor exhibitions that advertised highly-bred Uvestock,
and modern techniques of rotation and
manuring to farmers. Hundreds of agricultural and industrial exhibitions sprang up
across central Canada until, by the end of
the century, exhibiting was an enormous industry attracting a mass audience. Part one
covers this history with the western and eastern provinces deUberately not covered to
keep the project to a manageable size. As a
matter of interest, British Columbia held its
first industrial exhibition in 1861 to select
goods for display in the 1862 Great Exhibition in London.
Part two examines the ways in which British North America was advertised at home
and abroad in the pursuit of productivity,
markets, capital, and immigrants, and evaluates the exhibitions' impact on private industry, the government, and Canadian identity. A colourful display at the Great Exhibition of the Works of AU Nations in London
in 1851 was Canada's first entry on the world
stage. Minerals, timber, vegetables, a gigantic
canoe, fur-laden sleighs, fire engines and furniture were featured. Praise was warm, although one reviewer carped,"We like the
beavers carved around the edge of the table
but we cannot approve of the same animals
crawUng like rats on the crossbars ofthe legs."
Other exhibitions in New York, Paris, Philadelphia, DubUn, Chicago, andVienna showed
off the country's pervasive grains, minerals,
timber, and cheese along with farm equipment, wine, pianos, and other manufactured
products. British Columbia participated in
exhibitions in London (1862) with minerals, fish, grains, Indian manufactures, and an
enormous Douglas fir; in Paris (1878) winning 29 awards; in Philadelphia (1878) winning 3 awards; and in Chicago (1893) with
coal, sdver, and other minerals, as well as fruit.
The role of women and Aboriginals in
Canadian and international exhibitions, limited though it was, is traced in part three.
Most women exhibited for fun, and profit,
and a chance to express themselves.Aborigi-
nal artifacts were a prominent part of displays sent by Canada to London, Paris and
Chicago, and individual bands sent in vegetables, grains, and fruits.
The book's author, B. A. Heaman, thoroughly researched her subject while on a
doctoral fellowship at the University ofToronto. She has shed Ught on a facet of Canadian history that is both interesting and filled
with fascinating details on the people, poUtics and products that went into Canada's
exhibitions at home and abroad.-^^
fim Rainer is chairman oftheAlcuin Society,
a society of book lovers.
Wreck! Canada's Worst Railway Accidents.
Hugh HalUday. Toronto: Robin Brass Studio, 10 Blantyre Ave., Toronto, Ont. M1N
2R4,1997. 224 pp. Illus. $18.95 paperback.
Whistle Punks & Widow Makers; Tales
of the B. C. Woods. Robert Swanson, with
an introduction by Ken Drushka. Madeira
Park: Harbour PubUshing, 1998.160 pp. Illus.
$21.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Bill McKee.
I found it a pleasure to read both these books.
Hugh HalUday s volume, Wreck!, reminded
me ofthe various accounts of train accidents
I had read during my past research for several museum exhibitions on the history of
the CPR. HalUday's short, readable accounts
of some of Canada's most appalling rail accidents go a long way in bringing a more realistic image of the history of the radways of
this country. The book offers some useful
insights into the reasons for some key accidents, ranging from unsafe operations (tolerated, or encouraged,by older railway firms),
to employee errors, procedural shortcomings
and various mechanical faults.The introduction gives a useful overview of some of the
most important hazards that trains and radway workers have encountered, and how the
causes of some common types of accidents
have been addressed. As someone interested
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
27 in the history of rail, mainly in British Columbia, I was particularly interested in
HalUday's accounts of two accidents in Vancouver and New Westminster, as weU as two
others which occurred at Albert Canyon and
Canoe River. Early on 10 November 1909,
a CPR flatcar loaded with probably 27 tons
of 12 inch by 12 inch timbers, broke loose
on the BC Electric Radway mainUne near
Nanaimo Street.Vancouver, and rammed into
a tram loaded with 24 people, kilUng 15.
Eighteen days later, another rail tragedy happened near New Westminster. During a major rain storm, a work train travelUng along
the Great Northern Une, adjacent to Kilby
Creek, plunged into a hole caused by the
torrential storm. Over twenty Japanese workmen were killed, in what was one of British
Columbia's worst rad disasters. HalUday mentions the minimal attention that this terrible
accident attracted among the news media and
pubUc, presumably due to the prevaiUng tendency to undervalue the Uves of many of our
Asian pioneers.
I had only one nit-picking criticism. At
the start of the item on the Albert Canyon
accident, HalUday states: "Radwaymen who
worked in the Rocky Mountains." I almost
choked, like any good British Columbian,
because I reaUzed that this piece was about
an accident that did not occur in the Rockies.
While later in the text it was clear, that the
author knew that this accident occurred in a
canyon in another mountain range, far to the
west ofthe Rockies, I definitely think that it
would have been more appropriate at the start
of this piece to replace "Rocky Mountains"
with "mountain west," or something similar
- and not reinforce the old error, for any
uninitiated reader, that aU mountains in BC
are the Rockies. Other than that, Wreck! is a
good, very readable book, in my view.
I was captivated by the late Robert
Swanson's book, Whistle Punks & Widow-
Makers, with its graphic accounts of Ufe in
the logging industry, based on his conversations with some ofthe old timers he met
while working in that field. Swanson's articles, based on those interviews, had appeared
long ago in the press ofthe industry. This is
the first paperback edition of this popular
volume pubUshed in book-form in the early
1990s.
I had first met Swanson about 12 years
ago, while I was working on an exhibit on
the history of the CPR "Princesses" and
"Empresses" on this coast. When I located
some silent film footage that showed several
of those ships, in Victoria or Vancouver harbour, or moving along the BC and Alaska
coasts, I concluded I needed to have some
appropriate sound effects, to bring more Ufe
to the films. Either Len McCann or Robert
Turner directed me to Bob Swanson, the man
who had fabricated and furnished the whis-
des for many of the CPR vessels. When I
approached Swanson, he confirmed that he
actuaUy had recordings of many ofthe CPR
whisdes, and that he would be pleased to let
me hear them. It was an amazing evening,
when Swanson welcomed me into his home
and took me to a room to Usten to the recordings of his ship and train whisdes, as weU
as his "O Canada," then heard from the roof
ofthe former BC Hydro building every day
at noon (and still broadcast daily from the
top of GranviUe Square). While aU the CPR
vessels broadcast the distinctive CPR whisde sounds that Swanson had created for them,
he was actuaUy able to Usten in that basement room and then teU me which ship's
whisde we had just heard! Robert Swanson
then generously provided me with dupUcate
tapes of his CPR ships' whisdes. As a result,
when in the late 1980s, the exhibit on CPR
ships opened at the Maritime Museum of
British Columbia, visitors often heard the
sounds of various CPR ships blowing their
whisdes, adding a welcome dimension to the
exhibition.
As Ken Drushka mentions in his informative, and humorous, introduction and overview of Robert Swanson, the tales in this
book were not always historicaUy accurate.
As story telUng was a key element of Ufe in
the woods, and exaggerated stories were
wekcmed if they added colour and more
drama, Swanson was more interested in saving, and even enhancing the tales he heard—
in keeping with the tradition of that culture—rather than stricdy demanding historical accuracy. He felt that to preserve the oral
heritage of that society was more important.
While we value more academic volumes
which address the wider history of the industry and its leaders, Swanson has provided
a very useful window on the Uves, work, and
even the deaths, of some ofthe most colourful characters who actuaUy worked in the
British Columbia woods in the late 1800s
and the earUer part of this century. While
some of his accounts are clearly semi-fictional,
as mentioned above, the book stiU provides
us with rich detailed views of the personal
experiences of loggers, as weU as some other
individuals in related work, such as a camp
minister and a timber cruiser. As Drushka
notes, this is an especiaUy important accom-
pUshment, since much ofthe surviving record
of the Uves, thoughts, work, recreation and
humour of British Columbia's working people has been lost. In creating this book,
Robert Swanson helped us preserve some of
that under-represented part of our heritage.
The historical photographs accompanying
this volume add a valuable dimension to the
stories Swanson has saved for us.'*5**'
Reviewer Bill McKee is a historian, archivist, and
museum curator.
Rattenbury (2nd ed.).
Terry Reksten.Victoria: Sono Nis Press, 1998.
204 pp. IUus. $18.95 paperback.
Reviewed byJanaTyner.
The story of Francis Mawson Rattenbury
reads Uke a television drama—great successes,
dismal failures, divorce, murder, suicide, and
even a connection to the sinking ofthe Titanic. In Rattenbury, Terry Reksten offers a
narrative biography documenting British-
trained architect Francis Rattenbury's life in
early-twentieth-century Victoria, British Columbia. This second edition of Reksten's
1978 book (the first edition itself in its tenth
printing) incorporates few revisions to the
original. Reksten includes an afterword, noting three changes regarding key figures in
Rattenbury's life. In addition, passages from
privately-held letters written by Rattenbury
to his family, and from Rattenbury's correspondence held by the Canadian Pacific
Radway Archives, both undiscovered sources
at the time ofthe 1978 edition, have been
incorporated into the new edition.
While Rattenbury is most famous as the
architect of the British Columbia Legislative Buddings (1893-97) and the CPR Empress Hotel (1904-08), the degree to which
he participated as an entrepreneur and speculative developer in Victoria is perhaps more
significant than his architectural offerings. Of
particular note was his involvement with the
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTP).
Rattenbury worked unceasingly to promote
the Railway and its terminus city of Prince
Rupert, in which he stood to gain person-
aUy through land holdings running through
the proposed route ofthe GTP. The story of
how Rattenbury traveUed across Canada and
to England to convince investors ofthe potential success ofthe GTP and Prince Rupert
is phenomenal, as was his unyielding beUef
in the success of the Railway. In the end, of
28
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 course, the GTP never reached the heights
aspired to by Rattenbury and his partners,
and he lost considerably, both financiaUy and,
more significantly, morally. Although
Rattenbury lacked the knowledge of hindsight in the GTP endeavour, he very poign-
andy and accurately recognized the importance of tourism to Victoria's economic and
social future as a world-class city. His Crystal
Garden Amusement Centre (1923-25) is an
intriguing lesser-known work which encapsulates his vision ofVictoria as a leisure and
tourist centre.
Reksten orders the book around
Rattenbury's architectural commissions and
entrepreneurial endeavours, yet avoids a de-
taded examination ofthe architecture itself.
She boldly sets out her reasons in the introduction:
I have avoided a detailed critical analysis
of Rattenbury's buildings for two reasons.
As someone with a general, rather than a
specialized, interest I find the vocabulary
of architectural criticism confounding and
the subject both technical and complex.
Even so, such an omission might be unforgivable were it not for the fact that
Rattenbury simply wasn't a particularly
original architect, (p. xiii)
This seems an odd disclaimer. Why write
a biography of an individual and not consider the reasons for his celebrity? Reksten's
first justification is difficult to counter, except that as his biographer, it is her responsibiUty to become fluent in the background
of her subject. Her second excuse is, in fact,
one ofthe reasons Rattenbury is so compel-
Ung. As Reksten describes through a compilation of his competition entries and successful bids, Rattenbury's influence on Victoria's
architectural and social community was indeed considerable at the time, yet his influence today is nominal. Rattenbury was clearly
skdfiil in designing fluendy within the commonly accepted forms of expression and architectural vocabulary ofthe time, but with
little originality or innovation. That
Rattenbury was chosen as architect for such
high profile buildings as the BC Legislative
Buildings and the CPR's Empress Hotel attests to his abiUty to encapsulate the goals of
the political powers, financiers, and speculative interest groups; that is, durability, permanence, and grandiosity. Put in these terms,
who wiU be today's Rattenbury? Are there
architects practising now, heralded as the spirit
ofthe 1990s, who wiU fall out of favour
within ten years because of their derivative,
unoriginal designs?
Reksten also avoids an examination of
Rattenbury's contemporaries, apart from
cursory mention of his adversaries, including Thomas Hooper and A. MaxweU Muir.
These references revolve around personal
bitterness between the three rather than any
discussion of their architecture. In not seriously considering Rattenbury's architecture,
or examining that of his contemporaries,
Reksten fails to estabUsh the degree to which
Rattenbury was typical of his time, and in
what ways he was different. An analysis of
his peers to compare how others were affected by similar societal influences would
have demonstrated how Rattenbury was
typical or particular of an era.
Putting aside these shortcomings,
Reksten's biography of Rattenbury remains
a weU-researched, vivid and easily-readable
account of an architect-entrepreneur during
early twentieth century Victoria. Perhaps the
value of Rattenbury Ues in its pointing out
that while Rattenbury undoubtedly displayed a certain degree of personal creativity in design, it is the prevading political,
economic, and social climate that played the
larger role in shaping his career as Victoria's
premier architect at the turn of the
century.-'^
ReviewerJana Tyner is an architectural historian.
The Final Voyage ofthe Princess Sophia.
Did they have to die?
Betty O'Keefe and Ian Macdonald. Surrey
BC: Heritage House, 1998. 192pp. Illus.
$16.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Gord Miller.
Shordy after 10 p.m. on Wednesday, 23 October 1918, the CPR coastal steamer Princess Sophia left Skagway, Alaska Territory, and
headed down the Lynn Canal on its way to
Vancouver. Four hours later, in the midst of
a blinding snowstorm, the Princess Sophia
slammed into the Vanderbilt Reef. For the
next 40 hours the Princess Sophia survived.
Then about six o'clock in the afternoon of
Friday, 25 October, the high tide and a gale
forced her off the reef and the Princess Sophia
went to the bottom. None ofthe more than
350 passengers and crew survived.
At first Ught on Saturday morning, observers realized that the Princess Sophia had
sunk during the dark hours of Friday evening.
A search for survivors was organized quickly,
but only bodies and a dog were found. Efforts to recover and identify the bodies con
tinued under the direct supervision of the
territorial governor.The authorities encountered a variety of difficulties including the
weather and a shortage of trained medical
personnel. Once recovered, the bodies were
prepared for burial. Many were sent by ship
to next-of-kin in the South. One such "ship
of sorrow", the Princess Alice, arrived in Vancouver on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918.
A Canadian government inquiry was
caUed almost immediately, and held sessions
in Vancouver,Victoria and Juneau. Among the
evidence presented were suggestions that
many or aU ofthe passengers could have been
rescued. Some critics charged that Canadian
Pacific Railway had instructed the Princess
Sophia's captain, Leonard Locke, to delay rescue attempts until another ofthe company's
ships, the Princess Alice, was available to remove the passengers. The inquiry found no
fault with either the company or Captain
Locke. Many of the famiUes of the victims
were not satisfied with these conclusions and
legal battles over compensation were launched
in both the Canadian and American courts.
The last of these cases continued in the appeal courts into the 1930s.
The authors, both former journaUsts, have
given us an entertaining and weU written
account of the life and death of the Princess
Sophia and ofthe attempts by the authorities
to determine the events surrounding the
wreck and sinking of the Princess Sophia. In
addition, they provide background information and descriptions ofthe place and times
in which the disaster took place.
The book begins with an oudine ofthe
Canadian Pacific Railway's Pacific shipping
interests, and the activities of its BC Coast
Service and its vigorous manager, James Trout.
The construction and early career ofthe Princess Sophia are described.The authors also give
a brief treatment ofthe conditions and perils
of navigating the Inside Passage and the Lynn
Canal during the first decades ofthe twentieth century. The authors also introduce us to
some ofthe miners, entrepreneurs, businessmen, riverboat crew and others from the gold
fields and mines of Alaska, the Yukon and
Northwest British Columbia who were
awaiting passage "down south" on the Princess Sophia or other coastal steamers.We learn
about the Uves and character of some ofthe
passengers and crew who sailed on the Princess Sophia by reading their letters and diary
entries. A later chapter oudines the way in
which the North American press treated the
disaster.These sections providing background
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
29 and context are the most interesting and informative portions ofthe book.
However, there also are some shortcomings. In particular, the authors fail to describe
or explain, in a chronological fashion, the
events that occurred on board and around
the Princess Sophia during the 40 hours the
ship was captured on Vanderbilt Reef. Many
of these events can be found elsewhere in
the book. A timeUne is presented in the first
pages ofthe book, but is not expanded upon
during the description ofthe wreck and sinking. We only get hints of the changing
weather conditions and stages ofthe tide that
concerned the passengers and crew of the
Princess Sophia. In the chapters describing
evidence presented to the Canadian government inquiry, we learn that there were a
number of rescue vessels located nearby to
which the Princess Sophia's passengers might
have been transferred during breaks in the
stormy weather. We also learn that the Princess Sophia was in radio contact with at least
one of these vessels.What did Captain Locke
teU these vessels about rescue attempts? After
the sinking, some of the recovered bodies
were wearing Ufejackets, while other bodies
were recovered from cabins within the
sunken ship. What plans did the captain and
crew make for the rescue of the passengers
that would lead some passengers to wear
Ufejackets at the moment when the Princess
Sophia sank whde others were in their cabins? FinaUy, the authors do not answer the
question raised by the tide ofthe book. "Did
they have to die?"
In conclusion, this is a good book, weU
written, on an interesting topic. But it could
have been better! '*"»'
Reviewer Gord Miller is librarian at the Pacific
Biological Station in Nanaimo.
Spuzzum: Fraser Canyon Histories, 1808-
1939-
Andrea Laforet and Annie York. Vancouver:
UBC Press, 1998.282 pp. Illus. $75.00 hardcover, $24.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve.
The village of "Spuzzum", meaning "a Utde
flat", has existed for generations deep in the
Fraser Canyon, between Yale and Boston Bar.
Its history has provided the material for a
sensitive and helpful account ofthe meeting
of Aboriginal and European peoples.
The key to this singularly human work of
scholarship lies in the characters of the two
authors. Andrea Laforet began learning about
the Fraser Canyon as a young graduate student in the early 1970s. She arrived in
Spuzzum laden with the anthropologist's
baggage of conceptual constraints and prescribed discourse. Looking for "subjects",
Laforet found friends, especiaUy Annie York,
who was born in Spuzzum in 1904 and Uved
there most of her adult Ufe.Annie and Andrea
struck up a conversation which lasted for
twenty years, until Annie's death in 1991.
Andrea's career took her first to Victoria, then
to Ottawa, where she became Director ofthe
Canadian Ethnology Service at the Canadian Museum of CiviUzation. She continued to visit Spuzzum several times a year,
sometimes for work, other times just for talk,
and in the long run, the talk became the work.
As she intended, Laforet has written anthropology and history, but overriding these, she
writes about communication.
Dialogue between Aboriginal and non-
Aboriginal Canadians poses a challenge more
compUcated than that between two soUtudes
with a shared European origin. Annie spoke
fluent EngUsh. Andrea persisted haltingly in
the Nlaka'pamux language.The difficult part
came as they each wresded with an aUen way
of perceiving and discussing time, space, and
nature. Ofthe two, Annie had the less difficulty; she assimilated without worry differing, overlapping, and perhaps contradictory
concepts. A devout Christian, she nevertheless Uved in a world where certain places were
charged with spiritual power, and one prayed
to both "God and the creek". Her people
found nothing essentiaUy aUen in the missionaries' teaching about the supernatural,
prayers or ritual, and Aboriginal healers incorporated Christian beUefs into the traditional practice of herbal medicine.
Spuzzum people greeted Simon Fraser as
a traveUer and visitor; their narratives remembered him as a transformer, like the trickster
Coyote with whom he shared some characteristics.There was always the possibdity that
a stranger, even though human, might have
supernatural capacity to harm others. Fraser's
difficult trail through the canyon took him
past whirlpools and cUfB and at the same time
through a complex poUtical, social and metaphysical space. His hosts fed him salmon,
berries, oil and onions; and sang a song made
in his honour and for his protection as he
continued down river. This song, given in
the original and in two English translations,
and another song, to Mount Baker, are among
the book's unexpected treasures.
We are famiUar with the Fraser River nar
ratives of bishops Hills and SilUtoe, and priests
SmaU, Ditcham, and Good. In this book we
have the same events related by the other
participants, with much less difference than
we might have expected. GeneraUy, these
people and the visiting priests Uked each
other.And yet...
In discussion of the church residential
schools, Annie, and the others with whom
she and Andrea talked, do not blame or accuse, but they do elucidate the nature and
depth of the loss. Time and space attacked
the children first; suddenly they had not time
enough to learn both the new information
and the traditional. And they could not be in
two places at once; if they were away at school,
they could not be present at the continuing
learning process of life with their people.
They no longer had time or space to go into
the mountains for their intense and often
soUtary spiritual "training." Education was no
longer part of everyday Ufe.
In the late nineteenth century the viUage
of Spuzzum "consoUdated itself on the south
side of the creek near the Cariboo Road,
buUt in the 1860s, and the CPR track, completed in 1885." Before then, such consoU-
dation could not have happened; there had
been no roads or boundaries, and yet, as
Laforet points out,"there was no wUderness".
The Fraser Canyon had been "settled" for
thousands of years: "every peak, every lake,
every clearing was known to someone." A
sustainable economy drew on the resources
of the mountain hinterland, with no concept of, need for, or sense to the ownership
of plots of land by individuals. The imposition of a European agricultural system on
the Nlaka'pamux would be comic if it were
not so tragic, and so complicated by the staking of mining claims and the regulation of
fishing.
The imposition and regulations came from
no human voice, but from some unimaginable distant office.The Spuzzum chiefs sought
white chiefs with whom to discuss the disposition ofthe land, and found no chiefs, only
bureaucrats. Even a century ago Canadian
government bureaucracy had become so
dense as to be penetrable only through the
legal system, which was also dense but mar-
ginaUy more rational. So the Nlaka'pamux
learned to speak the language of law courts,
Royal Commissions, and parUamentary committees. Laforet quotes from some of their
presentations made between 1910 and 1927,
when amendment of the Indian Act effectively put an end to their political action for
30
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 a whole generation. She adds: "The insistence, by Spuzzum chiefs and others, on the
need to resolve land claims and to guarantee
access to traditional lands and resources was
both a protest against their dispossession and
an affirmation ofthe enduring value ofthe
old economy."
Acknowledging the work of her predecessors in the field, especiaUy James Teit at the
turn of the last century, Laforet admits her
own advantage in being subject to a less restrictive anthropological discourse. Her parameters permit her to enrich with person-
aUty the accounts of her conversations with
Annie and her friends and relations, and
Annie's memories of conversations with earUer generations. We hear personal histories,
family histories, stories of coming and going
and returning, local history, and "History"
viewed and shaped in differing ways.
Andrea Laforet urges us to move beyond
the habit of searching for historical truth "in
a shifting nexus of written documents", and
she caUs for new genres which would apply
culturaUy diverse methodologies to the vaU-
dation of knowledge. Annie York never ceased
to maintain that the proper repository for
memories ofthe past is the human brain, not
written notes or recorded tapes.Yet, Annie's
parting gift to Andrea was a blank notebook.
Both participants in this conversation spoke,
both Ustened, and both worked hard at making the conversation work.
The conversation concludes with a warning: "Unless there emerges a common intellectual ground on which Aboriginal and non-
Aboriginal histories in Canada can speak to
each other, the early resolution of their differences may be left to the quasi-oral tradition ofthe system of legal precedents." Annie
York and Andrea Laforet worked with mutual respect and shared wiU to prove the existence of that common inteUectual, and human, ground. <"^
Reviewer Phyllis Reeve resides on Gabriola Island.
Also Noted
The Social Life of Stories: narrative and knowledge in the Yukon Territory.
JuUe Cruikshank. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. 211 pp. Illus. $45 hardcover.
Cruikshank's analysis reveals the many powerful ways in which the artistry and structure of storytelUng mediate between social
action and local knowledge in indigenous
northern communities.
Archives & Archivists
We welcome Provincial Archivist Gary A. Mitchell, CRM as the first contributor of a
regular feature under this heading, directed by Frances Gundry.
As British Columbia's ninth Provincial
Archivist, I have the primary responsibility to ensure that the government's archives
are preserved, maintained, and made accessible to our citizenry. However, I am also
charged with the major responsibiUties of
documenting our provincial experience
through the acquisition of private archives
and manuscripts, and supporting an emerging network of community archives.
If I could draw upon one word to illustrate my sense of direction for the BC Archives and our provincial network, it would
be "community"—a community of archives
working together to document the richness and diversity of our history; a community of heritage organizations, i.e., archives,
historical societies,museums, galleries, etc.,
working with a concentrated focus along a
common front to enUven and expand our
heritage opportunities; community in the
sense that we need each other to survive
and grow to meet the ever-increasing demand of British Columbians to know and
experience our past.
Over the next few years, my energies wiU
be focused on the foUowing goals:
Establishing a firm mandate for the BC
Archives. Through legidation, define the
mandate of the Archives; acknowledge the
acquisition of personal and private papers
of provincial significance; set out the responsibilities and accountabiUties for provincial government officials and aU local
government bodies in keeping, preserving and accessing archival records. Consultations with the heritage community
will be a fundamental aspect of getting
this process kick-started.
Expanding the "community" aspect in the
community archives program. We wiU
review and revamp the current program
to ensure that it continues to meet the
needs of our community archives and
community archivists. The key to a suc
cessful archives program is a commitment
to giving the "community" more profile
in our community archives program and
archives network. Our community archives network is the foundation stone
for an entire provincial heritage structure. It is my wish that the Provincial
Archivist visit more community archives
and heritage organizations so as to provide support and assistance to local
groups striving to improve their conditions. The Canadian Archival Information Network (CAIN) initiative is a major step forward in this regard, and one
which I firmly and strongly endorse.
Raising the profile of archives and promoting accessibility. Archives are a pubUc place where the pubUc can seek out
historicd information and enjoy the
wealth and breadth of our heritage. We,
at the Archives, wiU continue to encourage our pubUc to visit; we wiU continue
to reduce our "jargon" and speak and act
in plain EngUsh. We wdl strive to find
new ways to encourage, assist and support younger members of our society to
use and share in the wonders of archives.
Our recent Open House attracted over
1,200 people during the six-hour event.
The overwhelming pubUc response to
our website (e.g., the Amazing Time
Machine, the Vital Event indices, and our
historical photographs) shows that there
is a strong societal interest in finding and
using our documentary heritage. To be
successful in the coming decades, archives
must tap into this interest.
Working for a new BC Archives facility. Our tired building has served us fairly
weU for 30 years. But a 21st Century archives requires better pubUc space, better
access and, most certainly, better storage.
The rniUennium is a great opener to get
the discussion rolfing. Cross your fingers.
Gary MitcheU was born in Murrayville, Langley Township, on 27 June 1954.
Educated: SperUng elementary; Fort Langley Jr. Sec. and Langley Sr. Sec. Schools; BA
(History) 1976 - UBC; Master of Archival Studies (MAS) 1985 - UBC; thesis topic:
The Appraisal of Canadian Military Personnel files of the First World War.
Earned"Certified Records Manager-CRM"-Institute of Certified Records Managers
- 1990.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
31 Reports
Historians of Discovery visit Nootka
by Michael Layland, Victoria
The Society for the History of Discoveries
is an international group of academics, map
librarians and knowledgeable enthusiasts who
share a common interest in early navigation,
exploration and cartography. Last November, they held their AGM for 1998 hosted by
theVancouver Maritime Museum.
As co-hosts for the meeting, the Map Society of BC organized a post-conference excursion to Nootka. Before the party left Victoria, we paid due homage to Teniente de
Fragata Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra
by assembling for a group photo at his
BeUeviUe Street monument.
The party induded several names familiar in BC historical circles.John Crossejohn
Spittle, Bruce Ward, Nick Doe, Helen Akrigg
and Donna Cook, as weU as severd American visitors and a Spanish couple from Se-
viUe.Two distinguished participants were Ed
Dahl, recendy retired as Curator of Early
Maps at the National Archives in Ottawa, and
Commander Andrew David, editor of the
mammoth and splendid Charts and Coastal
Views of Cook's Third Voyage recendy pubUshed
by the Hakluyt Society.
En route up-island, we visited the "Rio
de las GruDas" recorded on the Spanish chart
of 1791 "Carta que Comprehende"by Francisco de EUza and Jose Maria Narvaez—it
was at the mouth of Englishman River,
ParksviUe. Although the name in Spanish
means "river ofthe cranes," it probably refers to the great blue herons that flock there
in winter.We also toured the Kwagiulth museum at Cape Mudge on the southern tip of
Quadra Island, and stayed the night at
Strathcona Park Lodge, who kindly extended
their season to accommodate us.
The MV Uchuck III makes a trip every
Tuesday, year round, from Gold River to
Tahsis. For the SHD group, the Captain diverted to Friendly Cove to drop us off and
pick us up again on the return. This aUowed
us four hours to explore Nootka. We were
accompanied to Yuquot (Friendly Cove) by
Margarita James, the cultural and heritage coordinator for the Mowachaht Band at Gold
River.   She   represented   Chief Mike
Courtesy Michael Layland
Maquinna, who sent his formd greeting and
regrets that he was unable to welcome us to
Yuquot in person.
But Chief Maquinna, or his contacts on
high, did provide us with remarkable weather
for early November—calm, warm and doud-
less for the entire day. Most of us spent the
morning top-side, enjoying the spectacular
scenery of Muchdat Inlet. At BUgh Island
(yes, that Bligh!), the Uchuck nosed into
Cook's "Ship Cove", now caUed Resolution
Cove—where the explorer had refitted Resolution's top fore- and mizzen masts. We were
close enough to read the plaque commemorating the 1978 bicentennial of James Cook's
visit. Nick Doe pointed out Astronomers'
Rock, recorded in watercolour by expedition artists John Webber and WiUiam EUis
while they had waited for the masts to be
cut and rigged.
After disembarking at the lighthouse jetty,
we assembled in the nearby Yuquot church.
Margarita James, flanked by totems stored inside the church, gave a summary ofthe history of Nootka from the Nuu-chah-nulth
perspective. She oudined the Band's plans to
convert the Ughthouse buildings into an in
terpretive centre, once it is no longer manned.
We then dispersed to explore. Some went
in search of John Meares's 1788 house; some
to the sacred lagoon mentioned by John
Jewitt, enslaved by an earUer Maquinna. Others went looking for traces ofthe kitchen of
San Miguel, the Spanish fort. Still others were
more interested in chatting with one of the
few remaining Ughthouse keepers in BC.
The Uchuck, a working vessel, was an hour
or so behind schedule for picking us up.
Steaming bowls of rich chowder from the
gaUey soon restored any lost internal warmth.
The next night, a frontal system roared in
from the Pacific, dumping 150 mm of rain
onto Nootka Sound in 24 hours. Fortunately,
by then we were home, or well on our
way. <"==>•'
Above: Members ofthe SHD expedition to
Nootka assembled at Quadra's monument in
Victoria. Flanking Quadra are Robert
Highberger (left) and Andrew David (right).
In front ofthe monument from left to right are
Michael Layland, Francis Herbert, Diane
Cook, Ginny Highberger, Emily Miller, Ian
fackson, KathyJudd, and Helen Akrigg.
32
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 Malaspina Research
Centre opening in
Nanaimo
by Nick Doe, Gabriola Island
There are interesting paraUels between the
round-the-world expeditions of Alexandro
Malaspina and his counterpart James Cook.
Both the Spanish and British 18th-century
expeditions were made toward the end of
the Age of EnUghtenment, that period of
history when scientists and artists dike went
forth into the world, notebooks at the ready,
"...unfettered from the notion that ancient
authority done was sufficient to describe or
explain the natural world." But whUe Cook's
journals and discoveries were widely pubUshed at the time, the work of the Spanish
was consigned to the archives, some of it to
remain there until weU into this century. Even
Mdaspina's journal was not pubUshed until
1885, and a good EngUsh translation is stiU
not to be had.
Both Mdaspina in August 1791, and Cook
in April 1778, visited Nootka for only a few
weeks, yet their visits made an invduable
contribution to the history ofthe BC coast,
isolated as it then was from the rest of the
world. Cook's visit was to be foUowed by
that of George Vancouver, and Malaspina's
by that of Galiano and Valdes, both expeditions completing a circumnavigation ofVancouver Island in 1792, leaving detaded accounts of their experiences.
Interest in Mdaspina, now that his works
are increasingly available, is growing. John
Kendrick, the BC author, has recendy published the book Alejandro Malaspina—Portrait
of a Visionary, and there have been several symposia in recent years on the Spanish visits.
The most recent of these was the Inaugurd
Symposium of the Alexandro Malaspina Research Centre, Alexandro Malaspina-Enlight-
enment Thinker?, held at the Malaspina University CoUege in Nanaimo on 22 October
1999.The symposium was hosted by the new
Research Centre, theVancouver Spanish Pacific Historicd Society, and the Office of
Cultural and Scientific Relations ofthe Ministry of External Affairs in Madrid. In addition, there was at the Nanaimo Art GaUery
an exhibition of photographs of some ofthe
work of Malaspina's artists and cartographers
(Nootka: Return to a Forgotten History).These
are a gift from the Spanish government to
the Mowachaht First Nation, and to the de-
Ught of aU present, members of both Chief
Maquinna and Alexandro Mdaspina's family were at the opening.
Several books were presented to the Research Centre by the Spanish government to
start what promises to be a valuable resource
for BC historians with links to a similar centre in Italy, the birthplace of Malaspina, and
to the museums and archives in Spain. Papers presented at the symposium were by
Dondd Cutter (Malaspina: The Man and the
Voyage) and Eric Beerman (The Queen and
the Fall of an Enlightenment Thinker). Regrettably, Ana Maria Donat (The Politics of 18th-
Century Spain) was unable to present her
contribution, but Patrick Dunae entertained,
particularly us locals, with his sad story of
the wonderful murds that once adorned the
waUs ofthe Malaspina Hotel in Nanaimo.
The Inaugural Symposium was foUowed
by a Research Centre planning meeting the
next day and a visit for some participants to
Nootka Sound. John Black at Malaspina
CoUege, together with others, have done
much to get the centre up and running and
are to be congratulated on their efforts. We
look forward to hearing much more about
Malaspina in the coming years.^^
Below: Alexandro Malaspina (1754-1810)
Vancouver Maritime Museum
SsiaSffiS'
Emily Carr's Victoria
After his map of Vancouver Island in 1913,
Michael Layland of Baytext Communications
has pubUshed a second birds-eye view map
subtided "When Emily Carr Was SmaU."
This map shows Victoria in 1878, when the
seven-year old Carr Uved in James Bay. Her
chUdhood reminiscences in The Book of Small
describe the city shown in the view.The map
is accompanied by notes highUghting places
which Carr mentions in her stories.The map
seUs for $19.95 in Victoria in the gift shops
in Emily Carr House and the Royal BC Museum, and other oudets. Living outside Victoria? Write to Baytext Communications
Inc., 2922 PhyUss Street,Victoria, BC V8N
1Y9.
Land Surveyors
The article on Dominion Land Surveyor
Knox McCusker pubUshed in the summer
issue of BC Historical News received much
attention. With permission of the main author, retired professor Vernon C. Brink, it was
reprinted in the October issue of The Link,
the journd ofthe Corporation of Land Surveyors ofthe Province of British Columbia.
The article dso raised the interest of John
AUen, a professiond surveyor in Sechelt, BC,
who is involved in editing and compiUng a
book of biographies of land surveyors for
the centennid of the Corporation of Land
Surveyors in January 2005. A similar book,
Early Land Surveyors of British Columbia, was
pubUshed by the Corporation in 1990. It was
compiled and edited by John Whittaker,
BCLS, ofVictoria.The book is a very handy
reference work and it is surprising that copies are still available from the Corporation's
office for a nominal charge of $12.00, which
includes GST and postage. For a copy of Early
Land Surveyors of British Columbia write to
the Corporation of Land Surveyors of British Columbia, #306-895 Fort Street,Victoria BC,V8W 1H7, or phone (250) 382-4323.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
33 Anderson's Brigade Trail
Students Produce a Video to Help Save Anderson's Brigade Trail
Save Our Parkland
Association (SOPA)
The first 4.5 kilometres of the
Anderson's Brigade TraU are protected
by a 200 metres reserve:"for the use,
recreation and enjoyment ofthe pubUc." The remainder ofthe trad has at
present no specid status or map notation. That part should be accorded, at
a minimum, the same status as that
currendy enjoyed by the first 4.5 kilometres. In October SOPA has written to the Minister of Forests, David
Zirnhelt, urging "Heritage Trad" status for the entire traU. SOPA would
Uke to see the traU receive park status,
but since it appears that the goverment
is not interested in new park acquisitions, an interim "Heritage Trail" designation provides the strongest form
of protection avadable.
Two ministries (Forests, and Tourism & Culture) would become involved in decision-making for this
area, and that would provide a better
taUoring of any nearby logging in order to protect the heritage values of
the traU.
SOPA was formed in 1963. The
Directors meet monthly to discuss issues relating to parkland, open space
and protected areas. Its main focus is
on the area from Hope west to the
sea, but from time to time it gets involved with park issues in other parts
ofthe Province.
Interested to get involved? Write
to SOPA President June Binkert,
PO Box 39028, Vancouver V6R 4P1
The students and staff of the Burnaby
South Secondary School would Uke to
help save Anderson's Brigade TraU for future
generations and invite you to join them in
their efforts. FoUowing is a report by history
teacher Charles Hou.
In 1847 A.C.Anderson opened up a fur
brigade trail from Merritt to Spuzzum.
Anderson was trying to find a route through
British controUed territory to the coast motivated by the 1846 Oregon Treaty which
effectively shut down the old Hudson's Bay
Company route via the Okanagan VaUey and
the Columbia River. Furs were taken from
Spuzzum to Yale by this traU and down the
Fraser River to Fort Langley. The route was
used by the HBC bigades for three years
before a better route was found from Merritt
to Hope.The route was dso used intensively
during the gold rush.
For the last fifteen years anywhere from
40 to 80 Burnaby students have been using
this trail for an overnight history hiking trip.
The trad is important historicaUy and it also
offers spectacular views ofthe Fraser Canyon. The steepness of the trad up the ridge
between the Fraser and Anderson riven suggests why the HBC sought an easier route
and why the gold miners preferred another
traU, also explored by A.C. Anderson, the
Harrison-LUlooet Gold Rush TraU, which
the students hike for six days at the end of
May.
In the spring we learned that J.S. Jones
Timber Ltd. had appUed to log in the area of
Anderson's Brigade Trail. Students and
Burnaby South Secondary School staff immediately wrote letters to the government
and sought the support of BC historicd societies. ExceUent articles supporting the idea
of a park in the area have appeared in the
Georgia Straight and the BC Heritage Trust
newsletter. So far the response has not been
encouraging.The logging companies stiU plan
to cut a logging road just to the north ofthe
fur brigade trail. This road and the logging
activity wiU severely affect the views from
the Brigade TraU.
In October a smaU group hiked the Bri-
gadeTrail, the ridge trail, and the trail to Gate
Mountain—a mountain immediately north
ofthe Brigade TraU. Our hike up Gate Mountain gave us a 360 degree view ofthe entire
region from north of Boston Bar to the
mountains south ofYale, the mountains west
ofthe Fraser River, and the mountains surrounding the Anderson River. We were impressed by the vast area of land that is being
logged. We are asking to preserve a tiny portion of land with immense historical and rec-
reationd potential. We would Uke Anderson's
Brigade Trail to be declared a heritage trad
immediately and to encourage the government to preserve for a park the land from
Spuzzum to HeU's Gate on the east side of
the Fraser River and to the watershed between the Fraser and Anderson rivers.
We have produced a short videotape of
the students' most recent hike up Anderson's
Brigade TraU and a longer tape showing our
hike dong the Harrison-LUlooet Gold Rush
TraU. On 26 October we presented the video
to students and parents. We are making the
videotapes avaUable to historical societies and
outdoor clubs and wiU provide the tapes and/
or speakers to interested groups.We hope that
we wiU have an opportunity to educate poh-
ticians about the huge historic, educational,
recreational and tourist potential ofthe traUs
opened up by A.C. Anderson. We have initiated talks with Joan Sawicki, Minister of Environment, Lands and Parks. We plan to ask
more individuals to write to Joan Sawicki,
Dave Zirnhelt and Murray CoeU to seek the
immediate protection afforded by Heritage
Trail status for the traU and the portion of
the Fraser River Canyon visible from the
ridge trad. We encourage aU people interested in the education of young people and
the future of our province to write letters
encouraging poUticians to take appropriate
action. (Joan Sawicki, Minister ofthe Environment, Lands and Parks, ParUament BuUdings, Victoria, BC/V8V 1X4; Dave Zirnhelt,
Minister of Forests, and Murray CoeU, opposition critic of the Ministry of the Environment can be reached at the same
address.) <<*»'
To call attention to Andetson's Trail the
students and staff at Burnaby South Secondary
School have produced an attractive colour
calendar which they are selling at cost. Anyone
interested in purchasing one or more calendars
should send a cheque made out to Burnaby
South Secondary School for $16.00 each to Pat
Thaw, c/o Burnaby South Secondary School,
5455 Rumble Street, Burnaby, BC, VSJ 2B7.
34
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 News and Notes
News items concerning Member and Affiliated Societies and the British Columbia Historical Federation should be sent to:
Naomi Miller, Contributing Editor BC Historical News,PO Box 105, Wasa BC VOB 2K0
Alberni Book Fair 2000
Alberni District Historical Society
plans to present a book fair in conjunction
with the meeting in Port Alberni 4-6 May.
Publishers, writers, book seUers and others
interested in targeting a market of historians
from around the province should contact the
co-ordinator, Meg Scoffield.
Phone or fax (250) 724-4855.
EmaU:   gascoffield@mail.ad70.bc.ca.
From the Branches
Victoria Historical Society
Members have been visiting places of worship with significant history inVictoria.They
recendy toured The Victoria Friends' Quaker
Meetinghouse. A group caUed Friends of
Hadey Park is organizing an archives in the
lower basement of Royal Roads University,
as Hadey House is now known. A repUca of
Captain James Cook's Endeavour was in the
Inner Harbour for several days, during which
time hundreds of citizens toured the vessel.
Gulf Islands Branch BCHF
On 15 September the Gulf Idands Branch
held their annual general meeting.The board
was re-elected by acdamation, however the
acting treasurer moved that the board be
enabled to co-opt a new director.
Kathy Banger and Andrew Loveridge
spoke about Regatta Races at GaUano. Black
Pioneers on Sdt Spring Island wiU be the
subject of a future program.
North Shore Historical Society
This North Vancouver society reaches out to
citizens of aU ages.Their energetic president,
Roy PaUant, has led heritage walks for school
chUdren, and he has given slide presentations
at seniors' meetings and the Kiwanis Club.
He even gave presentations at a day-care centre: a great example! We are aU chaUenged
to reach chUdren so they wiU enjoy history
and heritage resources now and in the future.
Lantzville Historical Society
This smaU but active group enjoys meetings
and outings, and is supporting a history student with a view to publishing a history of
LantzviUe.The annual LantzviUe Mine-town
Day is great fun. The members come in costume and there is a "Best Costume" competition for non-members. A table of items from
the past creates fun as viewers guess about
such things as a cow restrainer, a snuffbox, or
a rug beater.
Other News
Western Women's History Prize
Dr. Jean Barman recendy won the 9th an-
nudJoanJensen-DarUs MiUer Prize for best
article pubUshed in 1998 on the history of
women in the trans-Mississipi West from the
CoaUtion of Western Women's History for
"Taming Aboriginal Sexuality: Gender,
Power, and Race in British Columbia, 1850-
1900" (BC Studies 115/16: 237-66).
Dr. Barman received the prize at the
Western History Association Conference in
Pordand in October, and was told that it is
only the second time that a Canadian has
received the prize. The prize included not
just a cash prize and a certificate but dso a
Kachina pottery doU of a woman storyteUer.
Pamela Mar Honoured
The Nanaimo Chamber of Commerce declared Mrs. Pamela Mar citizen of the year.
Pamela Mar devotes many hours as a volunteer at the museum, conducts walking tours,
organizes much of the Princess Royal Day
program, lobbies for cemetery preservation,
street names, etc. She has written many articles and books on Nanaimo history. Pamela
Mar is an Honorary Life Member ofthe British Columbia Historical Federation.
Duncan History Book Launched
The city of Duncan is one square mUe in
area but Tom Henry has discovered many
fasdnaring facts which appear in A Small City
in a Large Valley (Harbour PubUshing). Myr-
de Haslam led a smaU group which masterminded the project and did the fundraising.
The book launch was held 22 October at
the Cowichan Valley Museum with our
former BCHF President beaming happUy.
Bridget Moran  1923-1999
Mrs. Moran passed away in Prince George
on 25 August 1999. The author and social
activist wUl be best remembered for her 1988
book Stoney Creek Woman, which won the
Lieutenant—Governor's Medd, presented by
the Honourable David Lam at the 1989
BCHF Conference in Victoria. Bridget
Moran later received honorary degrees from
two universities for her Uferime commitment
to social justice.
Allan Wood Hunter 1901-1999
Al Hunter could be caUed a telephone pioneer, starting with BeU Telephone as a teenager and with BC Tel in 1924. He was moved
to Cranbrook in 1951 to convert the system
to direct diaUing and there he became a leading figure in the East Kootenay Historicd
Association. In 1959 he bought the Windsor
Hotel at Fort Steele to save it from an eager
coUector of heritage buildings. With Fort
Steele resident Dinty Moore he lobbiedVic-
toria to have Fort Steele declared a Heritage
Park.That designation was achieved in 1961.
Hunter worked as a volunteer in the early
years. His ashes were placed in Fort Steele
Cemetery on 30 October 1999.
Hedley Heritage News
The Mascot Mine buddings were stabUized
under MLA BiU Barlee but have yet to be
opened to the pubUc.The BC Government
has advertised for a private contractor to open
them as a tourist attraction. The Upper
Similkameen Band tabled a proposd which
has tentative approvd. It meets Department
of Mines' safety requirements as weU as acceptable standards for crowd control and visitor entry.
Nimsick Scrapbooks in Archives
Leo Nimsick was MLA for the Cranbrook-
East Kootenay riding from 1949 to 1975: He
won nine elections, starting as a member of
the CCF and finishing as Minister of Mines
and Petroleum Resources in the NDP government of former BC premier Dave Barrett.
His wife Marie, who died in 1980, had kept
scrapbooks documenting Leo's poUticd career. Nimsick—who had a reputation for
helping people regardless of their poUtics—
died in February 1999. His daughter presented 27 scrapbooks to the archives in Fort
Steele Heritage Town where curator DerryU
White anticipates they wiU become a popular reference.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
35 Kootenay Museum Association
The Nelson Daily News, founded in 1902,
donated a large body of records to the local
museum and archives.Two summer students
sorted through the material to enable researchers to zero in on specific topics.
Living Landscapes in the Kootenays
TheRoyal BC Museum teamed up with
Columbia Basin Trust to enable researchers
to complete a great variety of projects in the
East and West Kootenay. Researchers spoke
on their projects in Nelson and Fort Steele
on weekends in September and October.The
topics ranged from Doukhobor children to
leopard frogs; wUd grasses to archaeology;
ospreys on the West Arm to "Roots of Racism." Before the weekends there were accompanying school programs and a travelling
display was open to the public in Nelson,
Fort Steele and Revelstoke.
This is the second phase of Living Landscapes. Phase 1 was in the Thompson-
Okanagan. The third program will start
shordy in the Peace River District.
Kettle Valley & Trans Canada Trail
Members ofthe Boundary Historicd Society met for their annual generd meeting on
17 October in Rock Creek. Guest speaker
Paul Lautard spoke about the Rhone section ofthe Ketde VaUey RaUway. This abandoned raU route runs through Lautard's property and has become a cycUsts' destination.
As a service to users of this section of the
Trans Canada Trail Paul has buUt a rest stop
which has been used by over 1,000 cycUsts
this year.
Fraser River History Conference
Blake Mackenzie and a few of those who
participated in past conferences are planning
to go ahead with a conference for next year.
The preliminary plan is to host the event
in October 2000 in LiUooet since that was
the site for the canceUed 1999 conference.
Blake would appreciate to hear from potential volunteers and speakers, and from
anyone else interested in keeping this important yearly (or should it become biyearly?)
event going. Would any organization be interested in sponsoring the event?
Contact: Blake Mackenzie
Fraser River History Conference
570 Whiteside Street
Victoria BCV8Z 1Y6
Telephone: (250) 479-6430
Fax: (250) 479-6458
Email: prospect@octonet.com
URL: dustytrails.com
Welcome to Port Alberni
An Industrious Community Prepares for the Year 2000 Conference
Meg Scoffield reports: These days Port
Alberni is putting its heart into recreating
its industrial heritage.
Where a few years ago people in the
Alberni VaUey saw an old, decaying lumber
miU, rusting logging equipment and trucks,
they now see the future.Where they watched
sadly as the old Two Spot logging shay sat
disintegrating by the roadside, they now anticipate regular rail passenger service from
downtown to the restored mUl site.
In past years, when the busy deep-sea port
and large fishing fleet generated huge economic benefits, public access to the waterfront was Umited. Now the Harbour Quay is
a gathering place where people enjoy a scene
Ukened to Vancouver's GranviUe Idand with
a mix of industry, history, and retail activity.
As the cdendar moves into a new century
and a new miUennium, the Alberni District
Historical Society, host for the British Columbia Historical Federation's Year 2000
Conference, is focusing on connections and
transition at the community level and pro-
vinciaUy. The theme of the conference is
Reflection and Renewal of the Heritage Vision.
Organizers hope to meet the chaUenge of
putting the Alberni VaUey and its history
firmly into the spodight, whde giving a tip
of the hat to the new miUennium. In partnership with the Alberni VaUey Museum, the
T    iT	
iiSnlx	
Maritime Discovery Centre
The Port Alberni Maritime Heritage Society, in cooperation with the Port
Alberni Habour Commission and the
Alberni VaUey Museum, has undertaken
to develop a Maritime Discovery Centre as part of the new marina complex
being buUt by the Harbour Commission.
Targeting March 2001 as the completion date of the Maritime Discovery
Centre, the heritage group behind this
project wiU be inviting BCHF conference visitors to see their work in progress.
The buUding exterior and interpretative
signage along the pier should be in place.
society is planning a program that wUl look
ahead, as weU as to the past.
Of special interest to those attending the
conference (set for 4-6 May) wiU be a visit
to the McLean MiU National Historic Site.
After more than a decade of work and struggle to secure financing, the steam sawmUl wiU
be opened with great fanfare on 1 July 2000.
Delegates wiU spend an afternoon at the site,
seeing logs processed in the old way and hearing from some ofthe people who were employed by the R.B. McLean Lumber Co.,
operators ofthe mUl from 1927 until it dosed
in 1965.
Now only a 15-minute drive from Port
Alberni, the sawmiU complex was once a
smaU community with houses, school, blacksmith shop, and other service faciUties. The
attractive site has a dam, miUpond, and a fish
ladder on a salmon-spawning stream.The surrounding 13 hectares of land, donated by
MacMUlan Bloedel in 1994, provide a good
example of coastd rainforest.
Hard-working members of the Western
Vancouver Island Industrial Heritage Society are now assured that their dream of running a steam train from the 1911-era station
at the foot of Argyle Street to McLean MiU
wUl be reaUzed.The No. 7 steam engine and
diesel locomotive are afready part ofthe summer scene in Port Alberni, providing short
rides along the waterfront and industrial area
ofthe city.
Also on the agenda for the conference is a
woods tour which wiU stop at several active
logging sites. Another choice wiU be a less
arduous tour including the harbour (home
ofthe working vessels Lady Rose and Frances
Barkley that connect Port Alberni with
Bamfield and Ucluelet).This group wUl also
visit the Somass Mill (now operated by
Weyerhaeuser) as weU as Sproat Lake where
the famous Martin Mars water bombers are
based.
For further information on plans for next
year's BCHF conference in Port Alberni,
contact the Alberni District Historicd Society (you wiU find them Usted under member
societies on the inside ofthe back cover) or
caU the co-ordinator, Meg Scoffield, at (250)
724-4855. Complete detaUs and registration
form wiU be included in the spring edition
of BC Historical News.*^
36
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 Federation News
BCHF Council meeting Nanaimo 25 September 1999
Following are some of the highlights from the meeting's minutes:
On behalf of the British Columbia Historical Federation a two-person delegation wiU
attend the Canada National History Conference to be held in Toronto from 18 to
20 February 2000.
The British Columbia Historical Federation
wid add $150 to the $100 contributed by
David Mattison for the History Web site
prize, bringing the total to $250. A panel
of judges for this year's prize has meanwhde
been nominated.
The Federation is considering the creation
of an endowment fund for members interested in making a bequest, to be used for
such purposes as promoting and teaching
history. A subcommittee has been set up to
look into this proposd.
The selection of books on BC history and
heritage in ferry giftshops remains poor.
Readers are invited to write to the Pattison
Group (Vancouver Magazine Service) voicing their concern. Letters from individuds
seem to receive more attention than petitions.
The subscription secretary has been instructed to remove, without exception, de-
Unquent subscribers from the mading Ust
prior to the mading of each issue of BC
Historical News. A canceUation notice maUed
instead ofthe next issue wiU include an invitation to renew a lapsed subscription. The
subscription secretary wiU give due notice
to subscribers and/or their member association at the time the last paid-for issue is
maUed.
The 5-year indexes avaUable at a fee wiU not
be continued. The BC Historical News wiU
provide an annual index to aU subribers free
of charge by adding pages to the Winter
(No. 1) issues.
Judges have been nominated for the "Best
Articles" award. Both experienced and first-
time writers wiU have the opportunity to
receive the award.
Seven books (copyright 1999) for the Writing Competion were reported received and
it is hoped that most books wiU be submitted weU before the 31 December dead-
Une.
The British Columbia Historicd Federation
counts 36 member societies and 8 affiliates.
There was a discussion how to increase
membership.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
Upcoming British Columbia Historical Federation conferences are scheduled for Port
Alberni (2000),Richmond (2001), and (unconfirmed) Revelstoke (2002). A fine overview of the plans for the 4-6 May Port
Alberni Conference was presented at the
Nanaimo meeting by Meg Scoffield and
Simo Nurme.
A contest prize of $500 was agreed upon for
the design of a logo for the BC Historical
Federation at an arts coUege.
Past recording secretary George Thompson,
present at the meeting, was thanked for
serving on the executive. Barbara and Terry
Simpson were thanked for hosting the
meeting and the Nanaimo Museum Society for providing their board room and allowing participants to visit the museum.
Next council meeting is scheduled for 4
March 2000 at the Richmond Cultural
Centre.
1999 History Web Site Prize
Nominations for the 1999 Historicd Web
site prize must be made prior to 31 December 1999.
The British Columbia Historical Federation and David Mattison are joindy sponsoring the first adjudicated cash award honouring individud initiatives in the design and
content of a Web site devoted to British Columbia's history. The yearly $250 award recognizes Web sites of more than a single page
that contribute to an understanding and appreciation of British Columbia's past.
Judgement wUl be based on historical
content, layout, design, and ease of use. Web
site creators and authors may nominate their
own sites.
Additional information, including price
rules, as weU as an onUne nomination form
are avaUable on David Mattison's BC History Internet/Web site:
http://www.victoria.tc.ca/Resources/bchistory.htlm.
Captain George Vancouver Day
John E. (Ted) Roberts received news from
the Ministry of the Attorney Generd that
12 May will henceforth be Captain
George Vancouver Day. This shows again
that individual initiative can make a difference!
British Columbia Historical
Federation
1999-2000 scholarship
Applications should be submitted
before 15 May 2000
The British Columbia Historical
Federation annuaUy awards a $500
scholarship to a student completing
third or fourth year at a British
Columbia coUege or university.
To apply for the scholarship, candidates
must submit:
1. A letter of appUcation.
2. An essay of 1500-3000 words on a topic
relating to the history of British Columbia.
The essay must be suitable for pubUcation
in British Columbia Historical News.
3. A professor's letter of recommendation.
Send submissions to:
Scholarship Committee,
British Columbia Historical Federation
PO Box 5254, Station B.
Victoria BC V8R 1N4
The winning essay wiU, and other selected
submissions may, be pubUshed in British
Columbia Historical News.
Manuscripts for pubUcation
should be sent to the Editor,
BC Historical News, PO Box 130,
Whonnock BC V2W 1V9.
Submissions should not be more than
3,500 words. IUustrations are welcome
and should be accompanied by captions, source information, registration
numbers where applicable, and permission for publication. Photographs are
preferred over laser copies. They will
be returned uncut and unmarked.
Please include a diskette with a digital
copy ofthe manuscript if possible.
Authors publishing for the first
time in BC Historical News will
receive a one-year complimentary subscription to the journd. If they wish,
this complimentary subscription may
be assigned to another person of their
choice as a one-year gift subscription.
There is a yearly award for the Best
Article pubUshed in BC Historical
News.
37 Melva Dwyer has compUed this index covering volume 31 of BC Historical News for the year 1998.The index wiU henceforth be pubUshed
on a yearly rather than a five-yearly basis. To catch up a year lost somewhere in the past we plan to pubUsh the 1999 index (volume 32) in the
coming summer edition. The index for the year 2000 (volume 33) is scheduled for the first issue for 2002, next winter.
Thank you, Melva Dwyer, for your continuing dedication and hard work for BC Historical News and the Federation.
INDEX
Volume 31:i, Winter 1997-1998 - 31:4, Fall 1998
The generd index is arranged in three separate dphabeticd sections for authors, tides and subjects. Book reviews appear after the general
index and are Usted dphabeticaUy by the author ofthe book.There are some "see" references included to lead from subjects not used to those
that are. No attempts have been made to identify numerous Ulustrations. If the article has ulustrations, there is an asterisk * at the end ofthe
citation. IUustrations having appeared on covers are Usted under the subject ILLUSTRATIONS, COVER.
The information included in each entry is as foUows: 31:4 (1998): 15-16.*This may be interpreted as meaning volume 31, issue number 4,
year 1998, pages 15-16, an article with Ulustrations.
Melva J. Dwyer, Librarian Emerita
University of British Columbia
AUTHORS
AFFLECK, Edward L.The B. C. Supreme Court Registry Scandal of
1895.31:1 (1997-98): 34-35.
 , . Some Notes onWhonnock.B. C. 31:1 (1997-98): 33-34.
ANSELL, Rondd A. DonddWaterfield -Author, Patriot, Prophet.
31:1 (1997-98): 13-14*
 , .The FamUy that SaUed a MiUion MUes. 31:1 (1997-98): 9-
12*
BALFOUR, David M.The Naming of Mount Lepsoe. 31:3 (1998): 6-
7*
BARMANJean. Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
COTTON, H. Barry. Robert Homfray C.E.L.S. 31:2 (1998): 29-33*
CROSSE,John.The Spanish Fort at Nootka. 31:4 (1998): 30-31*
FOSTER, Pat.The B. C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
HANCOCK, Eleanor Witton. British Gendewomen at Monte Creek.
31:1 (1997-98): 26-29*
HARVEYJames. My War Years. 31:4 (1998): 15-16*
KENNEDY, DoUy Sindair.War in the Woods -Yesterday andToday.
31:1 (1997-98): 20-25*
KERANEN,John.The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
LITTLE, Bronson A. Robert T. Lowery: Editor, PubUsher & Printer.
31:2 (1998): 18-23*
McLEOD, Kelsey. The Tie Hackers. 31:3 (1998): 30-32*
MANAK, Sonia. The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31A (1998): 34-38.
MONTGOMERY, Gary. Booze Across the Border. 31:3 (1998): 16-
19*
ORR, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
PARKIN,TomWTwo Cable Bridges ofVancouver. 31:1 (1997-98):
30-32*
PATENAUDE, Branwen C.White Gloves & Parasols. 31:3 (1998): 2-
5*
PEARSON, Lome Martin. Discovering New Horizons on Old
Landscapes: A Novice Looks at the Complexities of Archivd
Retrievd.31:2 (1998): 11-13*
PETERS, Larry. Green Dragons and White Tigers on Gold Mountain:
Feng-Shui in BarkervUle. 31:4 (1998): 17-20*
POWELL, Carol Grant. FamUy Portraits in Research. 31:1 (1997-98):
5-8*
RICHARD, George. Price Ellison: A GUded Man in British
Columbia's GUded Age. 31:3 (1998): 8-15*
SCHEMMANN, Ralf.The Ides of March: The RoweU-Sirois
Commission in Victoria. 31:1 (1997-98): 15-19*
SEPTER, Dirk. BUI BUleter: 1914 SaUor & Fisherman. 31:2 (1998):
24-26*
SPRINKLING, N. H. Serviving the Great Depression. 31:4 (1998): 2-
3.
STONEBERG, Margaret. A Presbyterian Heritage, Princeton, B. C.
31:4 (1998): 32-33*
SWANTJE, Eric. Stanley Park:Tourism and Development. 31:3 (1998):
25-29.
WALKER, Peggy Cartwright. How Vancouver Island Was Settled and
Saved. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
 , .The James Douglas We've Hardly Known. 31:2 (1998): 2-
3*
WARD, Audrey. Harry Ade's Apprenticeship. 31:1 (1997-98): 2-3*
 , . Harry Ade's First Car. 31:1 (1997-98): 3-4*
WASLEYJennifer. Researching the Lives of Pioneers on the Internet.
31:2 (1998): 27-28.
WILKEY, Craig D. British Columbia's Error Regarding the Chinese
Immigrant. 31:2 (1998): 14-17*
WRIGHT.Tom. Letters from Salt Spring Island 1860-61.31:4 (1998):
10-15*
TITLES
The B. C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo by Pat Foster.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
The B. C. Supreme Court Registry Scandal of 1895 by Edward L.
Affleck. 31:1 (1997-98): 34-35.
BiU BUleter: 1914 SaUor & Fisherman by Dirk Septer. 31:2 (1998): 24-
26*
38
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 Booze Across the Border by Gary Montgomery. 31:3 (1998): 16-19*
British Columbia's Error Regarding the Chinese Immigrant by Craig
D.Wilkey.31:2 (1998): 14-17*
British Gendewomen at Monte Creek by Eleanor Witton Hancock.
31:1 (1997-98): 26-29*
Conference 98 in Surrey. 31:3 (1998): 33.
Dear Harriet ... from Robert. 31:2 (1998): 34-35*
Discovering New Horizons on Old Landscapes: A Novice Looks at the
Complexities of Archival Retrievd by Lome Martin Pearson. 31:2
(1998): 11-13*
DonaldWaterfidd -Author, Patriot, Prophet by Rondd A.AnseU. 31:1
(1997-98): 13-14*
FamUy Portraits in Research by Carol Grant PoweU. 31:1 (1997-98): 5-
8*
The FamUy that SaUed a MiUion MUes by Rondd A.AnseU. 31:1
(1997-98): 9-12*
Green Dragons and White Tigers on Gold Mountain: Feng-Shui in
BarkervUle by Larry Peters. 31:4 (1998): 17-20*
Harry Ade's Apprenticeship by Audrey Ward. 31:1 (1997-98): 2-3*
Harry Ade's First Car by Audrey Ward. 31:1 (1997-98): 3-4*
How Vancouver Island Was Setded and Saved by Peggy Cartwright
Walker. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
The Ides of March:The RoweU-Sirois Commission in Victoria by Ralf
Schemmann. 31:1 (1997-98): 15-19*
The James Douglas We've Hardly Known by Peggy Cartwright Walker.
31:2 (1998): 2-3*
Letters from Sdt Spring Idand 1860-61 by Tom Wright. 31:4 (1998):
10-15*
The McLean Gang by John Keranen. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
My WarYears by James Harvey. 31:4 (1998): 15-16*
The Naming of Mount Lepsoe by David M. Balfour. 31:3 (1998): 6-
7*
A Presbyterian Heritage, Princeton, B. C. by Margaret Stoneberg. 31:4
(1998): 32-33*
Price ElUson: A GUded Man in British Columbia's GUded Age by
George Richard. 31:3 (1998): 8-15*
Researching the Lives of Pioneers on the Internet by Jennifer Wasley.
31:2 (1998): 27-28.
Robert Homfray C.E.L.S. by H. Barry Cotton. 31:2 (1998): 29-33*
Robert T Lowery: Editor, Publisher & Printer by Bronson A. Litde.
31:2 (1998): 18-23*
Sara's World by Linda Maeve Orr. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
Serviving the Great Depression by N. H. Sprinkling. 31:4 (1998): 2-3.
The Sikh Immigrant Experience by Sonia Manak. 31:4 (1998): 34-38.
Some Notes on Whonnock, B. C. by Edward L. Affleck. 31:1 (1997-
98): 33-34.
The Spanish Fort at Nootka by John Crosse. 31:4 (1998): 30-31*
Stanley Park:Tourism and Development by Eric Swantje. 31:3 (1998):
25-29.
The Tie Hackers by Kelsey McLeod. 31:3 (1998): 30-32*
Two Cable Bridges ofVancouver by Tom W Parkin. 31:1 (1997-98):
30-32*
Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who Ran Their Own
Schools by Jean Barman. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
War in the Woods -Yesterday andToday by DoUy Sinclair Kennedy.
31:1 (1997-98): 20-25*
White Gloves & Parasols by Branwen C. Patenaude. 31:3 (1998): 2-5*
SUBJECTS
ALCOHOL
Montgomery, Gary. Booze Across the Border. 31:3 (1998): 16-19*
ALEX FRASER BRIDGE
Parian,TomWTwo Cable Bridges ofVancouver. 31:1 (1997-98):
30-32*
ARCHIVES
Pearson, Lome Martin. Discovering New Horizons on Old
Landscapes: A Novice Looks at the Complexities of Archivd
Research. 31:2 (1998): 11-13*
ARROW LAKES
AnseU, Rondd A. Donald Waterfield -Author, Patriot, Prophet. 31:1
(1997-98): 13-14*
 , .The FamUy that SaUed a MilUon MUes. 31:1 (1997-98):
9-12*
ASHCROFT, B.C.
Foster, Pat. The B. C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
ASIATIC EXCLUSION LEAGUE
Manak, Sonia.The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31:4 (1998): 34-38.
ATHLONE SCHOOL FOR BOYS
Barmanjean. Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
AUTOMOBILES
Ward,Audrey. Harry Ade's First Car. 31:1 (1997-98): 3-4*
B. C. EXPRESS COMPANY
Foster , Pat.The B.C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
B. C. PROVINCIAL POLICE
Keranen,John.The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
B. C. SUPREME COURT
Affleck, Edward L.B. C. Supreme Court Registry Scandal of 1895.
31:1 (1997-98): 34-35.
B.X.COMPANY see B. C.EXPRESS COMPANY
BARKERVILLE, B.C.
Peters, Larry. Green Dragons and White Tigers on Gold Mountain:
Feng-Shui in BarkervUle. 31:4 (1998): 17-20*
BEGGJONATHAN
Wright,Tom. Letters from Sdt Spring Idand 1860-61.31:4 (1998):
10-15*
BENTON FAMILY
PoweU, Carol Grant. FamUy Portraits in Research. 31:1 (1997-98):
5-8*
BERNARD, FRANCIS JONES
Foster, Pat.The B. C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
BILLETER, WILLIAM
Septer, DUk. BUI BUleter: 1914 SaUor & Fisherman. 31:2 (1998): 24-
26*
BLACK SETTLERS
Walker, Peggy Cartwright. How Vancouver Island Was Setded and
Saved. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
 , .The James Douglas We've Hardly Known. 31:2 (1998):
2-3*
BODIE, ISABEL
Barmanjean. Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
39 BOOTLEGGING
Montgomery, Gary. Booze Across the Border. 31:3 (1998): 16-19*
BORDER - BRITISH COLUMBIA/MONTANA
Montgomery, Gary. Booze Across the Border. 31:3 (1998): 16-19*
BOSTOCK FAMILY
Hancock, Eleanor Witton. British Gendewomen at Monte Creek.
31:1 (1997-98): 26-29*
BRACHES, FRED
Affleck, Edward L. Some Notes on Whonnock, B. C. 31:1 (1997-
98): 33-34.
BRIDGES
Parkin,TomWTwo Cable Bridges ofVancouver. 31:1 (1997-98):
30-32*
BRISTOL BAY, ALASKA
Septer, Dirk. BiU BUleter: 1914 SaUor & Fisherman. 31:2 (1998): 24-
26*
BULWER - LYTTON, EDWARD
Walker, Peggy Cartwright. How Vancouver Island Was Setded and
Saved. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
BURNABY, ROBERT
Dear Harriet... from Robert. 31:2 (1998): 34-35*
BUTE INLET
Cotton, H. Barry. Robert Homfray C.E.L.S. 31:2 (1998): 29-33*
BYRNES, BRIAN
Affleck, Edward L. Some Notes on Whonnock, B. C. 31:1 (1997-
98): 33-34.
CANADA/UNITED STATES BORDER see BORDER
-B.C. /MONTANA
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
Ward, Audrey. Harry Ade's Apprenticeship. 31:1 (1997-98): 2-3*
Wilkey, Craig D. British Columbia's Error Regarding the Chinese
Immigrant. 31:2 (1998): 14-17*
CARIBOO AREA
Foster, Pat.The B. C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
Patenaude, Branwen C.White Gloves & Parasols. 31:3 (1998): 2-5*
CHINESE
Peters, Larry. Green Dragons and White Tigers on Gold Mountain:
Feng-Shui in BarkervUle. 31:4 (1998): 17-20*
Wilkey, Craig D. British Columbia's Error Regarding the Chinese
Immigrant. 31:2 (1998): 14-17*
CHURCHES, PRESBYTERIAN
Stoneberg, Margaret. A Presbyterian Heritage, Princeton, B. C. 31:4
(1998): 32-33*
COLUMBIA AND KOOTENAY STEAM NAVIGATION
COMPANY
AnseU, Rondd A.The FamUy that SaUed a MiUion MUes. 31:1
(1997-98): 9-12*
COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY
AnseU, Ronald A. Donald Waterfield -Author, Patriot, Prophet. 31:1
(1997-98): 13-14*
COMMISSIONS
Schemmann, Ralf.The Ides of MarckThe RoweU-Sirois
Commission in Victoria. 31:1 (1997-98): 15-19*
CONFERENCES
Conference 98 in Surrey. 31:3 (1998): 33.
Schemmann, Ralf.The Ides of March: The RoweU-Sirois
Commission in Victoria. 31:1 (1997-98): 15-19*
CORRESPONDENCE
Dear Harriet... from Robert. 31:2 (1998): 34-35*
Wright,Tom. Letters from Salt Spring Idand 1860-61.31:4 (1998):
10-15*
COTSWORTH-CLARKE, LENA
Barmanjean. Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
COVER ILLUSTRATIONS see ILLUSTRATIONS, COVER
CROFTON HOUSE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
Barman Jean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
DEPRESSION
See GREAT DEPRESSION
DOUGLAS, SIR JAMES
Walker, Peggy Cartwright. How Vancouver Idand Was Setded and
Saved. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
 , • The James Douglas We've Hardly Known. 31:2 (1998):
2-3*
DOWNIE, MAJOR W
Cotton, H. Barry. Robert Homfray C.E.L.S. 31:2 (1998): 29-33*
DRYVYNSIDEVIOLET
Barman Jean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
AnseU, Ronald A. Donald Waterfield - Author, Patriot, Prophet. 31:1
(1997-98): 13-14*
Sprinkling, N.H. Serviving the Great Depression. 31:4 (1998): 2-3.
EDITORS
Litde, Bronson A. Robert T Lowery: Editor, Publisher & Printer.
31:2 (1998): 18-23*
EDUCATION
Barmanjean. Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
ELLISON, PRICE
Richard, George. Price EUison: A GUded Man in British Columbia's
GUded Age. 31:3 (1998): 8-15*
ENTREPRENEURS
Barman, Jean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
ESTABROOKS FAMILY
AnseU, Rondd A.The FamUy that SaUed a Million MUes. 31:1
(1997-98): 9-12*
FALDING,WILLIAM HENRY
Affleck, Edward L. B. C. Supreme Court Scandal of 1895.31:1
(1997-98): 34-35.
FEDERAL - PROVINCIAL RELATIONS
Schemmann, Ralf.The Ides ofMarch:The RoweU-Sirois
Commission in Victoria. 31:1 (1997-98): 15-19*
FENG-SHUI
Peters, Larry. Green Dragons and White Tigers on Gold Mountain:
Feng-Shui in BarkervUle. 31:4 (1998): 17-20*
FISHING INDUSTRY
Septer, Dirk. BiU BUleter: 1914 SaUor & Fisherman. 31:2 (1998):24-
26*
FOREST INDUSTRY
Kennedy, DoUy Sinclair. War in the Woods -Yesterday andToday.
31:1 (1997-98): 20-25*
McLeod, Kelsey. The Tie Hackers. 31:3 (1998): 30-32*
40
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 FORTS, SPANISH
Crosse John. The Spanish Fort at Nootka. 31:4 (1998): 30-31*
FREIGHT DELIVERY SERVICES
Foster, Pat. The B. C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
GANGS
Keranen John. The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
GEOMANCY
Peters, Larry. Green Dragons and White Tigers on Gold
Mountain: Feng-Shui in BarkervUle. 31:4 (1998): 17-20*
GOLD RUSH
Peters, Larry. Green Dragons and White Tigers on Gold
Mountain: Feng-Shui in BarkervUle. 31:4 (1998): 17-20*
GORDON JESSIE AND MARY
Barmanjean. Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs; Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
GREAT DEPRESSION
SprinkUng, N.H. Serviving the Great Depression. 31:4(1998): 2-3
HARE.ALEX
Keranen John. The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
HARVEYJAMES
Harveyjames. My War Years. 31:4 (1998): 15-16*
HINDUS see INDO CANADIANS
HISTORICAL RESEARCH see RESEARCH
HOMATHKOVALLEY
Cotton, H. Barry. Robert Homfray C.E.L.S. 31:2 (1998): 29-33*
HOMFRAY, ROBERT
Cotton, H. Barry. Robert Homfray C.E.L.S. 31:2 (1998): 29-33*
HORNE FAMILY
PoweU, Carol Grant. FamUy Portraits in Research. 31:1 (1997-98):
5-8*
HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
Walker, Peggy Cartwright. How Vancouver Island Was Settled and
Saved. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
ILLUSTRATIONS, COVER
1914 MaxweUTouring Car 31:1 (1997-98) James Douglas &
Residence 31:2 (1998); Stagecoach on Cariboo TraU and
Letterhead of British Columbia Express Company 31:3 (1998);
The Geomancy Compass 31:4 (1998).
IMMIGRATION
Manak, Sonia.The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31:4 (1998): 34-
38.
Walker, Peggy Cartwright. How Vancouver Island Was Setded and
Saved. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
Wilkey, Craig D. British Columbia's Error Regarding the Chinese
Immigrant.31:2 (1998): 14-17*
INDO-CANADIANS
Manak, Sonia.The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31:4 (1998): 34-
38.
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
Wasleyjennifer. Researching the Lives of Pioneers on the
Internet. 31:2 (1998): 27-28.
INTERNET
Wasleyjennifer. Researching the Lives of Pioneers on the
Inteemet.31:2 (1998): 27-28.
IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
Richard, George. Price EUison: A GUded Man in British
Columbia's GUded Age. 31:3 (1998): 8-15*
KAMLOOPS, B.C.
Keranen John. The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
KEEFERS, B.C.
Ward.Audrey. Harry Ade's Apprenticeship. 31:1 (1997-98): 2-3*
KEENLEYSIDE.ALICE
Barman Jean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
KELLYJIM
Keranen, John.The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
KOMOGATA MARU
Manak, Sonia.The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31:4 (1998): 34-
38.
KOOTENAY AREA
AnseU, Ronald A.The FamUy that SaUed a MiUion MUes. 31:1
(1997-98): 9-12*
Litde, Bronson A. Robert T. Lowery: Editor, PubUsher & Printer.
31:2 (1998): 18-23*
LABOURERS
Manak, Sonia.The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31:4 (1998): 34-
38.
Wilkey, Craig D British Columbia's Error Regarding the Chinese
Immigrant. 31:2 (1998): 14-17*
LAND SPECULATION
Richard, George. Price EUison: A GUded Man in British
Columbia's GUded Age. 31:3 (1998): 8-15*
LAW ENFORCEMENT
Keranen John. The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
LEPSOE, ROBERT
Balfour, David M.The Naming of Mount Lepsoe. 31:3 (1998): 6-
7*
LETTERS see CORRESPONDENCE
LIONS GATE BRIDGE
Parkin,TomWTwo Cable Bridges ofVancouver. 31:1 (1997-98):
30-32*
Swantje, Eric. Stanley Park: Tourism and Development. 31:3
(1998): 25-29.
LIQUOR see ALCOHOL
LOGGING INDUSTRY see FOREST INDUSTRY
LOWERY, ROBERT THOMAS
Little, Bronson A. Robert T Lowery: Editor, Publisher & Printer.
31:2 (1998): 18-23*
McLAGAN, SARA ANN
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
McLEAN FAMILY
Keranen John. The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
MacLUREJOHN
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
MONTE CREEK,B.C.
Hancock, Eleanor Witton. British Gendewomen at Monte Creek.
31:1 (1997-98): 26-29*
MOUNTAINS
Balfour, David M.The Naming of Mount Lepsoe. 31:3 (1998): 6-
7*
MURCHIE, ARCHIBALD (photographer)
Ward, Audrey. Harry Ade's Apprenticeship. 31:1 (1997-98): 2-3*
MURDERS
KeranenJohn.The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
41 NANCY GREENE RECREATION AREA POSSES
Bdfour, David M.The Naming of Mount Lepsoe. 31:3 (1998): 6- Keranen John. The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
7.* PREMIERS
NATIONAL COUNCILOFWOMEN Schemmann, Ralf.The Ides of March: The RoweU-Sirois
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9* Commission in Victoria. 31:1 (1997-98): 15-19*
NEWS NOTES PREVOSTJ. C.
31:1 (1997-98): 36; 31:2 (1998): 36; 31:3 (1998): 34; 31:4 (1998): Affleck, Edward L.The B. C. Supreme Court Registry Scandal of
39-40. 1895. 31:1 (1997-98): 34-35.
NEWSPAPERS PRINCETON, B. C.
Litde, Bronson A. RobertT. Loweiy: Editor, Publisher & Printer. Stoneberg, Margaret. A Presbyterian Heritage, Princeton, B. C. 31:4
31:2 (1998): 18-23* (1998): 32-33*
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9* PRINTERS
NOOTKA SOUND Little, Bronson A. Robert T Lowery: Editor, Publisher & Printer.
Crosse, John. The Spanish Fort at Nootka. 31:4 (1998): 30-31* 31:2 (1998): 18-23*
OBITUARIES PROHIBITION
Sde, Thomas Donald. 31:2 (1998): 10. Montgomery, Gary. Booze Across the Border. 31:3 (1998): 16-19*
OGDEN POINT DOCKS PUBLISHERS
Sprinkkng, N. H. Serviving the Great Depression. 31:4 (1998): 2-3. Little, Bronson A. Robert T. Lowery: Editor, Publisher & Printer.
OKANAGAN LAKE 31:2 (1998): 18-23*
AnseU, Ronald A.The FamUy that SaUed a MiUion MUes. 31:1 Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
(1997-98): 9-12* QUEEN'S HALL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
OKANAGANVALLEY Barman Jean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Richard, George. Price EUison: A GUded Man in British Columbia's Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
GUded Age. 31:3 (1998): 8-15* RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
ONDERDONCK, ANDREW Manak, Sonia.The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31:4 (1998): 34-38.
Wilkey, Craig D. British Columbia's Error Regarding the Chinese Wilkey, Craig D. British Columbia's Error Regarding the Chinese
Immigrant. 31:2 (1998): 14-17* Immigrant. 31:2 (1998): 14-17*
OUTLAWS RANCHING
Keranen, John. The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10. Hancock, Eleanor Witton. British Gendewomen at Monte Creek.
PARKS 31:1 (1997-98): 26-29*
Swantje, Eric. Stanley Park:Tourism and Development. 31:3 (1998): RESEARCH
25-29. Pearson, Lome Martin. Discovering New Horizons on Old
PATENAUDE, ANNIE MOORE Landscapes: A Novice Looks at the Complexities of Archivd
Patenaude,Branwen C.White Gloves & Parasols. 31:3 (1998): 2-5* Retrievd. 31:2 (1998): 11-13*
PATTULLO,T. DUFF PoweU, Carol Grant. FamUy Portraits in Research. 31:1 (1997-98):
Schemmann, Ralf.The Ides of March: The RoweU-Sirois 5-8*
Commission in Victoria. 31:1 (1997-98): 15-19* Wasleyjennifer. Researching the Lives of Pioneers on the Internet.
PHOTOGRAPHERS 31:2 (1998): 27-28.
Ward, Audrey. Henry Ade's Apprenticeship. 31:1 (1997-98): 2-3* RICHARDS, EVELINE
PHOTOGPvAPHS Barmanjean. Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
PoweU, Carol Grant. FamUy Portraits in Research. 31:1 (1997-98): Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
5-8* ROWELL-SIROIS COMMISSION
PICARIELLO, EMILIO Schemmann, Ralf.The Ides of March: The RoweU-Sirois
Montgomery, Gary. Booze Across the Border. 31:3 (1998): 16-19* Commission in Victoria. 31:1 (1997-98): 15-19*
PIONEER TIMBER COMPANY LTD. SAILING SHIPS
Kennedy, DoUy Sinclair.War in the Woods -Yesterday andToday. Septer, Dirk. BUI BUleter: 1914 SaUor & Fisherman. 31:2 (1998): 24-
31:1 (1997-98): 20-25* 26*
PITMAN BUSINESS COLLEGE SAILORS
BarmanJean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who Septer, Dirk. BUI BUleter: 1914 SaUor & Fisherman. 31:2 (1998): 24-
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29* 26*
POLITICIANS SALE.THOMAS DONALD see OBITUARIES
Richard, George. Price EUison: A GUded Man in British Columbia's SALT SPRING ISLAND
GUded Age. 31:3 (1998): 8-15* Wright,Tom. Letters from Sdt Spring Idand 1860-61.31:4 (1998):
PORT McNEILL, B.C. 10-15*
Kennedy, DoUy Sinclair. War in the Woods -Yesterday and Today. SAN MIGUEL ISLAND
31:1 (1997- 98): 20-25* Crosse John. The Spanish Fort at Nootka. 31:4 (1998): 30-31*
PORTRAITS
PoweU, Carol Grant. FamUy Portraits in Research. 31:1 (1997-98):
5-8*
42 BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 SANDON, B.C.
little, Bronson A. Robert T Lowery: Editor, Publisher & Printer.
31:2 (1998): 18-23*
SCANDALS
Affleck, Edward L.The B. C. Supreme Court Registry Scandal of
1895.31:1 (1997-98): 34-35.
SCHOOLTEACHERS
Patenaude, Branwen C.White Gloves & Parasols. 31:3 (1998): 2-
5*
SCHOOLS
BarmanJean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
SENATORS
Hancock, Eleanor Witton. British Gendewomen at Monte Creek.
31:1 (1997-98): 26-29*
SIKHS
Manak, Sonia.The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31:4 (1998): 34-
38.
SIMPSON, SIR GEORGE
Walker, Peggy Cartwright. How Vancouver Island Was Settled and
Saved. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
SLOCANVALLEY
Litde, Bronson A. Robert T. Lowery: Editor, PubUsher & Printer.
31:2 (1998): 18-23*
SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS
Kennedy, DoUy Sinclair. War in the Woods -Yesterday andToday.
31:1 (1997-98): 20-25*
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
Patenaude,Branwen C.White Gloves & Parasols. 31:3 (1998): 2-
5*
Sprinlding, N. H. Serviving the Great Depression. 31:4 (1998): 2-
3.
SPROTT.ANNA
BarmanJean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
ST. PAUL'S, PRINCETON
Stoneberg, Margaret. A Presbyterian Heritage, Princeton, B. C.
31:4 (1998): 32-33*
STAGE COACHES
Foster, Pat.The B. C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
STANLEY PARK
Swantje, Eric. Stanley Park:Tourism and Devdopment. 31:3
(1998): 25-29.
STERNWHEELERS
AnseU, Rondd A. The FamUy that SaUed a MiUion MUes. 31:1
(1997-98): 9-12*
SURREY ARCHIVES
Pearson, Lome Martin. Discovering New Horizons on Old
Landscapes: A Novice Looks at the Complexities of Archivd
Research.31:2 (1998): 11-13*
SURVEYORS
Cotton, H. Barry. Robert Homfray C.E.L.S. 31:2 (1998): 29-33*
TELEGRAPHY
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
TIES, RAILWAY
McLeod, Kelsey. The Tie Hackers. 31:3 (1998): 30-32*
TOBACCO PLAINS
Montgomery, Gary. Booze Across the Border. 31:3 (1998): 16-
19*
TOURIST INDUSTRY
Swantje, Eric. Stanley Park:Tourism and Development. 31:3
(1998): 25-29.
USHERJOHN
Keranen,John.The McLean Gang. 31:2 (1998): 6-10.
VANCOUVER, B.C.
BarmanJean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
Manak, Sonia.The Sikh Immigrant Experience. 31:4 (1998): 34-
38.
Parkin,TomWTwo Cable Bridges ofVancouver. 31:1 (1997-98):
30-32*
Swantje;Eric. Stanley Park:Tourism and Devdopment. 31:3
(1998): 25-29.
VANCOUVER DAILY NEWS
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
VANCOUVER ISLAND
Walker, Peggy Cartwright. How Vancouver Island Was Settled and
Saved. 31:2 (1998): 3-5.
VERNON, B.C.
Richard, George. Price EUison: A GUded Man in British
Columbia's GUded Age. 31:3 (1998): 8-15*
VICTORIA, B.C.
SprinkUng, N. H. Serviving the Great Depression. 31:4 (1998): 2-
3.
VICTORIAN ORDER OF NURSES
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
W B.FLINT
Septer, Dirk. BiU BUleter: 1914 SaUor & Fisherman. 31:2 (1998):
24-26*
WADDINGTON.ALFRED
Cotton, H. Barry. Robert Homfray C.E.L.S. 31:2 (1998): 29-33*
WATER RESOURCES
AnseU, Rondd A. Dondd Waterfield -Author, Patriot, Prophet.
31:1 (1997-98) 13-14*
WATERFIELD, DONALD
AnseU, Rondd A. Dondd Waterfield - Author, Patriot, Prophet.
31:1 (1997-98): 13-14*
WELFARE
Sprinkling, N. H. Serviving the Great Depression. 31:4 (1998): 2-
3.
WHONNOCK, B.C.
Affleck, Edward L. Some Notes on Whonnock, B. C. 31:1 (1997-
98): 33-34.
WOMEN
BarmanJean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
Hancock, Eleanor Witton. British Gendewomen at Monte Creek.
31:1 (1997-98): 26-29*
Orr, Linda Maeve. Sara's World. 31:4 (1998): 4-9*
WORLD WAR II
Balfour, David M.The Naming of Mount Lepsoe. 31:3 (1998): 6-
7*
Harveyjames.MyWarYears.31:4 (1998): 15-16*
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 1999/2000
43 YALE, B.C.
Foster, Pat.The B. C. Express Company: Life Line to the Cariboo.
31:3 (1998): 20-24*
YORK HOUSE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
BarmanJean.Vancouver's Forgotten Entrepreneurs: Women Who
Ran Their Own Schools. 31:4 (1998): 21-29*
BOOK REVIEWS
Armitage. Doreen. Around the Sound: A History of Howe Sound -
Whisder Sound. Reviewed by Carl Ian Walker. 31:4 (1998): 43.
Bingham Janet. More than a House. Reviewed by Donna Jean
MacKinnon. 31:1 (1997-98): 40.
Bowen, Lynne. Those Lake People: Stories of Cowichan Lake.
Reviewed by Dr. Richard J. Lane. 31:2 (1998): 38.
Bridge, Kathryn. Henry & SelfiThe Private Life of Sarah Crease, 1826-
1922. Reviewed by Sheryl SaUoum. 31:1 (1997-98): 39.
Brown Jim. Hubbard: The Forgotten Boeing Aviator. Reviewed by Dr.
Richard J. Lane. 31:2 (1998): 38.
Cherrington, John. Vancouver at the Dawn: A Turn ofthe Century
Portrait. Reviewed by PhyUis Reeve. 31:2 (1998): 39.
Drushka, Ken. H. R.: A Biography of H. R. MacMillan. Reviewed by
W Kaye Lamb. 31:1 (1997-98): 37.
Francis, Daniel. Copying People: Photographing British Columbia
First Nations 1860-1940. Reviewed by Laurenda Daniells. 31:2
(1998): 37.
GlanviUe Jim and AUce. The Life and Times of Grand Forks. Reviewed
by Dorothy Zoellner. 31:4 (1998): 41.
Gough, Barry. First Across the Continent: Sir Alexander MacKenzie.
Reviewed by W Kaye Lamb. 31:4 (1998): 9.
Guppy, Walter. Clayoquot Soundings:A History of Clayoquot Sound.,
1880s - 1980s. Reviewed by PhiUip Teece. 31:1 (1997-98): 38-39.
Haig-Brown,Vderie. Deep Currents, Roderick and Ann Haig-Brown.
Reviewed by George NeweU. 31:3 (1998): 35-36.
Hamilton, R. M., ed. Sarah Linley's FamUy Letters to Henry Crease.
Part 1-1849; Part 2- 1850-1851; Part 3- 1852-1855. Reviewed by
Sheryl SaUoum. 31:1 (1997-98): 39.
Haycox, Stephenjames Barnett and Caedmon Liburd, eds.
Enlightenment and Exploration in the North Pacific 1741-1805.
Reviewed by Barry Gough. 31:3 (1998): 36.
Hou, Charles and Cynthia. Great Canadian PoUticd Cartoons 1820 to
1914. Reviewed by Robert MacDonald. 31:1 (1997-98): 38.
Jenkins, WUl D. Sr. ChUcotin Diary: Forty Years of Adventure.
Reviewed by Esther DarUngton. 31:3 (1998): 39.
Joyce.Art. A Perfect ChUdhood: lOOYears of Heritage Homes in
Nelson. 31:4 (1998): 42.
KeUer, Keith. Dangerous Waters: Wrecks and Rescues Off the B. C.
Coast. Reviewed by PhiUpTeece. 31:4 (1998): 43.
Lee, Eldon with Jack McKenzie and Al HoUey. Scdpels and
Buggywhips: Medical Pioneers of Central B. C. Reviewed by Adam
C.Wddie. 31:3 (1998): 38-39.
Leonard, Frank. A Thousand Blunders:The Grand Trunk Pacific
RaUway and Northern British Columbia. Reviewed by Kenneth
Mackenzie. 31:4 (1998): 43-44.
Leonoff, CyrU. Bridges of Light: Otto Landauer of Leonard Frank
Photos. Reviewed by David Mattison. 31:3 (1998): 35.
Lewis, Jim and Charles Hart. Goldpanning in the Cariboo: A
Prospector's Treasure TraU to Creeks of Gold. Reviewed by LesUe
Kopas. 31:4 (1998): 42.
44
Lindberg, Ted. Pnina Granirer: Portrait of an Artist. Reviewed by Sheryl
SaUoum. 31:4 (1998): 9.
McClean, Sylvie. A Woman of Influence: Evlyn Fenwick Farris.
Reviewed by Laurenda Daniells. 31:3 (1998): 37-38.
Mack, Clayton. GrizzUes and White Guys: The Stories of Clayton
Mack. Reviewed by James Bowman. 31:1 (1997-98): 40.
Mackie, Richard Somerset. Trading Beyond the Mountains: The British
Fur Trade on the Pacific, 1793-1843. Reviewed by Brian Gobbett.
31:3 (1998): 37.
Mouat Jeremy. The Business of Power: Hydro Electricity in
Southeastern British Columbia 1897-1997. Reviewed by Ron
Wdwood.31:3 (1998): 36-37.
Norris John. Wo Lee Stories: Memories of a ChUdhood in Nelson,
B.C. Reviewed by Adam C.Wddie. 31:2 (1998): 37-38.
Peterson,Jan. Cathedral Grove (MacMillan Park). Reviewed by Susan
Stacey. 31:1 (1997-98): 39-40.
Porter, C. R. Klondike Paradise: Culture in the WUderness. Reviewed
by Lewis Green. 31:3 (1998): 39-40.
Preston, David.The Story ofthe Butchart Gardens. Reviewed by
Morag Maclachlan. 31:2 (1998): 40.
Pritchard.AUan, ed.Vancouver Idand Letters of Edmund Hope Verney,
1862-65. Reviewed by PhyUis Reeve. 31:2 (1998): 37.
Scott, Andrew. The Promise of Paradise: Utopian Communities in B. C.
Reviewed by LesUe Kopas. 31:4 (1998): 42-43.
SeagraveJayne. Provincid and Nationd Park Campgrounds in British
Columbia: A Complete Guide. Reviewed by Sheryl SaUoum. 31:2
(1998): 39-40.
Shelford, CyrU. From War to WUderness. Reviewed by Esther
DarUngton. 31:3 (1998): 39.
Stangoe, Irene. Looking Back at the Cariboo - ChUcotin. Reviewed by
LesUe Kopas. 31:4 (1998): 42.
Sutherland, Ned. Growing Up: ChUdhood in English Canada from the
Great War to the Age ofTelevision. Reviewed by PhyUis Reeve. 31:3
(1998): 40.
ThirkeU, Fred and Bob SculUon. Postcards from the Past: Edwardian
Images of Greater Vancouver and the Fraser VaUey. Reviewed by
PhyUis Reeve. 31:3 (1998): 40.
TraU History and Heritage Committee. A TraU of Memories.TraU, B.
C, 1895-1945. Reviewed by Adam C.Waldie. 31:4 (1998): 41-42.
Twigg.A.M. Union Steamships Remembered, 1920-1958. Reviewed
by James Delgado. 31:2 (1998): 39.
Waiser, BiU. Park Prisoners: The Untold Story ofWestern Canada's
National Parks 1915-1946. Reviewed by George NeweU. 31:3
(1998): 35.
White, Howard, ed. Raincoast Chronides 17: Stories and History of
the British Columbia Coast. Reviewed by Dr.RichardJ. Lane. 31:2
(1998): 39.
The five-year index covering the years 1993-
1997 is still available to anyone sending two dollars value in stamps to:
The Editor, BC Historical News, PO Box 130,
Whonnock BC V2W 1V9
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 British Columbia Historical Federation
Organized 31 October, 1922
Member Societies
Alberni District Historical Society
Box 284
Port Alberni
BC V9Y7M7
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3190 - 271 Street
Aldergrove, BC  V4W 3H7
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Box 40, D'Arcy BC VoN 1L0
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RR#i, Site iC, Comp. 27
Nakusp BC VoG 1R0
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Box in, Atlin BC VoW lAo
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S-22,C-ii,RRi
Galiano Island BC V0N1P0
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c/o 109-45-23 Ave S.
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Box 218, Hedley BC VoX 1K0
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10840 Ardmore Drive
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Box 34003 17790 #10 Hwy.
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Vancouver BC V6B 3X6
Victoria Historical Society
PO Box 43035,Victoria North
Victoria BC  V8X 3G2
Affiliated Groups
Bowen Island Historians
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Native Daughters of BC
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Richmond Museum Society
Union of BC Indian Chiefs (Research
Program)
The British Columbia
Historical Federation is
an umbrella organization
embracing regional
societies.
Questions about
membership and
affiliation of societies
should be directed to
Terry Simpson,
Membership Secretary,
BC Historical Federation,
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Members and Affiliated
Groups are invited to
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BC Historical News welcomes
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Columbians.
Please send stories or essays on any
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BC Historical
Federation
WRITING   COMPETITION
The British Columbia Historicd Federation invites submissions of books for
the seventeenth annual Competition for Writers of BC History.
Any book presenting any facet of BC history, published in 1999, is eligible.
This may be a community history, biography, record of a project or an
organization, or persond recoUections giving a glimpse ofthe past. Names,
dates and places, with relevant maps or pictures, turn a story into "history."
Note that reprints or revisions of books are not eligible.
The judges are looking for quality presentations, especially if fresh materid is
included, with appropriate illustrations, careful proofreading, an adequate
index, table of contents and bibliography, from first-time writers as well as
established authors.
The Lieutenant-Governor's Medd for Historical Writing will be awarded to
an individual writer whose book contributes significandy to the recorded
history of British Columbia. Other awards will be made as recommended
by the judges to vduable books prepared by groups or individuds.
All entries receive considerable publicity. Winners wdl receive a Certificate of
Merit, a monetary award and an invitation to the BCHF annual conference to be held in Port Alberni in May 2000.
SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS: All books must have been published
in 1999 and should be submitted as soon as possible after publication. Two
copies of each book should be submitted. Books entered become property
of the BC Historicd Federation. Please state name, address and telephone
number of sender, the selling price of aU editions ofthe book, and, if the
reader has to shop by mail, the address from which it may be purchased,
including applicable shipping and handling costs.
SEND TO:  BC Historicd Federation Writing Competition
c/o Shirley Cuthbertson
#306-225 BeUevdle Street Victoria BC    V8V 4T9
DEADLINE: December 31, 1999

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