British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical News 1988

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 $4.00
Volume 21, No. 4
Fall 1988
ISSN 0045-2963
British Columbia
Historical News
Journal of the B.C. Historical Federation
Pioneer Women
inB.C.
University Women's
Club
Convention '88 MEMBER SOCIETIES
*****  ********
Members Societies and their secretaries are responsible for seeing that the correct address for their society is up-to-date.
Please send any change to both the Treasurer and the Editor at the addresses given at the bottom of this page. The
Annual Return as at October 31st should include telephone numbers for contact.
Members' dues for the year 1987/88 were paid by the following Members Societies:
Alberni District Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M7
Atlin Historical Society, P.O. Box 111, Atlin, B.C. VOW 1A0
BCHF - Gulf Island Branch, c/o Marian Worrall, Mayne Island, VON 2J0
BCHF - Victoria Section, c/o Charlene Rees, 2 - 224 Superior Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V1T3
Burnaby Historical Society, 5406 Manor Street, Burnaby, B.C. V5G 1B7
Chemainus Valley Historical, PO. Box 172, Chemainus, B.C. VOR 1K0
Cowichan Historical Society, P.O. Box 1014, Duncan, B.C. V9L 3Y2
District 69 Historical Society, P.O. Box 3014, Parksville, B.C. VOR 2S0
East Kootenay Historical Association, PO. Box 74, Cranbrook, B.C. V1C 4H6
Fraser Lake Historical Society, P.O. Box 57, Fraser Lake, B.C. VOJ 1S0
Galiano Historical and Cultural Society, PO. Box 10, Galiano, B.C. VON 1P0
Golden & District Historical Society, Box 992, Golden, B.C. VOA 1H0
Ladysmith Historical Society, Box 11, Ladysmith, B.C. VOR 2E0
Lantzville Historical Society, c/o Susan Crayston, Box 76, Lantzville, B.C. VOR 2H0
Mission Historical Society, 33201 2nd Avenue, Mission, B.C. V2V 1J9
Nanaimo Historical Society. PO. Box 933, Station 'A, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
Nanooa Historical and Museum Society, R.R.1, Box 22, Marina Way, Nanoose Bay, B.C. VOR 2R0
North Shore Historical Society, 623 East 10th Street, North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 2E9
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum and Archives, Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1 WO
Qualicum Beach Historical & Museum Society, c/o Mrs. Cora Skipsey, PO. Box 352, Qualicum Beach, B.C. VOR 2T0
Saltspring Island Historical Society, PO. Box 705, Ganges, B.C. VOS 1E0
Sidney and North Saanich Historical Society, P.O. Box 2404, Sidney, B.C. V8L 3Y3
Silvery Slocal Historical Society, P.O. Box 301, New Denver, B.C. VOG 1S0
Trail Historical Society, P.O. Box 405, Trail, B.C. V1R 4L7
Valemont Historic Society, P.O. Box 850, Valemount, B.C. VOE 2A0
Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 3071, Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3X6
Affiliated Groups
B.C. Museum of Mining, P.O. Box 155, Britannia Beach, B.C. VON 1J0
City of White Rock Museum Archives Society, 1030 Martin Street, White Rock, B.C. V4B 5E3
Fort Steele Heritage Park, Fort Steele, B.C. VOB 1N0
The Hallmark Society Society, 207 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 2K8
Nanaimo Centennial Museum Society, 100 Cameron Road, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 2X1
Lasqueti Island Historical Society, Lasqueti Island, B.C. VOR 2J0
Second Class registration number 4447
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E,
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5. A Charitable Society recognized under the Income Tax Act.
Manuscripts and correspondence for the editor are to be set to P.O. Box 105, Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0. Correspondence regarding subscriptions and all other matters should be directed to the Vancouver address above.
Subscriptions: Institutional, $16.00 per year; Individual (non-members), $8.00.
Financially assisted by the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Heritage
Trust. British Columbia
Historical News
Volume 21, No. 4
Fall, 1988
Journal of the B.C. Historical Federation
Contents
Features
Jane Klyne McDonald 1810 -1879
by M. NichoUs
Florence Baker Warren Waterman Wilson
by Winston Shilvock
Pioneer Women in the Windermere Valley
by Winnifred Ariel Weir
Two Cowichan Valley Women
by Else M. Kennedy
Vancouver University Women's Club (1907...)
by Thelma Reid Lower
Phyllis Ross LLD, CBE, OC
by Dolly Sinclair Kennedy
Times Past
by Elsie G. Turnbull
Keeping Clean and Warm Was A Problem
by Kelsey M. McLeod
News From Branches
Writing Competition
Report On Conference 1987
Bookshelf
Book Reviews
Page
2
6
7
12
16
19
20
21
24
26
28
30
Editorial
Readers take note. This is the
first issue of the British Columbia
Historical News produced in the
East Kootenay. We thank the staff
at Kootenay Kwik Print in
Cranbrook for their patient coopera
tion with your nervous new editor.
Writers and potential contributors of articles are urged to keep a
flow of items coming over the editor's desk. Those of you who
"almost wrote" an article on one of
the previous themes should dust off
your notes and typewriter, finish
the article and mail it in. Are you
looking for a challenge for future
theme issues? The Spring '89 issue
is to be on "Education". This will include those memories of one room
schools, big schools, university, special buildings, teachers, instructors
or programs.
The theme for Fall 1989 is to be
"Memories of the 1930's".
Remember, however, we look for articles on any aspect of British
Columbia history.
This issue on "Pioneer Women"
does give a taste for life in many
parts of our province. Mrs. Nicholl's
"Aunt Jane Klyne," wife of a
Hudson's Bay factor, and Win
Weir's family who lived in a barn
are great contrasts to Mrs. McRae
who lived in the elegance of Hycroft
in Thelma Lower's article. I was
hoping we could have included even
more contrast with the life of native
women, or the Sisters who started
schools and hospitals across the
province. Let's have those topics in
the near future! The cover photo
shows two British brides and a
German matron wrinkling their noses at the stench of an unhealthy
bear. This look at Women in B.C.
should entertain readers and inspire research of our history in
terms of the ladies as well as our
forefathers.
It is my intention to use the
compilation dates advertised for so
many years... March 1, June 1,
September 1, and December 1. This
is your magazine. Please keep it
healthy by submitting items about
your local society, and encouraging
potential contributors of articles to
type their stories and send them to:
Naomi Miller
Editor - B.C. Historical News
Box 105,
Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
RC. Historical News Jane Klyne
McDonald
1810 - 1879
M. NichoUs
Somewhere along the banks of
the Athabasca River, Jane was born
to Michel Klyne (Klein, Clyne, Cline)
of Dutch Canadian descent, and
Suzanne LaFrance of French
Canadian and Indian parents. The
date was the 23rd of August, 1810.
Michel was a voyageur with the
Athabasca River Department of the
North West Company. Suzanne and
her three young daughters travelled
everywhere with Michel. In 1813
the family was stationed at Fort
Rae, the traditional hunting ground
of the Dogrib Indians on Great
Slave Lake. By 1821 when the
North West Company and the
Hudson's Bay Company were united Michel was an interpreter in the
Lasser Slave Lake area and he continued this occupation under the
new company.
In 1824 he was promoted to
postmaster at Jasper House, the
last support fort east of the Rocky
Mountains on the Hudson's Bay
Company route overland to the
Columbia by way of Athabasca
Pass.
From Trader Ermatinger we
learn that Jane rode horseback as a
child travelling with Michel and
VANCOUVER
ISLAND
Suzanne on their yearly trip from
Edmonton to Jasper House. On one
trip Ermatinger accompanied them
travelling on horseback, by canoe
and on foot through marshy land,
over fallen trees and through thick
underbrush. Jane also learned to
use and make snowshoes and moccasins for the family. She was soon
helping to care for little ones as
there were now six children in the
Klyne family.
In spite of the hardships and
remoteness the children had a happy life. Alexander Ross, a fur trader
says, "Michel Klyne was a jolly old
fellow". Suzanne taught her girls
the lore and traditions of both nationalities.
In 1824 Governor Simpson
spent time en route to the
Columbia. One author claims that
Jane became one of his "bits of
brown", a term Simpson used of the
many different Indian or Metis girls
that accompanied him on his cross
country trips. It is possible that
Jane accompanied him on his 1824
trip down the Columbia. In
September 1825 Jane married
Hudson's Bay trader, Archibald
McDonald in the fashion of the
GRAND FORKS
FORT COLEVILLE
country. If this is so it would not be
the first time that Simpson had
passed on his girl companion to an
employee. However, it is very possible that Archie met Jane when she
travelled to the Boat Encampment
with her father. (This is the story
the family believes) It was certainly
a love match no matter what the origin of their marriage for they were
a very devoted couple.
Archibald was born in Scotland,
had some medical training at the
University of Edinburgh, and in
1815 had come to the Red River in
Charge of 94 settlers sponsored by
Lord Selkirk. He continued at Red
River Settlement until it was destroyed by the Nor' Westers. He returned to England and Scotland
and came back with more settlers
in 1817. '
In 1820 he joined the Hudson's
Bay Company as a clerk with a salary of 45 a year. He spent a winter
at Ile-a-la-Crosse and then was
sent to the Columbia post of Fort
George as an accountant. Here in
1823 he married Princess Raven,
daughter of Chinook Chief
Comcomly, in a very elaborate ceremony. Princess Raven died in 1824
B.C. Historical News soon after giving birth to a son
named Ranald, who had been born
in February.
So Jane began her married life
as a stepmother. Several family letters refer to this relationship and
they give the impression that she
often favoured Ranald over her own
children. In his memoirs Ranald
speaks of her with a great deal of
affection and pride.
McDonald was given charge of
the Thompson River Division in
1825 with a salary of 100 pounds a
year. When he left to survey his
new territory in 1826 he left Jane
at Fort Okanagan as she was expecting their first child. He travelled
north where he met James Douglas
(later Sir James) with whom the
family would become friends, also
Francis Annance and John Work
whose paths would all cross many
times.
After wintering in this area
Archie was getting anxious about
Jane so he went down the Columbia
with the fur brigade. He found that
he had a 10 day old son, Angus,
born on the 1st of August, 1826.
Young Angus was less than a
month old when Jane carried him
on horseback on the two week trip
to her new home at Kamloops. Two
year old Ranald rode with his father. Mrs. Annance and her little
son accompanied them as her husband was to be McDonald's clerk.
Jane would have female companionship at the outpost. This was fortunate, for Archie was away a great
deal trading and exploring the area.
On the return from one trip he drew
the first map of the interior of
British Columbia.
Jane's second child, Archibald,
was born at Kamloops in February,
1828. This time Archibald was at
the fort with Jane but left six weeks
later with the fur brigade.
Jane's reputation as a good frugal cook began at Kamloops. Her
yearly allotment of two sacks of
flour and a small quantity of sugar
came around Cape Horn and then
had to be shipped up from Fort
Vancouver partly by bateaux and
partly by horseback. The gingerbread cakes that Ranald and his
dad loved were rare treats baked
for special occasions.
In 1828 McDonald left Jane to
go east to the council meeting of the
Northern Department. On the return journey he accompanied
Governor Simpson on his trip down
the Fraser. McDonald kept a detailed journal of this trip which became the background for Malcolm
McLeod's book, Peace River - A
Canoe Voyage. He again met
James Douglas at Fort Alexandria
where the party arrived with much
ceremony accompanied by Colin
Fraser piping the arrival. From
Alexandria, Simpson and Archie
travelled on horseback to Kamloops
to find that Jane had gone to Fort
Vancouver. At Kamloops the group
began a canoe trip down the Fraser
arriving at Fort Langley in October.
Archie was to be Chief Trader here
for the next four years.
It was July 1829 before Jane
and the boys could travel from
Vancouver to Fort Langley on the
Cadboro. McDonald's diary says it
was five more days before they
came alongside the wharf at
Langley and "landed me, my little
family, all well".
During the winter before Jane
arrived Archie had kept his men
busy preparing the "Big House" for
his family. Jane must have been
delighted with her quarters, two
wainscoted, spacious rooms with
fireplaces, a garret above and several storage cellars below. There was
a huge adjoining kitchen with a
bake oven and a large garden to
provide them with vegetables to relieve the monotonous winter diet of
dried salmon.
Jane and the children soon became the focal point of family life at
the fort. The good-natured
Kanakas loved the children. Some
of them had "married" Indian women but they were not allowed to
bring them into the fort. The children sometimes spoke French with
their mother and the French
Canadian voyageurs and English
as well as some Gaelic with their
father. The parents were strict, but
the children had the run of the fort.
Archie established regular hours for
study. His diary says he had "a
thriving school" - "the little children
are quite smart" but their mother
was "an excellent scholar". Jane
learned to write, read and cipher.
The Bible was her main book.
McDonald held prayer meetings at
the fort which everyone was expected to attend.
Hundreds of Indians gathered
outside the fort when the salmon
were running. One of the tribes was
the Nanaimos who had summer encampment of their own on the river's edge. Most of these tribes
stayed close to the fort because of
fear of the northern "Yukultas"
(Archies's spelling). McDonald provided some guns to the Indians
near the fort thinking this would
help protect Fort Langley against
the murdering northerners. Jane
does not seem to have made friends
with the Indians outside the fort.
She was aware of the kidnappings
and murders among the tribes so
kept her little boys within the fort.
By 1830 she was busy with her
new son Alexander who was followed eighteen months after by
Allan (later a rancher and gold miner in the Caribou). Archie left
Langley to establish a farm at
Nisquilly (Tacoma). Ranald was
taken with him to attend John
Ball's small school at Fort
Vancouver where he was unhappy.
Archie was granted a furlough and
he made arrangements for the little
boys and Jane, or Jennie as he
called her, to spend the winter with
her parents in the Rockies. In
February 1834 their only daughter
Mary Anne was born at Rocky
Mountain House. Sometime that
summer Jane crossed the prairies
with her children. She was possibly
accompanied by her parents who
were due to retire to the Red River
Settlement. At Red River she and
the children lived with Reverend
William Cockran while Archie was
travelling in Scotland and England.
The older boys began school and
Jane       was       studying      the
RC. Historical News Episcopalean faith. She was baptized by Rev. Cockran on the 2nd of
November, 1834, as were Ranald,
Mary Anne and the four boys.
Archie came home through New
York and Montreal rejoining his
family in June, 1835. He was delighted with the boys' progress at
school and convinced Jane that the
four boys should remain in the Red
River schools. Ranald, Angus and
Archibald went to the Red River
Academy while Alexander stayed
with his Klyne grandparents and
went to day school.
Before Jane and Archie left for
their new assignment at Fort
Colville they were legally married
by Rev. Cockran with the Hudson's
Bay Council in attendance. This
marriage pleased Jane, for the time
had come that marriages in the
country fashion were being frowned
upon.
Jane and Archie with Mary
Anne and Allan left for the west
with the Fall Express knowing that
it could be five years before they
saw their children again. In
Cockran's journal he remarks on
Jane's "sacrifice and self denial".
After a sad farewell they travelled
west with James Douglas. There
were six gentlemen, two families,
twenty-four servants and 51 horses
in the express. It took a little over
two months to reach Edmonton, another month to Jasper and two
more weeks to reach the pretty valley of Fort Colville.
At Colville the McDonalds ran a
huge farm. Jane now had servants
to help her with the work but she
continued to do much of the cooking
herself. Archie claimed that no one
could make better Yorkshire pudding. The McDonalds entertained a
lot while on the farm. Hudson's Bay
men stopped there and were all enthusiastic about the McDonald's
hospitality. One visiting trader enthused, "when seated at the table
with Mr. and Mrs. McDonald and
their family, one cannot help thinking himself once more at home enjoying a "tete-a-tete in some domestic circle". Unlike so many other
traders Archie insisted that Jane
B.C. Historical News
take her place as hostess at the dinner table.
At Kamloops and Langley they
had always celebrated both
Christmas and New Year in the
Scottish style, the men with a tot of
rum and the women with wine. One
Christmas the men who had come
with the Fall Express from York
had been unable to get away because of an early winter. Jane
served roast been and plum pudding to 35 men. On an occasion
when Governor Simpson was making one of his 2,000 mile trips
across the country, Archie went out
to meet him with a meal Jane had
prepared -, "a roasted turkey" a
suckling pig, new bread, fresh butter, eggs and ale". What a feast the
men had after weeks of just pemmican! The party stayed some days at
Fort Colville inspecting the improvements the McDonalds had made to
the farm. Simpson wrote in his journal, "the bread we ate was decidedly the best in the whole country".
"Her butter, cheese, ham and bacon
would shine in any market," her
husband boasted. All acknowledged
Jane's skill with food.
While at Fort Colville six more
boys were born by Jane. John, who
died as an infant in April, 1836, followed by another, John, born on
27th May, 1837, and in July 1839,
the twins, Donald and James were
born. The twins were a curiosity to
the Indians and a joy to their parents. An Indian woman and her
small child came into the household
to help wet-nurse the boys. To keep
her supply of milk the Indian woman's son was weened to cow's milk,
a new idea to the Indians. For the
rest of his life the child was called
"Le Lait" because he had been fed
cow's milk. The twins were identical
in every way. Archie wrote of Jane,
"one half her occupation now is caring for her two little boys - a task
that gives her great delight". In
September 1841 another son,
Samuel, was born. Two weeks later
Archie wrote that the children were
all "blessed with perfect health"
and that their mother was "now
thank God, again as active as a girl
of 18". In 1841 young Angus came
home from Red River not well, and
he died the next winter. Angus's
death and another child, Joseph,
probably contributed to a spell of ill
health for Jane.
Between 1838-40 missionaries
began to come tot he Oregon
Territory settling about 60 miles
south of Fort Colville. Jane housed
two of the wives, Myra Ellis and
Mary Walker, until proper homes
were built for them. This resulted in
a strong bond of friendship between
the women. Jane visited them on
horseback taking her small children
with her. The newcomers claimed
Jane "a jewel of rare excellence,"
and that "her children bore comparison to any they had known in New
England". Mary Walker wrote in
her diary, "Jane speaks good
English and the deportment of her
children is a living testimony of her
maternal efficiency".
With other American women arriving in the territory they formed
"The Columbia Maternal
Association". Jane was invited to
join. They had discussion groups,
readings and prayers, followed by
conversations and needlework. They
subscribed to many magazines and
newspapers which passed among
the women. Jane's experiences were
widened beyond her wilderness
home. By 1844 Chief Factor
McDonald decided that it was time
to retire and take his family east.
September 21, 1844 was departure
date. Jane was pregnant again, but
knew they could not delay past this
date if they expected to get through
the mountain passes before the winter snow. They travelled by boat to
her former home at Boat
Encampment where they waited for
horses to take them on to Jasper
and Edmonton. The snows began!
Jane had to travel on snowshoes
while five men carried her little
boys. Once again they transferred
to canoes and soon Jane's labor
pains began, and on the 23rd of
November, Benjamin was born. Ice
was beginning to form on the river
and Archie realized they couldn't
make the Red River so sent to Edmonton for help in transferring
his family there.
Chief Factor John Rowand welcomed them in spite of the fact that
the additional number of people to
feed would put a great strain on his
fort's winter food supply. It was an
unhappy winter for the family.
Mary Anne and Archie were both ill
with fevers. Scarlet fever broke out
and in the month of May, Archie
and Jane buried three of their little
boys. The twins, Donald and James
and two year old Joseph all died
the same week. The sad family left
Edmonton and had a very miserable
trip eastward as Jane was ill and
the weather was terrible.
They finally arrived in Montreal
after visiting friends along the way.
They spent two years in Montreal
where Jane brought the family together again. Young Archie came
home from England where he had
been studying and Peter Skene
Ogden brought Alexander and Allan
from the Red River. In 1846 Jane
had her thirteenth child, Angus
Michel, named in memory of her eldest son and her father.
In 1847 they bought a farm
near St. Andrews East and Archie
officially retired from the Hudson's
Bay Company. They called their
farm "Glencoe Cottage" for Archie's
Scottish home. Jane mixed well in
the new community and became
very active in the Anglican Christ
Church.
Archie died unexpectedly on the
15th of January, 1853 and Jane
spent 26 more years on the farm
with Allan acting as her farm manager. Archie named Jane "tutrix" of
his minor children saying in his
will, "in my beloved wife Jane
Klyne, in whose maternal solicitude
for my dear children I place implicit
confidence". Jane made a trip to see
her family at Red River in 1855.
Her mother was still alive as late as
1871 for she is listed in the 1871
Manitoba census as a woman of 80
years. Jane continued to be active in
her church. She had a large stained
glass window installed in memory
of Archie and her deceased children.
Jane died on the 15th of
December, 1879, leaving bequests to
her brothers at Red River, her stepson Ranald, and her three surviving
children Allan, Samuel and
Benjamin. She had adapted to life in
the East and had become a respected 'Victorian matron with great dignity but still loving the outdoor
world participating in such events
as its spring "sugaring-off". She
was a woman of two civilizations.
The author lives in Nanaimo, the member of a family who had been in that cily since
I860. She has traced the family tree back to
Upper Canada in the 17th Century.
Bibliography
"Hudson's Bay Record Society, Volume HI,
Minutes of Council, 1821 - 31, R. Fleming,
Ed. PP 443-44.
"William S. Lewis & Naojiro Murakami
aHit/re Banalrf Marr>nnalH: Thft Narrative
of his early life on the CnlnmWa unHpr the
HiiHann"!. Bay Raging
"Fur Trade," Letters of Francis Ermatinger
1818 - 1853.
"Jean M. Cole" V™1» i„ fh« Wilderness 1790
- 1853.
"Sylvia Van Kirk, Many Tender Lies: Women
in the Fur Trade Society 1670 - 1870.
Scholarship
The first winner of the B.C.
Historical Federation Scholarship
has been chosen. He is Dan
Marshall of Cobblehill who is attending the University of Victoria.
Details will appear in the next issue.
Donations have made this $500.
scholarship possible. Further contributions are sought to enable us to
increase this amount as students
face ever increasing tuition fees and
expenses. Donors to the Scholarship
Fund will be acknowledged in the
magazine as well as being issued a
receipt for charitable donations for
tax purposes.
Donations to the B.C. Historical
Federation Scholarship Fund and/or
the Writing Competition Prize Fund
make good "In Memoriam" gifts.
Your Editor/Past President would
like to thank girls and Guiders of
East Kootenay Girl Guides of
Canada for a donation made to the
Scholarship Fund as a "Thank You"
for her work done for Guiding.
Burnaby
Historical
Society
There were 48 voting delegates
at the B.C. Historical Federation's
Annual Meeting. There were 10 from
Burnaby, all paying their own way.
The President, Evelyn Salisbury, in
making her report, introduced each
as follows: Helen and Don Brown,
Marjorie Coe, Mary and Lloyd
Forsyth, Hazel L'Estrange, Kay
Moore, Nancy Peter and Helen
Street, from a membership of 50.
Victoria and Vancouver had 7 attendees from a membership of 230 and
226.
B.CJLF. Research
Assistance Committee
A new service offered by your
Federation...
If you are researching local or other
British Columbian Historical topics
and need assistance in locating
source material, etc., send a
stamped, self addressed envelope together with $10 * research fee to:
Peggy Imredy
304-2425 Brunswick
Vancouver, B.C. V5T 3M1
* Any additional cost of photocopying, postage, etc. will be billed later.
RC. Historical News Florence Baker
Warren Waterman
Willson
The complete story of Florence
Baker Warrent Waterman Wilson is
a lengthy saga of determination and
guts that is difficult to match in any
tale of women in the Okanagan
Valley. An incident that happened
in 1901 exemplifies the general tenor of her life and explains the tenacity she displayed when she farmed
near Naramata.
After marrying J. Waterman,
who was a mining man, in February
1898, the couple resided in
Princeton where a daughter, Ena,
was born. There were no cows or
milk in the area so when the child
was two years old, Florence decided
that it should have boats milk. Since
the railway couldn't bring the animals, she determined to bring them
over the Hope-Princeton trail.
Florence had been born in
Cyprus to an English military family in 1879. Her upbringing had been
that of a lady so she always road a
horse side saddle. Therefore it was a
startling sight to the natives when
she left Hope sitting sideways on
her horse with her skirt flapping
and carrying Ena on her lap and
with three goats in tow on a picket-
rope tied around her waist.
It took four days to cover the 80
miles over the rough, narrow, mountainous trail and there must have
been problems, although Florence
described the trip as "without adventure." One thing she did learn
was that a side saddle wasn't the
RC Historical News
best way to ride a horse in the West
and from then on she road astride.
Florence Wilson married a second time and her life continued on
with many vicissitudes, but the determination she displayed on the
mountain trail so many years before
carried her through until her life
ended in Osoyoos in November,
1971. She was 92 years old.
Author Winston Shilvock lives in
Kelowna, B.C. where he researched
Okanagan history. He studied writing after
he retired from business and now teaches
writing at Okanagan College.
Report of the
NEWS
Publishing
Committee
Welcome, Naomi -- our new
Editor! Naomi Miller and her crew in
Cranbrook are now editing, printing
and mailing the News. We are fortunate to have them take on this major job.
Margaret Waddington in
Vancouver has mailed out the two
last issues. Problems arising from
the Post Office's refusal to handle
second class mail with inaccurate
postal codes led her to check all subscribers' codes with the Postal
Directory. A number of errors were
found in most branch lists. This was
a huge job and we are most grateful
to Mrs. Waddington.
Branch Treasurers of
Membership Secretaries are asked
to double check the codes of all new
subscribers or those with address
changes, using the Directory available at the local Post Office, if necessary.
Our new Subscription Secretary
is:
Mrs. Nancy Peter
5928 Baffin Place
Burnaby, B.C., V5H 3S8
Phone: 437-6115
I wish her every success in her
new task! Please advise her
promptly of changes of address. Let
her know if you should have any difficulty with your subscription.
I have had a recent enquiry
about the coding on the mailing label attached to the News. The date
refers to the month when the most
recent renewal was received; the
numbers refer to the last issue
which is covered by that subscription period. Eg. Mar. 88 22-2 means
that the subscription was received
last March and will continue to Vol.
22 no. 2~ the Spring of 1989.
Ann W Johnston
News Publishing Committee Mrs. Fredrick B. Young with George and Clement, the
two sons she lost by drowning
Mrs. Norman Marples with her elder son, Kenneth.
Pioneer Women in the Windermere Valley
Winnifred Ariel Weir
In the years 1911 and 1912
newspapers and magazines in
Britain carried glowing accounts of
settlement in far off valleys in
British Columbia. Huge posters in
railway stations depicted fruit trees
laden with luscious apples against
colorful vistas of lakes and mountains. The life described in magazine articles was tantalizing to
many Britishers and by the scores
they made enquires of land agents,
then sold their homes and estates
in English and Scottish cities to embark on a fruit-farming venture in
the Canadian Rockies.
Among those enticed in 1912
were Captain Frederick B. Young
and his wife, Mary. Captain Young
proceeded his wife in March. He
purchased a forty acre tract on The
Benches west of the community of
Invermere. He hoped to have all in
readiness for the arrival of his wife
and family in April but it was not to
be. However the barn had been
erected.
After the long journey across the
Atlantic by liner and across Canada
by train, Mrs. Young was weary.
Mary Phyllis Young was the
daughter of a canon in St. Paul's
Cathedral and her girl-hood had
been sheltered. She had been married in London to an army officer in
the Cheshire regiment and as an officer's wife had suffered none of the
privations of army life.
Until faced with his retirement,
Captain Young had had no thought
of emigration. Then one day in a
train he picked up a pamphlet describing the potential of the
Windermere Valley as a fruitful
area designed to bring fortune and a
delightful life for new settlers among
magnificent scenery.
The army had made Captain
Young a man of decision. He made
further enquiries but found little reliable information concerning the far-
off British Columbia Valley, an Eden
painted as an apple orchard paradise. In short order he made arrangements to move his family and
almost before his gentle wife had become accustomed to the idea, he had
gone ahead to the land of opportuni-
ty
When Mrs. Young stepped off
the train at Calgary, she was met
by B.G. Hamilton, representing the
C.VJ. Co. from which their land had
been purchased. Mr. Hamilton's
greeting had not been cheery. Their
house had not been built, he said..
RC Historical News Mrs. Young face fell.
"So, where do we live?" Basil
Hamilton smiled reassuringly. "The
barn is large and airy." Mrs. Young
was not reassured. Nurtured in an
upper middle-class English family,
whose history was listed on both
sides as far back as the Domes-day
Book, she could not envision life in a
barn.
They went on to Golden where
Captain Young met them and the
trip continued in the only car in the
valley, a Packard owned by Robert
Randolph Bruce, Chief officer of the
CVI Co. The trip was dusty and
twisting, difficult with the two little
boys, Clement, six and George, four,
fretful from the long days of travel.
Phyllis, the baby was nine months
old.
The barn, of course, had no water supply, Electricity was unknown
on the farms on the Benches. The
glorious view of the mountains
stretching as far as the eye could
see was some compensation but not
much. Water for domestic purposes
was bought in barrels which stood
outside the door.
Mrs. Young was accustomed to
doing little more than dusting the
drawing room, arranging the flowers and giving orders to the cook in
England. Faced with preparing
meals for her family with the meager resources at hand multiplied her
difficulties. There was no sugar because the first shipment of supplies
for the season had not yet come up
the river from Golden. Supplies for
the few settlers for the winter had
been ordered last October and by
spring many commodities were
short. A neighbor lent them some
sugar from her own meager store.
Only the kindness and neighborli-
ness of other settlers made life bearable for the young English woman
struggling against the hardships of
the new life.
There was a construction camp
on The Benches for men putting in
an irrigation system for the farms.
The camp cook took pity on the
young English mother and taught
her how to bake bread and cook
RC. Historical News
meat, and to make pancakes known
to the camp crew as flap-jacks.
Then, Norman Marples, another
settler who was waiting for his wife
and family to join him from
England, lived with them that summer, sleeping in a horse stall in the
barn, giving a helping hand while
attempting to get his own land
cleared and house started.
At the end of April the first paddlewheelers were able to make their
way up river with supplies from
Golden. There were no passengers
on the first trip because the entire
accommodation was needed for the
replenishment of supplies which
had become ominously low.
With summer the boys grew
brown and rosy but there were days
when Mrs. Young would gladly
have left the dry hot valley by the
first boat to return to the green
fields of England.
In November the Young's house
was still unfinished but they moved
in anyway. Water was still brought
in barrels. Coal-oil lamps gleamed
on the sterling silver they had
brought from England, the handsome tea service, and fine china and
crystal. Much of it was still in boxes
but Mrs. Young's yearning for her
lovely belongings after living the
summer in a barn, had urged her to
unpack what she could to maintain
some standard of living.
There were disasters that first
year. The corn crop had frozen during a late June frost. In October the
big tank that was to hold the winter's water supply was filled. It had
an outlet pipe for cleaning and
shortly after it was filled, the cows,
trampling around, knocked the plug
out of the pipe and the winter's supply of water drained out. A catastrophe was averted when the neighbors arrived with teams and
wagons and barrels and filled the
tank again.
George was ill with pneumonia.
The pigs got into the garden and
Mrs. Young, finding them, dragged
them out by the tails and shut them
up in the roothouse.
In October the Marples family,
8
drawn by the lure of the proclaimed
fruit lands arrived to settle on the
40 acre tract Norman had purchased in the spring. After staying
with Captain and Mrs. Young for a
time, he had lived in a tent on his
own property while their house was
started. Then he returned to
England to settle his affairs and
bring out his wife, Constance, his
sons, Kenneth and Vivian, and
three year old Mollie.
Travelling with them was the
children's Nanny. The Marples had
not intended to bring her originally
but she had decided the issue for
herself. Looking at the fair-haired,
blue-eyed Mollie she had pursed her
lips. "I'm not having you take that
child to heaven knows what", she
said, thinking, perhaps, of grizzly
bears and scalping red Indians "If
you are taking her there, I go
along." And go along she did, proving herself her weight in gold.
The Marples had crossed
Canada in a CPR tourist coach. It
had a small gas stove and sink at
one end for the use of all the passengers in that car. For five days
they crossed the country, peering
out the windows at unaccustomed
landscape. Wearying of the interminable miles across the prairies,
thrilling to the first sight of the
massive Rockies on the skyline, eager as they finally reached Golden.
Mrs. Marples had packed her
jewelry in a small attache case for
safety. It was stolen on the train,
then when they arrived in Golden
they found that their luggage had
been misplaced somewhere along
the line.
When the family arrived on the
last boat to come up-river in
October, the interior of their house
was far from complete, although it
had been arranged that it was to be
ready for occupancy with their furniture in it. They stayed at the
Invermere Hotel for two weeks waiting for their luggage to arrive. In
the interim Mrs. Marples stayed in
bed while her clothes were washed,
Nan doing the same. Clothes were
borrowed for Mollie to wear. Like
Mrs. Young, Mrs. Marples found the contract to her accustomed life style
hard to accept.
Finally they moved into their
house. They had managed to acquire basic needs of furnishings
while awaiting the delayed arrival
of their own. Mrs. Young lent them
a bed and they managed to find
enough packing boxes and orange
crates to use as tables and chairs
while lamenting the delaying of
their own comfortable furniture,
which lay on the Golden platform
for four months as the last boat had
left for the season. That boat was
loaded with lumber and liquor considered a more important consignment.
In January the furniture was
transported by sled. The piano arrived first. When they opened the
crate, the paper wrapping the instrument had four inches of ice on it.
The cost of transportation had been
four cents a mile.
The difficulties and farming disasters of that first year on The
Benches were nothing compared to
what happened to the Young and
Marples families the following
November. The two small Young
boys, Clement and George, and
Vivian Marples went through the ice
while playing on the pond nearby
the two farms. The older Marples
lad, Kenneth, saw the accident from
a hill. As he recounted it, George,
five, threw a bottle on the ice and
went to get it. The ice broke under
his weight and Clement and Vivian,
both seven, went to his aid, falling
as he had into the icy water.
Kenneth, then eight, ran for
help to Mrs. Young, who rushed to
the pond, and although three
months pregnant, dashed into the
water to try to save the boys. She
got hold of one as Captain Young
arrived and got a rope around her
and one of the boys. The three small
bodies were taken to the Young's
hours and placed in warm water but
they were beyond reviving.
******
Concern over the lack of medical
facilities was real in 1901 and that
year Dr. Robert Elliott began prac
tice, a small log hospital was erected. He left in 1909 and his successor Dr. Hannington married a
nurse. When she became pregnant,
nurse Ethel Beatrice Wood was
hired. She was a graduate of
Kamloops Hospital. When Miss
Wood arrived in Golden she as told,
"If you are going down the valley
you are going into the lion's
mouth."
In 1910 the hospital had been
moved into the old Union Hotel, no
longer used as a hostelry.
Downstairs there was a six bed
ward and upstairs private rooms,
one of which was used by Dr. and
Mrs. Hannington and one by Nurse
Wood.
Miss Wood said the hospital
equipment when she arrived in
1911 was only beds and bedpans.
But the Hospital Ladies Aid, formed
that year, provided many necessities, raising money by teas and bazaars and by contributions from the
miners and prospectors. When a
farmer killed stock there was always meat for the hospital and
housewives would arrive with a dozen eggs, or a loaf of fresh bread or a
box of vegetables. Sacks of potatoes
would be left on the doorstep. Miss
Wood was on 24 hour duty seven
days a week when she had patients
but there were easier days. She did
all the cleaning and cooking in addition to her nursing.
******
The Jack Barbours had come to
the valley in 1900 by covered wagon
from Minneapolis where Margaret
Barbour had been a vegetable cook.
The unaccustomed life in the valley
challenged every fibre of her being.
She had spent the first winter in a
tent by Toby Creek while Jack was
packing for the Paradise Mine. She
helped him raw-hide the ore from
the mine, (rawhiding was loading
the ore on to horse-hides slung between poles and dragged by teams
to the station over rough mountain
roads.)
Later they lived in a log house
on The Benches where Margaret
bore four sons, tended a large vege
table garden. There were no close
neighbors. One night Jack was at
work at the mine, Margaret heard a
knock at the door. She opened it to
find two far from sober men." Can
we spend the night?" one asked.
"You cannot", she replied.
"We won't bother you", the other man said.
"No you won't", she retorted
and reaching behind the door, she
lifted the gun kept there, threateningly. "I shot a bear last week", she
told them. "Hit him right between
the eyes." They went on their way
******
Until the irrigation ditches were
built on the Benches, augmented by
flumes, water for domestic purposes
was brought in barrels on a sleigh
in winter and by wagon in summer.
The winters' supplies were ordered
from Eatons in Winnipeg in October
to ensure their safe arrival before
freeze-up of the Columbia River
made it impassable for the paddlewheelers. The women learned to be
self-sufficient. One woman described
how she made yeast for her baking.
"I took a handful of dried hops and
boiled it in a cupful of water; put in
a potato and boiled it again, adding
salt and some sugar. I set it aside
until it was bubbly, then I put a
cupful of the flour mixture. I was always careful to keep some of the
yeast to start another batch."
******
The first Tegart came to the valley in 1883. That was Edward and
when he wrote to his brother, "The
grass is up to the horses "bellies",
he was joined by Walker and Arthur
with their families.
Arthur had married Mary
Louise Brown in the Cariboo in
1895. Mary Louise bore her third
son on the Alpine Ranch at
Windermere in the mud-thatched
shack that was home and two years
later they had their first daughter.
Mary-Louise had to be up and
around a few days after the births.
There were twelve cows to milk and
a large vegetable garden to care for.
There was canning, washing, ironing, sewing, cooking so there wasn't
RC. Historical News an hour of the day that she could
call her own. Water for the house
was brought from the creek in 45
gallon whiskey barrels. The water
was so hard that it curdled the soap
which made the baby's washing an
added difficulty.
In addition to her home chores,
Mary Louise made pin-money by
supplying road camps with milk,
butter, cheese and eggs. The Alpine
Ranch was a popular spot for travellers to pause at for rest and refreshment. No one ever left the ranch
hungry and this added to Mary's
daily task. Bread baking was more
than a weekly chore. At least twice
every week. She drew ten large
crusty loaves from the wood range,
bread made with hops grown on
their own farm, and lard from their
pigs and milk from their cows.
Spread with home-made jam from
berries home grown or wild from
roadside bushes, slice after slice disappeared after each fresh baking.
On Sundays there was a hustle
and bustle to get to the church service at Windermere. That meant
that Saturday night the big wash-
tub was set on the kitchen floor,
near the stove in winter, near the
door in summer for easier emptying.
Water for the tub was ladled from
the big copper boiler on the stove
and cooled by creek water. Mary
Louise was diminutive, barely coming up to her husband's shoulder
but she could wield the scrub brush
with vigor.
When she told her husband that
she was pregnant again he said it
was time to build a larger house but
did not tell her that he had a bet
with another pioneer that he could
produce the larger family. In time
she bore eleven.
******
Mrs. Rufus Kimpton was the
wife of a prominent Windermere
merchant. His store, the only one of
note in the community, provided not
only food items but all other commodities from shoe laces to harness
parts. She was a leader in all community affairs, especially the church
and school.
It was the custom of the day for
socially aware women to have an
"At Home" day each month. On
that day they were at home to all
callers.
In September, 1903, Mrs.
Kimpton was busy preparing for her
afternoon "At Home". Her Chinese
house-boy, Wong, had been given
detailed instructions for tea, to be
served at four o'clock. There would
be cucumber sandwiches made from
bread baked the previous day in the
big McClary range in the kitchen,
lady fingers and brandy-snaps filled
with whipped cream.
The day before the parlour had
been cleaned thoroughly. Damp
saw-dust sprinkled on the carpet
held down the dust as Wong swept.
In winter snow replaced the sawdust. The heavy velour curtains had
been shaked and the furniture
polished and knick-knacks dusted.
By eleven o'clock she had placed
eight of her best cups and saucers
on her gleaming silver tray and
filled the silver sugar-bowl. Her next
task was to skim thick yellow
cream from the pans in the pantry;
cream from their own Jersey cows.
Rufus and Celina Kimpton had
lived for some years in Donald, a
CPR divisional point and lumbering
community west of Golden. When
the CPR decided to move the divisional point to Revelstoke, Donald
residents were informed that the
railway would move there homes,
the school, church and store to the
new centre. But Rufus preferred to
go to Windermere where he had
business interests already. So their
home was dismantled and moved
by rail and then by barge up the
Columbia River and Lake
Windermere to the lake-side community.
Celina Kimpton mourned the
loss of the little church she and
Rufus had been instrumental in
having built at Donald and in which
she had played the organ. The CPR
had not yet moved St. Peter's to
Revelstoke. Disturbed by Celina's
distress, Rufus said, "If you want
that church so badly, you shall have
it."
So began the saga of "The
Stolen Church". With the aid of other enthusiasts notably Captain
Frank Armstrong, the church was
taken down board by board, and
pew by pew, all was transported to
Windermere, coming up the lake on
Armstrong's paddle-wheeler. The
transportation cost only $70, for it
was an enterprise dear to the
Captain's heart. Board by board the
church was erected on a hillside
above the lake and Celina was back
at her beloved organ.
By the time the ecclesiastical officials at the coast heard that the
church had disappeared from
Donald without permission, it was
a "fait accompli". And Rufus who
was nick-named "Whistling Rufe"
because of his accomplishment in
that ability, whistled even on his
way down the aisle, happy at his
wife's contentment.
******
Braidy Williams came from
Scotland as a bride to the little community of Wilmer. She found she
had nothing to fear of the tales of
scalping Red Indians she had read
of while in Scotland but the rough
and ready life in the mining community was still alarming. They
stayed in the hotel while a house
was readied for them and Braidy
was nervous of the noise emanating
from the bar below their room. Her
husband had left her in their room
and as the raucous laughter grew
louder, she became increasingly
alarmed, so she pushed a heavy
chair against the door. A few moments later the door handle turned
and she heard a knock and her husband's voice. "Let me in Braidie."
Trembling, she opened the door.
"Mercy me, Harry," she wailed.
"Whatever can it be? There is sucha
clashing of cans and noise."
"It's for us, dearie," he said.
"It's what they call a chivaree, here
in Canada because we're newly
wed. Come on doon".
"No. no" she cried. "That I
won't do. It sounds like a herd of
wild Indians and nothing would
RC. Historical News
10 persuade the bride to descend to the
welcoming party.
Later they moved to a small
house. Before Harry went to work
each morning, he would build up the
fire so the house would be warm for
her to get up. One morning as she
was dressing she saw a creature
crawling on the floor. Terrified, she
jumped on the bed. Then realizing
that she would be alone all day and
couldn't spend the day standing on
her bed, she had to do something.
Trembling, she got her broom and
dust-pan and with one deft motion,
scooped up the creature and threw
it in the stove.
When her husband returned
that evening, she was triumphant
with her bravery. "Harry, you'll not
be knowing what I had in the house
today."
"That I would not," he admitted.
"It was a crocodile, Harry, a
little crocodile, right here in our
house."
"Tush me dear," said Harry. "It
wasn't a crocodile. What did it look
like."
It was greenishbrown and it
had legs. It was about so long"
Harry laughed, "Dearie, it was a
lizard, a harmless little creature."
"Maybe, it was", she admitted.
"But my how it crackled. I'll never
forget it."
******
It was Mrs. Stewart, another
settler, who wanted to surprise her
husband with fresh baked bread.
She learned the process from a
neighbor but underestimated the
time it took to rise. When her husband was due for supper the bread
was far from ready, she was unwilling to admit a failure so she hurriedly dug a shallow hole in the
back yard and buried her experiment. Her husband was sitting at
the table awaiting his meal when
he glanced out the window. "Glory
be" he exclaimed. "There's queer
sort of mushroom rising in our backyard."
******
These early day pioneer women
told these stories on them selves,
laughing at their efforts to make a
home amid difficulties, proud of
their achievements. Their courage
and their stamina were a tribute
and their descendants living in the
valley today are proud of the efforts
and successes of those who settled
the area.
Mrs. Weir is a former newspaper editor, charter member of the Windermere
Historical Society, curator of the
Windermere Museum and officer of the
B.C. Historical Association.
CALL FOR PAPERS
SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY
Will Host
a Conference on Exploration and Discovery
on April 17 -19, 1992
To Commemorate the Arrival of Captain George
Vancouver
on the Pacific Coast of North America in 1792
The conference will provide an opportunity for the presentation
of new research on social, cultural, economic, scientific, technological, and literary aspects of exploration and discovery in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, with attention to
all parts of the world but particularly to the North Pacific.
Proposals for papers will be accepted up to September 15, 1989.
Conference advisors include Professor Barry Gough, Wilfrid
Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario; Dr. Alan Frost,
Department of History, La Trobe University, Australia; Professor
Christon Archer, University of Calgary; Professor Glydwr
Williams, Queen Maty College, London; Professor Ben Finney,
University of Hawaii at Manoa; Dr. Kerry Howe, The Australian
National University; Professor Rudiger Joppien, West Germany;
Professor William Stanton, University of Pittsburgh and Dr. W
Kaye Lamb, Vancouver.
Those interested in participating should send summaries (100
- 200 words) of their prospective papers along with brief vitae to:
The Director
Vancouver Conference,
Department of History,
Simon Fraser University,
Burnaby, British Columbia,
Canada, V5A 1S6
11
RC Historical News Two Cowichan Valley
Women
Else M. Kennedy
Mary Skinner (nee Gryde)
1843 - 1930
On Vancouver Island's mountainous terrain, the forests are almost impenetrable. The straight,
tall, evergreen trees soar 200 feet or
more. Cedars and firs growing side
by side, as close as the hairs on
one's head, their feathery branches
intertwined in a thick mat, which
prevent the sun's rays from reaching the ground. Through this forest,
roam cougars, bears and wolves,
hungry and dangerous, especially
when the snow lies heavily on the
ground. Children going to school
during this period, carried rifles to
defend against wolves <1> and the
Cowichan Leader reported wolves in
the area in 1910. This is the wilderness. <2> Through this magnificent, yet awesomely wild, country,
Mary Skinner rode alone on horseback. A widow, she was fulfilling
her husband's contract, by searching
for breaks in the telegraph line.
Finding one, she had to climb the
tree, nearest the break, to repair the
wire. This was far from easy. The
wires, as we now know them, are
attached to poles alongside the
highways. In Mary's day, the wires
were mainly attached to the trees,
the branches of which were supposed to be stripped, but in many
cases this wasn't done, and the thin
wire would be hidden. <3>
This was certainly not the type
of life that Mary Glyde had envisioned for herself when, at age 29,
she decided that there was no future for her in England. There were
not enough positions available in
her chosen profession of teaching, so
she emigrated to Canada <4>
After arriving in Canada, Mary
made her way to British Columbia,
where she taught in Sooki for a
year. Mary was then hired as a
teacher, for the Maple Bay school,
the first public school in the
Cowichan Valley. <5> Here she met
and married Ambrose Skinner, a
son of one of the first families to
settle the area. Ambrose had already acquired land and had begun
farming. He and Mary moved into
the small log house that Ambrose
had built. Mary enjoyed the life on
the farm, and was very content, especially after her daughter Minnie
was born.
Four years after their marriage
in 1875, the telegraph line between
Victoria and Nanaimo was installed. <6> Ambrose was awarded
the contract to maintain and operate the section running through
their area, (approximately 50 kilometers). This extra work would help
pay for some of the many expenses
that farming entails. Unfortunately,
Ambrose died rather suddenly in
1880, leaving Mary and her daughter with very little money. Mary
knew that, in order to support herself and her child, she would have to
run the farm and fulfill the terms of
the telegraph contract.
In the meantime her twin
(Martha), who had settled in New
Westminster,  lost her husband
about the same time as did Mary,
and Martha was left destitute.
Mary, now had three more dependents and arranged to have her sister and her two sons, Bob and Doug
Tait, move to Vancouver Island. The
two women worked as a team, sharing the house and farming chores,
along with the care of the children.
Mary, in addition, handled the telegraph contract. She learnt morse
code and line maintenance. Her dedication to keeping the line open,
was greatly admired by her family
and neighbors, and it was often
said that she handled the work and
a horse better than most men <7>
This was indeed high praise in an
era which considered women to be
frail and weak.
Mary continued with this work
until she was approximately 59
years old, when she sold the farm.
<8> Mary and Martha continued to
live together in a smaller house,
closer to the Town of Duncan, as respected members of the community.
Mary lived until she was 87. Her
last years were spent "as a dozy
old lady" <9> cared for by her
daughter Minnie. She is buried in
the Skinner family plot at St.
Peter's Church, Quanicham, in the
Cowichan Valley <10>
Louisa Geeen (nee Spencer)
1873 - 1965 <11>
Louisa or "Louie" as she preferred to be called, was a tall willowy women with a cloud of dark
hair coiled neatly in a chignon. She
was near-sighted and her smiling
brown eyes were hidden by a pince-
nez. Louie had always dreamed of a
life of travel, excitement and freedom. . However born, as she was,
into a very sheltered Victorian family with definite ideas on a woman's
place in the world, ambitions like
these must have seemed to be only
fantasies. Woman of her time had
little control over their lifestyles.
There were very few options, outside of marriage, open to them, and
none of these choices included adventure or excitement.
Louie, born in 1873, was one of
eight children. Her father, Michael
Spencer died while she was still
RC. Historical News
12 quite young, on his small farm in
the village of Storgusey. <12> After
his death, her mother Fanny, concerned for her children's education
moved the family to Taunton,
England. Louie went to a boarding
school in Bradford, Yorkshire, where
she learned the proper skills for a
gentlewoman. When she finished
school, she looked for something to
do with her life, as she did not wish
to live within the strict confines of
her family. She reflected in later
years that the only exciting thing
that ever happened, was being invited to the Vicarage for tea. She decided to become a governess which
would meet with her family's approval, yet allow her some freedom
and perhaps some travel.
She was very successful and
had several posts which allowed her
to tour the British Isles. Louie's
most interesting post was with a
Russian family. <13> She spent
two years with them, living in
Moscow and learning Russian. She.
also traveled through Europe un-
chaperoned, a rare adventure for a
woman of that era.
Louie had to leave this comfortable post to return home to care for
her ailing mother. Although she had
six sisters and a brother, who could
well nurse their mother, they felt
that Louie should not be gallivanting about the country-side while her
mother was ill. Louie remained at
home until her mother died. She
was, at this point, very restless and
wanted to see more of the world.
Louie had cousins in British
Columbia, the David Spencer family, <14> who had sent many invitations to visit them in Victoria. Louie
decided to visit Canada as she was
bored to tears with her life in
England. Life was extremely dull,
and she used to tell her sons about
the idiotic conventions followed in
an upper middle-class home. One of
these rules was that "ladies" didn't
answer the door. She and her sisters would be sitting together in the
drawing room close to the front
door, working on various bits of sewing and embroidery. The bell would
ring, but there would be no move
ment from the assembled ladies.
They would sit in silence, waiting
for the maid to scurry from the other
end of the house to do the honours.
"It was completely inane", was
Louie's comment.
Louie adored Victoria and the
unrestricted life her cousins led. It
was so different from the inflexible
attitude of society in Britain. Here
was the freedom she had always
wanted. She could now become an
individual, responsible only to herself. She was introduced to Frank
Green through friends with whom
she had travelled to Victoria. Frank
had taken up land in the Cowichan
Lake region, and he enthralled her
with his tales of life in the wilds of
Vancouver Island. Louie was intrigued, and convinced a cousin to
accompany her to visit Frank at his
homestead in Lake Cowichan. Louie
fell in love, not only with Frank but
with the area. Her own description
of Lake Cowichan, published in the
Cowichan Leader - December 27,
1951, tells how she felt about her
new surroundings.
"In 1909 the road to the
lake from Duncan lead
through a very beautiful forest of virgin timber. I shall
never forget driving with my
husband through those
beautiful trees to my new
home; the road was abominable, very narrow, twisting
with deep ruts in places, but
to me it was all enchanting."
Here, in the wilderness her
childhood dreams of adventure could
come true. Louie had no training for
pioneer life. She was a complete tenderfoot, but with Frank's help she
learned to cook, and care for the
land. <15> Although they were
completely isolated, and human
contacts were few and far between,
Louie was never lonely.
Louie soon discovered that
homesteading, carefree as it might
be, was not a prosperous venture,
and money was always in short
supply. After her sons were born,
Louie conceived a plan which would
13
solve the money problem. The whole
area was teeming with game (deer,
Roosevelt elk, cougar and bear).
Salmon and trout were plentiful in
the Cowichan lake and river. It was
a ideal spot for a hunting and fishing camp. Louie was 44 years old
when she put her plan into action.
Frank and her children were enthusiastic, and helped her by taking
over the heavier chores. They started in a small way, by renting out a
few rooms in the main house, and
setting up tents on the property. As
the popularity of the camp increased, guest cottages were added.
She did all the cooking, and
handled all the details of
"Greendales". It was an instant
success. Not only did the hunters
and fishermen come, but
"Greendales" become a popular
summer camp for nature lovers and
those who wished to get away from
the heat of Victoria. By 1920, it was
one of the most popular camps on
Vancouver Island, and extra help
had to be hires. <16>.
In spite of her busy life, she enjoyed her family. Louie and Frank
were great believers in books. They
used to read to their sons, and encouraged them to read. She also
taught them music, and although
neither son became an accomplished
musician, music is part of their
lives. Her son, Trevor, feels they
had the best of both worlds.
Freedom to grow up in the beauty of
the country-side of Lake Cowichan,
plus books and music. Louie took an
interest in the local schools, and
was elected to the local school board
as a Trustee.
"Greendales" continued to prosper for quite some time. The profits
allowed Louie and Frank the freedom to travel and provided for their
sons' education. Frank passed
away in 1947, at the age of 87, and
Louie closed the camp a few years
later. She continued to live at
"Greendales", keeping herself busy
giving music lessons and working in
her garden, which is still blooming.
She died at 93 having lived a very
full and complete life.
There are many who would say
RC. Historical News that these women were exceptional
or, that the traits with which they
had been endowed, were more masculine than feminine. But, these
women were not exceptional, nor did
their traits have gender. They were
ordinary women who, like most
women, did what they had to do in
order to survive. Women have been
taught through the ages that they
are frivolous and empty-headed;
creatures not capable of coping with
life, without the protection of a father or husband. This disparagement of women's talents has gone
on for so long that many women believe that their accomplishments
and contributions to the world are
not important. They just continue to
do extraordinary things in an ordinary way, as if it were expected of
them, and really not worth mentioning. Men would expect immortality
or, at the very least, a gold medal.
Women have a deep inner core of determination, and once this strength
is recognized, they become invincible. Furthermore, if women ever realize that their strengths can be
combined with those of their sisters,
the effect would be revolutionary.
This goal, though, can only be
reached through changes in the way
girls are socialized, and this must
be accomplished by changes to the
educational system. Women must
be made aware that their special
skills and those of their daughters
are desperately needed everywhere.
One of the ways to accomplish this
is to insist that history include
women, and recognize the contributions that they have made to society. This would finally put to rest
the   myth,    in   the   words   of
<2>
"Frailty, thy name is woman"
<Hamlet 1, 2>
Mrs. Kennedy is a member of the
Chemainus Historical Society. Recently
she has been polishing her writing skills
by taking a correspondence course from
Athabasca College.
Bibliography
<1>   The Colonist - December 8, 1871.
Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C.
"A son of Mr. Alexander, of Cowichan,
while walking from someone to
RC. Historical News
<3>
<4>
<5>
<6>
<7>
<8>
<9>
<10>
<11>
Quamichan Lake a few days ago, was
attacked by a band of wolves. The boy
fired at and wounded one, which fell.
The rest of the band fell upon their
wounded comrade, and while they
were making a meal of him the lad got
off in safety."
The wilderness is still very much
in evidence on Vancouver Island.
Any road going west from the
Trans-Canada highway will bring
one face to face with the forest.
Cougars are still active in the
area, and have wandered as far as
Saanich. Bear can still be seen and
deer are plentiful, almost to the
point of being considered "pests" by
gardeners and farmers.
Cobb Andrew "Crossed Wires" in
Horisons Canada Magazine Vol.
No. 68.
- North Cowichan Municipal
Minute Books - Vol. II. December
8,1882. It was recorded that a note
be sent to the area telegraph office, as some of the lines were too
low and dangerous after a storm.
Poles replaced trees by 1884.
Cowichan Leader Newspaper,
Duncan - January 2, 1930.
Obituary of Mary Glyde Skinner.
Cowichan Valley Historical
Society's Archives.
Cowichan Leader Newspaper,
Duncan - March 1924. "How
Schooling Began In Cowichan
District." Cowichan Valley
Historical Society's Archives.
Colonist Newspaper, Victoria -
February 18, 1879 "Island
Telegraph." Provincial Archives,
Victoria, B.C.
Cowichan Leader Newspaper,
Duncan - January 2, 1930.
Obituary of Mary Glyde Skinner.
Cowichan Valley Historical
Society's Archives.
Mr. Jack Fleetwood, Distinguished
historian and journalist for the
Cowichan Leader Newspaper for
the past 60 years, remembers
when Mrs. Skinner and Mrs. Tait
sold the farm at what is now called
"Birkey's Corner" (in Duncan) and
moved to Herd Road, where he, as
a boy, delivered groceries to them.
Skinner Road in Duncan, near
Birkey's Corner is named after the
Ambrose Skinner Family farm.
Mr. Jack Fleetwood.
Cowichan Leader Newspaper,
Duncan - January 2, 1930.
Obituary of Mary Glyde Skinner.
Cowichan Valley Historical
Society's Archives.
The information about Louisa
Green, neeSpencer was supplied by
her son, Trevor Green. Mr. Green
is a well know historian, columnist
and archivist in Lake Cowichan.
14
Mr. & Mrs. Green still live at the
family home, "Greendales", and
both take an active part in the local museum, which contains many
items from "Greendales."
<12> Mr. & Mrs. Green visited
Stogusey, and Mr. Green commented that they know why pigs
have such a bad reputation for
odors. The village's main occupation is swine farming, and the
smell greets one, while one is still
miles from the village.
<13> The family that Louie was working for was connected to the
Faberge family, Crown Jewellers
to the Russian Court.
<14> The David Spencers started and
operated a chain of department
stores in B.C. They were subsequently bought out by the T Eaton
Company.
<15> The one thing Louie was never
able to master, was milking cows.
<16> The old Greendale's guest book
lists some very interesting guests
and campers including the
Butcharts of the Butcharts
Gardens fame.
Sources Consulted
de Betrand, Lugrin N. - Pioneer
Women of Vancouver Island Women's
Canadian Club of Victoria, B.C. (1928).
The Cowichan-Leader (Newspaper) -
March 3, 1924, Jan. 2, 1930, Dec. 27,
1951. Cowichan Historical Society's
Archives, Duncan.
The Daily Colonist (Newspaper) -
June 4, 1862, Sept. 19, 1862, Dec. 19,
1862, Dec. 8, 1871, Feb. 18, 1879, March
17, 1888. Provincial Archives, Victoria,
B.C.
Forbes, Elizabeth - Wild Roses At
Their Feet - Pioneer Women of
Vancouver Island. Evergreen Press Ltd.
Vancouver, B.C. (1971)
Gustafson, Lillian (compiler); Elliot,
Gordon (editor) Memories of the
Chemainus Valley: A History of
People. Chemainus Valley Historical
Society. (1978).
Hammerton, J.A. Emigrant
Gentlewoman Croom Helm Ltd.
London, (1979)
Horizons Canada (Magazine), 1.
Geteway to Gold article by Branwen
Patenaude, on the growth of Victoria
during the Gold Rush. Vol. 44. 2. -
Crossed Wires article by Andrew Robb
on telegraph systems, B.C. Vol. 68.
Hulbert Family Letters and Letter
Books. Letters to T.G. Askew from the Reverand C.E. Seale. Provincial
Archives, Victoria, B.C.
Latham, Barbara & Kess, Cathy
(Editors) In Her Own Right Selected
Essays on Women's History in B.C.
Camosun College, Victoria, B.C. (1980).
Marriner, Edward - Dairy Live in the
Cowichan Valley. (1863 - 1888(?)).
Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C.
Marriner, Mary Diary Life in the
Cowichan Valley. Cowichan Valley
Historical Society's Archives.
McMillan Bloedel Co. Ltd. Paper on
the Corporate History of Cowichan
Valley. Island Books, Duncan, B.C.
(1975, second edition).
North Cowichan Municipal Council
Minute Books - Vol I & H. (1843 - 1886).
Municipal Offices, Duncan, B.C.
Olsen, WH. - Water Over The Wheel
- Story of Chemainus. Chemainus Valley
Historical Society. (1968, first edition).
Pioneer Researchers of the Cowichan
Valley Historical Society: - Memories
Never Lost - Stories of the Pioneer
Women and a brief history of the Valley.
Edited by Jan Gould. D.W Friesen &
Sons Ltd., Altona, Manitoba. (1986).
Saywell, John F.T. - Kaatza. The
Chronicles of Cowichan Lake. Cowichan
Lake District Centennial Committee.
(1967).
Informal Interview
Jack Fleetwood, Duncan, B.C. Historian
and Journalist in the Valley for the past
60 years.
Trevor Green, 2nd son of Louisa Spencer
Green.
Mrs. Grace Dickie, Thetis Island, B.C. -
Mrs. Audrey Ginns, Chemainus, B.C. -
Chemainus Valley Historical Society
and, Mr. & Mrs. Percival Rivett -
Carnac, Duncan, B.C.
Mr. Jim Lamont, Manager, McMillan
Bloedel Mill, Chemainus, B.C. The early
history of the Water Wheel Sawmill in
Chemainus. B.C.
Conference 89
May 11 - 13, 1989
Victoria NEW Convention Centre
Thursday, May 11
Royal B.C. Museum: Win & Cheese Reception
Friday, May 12
Greetings from Vicotria City
Illustrated lectures on aspects of Victoria's past
Tours in the afternoon
Dinner and Tour in Chinatown
Saturday, May 13
Annual General Meeting
Tours in the afternoon
Banquet
Conference Hotel:     Executive House 777 Douglas Street (604) 388-511
Across the street from the Conference Centre
Alternative accommodation information will be included in the Conferenc
package to be sent out early in 1989 to all member societies. Because of
the tourist season and the new Convention Centre, we suggest you book
early.
Tally Ho!
"Tally-ho coach makes regular daily trips to the most interesting points
around Victoria"
From: Henderson's Gazetteer & Directory, 1905, Vol. XII RBCM Photo
15
RC Historical News Vancouver University
Women's Club (1907—)
Thelma Reid Lower
When the British Columbia
Council of the Canadian Federation
of University Women held its inaugural meeting on Saturday 30 April
1988 it marked the expanding influence of university women in
Canadian society.
It was fitting that the first meeting of the new organization should
be held at Hycroft, the home of the
Vancouver University Women's Club,
the first such club formed west of
Toronto.
On Saturday afternoon 11 May
1907 Evlyn Fen wick Kirstead Farris
(Mrs. John Wallace de Beque Farris)
invited eight young women graduates to her home at 1776 Davie St.,
Vancouver, for the purpose of initiating a university women's club.
Although Evlyn had been born in
Nova Scotia (21 August 1878) and
had taken her MA. degree with honours in German and Philosophy at
Acadia University where her father
E.M. Kirstead was a clergyman and
professor, she spent the years 1899
- 1905 in the United States teaching
history at the high school in Boston.
While there she joined the American
Association of University Women
(founded in 1882), during the last
years of the nineteenth century
when educated women were becoming aware of their power in society.
Evlyn became an eager champion of
rights for women.
&C. Historical News
The young graduates whom
Evlyn persuade to become charter
members of a University Women's
Club were Miss Elizabeth Cameron,
Queen's; Mrs. A.T. Fuller, Acadia;
Miss Maude Hunt, Toronto; Miss
Mary McKenzie, Toronto; Miss Ella
Perkins, Dalhousie; Mrs. H.G. King,
Boston; Miss Madeline Shampier,
Acadia. Evlyn Farris was chosen as
the first president ...
Mrs. Farris and the charter
members agreed to meet regularly
to study social and economic conditions; stimulate intellectual activity;
promote friendly understanding
among university women and cooperate in public service — particularly in regards to education.
Mrs. Farris paid a visit to
Victoria where she interviewed a
number of college women with the
object of interesting them in the primary purpose of the Vancouver Club
which "aims at a federation of the
college women of the whole province"
a goal belatedly achieved with the
formation of the B.C. Council in
1988.
The proposal of Mrs. Farris was
received with enthusiasm and the
Vancouver club was greatly pleased
to hear that the college graduates of
Vancouver Island had formed a club
with a constitution similar to their
own. Correspondence was begun at
the same time with a view to the formation of a similar club in the
16
Okanagan Valley.
When the University of British
Columbia was established by an act
of the legislature in 1908 it became
a "sort of godchild of the Vancouver
club."
In 1910 Mrs. Farris became a
member of a committee in search of
a permanent location for the provincial university. She argued forcefully
for its location on the mainland rather than at the capital city on
Vancouver Island.
In December 1911 a letter was
sent from the Vancouver Club to the
attorney-general enclosing a list of
members and asking for instruction
in nominating candidates for the
University Senate. The Vancouver
Club gave their endorsation to Mrs.
Farris and to a Victoria candidate
Mrs. M. R. Watt. Both women were
appointed to the University Senate
and attended the first convocation
held in Victoria 21 August 1912.
Within three week the
Vancouver Club began lobbying for
the appointment of a women to the
University's Board of Governors.
Five years later Mrs. Farris became
the first woman to sit on the Board.
The infant university had many
needs and Mrs. Farris worked tirelessly for high scholastic standards,
adequate accommodation and a
greater degree of public support for
all levels and aspects of education. The Vancouver Club's move into
civic work came in its first two
years. A campaign was mounted to
urge consumers to shop well before
Christmas, thus relieving last-
minute pressure on harassed shop
clerks. The members distributed circulars, displayed signs, gained the
co-operation of newspapers, the four
largest department stores and a
company which made crepe paper.
One firm offered to donate billboards, but the club had to refuse
since it was on record as "opposed
to the disfigurement of Vancouver
by billboards". The campaign resumed annually during the First
World War years.
The significance of the campaign was marked in several ways.
It was an early instance of one
group of women using influence for
the benefit of another group which
was predominantly female. It gave
the Club experience in public relations, the use of the press, and in
bringing pressure to bear on large
organizations and commercial institutions.
While some women choose to be
more active in public affairs than
others, the Vancouver University
Women's Club has never been a tool
to be manipulated for partisan purposes. When political involvement
became inevitable in the women's
suffrage campaign the chair introduced discussion regarding "the
right of individual members in voicing themselves on questions of public interest... It was felt that the liberty of individuals could not be
curtailed and that the club gained
by encouraging its strong members
to express themselves".
Vancouver women were active
on many fronts. The University
Women's Club maintained its place
among a number of organizations -
the Council of Women's Press Club,
Women's Forum, Women's
Canadian Club, Women's
Educational Club and the
Parliamentary Association. Political
parties had women's associations
even before women had the right to
vote.
These women of varying purpos
es decided to co-operate in acquiring
a building to be used by all. A special "Women's Edition" of the
Vancouver Sun was published on 19
March 1913 as a twenty-page supplement to the regular newspaper.
This impressive undertaking raised
$2485 for the Women's Building.
Honorary president of the new
building was Mrs. A.D. McRae a
"devoted equestrienne and chatelaine of Hycroft". Mrs. McRae was
closely identified with the
Vancouver Horse Show. She rode
and drove in all classes.
During the First World War
Mrs. McRae was active in England
for four years running convalescent
homes for Canadian soldiers. In
September 1942, three months before she died of a long illness, the
McRae's gave Hycroft, free of all encumbrances to the Federal
Government to be used as a home
for veterans. Hycroft became an annex to Shaughnessy Hospital. At
the dedication ceremony 9 August
1943 it was called "the loveliest
military annex on the North
American continent".
When the new wing was built at
Shaughnessy Hospital Hycroft was
closed and the property put into the
hands of Crown Assets Disposal
Corporation. In the fall of 1960 the
property was put up for sale.
The Vancouver University
Women's Club had long had a
dream of owning their own clubhouse. They had established a
building fund very early and had
considered several real estate ventures on the Sunshine Coast. When
Crown Assets signified willingness
to accept their offer for the purchase
of Hycroft they signed an agreement of sale on 4 June 1962, and
an act was proclaimed in force by
the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council
on 15 January 1963. At last the
University Women's Club was in
residence at Hycroft, 1489 McRae
Avenue, Vancouver, V6H 1V1. Club
members rolled up their sleeves to
Mrs. McRae in her sulky in front of Hycroft.
UPPER LEFT. Hycroft 1927.
17
B.C. Historical News sleeves to tackle the problems of restoration.
The movement towards preservation of historic buildings grew
rapidly in the next two decades. On
8 February 1977 the first Vancouver
City Plaque for a Heritage House
was awarded to the club for their
restoration of Hycroft. The plaque
can be seen mounted outside, just
west of the main entrance door.
The Vancouver Historical
Society presented its first Award of
Merit for Building Preservation to
the University Women's Club on the
occasion of the Historical Society's
Incorporation Day Dinner (in
Slanley Park Pavilion) 6 April
(1974). This illuminated scroll can
be seen in the foyer beside the portrait gallery of 43 presidents 1907 -
1988.
The networking of University
women continues. The Canadian
Federation, founded in 1919, is a
national organization with head office in Ottawa. CFUW comprises
more than 12,000 members grouped
in 120 clubs from British Columbia
to Newfoundland.
The International Federation
which held its first conference in
London, England, in 1920 now comprises 230,000 women from 51 nations with headquarters in Geneva,
Switzerland. In the summer 1989
the IFUW conference will be held in
Helsinki, Finland.
The B.C. Council president is
Miss Mavis Boyd, #610-3105
S.Main St. Penticton, V2A - 7H1.
Thelma Reid Lower is an active member
of the University Women's Club. She was a
delegate at the Canadian Federation of
University Women Conference August 16 -
26, 1988.
REFERENCES
Minutes, Annual reports and
other records in the Archives of the
University Women's Club of
Vancouver.
Phyllis. 75th
History   of   the
Reeve,
Anniversary.
University   Women's   Club   of
Vancouver 1907 - 1982.
Kennedy, Dolly. Reflections:
Hycroft University Women's Club of
Vancouver - 1985.
Evlyn Fenwick Farris at
University of B.C.
Convocation 1955.
Photo Peter Hdborne
Courtesy Archives, UBC Library
CORRECTION
In Vol. 20 No. 3 page 22 a
list of presidents of the
British Columbia
Historical Association/
Federation showed a
break in the tenure of
Donald New. Mr. New is
the only president in our
Federation's history to
have served four consecutive years. The by-law limiting a president to
three years maximum
came in at the 1966
Annual General Meeting.
EC Historical News
18 PHYLLIS ROSS. L.L.D.,
(J.B.E.j O.C.
Dolly Sinclair Kennedy
Phyllis Turner Ross, was born in
Rossland, British Columbia, eighty-
five years ago. She attended primary and secondary schools there.
Phyllis became a pioneer for
women in two extraordinary ways:
She was the first and the only women to serve as Economic Advisor to
the Wartime Prices and Trade
Board. From 1941-45 as
Administrator of Oils and Fats, she
had jurisdiction over animal, vegetable and fish oils, soap industry,
printing inks, starches; glues; dex-
trins; and waxes. She controlled the
flow of oils from Canada to England
and the British West Indies.
Her next great achievement was
to be elected in 1961 as Chancellor
of the University of British
Columbia, the first woman in the
British Commonwealth to hold an office of this kind. She was also
Chairman of the Board of Governors.
She went on to serve a second term
from 1963-66.
Phyllis' life was one of great
distinction and personal achievement, but touched as well with sorrow.
College days began in 1921
when she attended the University of
British Columbia. There she won
public speaking contests, took part
in debates, was president of various
student societies, and topped it off
by being a tennis champion.
Phyllis graduated with her B.A.,
First-Class Honours in Economics
and Political Science, in 1925. Her
musical talent had not suffered
along the way, and that year she
also received her A.T.C.M. from the
Toronto Conservatory of Music.
In 1925 she won the Susan B.
Anthony Fellowship to Bryn Mawr.
The years 1925-27 were spent there
in the field of Economics and
Political Science. In 1927 she received her M.A., her Thesis being:
"Communistic Sects in Canada".
In 1927 she won the Canadian
Federation of University Women
Travelling fellowship; and as well,
an European Travel Fellowship from
Bryn Mawr.
In the years 1927 - 28, Phyllis
studied at the London School of
Economics. She took Seminars in
Economic History and International
Relations. She did Research at the
British Museum Library, and the
Quaker Library, for the history of
the Douhobors and Mennonites. In
1928 she spent three months at the
University of Marburg, to study the
Hutterite Sect, and one month at the
School of International Studies in
Geneva.
Phyllis then returned to Bryn
Mawr to complete written and oral
exams for her Doctorate.
In June of 1928 Phyllis married
Mr. John Turner of Kenilworth and
19
London, a journalist for (Punch). She
bore him three children, one of
whom died.
On her husband's death in
1932, she returned to Canada with
her two children.
It is said that Phyllis had developed a charming personality. Her
manner was well reasoned and unemotional, yet seasoned with a
ready and well-pointed wit. Her exceptional ability was recognized.
In 1934-36 Phyllis became
Research Assistant with the
Canadian Tariff Board. In 1936-37,
Research Economist with the Board.
In 1937-39 she was the Chief
Research Economist. The outbreak
of War made her the Economic
Adviser to the War-Time Prices and
Trade Board, and as mentioned earlier, in 1940 Technical Advisor to
the Oils Administrator, and from
1941-45 Administrator of Oils and
Fats.
While living in Ottawa, Phyllis
became in 1934 one of the founders
of Carleton University, and a member of its first Board of Governors.
Her publications between 1934-
39 were numerous reports that she
wrote from research for the Tariff
Board, and these were tabled in the
House of Commons.
Phyllis found time to become
President of the University
Women's Club of Ottawa in 1942-
43.
In 1945 Phyllis married Mr.
Frank MacKenzie Ross, a
Vancouver industrialist, and moved
to Vancouver.
In 1951-54 she became a member of the University of British
Columbia Senate. As well, in 1954
she was given the Great Trekker
Award for her Outstanding
Contribution to the University of
British Columbia.
In the years 1955-60, Phyllis
became the gracious Chatelaine of
Government House, Victoria, during
Mr. Ross's term as Lieutenant-
Governor of B.C.
In    1961,    Phyllis    became
Chancellor of the University of
British Columbia, and served in
RC. Historical News that capacity until 1966. In 1966,
her son, the Honorable John Turner,
a former Rhodes Scholar, represented a Montreal constituency as a
Minister without Portfolio, in the
Dominion Government. He was later to become Prime Minister of
Canada for a short period, and is
now the Leader of the Opposition
for the Liberal Party.
In 1964, Dr. Ross was made an
honorary member of the University
Women's Club of Vancouver. She
took a personal interest in the club
and purchased many of the beautiful brass fittings for the fireplaces.
The Honorable Frank Ross, gave a
considerable sum of money to the
club in his wife's honor, which sum
was used to buy some of the club's
beautiful silver tea and coffee urns.
At the summer garden party, Mrs.
Ross always sent along a large
cooked ham to be raffled off.
The Honorable Frank
MacKenzie Ross died in 1971. His
wife carried on with her volunteer
work. Among her many awards
which she received in recognition for
her contribution to society were:
Commander of the Order of the
British Empire; Dame of the Most
Venerable Order of the Hospital of
St. John of Jerusalem; Dame of
Magistral Grace of the Sovereign
and Military Order of Malta; Life
Member of the National Council of
Women of Canada; Cardinal
Newman Award, Life Member of the
National Council of Girl Guides of
Canada; National Award of the
Canadian Cancer Society; Human
Relations Award, Canadian Council
of Christians and Jews.
We said Good bye in April of
1988, to a great Canadian.
The author is a member of the Vancouver
Historical society - Research was done at the
archives of the Canadian Federation of
University Women.
B.C. Historical News
Times Past
Elsie G. Turnbull
It was September of 1928 when
I set off across the continent to marry a metallurgical engineer working
in a smelter at Trail, B.C. As I
waved good-bye to family in Ontario
my father-in-law called a farewell
message: "I'm glad it's you who is
going to Trail and not me!" Travel
through forested land in Northern
Ontario with its myriad lakes and
rocky outcrops brought an occasional
glimpse of lonely settlements
huddled in a clearing while wide
open prairies spreading to the horizon made me wonder about the unknown goal of my journey. However
we married in Medicine Hat, honeymooned in Banff, Revelstoke and
Kaslo, finding mountains, lakes and
scenery superb and then set off in
our brand-new Erskine car to motor
over winding washboard roads to
the so-called drab little town of
Trail. Darkness fell as we inched
around the face of China Creek hill
on a ledge one hundred feet above
the Columbia River. Suddenly we
rounded the turn at the top of
Smelter hill and before us appeared
a spectacle of lights. A network of
colored lights glistening in the valley along the dark gleam of river
spread up the steep slopes of
Lookout Mountain. To our left the
smelter stacks stood out against the
sky and as we watched a pot of molten slag spilled from its crane,
shooting smoke and red flame into
the night. My spirits rose - it was a
scene for which I was completely unprepared. With lightened hearts we
drove down the steeply curving hill
to spend the night at the Douglas
Hotel, a seeming refuge for weary
travellers. Sleep came. Then suddenly at 3 a.m. I was awakened by reverberating whistles, a grinding
chatter of wheels and squeaking
brakes - it could be nothing but a
train coming right through the middle of the house!
20
"Don't be alarmed," said my
husband. "It's only a yard engine
bringing freight and supplies down
the hill from Tadanac. Tracks are
just outside the Douglas Hotel."
Morning showed how right he
was. A few feet from the building
the rail line cut across the town,
slicing diagonally over the streets,
clattering over the rails and blocking traffic on Pine Avenue. Daylight
also revealed tiers of houses on the
hillsides, seemingly built of packing
boxes or anything else that was
handy. It was not quite the fairyland of the previous evening but neither was it the dreary place I had
expected. The streets were full of
people while up on the hill the great
smelter throbbed day and night
without a pause. It was not a town
of beauty but time would show it
was something better, a town of vibrant life and intense vitality, much
of it engendered by the trains.
Editor's Note: Elsie Turnbull lived in
Trail for many years where she became
known as "Trail's Unofficial Historian". Her
name appeared frequently in the Trail Daily
Times.One item appeared in the October 12,
1962 Times stating, "Mrs. A.D. (Elsie)
Turnbull received special recognition for compiling the Trail Diamond Jubilee Society historical booklet in conjunction with the City's
celebrations last year... Paying tribute to
Mrs. Turnbull, Mayor Palyga stated, "Any
time anyone wants to know something of
Trail's history, I send him to Mrs. Turnbull."
A later issue (May 29, 1963) published
the following which tells the story of the removal of the train tracks in downtown Trail.
No longer would downtown visitors be awaken by a train, as was the new Mrs. Turnbull
in 1928.
*NEWS ITEM REPRODUCED*
HISTORIAN RECALLS
WHEN TRACKS PUT IN
By ELSIE G. TURNBULL
The mayor has lifted the first spike.
Workmen are busily removing the
tracks of the Canadian Pacific Railway
spur-line to down town Trail.
Dignitaries have said farewell to
the past and have hailed a future when
traffic on Trail streets will not be impeded by diesel engines and boxcars.
To us this seems "a great step on the
way to progress," but 67 years ago the
driving of that first spike and the laying
of the first ties and rails signalled the
(Continued on page 32) KEEPING CLEAN
AND WARM WAS
A PROBLEM
Kelsey M. McLeod
135 Hastings Street West
Vancouver, B.C.
(guarantee
*s
j-°
The Management agrees that in consideration of $-.
that if the client's hair does not take a wave, that the hair, or such
portion of the hair as may be necessary, will be rewaved free of
charge within 30 days from the date of the first work. We do not
agree that our waves will not be affected by climatic conditions or
the natural growth of the hair.,
Date CZu-f~.M..-.S.5f.Z?
LOS ANGELES  .--2v**o.>
BEAUTY SHOP
Early in the century, most
homes in British Columbia, with the
exception of those in townsites, did
not have piped-in water, and most
didn't boast a sink. Central heating,
also, lay far in the future. In spite of
the drawbacks, and the work involved, people did keep clean and
warm. But it wasn't easy.
In most families and galvanized
tub used for washing clothes doubled
as a bath tub. - Baths in the kitchen, in front of the roaring wood stove
that was heating the bath water,
were pleasant affairs. - Once one became adept at getting one's tender
parts removed from harm's way
when the kettle added more hot water to the tub. And, allowing for the
necessary vigilance in making sure
that while drying oneself, one didn't
bend over too close to the red-hot
nickel adornments that encrusted
the range.
(One local girl was famous - or
infamous -- for having "Canada's
Pride", the brand name of the family's stove, indelibly and deeply
branded across her buttock when she
bent over, after a bath, too close to
the crackling range.) She wasn't particularly unique in this; many an
aged posterior today bears a like
brand, dimmed by time.
The grooming of the hair wasn't
a problem as easily solved. There
were no barbers or hairdressers
available in most communities.
neighbors did their best with each
other's hair, or did their own.
Women learned that rain water was
best for shampoos. And, during the
once-yearly trip to the "bright lights'
of Vancouver, the ladies went all-out
for the hairdressers.
Yet, keeping the body clean and
groomed was far less labour, and
much less involved, than keeping
the family clothing and linen clean.
What a back-breaking business
"Wash day" was! Once a week it
had to be faced. It took all day to do
the actual washing, and if the
weather was wet, a number of days
till everything was dried. All water
hand-carried, stove-top heated. Most
of the women started the task and
night before, putting the dirtiest articles to soak overnight in a tub, rubbing the worst soiled parts with Fels
Naptha, or other strong soap.
Come morning, once breakfast
was over and the dishes washed,
the copper wash boiler was placed
on top of the stove, half-filled with
water, and towels and pillow slips,
other white articles such as men's
dress shirts, were put in the brought
to a boil, being poked and stirred frequently with a round, smooth stick.
When it was judged that the
boiling had accomplished all it could,
the round stick fished items out and
into a basin, which was carried to
the wash tubs set up (if one was
lucky), nearby. (Often the tubs were
21
in an outside shed.) The tubs had
already been filled with cold water
for this rubbing and rinsing cycle.
The wash board and muscles took
over, working on the still-soiled
spots, the stains. Hand wringing
was the order of the day, though
some women did have a hand-
operated wringer mounted between
two tubs. (A tub for the rubbing, a
tub for the rinsing.)
The shaking and the shunting
around in the rinse water came
next, then another wringing out.
Finally, into the last rinse when the
bluing. Another wringing out. (Often
skin came off the hands softened by
long immersion in the water with
this last wringing out.)
Finally, the making of the
starch for the tablecloths and pillow
clips, shirts, dresses, blouses. Some
people even starched handkerchiefs,
which was hard on the nose.
(Kleenex had not yet come into its
own) At long last, basin or basket
loads of the heavy, wet wash were
lugged out and pegged to the
clothes line. Hopefully, the day
would stay fine till the clothes were
dry.
Starched items were sprinkled
with water and rolled, ready for
ironing, which was usually done
next day. The ironing was done by
sad iron. The dictionary meaning of
sad iron is simply 'solid flat iron',
but heaven knew that the necessity
of smoothing wrinkles out of the
natural fabrics' of the day by means
B.C. Historical News 'natural fabrics' of the day by means
of one of those heavy, top-of-the-
stove-heated, wrist-breaking monsters was a sad occupation. Too hot,
the fabric was scorched, too cool, the
wrinkles remained, staring up at
the worker with sadistic persistence.
It is far better, today, to simply
twirl and whirl knobs, and refuse to
think back; to view with proper respect wash-and-wear fabrics.
HEATING
There was, of course, no such
thing as 'central' heating in any
home, unless you were to call a
heater in the centre of the house as
such, which would be stretching a
point much too far.
The Kitchen range, chewing up
wood at a horrendous rate, and
spitting out vast quantities of heat,
particularly in warm weather when
it wasn't needed, was what heated
the homes for most of the year.
In winter, most houses had a
heater in the living room to supplement the range. The bedrooms took
their chances, and tended to be as
frigid as the Arctic, and considerably damper. A few had portable
coal-oil heaters for the bedrooms,
and they did help, as well as making lovely patterns of dark and
shadow on the bedroom ceilings.
The air-tight heaters were favourites, for they heated up so
quickly. A round cylinder of rather
thin metal, with an opening on top
that was covered by a round lid
with a gleaming metal handle, and
a small, round opening low down a
the front, covered with a plate that
was held in place with a long screw
that allowed the opening to be
made larger or smaller. They had
an alarming tendency to huff and
puff, and vibrate mightily when
they were 'closed down' too soon, or
too tightly. Somebody was always
leaping up and down, adjusting the
draughts in an air-tight, and feeding it wood usually meant scorched
hair on arms and hands.
Then there were the more sub-
RC. Historical News
stantial, larger, either round or
square or oblong heaters, made of
cast iron. Slower heating, longer-
lasting as to wood consuming, less
hysterical than the air-tights.
Reassuring. It was possible to seat
yourself in a room with one of these,
and say, read, getting up occasionally and wandering over to it, lifting
the lid and looking inside.
Languidly using the poker, to rearrange the burning sticks inside,
then adding a chunk or two of fresh
wood from the woodbox sitting between wall and heater. If luck was
with you, and the wood being used
not too green or wet, the smoke and
cinders from this operation were
generally minimal, and burns not
too frequent.
Some housewives had the heaters removed from the living rooms
during the summer months, for
there is nothing aesthetic about a
heater, warmth or no.
Heaters notwithstanding, the
most important object in the home
was the kitchen stove. It was, in effect, the heart of the operation. Ours
was a huge, black, nickel-encrusted
monster that had been a logging-
camp stove. On one side it had a
gleaming copper tank that heated
water, and the oven could have
roasted a sheep.
Wood burning ranges had one
advantage over the automatic
stoves of today: They did not take
careful daily care and attention to
keep them clean. No aluminium
discs to catch drips and spills. No
grease-encrusted racks had to be
sprayed and left to soak. If something spilled you wiped it up as
best you could, and continued with
the movement, as the stove kept
spewing forth heat, which tended to
pulverize the spill. Once the stove
was cool, if anything still was left,
you used a knife or other scraper,
and pried it off, then rubbed the
stove lids over with wax paper, or
the wax plug from a finished jar of
jam. The ovens went the same
route: First a sizzle, then a smell
and a smoking, then a burnt offering that tended to turn to dust and
could be swept out.
22
How handy to be able to pull a
simmering pot to the back of the
stove, waiting for the table. How
comforting to hear the kettle singing softly to itself while "bulled to
the side', waiting its turn to usefulness. How flavoursome the soup or
stew that had bubbled gently all
day 'to the back' .
But -- what a traumatic day it
was when that stove had to be
cleaned, the soot removed, the
black-leading done!
It must needs be done in the
morning, before the day's activities
took over. If Mother was really going for broke, she removed kitchen
curtains first. (Curtains in a home
that burns wood need washing with
shocking frequency.) She covered
open shelves and furniture with
newspaper to keep them free of the
soot that would float and settle on
everything, regardless of care taken. She would wrap her head in a
protective cloth, spread newspaper
all around the stove, and begin.
Ashes first. Of course, these
were disposed of daily, in any case,
being dumped on the garden ash
pile. Then the utensil, a long rod
with a rectangle of metal small
enough to get into the apertures
and crannies of the range, was
brought into play. The soot was
raked out, cupfuls of it. One began
to wonder if perhaps the cast-iron
was disintegrating. Pints and
quarts of soot, incredibly dirty, incredibly light, rising and floating
about, in spite of how carefully it
was treated.
The newspapers ~ and Mother -
became soot-streaked. The lower
chimney was tapped with a firm
hand to dislodge any loose soot; the
stove lids were carried outside and
the undersides scraped.
If this was the ultimate in
cleanings, of course the stove pipes
would come down too, and be taken
into the yard, thumped free of their
encrustations, then re-assembled.
Once the range was free of soot,
came the black-leading. Such gorgeous dirt was that black lead, all-
encompassing, greasy and cosmetic, it range look new and beautiful for a
brief time, finally the buffing of the
nickel with emery paper.
After all this effort, and the
pleasing results, it seemed a shame
to light the range. But it had to be
done, and quickly, to heat the water
necessary to clean up the soot-
infested kitchen, and the sooty
stove-cleaner herself. The odour of
heated black lead filled the house,
and the shininess swiftly vanished
from the stove's hottest spots.
If stove and pipes were cleaned
regularly, there was little chance of
a chimney fire, that most frightening of experiences, the one which
caused so many lost homes. - - A
dull roar begins in the region of the
chimney, and gains in strength as
the extra heat generated there
draws the flames in the firebox
higher. Once it starts, little can be
done, except hoping for the best:
That is, that the heat will not ignite
the shingles, walls.
It was all over very quickly,
whatever the outcome; it only
seemed a long-drawn-out affair.
With luck, the flames died out, the
sparks and soot ceased to erupt, the
roar died to a grumble, and finally
to a mutter. Silence... With good fortune, the end result was a hard-won
knowledge that the chimney was,
for the moment at least, clean and
free of soot, in spite of the dangerous way it was achieved. - Hardly
worth the neglect of a necessary
chore.
The author grew up on the Malaspina
Penninsula and now lives in Vancouver.
Writing Competition
The British Columbia Historical Federation invites submissions for its
sixth annual Competition for Writers of B.C. History.
Any book, published in 1988, with historical content is eligible. The
work may be a community history, biography, record of a project, industry
or organization, or personal recollection giving glimpses of the past.
Names, dates, and places turn a story into "history".
The judges are looking for first presentations of historical information
with appropriate illustrations, careful proof reading, an adequate index,
table of contents and bibliography. Monetary prizes are offered in the following categories:
1) Best History Book by an individual author (This is eligible for the
Lieutenant - Governor's Medal).
2) Best Anthology
3) Special Award - for the author or editor of an outstanding book.
All books receive considerable publicity. Those submitting books
should include name, address, telephone number, cost of book, and an address from where the book may be ordered if the reader has to shop by
mail. Books should be mailed as soon as possible after publication to:
British Columbia Historical Federation
c/o Mrs. Naomi Miller
Box 105
Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Deadline for 1988 books is January 31,1989.
********
There is also an award for Best Article each year submitted and published in the British Columbia Historical News. Articles of up to 2500
words, substantiated with footnotes if possible, and accompanied by photographs and maps if available, are welcomed. (Photographs will be returned). Deadlines for submission are welcomed. September 1, December 1,
March 1, and June 1. Articles should be typed, double spaced and mailed,
to:
The Editor
B.C. Historical News
Box 105
Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Winners in all categories will be invited to the annual conference in
Victoria in May 1989.
23
RC. Historical News News From Branches
North Shore Historical Society
1988 has been a good year thus
far for the north Shore Historical
Society. Membership has increased
from less than 60 in 1987 to over 70
at the present date. We have continued to hold monthly meetings with
a speaker or a film, followed by plenty of audience participation and discussion, and refreshments.
In April, the speaker was Mr.
Barry Downs, architect and the author of Sacred Places: British
Columbia's Early Churches. Mr.
Downs spoke on Religious Art and
Architecture in British Columbia,
and because his firm, Downs,
Archambault, had designed the
present North Vancouver City Hall,
we received permission to hold our
meeting in the City Council
Chamber - a historic occasion. In
May, our Society President, Roy
Pallant, gave the first of two talks
on the life and career of George S.
Hanes, who became Engineer of the
City of North Vancouver in 1909,
and was Mayor from 1913 to 1916,
and Liberal Member in the British
Columbia Legislature from 1916.
Mr. Hanes is credited with introducing in 1907 the first reinforced concrete road construction in Canada,
and indeed, in North America, and
becoming, therefore, the "Father of
concrete roads in North America", at
the tender age of 25 years.
In March, acting on behalf of the
North Shore Historical Society, Roy
Pallant contacted the President of
Versatile Pacific Shipyards, formerly
Burrard Drydock, formerly Wallaces
Shipyard, and now facing probable
re-sale. Because some of the heritage landmark buildings are likely
to be demolished, permission was
obtained to photograph them, both
inside and out. The North Shore
Museum and Archives sent their
photographer to do this, although,
RC. Historical News
at such a time, nobody except
Shipyard executives, are usually allowed inside the buildings.
Photographs include the "hull-loft",
a huge structure in which plans and
measurements of ships' hulls could
be laid out on the floor, as used to be
done in the past.
We have written letters to all
three North Shore municipalities, expressing our concern for achieving
the maximum efficiency in cataloguing all buildings built earlier than
1930.
Our President has conducted five
Sunday afternoon "heritage walks"
since last October, mostly focusing
on the North Lonsdale area. Many
of the public have attended, as well
as our Society's membership. Our local Community TV, Shaw Cable 4,
has been running a program called
"Pioneers and Neighbours"; Mr.
Pallant has appeared several times
on this program, talking about the
history of North Vancouver, and on
these occasions his host-interviewer
has been Olga Ruskin, who is herself a long-time member of the North
Shore Historical Society.
E. Grubbe
July 5, 1988
Nanaimo Historical
Society
Annual Report 1987 -1988
The attendance at the meetings
has increased and name tags have
been instituted for those attending
the meetings.
Speakers include Mrs. Lynne
Bowen, who in recognition of the
100th Anniversary, May 3rd, 1887
of the Number One-Coal Mine
Disaster, in which 148 miners lost
24
their lives, gave a detailed informative account of the disastrous day.
Mrs. Bowen also read excerpts from
her new book - "$3.00 Dream" -
covering the period 1848-1900. The
title of the book pertaining to the
amount of pay the miners received
per day. Mr. John Haslam whose
family has lived in the Nanaimo
area for 100 years was interviewed
by the President, Ed. Barraclough re
farming and farm life covering the
period 1860 to the present day.
Miss H. Stewart - author of the
"Adventures and Sufferings of John
R. Jewitt, Captive of Maquinna"
was a fascinating storyteller as she
related the tale that took place
1803-1805. Miss Shelly Harding,
Education and Volunteer Program
Co-Ordinator of the Nanaimo
Museum was speaker at two of our
meetings, in May - she explained
how artifacts are catalogued and the
many details to be taken care of before displays are set up in the
Museum, and in February, spoke on
the preservation of treasures of the
Past so that the articles are safe for
the future. Ed. Barraclough gave an
interesting talk on the adventures of
a group of young men, one of them
being John MacGregor from
Nanaimo who made a six hundred
mile journey of the Klondike to
Skagway by canoe and dog team
around the turn of the century.
Field trips included a trip to the
Cumberland Museum and Newcastle
Island Provincial Park.
A meeting of our society was
held in the local Museum and after
the business meeting, a tour of the
Museum proved interesting. Guests
at this meeting included the Elder
Hostel Group from the Malaspina
College, Nanaimo.
Two valued members passed
away, Mrs. Helen Timmins and Don
Grieve, books in their memory will
be presented to the Museum, also a
book has been presented to the Museum in memory of our late
President, Dr. Seiriol Williams, also
a book has been presented to the
Kinsmen Child Development Centre
in memory of the late Reg.
Dickinson.
All Secondary Schools in the
Nanaimo District have been contacted and are enthusiastic about books
presented by our Society re historical essays.
The Nanaimo Tourist Bureau
contacted the Historical Society - requesting a summary of the history
of Nanaimo (1000 words) and the
Executive Committee compiled a
good report.
The project of identifying and
recording all plaques in the City is
still being carried on.
Princess Royal Day was celebrated on November 27th, when the
Bastion Bell is rung at 11:00 A.M.,
to signify when the pioneers set foot
on land in Nanaimo, 1854.
"Show and Tell" is a popular
feature held in January, the members bring item and give a five minute talk on their history.
Dr. J. Mar has been working diligently re the recognition of the bicentennial of Chinese immigrants
who came to the West Coast of
Vancouver Island, Nootka-1788--
and to commemorate the 100th anniversary -- the naming of the
mountain peak on Vancouver Island
West Coast. Plans are almost finalized and the naming of the peak officially will probably take place,
May 12th, 1988, in Victoria by
Premier Bill Vander Zalm.
Major John Howard delighted
his audience with his talk entitled
"The Capture of Pegasus Bridge"
(near Caen, France) on D Day (June
6, 1944).
1987 -1988 EXECUTIVE
President WE. Barraclough
1st Vice President     Mrs. Daphne
Paterson
2nd Vice President    Frank Thompson
Treasurer TD. Sale
Corresponding
Secretary Mrs. M. NichoUs
Recording Secretary MissDorthy
McCourt
Gerry Andrews Honored
Former B.CH.F. President
Gerry Andrews was honoured by
the University of Victoria on May
26th, when he received the title and
degree of Honorary Doctor of
Engineering. Our members will join
us in congratulating Gerry on this
great honour. Following is the text
of the address by the President of
the University of Victoria on the occasion.
Mr. Chancellor:
I have the honour to present
Gerald Smedley Andrews.
Mr. Andrews attended the normal school of Vancouver, graduating in 1922, and established
the first school in the Metis
Community of Kelly Lake in
1923. He learned the Cree language and travelled extensively through the Peace River district, making friends and
gaining a feel for the country.
With a change in interests, he
then entered the University of
Toronto, from which he received
a B.SC. in Forestry in 1930.
He was a pioneer in the immense effort of surveying and
mapping the territory of British
Columbia; he led the first surveys of the flathead, shuswap
and tranquille districts. The
hardships and difficulties of
conducting field surveys led
him to his interest in the use of
photography from aircraft for
surveying and mapping, which
in turn led him to study photo-
25
grammetry at Oxford and
Dresden. He then returned to
the B.C. Forest Service, and began a long-term effort to develop a provincial air survey program.
During the Second World War,
as a member of the Royal
Canadian Engineers, he was
responsible for the mapping of
underwater and surface conditions of coasts and beaches for
operation overlord. The
Normandy Invasion. For their
service he was made a fellow of
the Royal Geographical Society
of the UK, and was also
awarded an OBE (member, military division) by his Majesty
George VI.
From 1951, Mr. Andrews held
the positions of Surveyor
General of British Columbia
and Director of Surveys and
Mapping. He retired from
Government Service in 1968;
one interesting although inadequate measure of his contribution is that, during his service
with the B.C. Government,
their stock of air photographs
grew from zero to 523,000
items.
In honouring Gerry Andrews
today, the university pays tribute to the very best of the spirit
and skill of B.C.'s Pioneering
Professional Engineers, his contributions to the mapping of
the wilderness of British
Columbia have contributed inestimably to the present state
of development of our province.
Mr. Chancellor, I now ask, on
behalf of the senate of the
University, that you confer
upon Gerald Smedley Andrews
the title and degree of honorary
Doctor of Engineering.
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Writing Competiton 1987
The following books were submitted for the 5th annual Competition for Writers of B.C. History.
Each is available at local bookstores or may be ordered from the address listed below and title.
FIRST PRIZE & LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS MEDAL
Three Dollar Dreams 408 pages Hard Cover
Lynne Bowen $29.95
Oolichan Books A fascinating history of coal mines in the
RO. Box 10 Naaimo ara.
Lantzville, B.C. VOR 1H0
CERTIFICATE OF MERIT
Beth Hill
Horsdai & Schubart Publishers Ltd.
PO. Box 1
Ganges, B.C. VOS 1E0
182 pages Soft Cover
$9.95
A friendly look at the Royal Engineers and
their role in the Colony & Province of British
Columbia.
CERTIFICATE OF MERIT - BEST BIOGRAPHY
Spilsburys Coast
Jim Spilsbuiy & Howard White
A.J. Spilsbury
6691 Madrona Crescent
West Vancouver, B.C. V7W 2J9
442 Squadron History
Capts. TA. Strocel & G. MacDonald
Captain Terry Strocel
442 Transport & Rescue Squadron
Canadian Forces Base, Lazo, B.C. VOR 2K0
Caesars of the Wilderness
Peter C. Newman
Penguin Books Canada Ltd.
2801 John Street
Markham, Ontario, L3R 1B4
The Nootka
Edited by Charles Lillard
Sono Nis Press
Victoria, B.C. V8W 2J8
Succession
David Mitchell
Douglas & Mclntyre Ltd.
1615 Venables Street
Vancouver, B.C. V5L 2H1
A Town Called Chase
Joyce Dunn
Chase Chamber of Commerce
Box 592
Chase, B.C. VOE 1M0
190 pages Hard Cover
$24.95
The story of life in remote coastal sites and
the coming of radio. Pioneers in the Wet
West.
144 pages Hard Cover
$20.00
The story of a west coast squadron from
inception to present day.
450 pages Hard Cover
$25.00
A superb book. The history of the Hudson's
Bay Company in western Canada. Scant
B.C. content precludes it from a B.C. prize.
216 pages Hard Cover
$18.95
Annotated reprint of the diary of Gilbert Malcom
Sproat.
201 pages Hard Cover
$24.95
A well written record of the Social Credit party in
B.C.
383 pages Soft Cover
$15.95
The history of Chase, the town on Little Shuswap
Lake.
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You're All Grown Up Vancouver!
Margaret Evans
Hancock House Publishers Ltd.
19313 Zero Avenue
Surrey, B.C. V3S 5J9
Early History of Port Moody
D.M. Norton
Hancock House Publishers
19313 Zero Avenue
Surrey, B.C. V3S 5J9
Grand Forks • The First 100 Years
J.B. & Alice Glanville
J.G. Glanville
Box 746
Grand Forks, B.C. VOH 1H0
Our First Century
Les Cummings
First Baptist Church
969 Burrard Street
Vancouver, B.C. V6Z 1Y1
West of the Great Divide
Robert Turner
Sono Nis Press
1745 Blanshard Street
Victoria, B.C. V8W2J8
Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt
Hilary Stewart
Douglas & Mclntyre
1615 Venables Street
Vancouver, B.C. V5L 2H1
First Water Tigers
Dave Parker
Sono Nis Press
1745 Blanshard Street
Victoria, B.C. V8W2J8
Steaming Through Northern Waters
Phylis Bowman
R Bowman
688 Skeena Drive
Port Edward, B.C. VOV1G0
Second World War Memories
Phylis Bowman
688 Skeena Drive
Port Edward, B.C. VOV 1G0
Land of Plenty
D.E. Isenor, WN. McInnes, E.G. Stephens
& D.E. Watson
D. Isenor
Office H. 830 Cliffe Street
Courtena,B.C.V9N2J7
Pioneer Pipers of B.C.
Carl Ian Walker
CI. Walker
Box 381
Squamish, B.C. VON 3G0
96 pages 8 1/2x11" Paperback
$9.95
A child's eye view of Vancouver history.
Illustrations by Barb Wood.
180 pages Soft Cover
$12.95
The human story of one town's grit and
determination 1700 -1914.
188 pages Soft Cover
$13.50
The Boundary Country celebrates the 100th
anniversary of the arrival of its earliest settlers.
84 pages Soft Cover
$9.50
A record of activities of Baptist congregations in
the changing community of Vancouver.
336 pages Hard Cover
$39.95
A detailed history of the Canadian Pacific Railway
in B.C. Well illustrated.
189 pages Hard Cover
$29.95
The presentation of journal kept by a prisoner of
Maquinna 1803-1805 and explanatory history of
that era.
234 pages Hard Cover
$34.95
The story of Victoria's fire fighters and fire
engines through the years.
80 pages Soft Cover
$5.95
An illustrated history of shipping on the North
Coast.
84 pages Soft Cover
$5.95
An illustrated history of Prince Rupert in WWII
464 pages Hard Cover
$39.95
125 years of European presence in the Comox-
Courtenay-Cumberland area.
286 pages Hard Cover
$35.00
A directory of B.C. residents who have performed
on bagpipes.
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27
RC Historical News Report On The B.C.-Alberta
Historical Conference
Banff, Alberta 1988
The Historical Society of Alberta
and the British Columbia Historical
Federation held a joint conference at
the Banff Centre from Thursday
May to Sunday, May 8, 1988.
Delegates and visitors were welcomed and registered by Dr. Fred
Holberton of Calgary who handled
the pre-registration and facilities coordination for the conference.
Commencing at 7:30 p.m. on
Thursday a welcoming reception
was held in a penthouse lounge
overlooking the Bow Valley.
President Naomi Miller brought
greetings declaring that the B.C.
Historical Federation was now 65
years old. President Elise Cobet extended a welcome on behalf of the
now 82 year old Historical Society of
Alberta. Eight large groups then
participated in a get acquainted
"Buzz session" at the end of which
the appointed leaders or scribes
gave a varied and interesting report
of the input of each group from a list
of suggested historical concerns.
B.C. Historical Federation members met Friday morning in Room
300 for their Annual General
Meeting, while the Historical Society
of Alberta met in Room 307 for their
annual meeting. Basic highlights of
the B.C.H. F. Meeting included the
following:
Greetings from the Honorary
President Dr. W Kaye Lamb delivered by Anne Yandle.
Roll Call of Societies - 14
Branches were represented.
Reading of 1987 A.G.M. Minutes
by retiring Recording - Secretary,
Margaret Stoneberg; Treasurer's
Report by George Newell; Summary
RC Historical News
of letters received and sent by
Corresponding Secretary Don Sale;
President's Report from Naomi
Miller.
Invitations - to hold the 1989
A.G.M. in Victoria, the 1990 A.G.M.
in Grand Forks, 1991 in Cowichan,
and 1992 in Burnaby.
5) New Business:
Agreement in principle to send a
delegate to the Annual Conference of
Heritage Canada in September 1988
in Charlottetown, PE.I.
Introduction of Associate
(Individual) Memberships. This new
category of membership is designed
to allow individuals who cannot affiliate with a branch society to be more
fully informed on Council activities,
and to receive an invitation to attend the annual conference. The
price of this membership will be the
cost of an individual subscription
plus a nominal membership fee.
This year that will be $8.00 plus
$2.00. Current individual subscribers to the British Columbia
Historical News will be informed of
this option when their next renewal
notice is sent out to them.
Current fees to remain the same
as set in 1987.
6) Reports from Branches - these
will be published in the NEWS.
7) Elections on slate presented
by nominations Chairman Anne
Yandle.
8) Adjournment following numerous well deserved votes of thanks.
28
Following the lunch break the
delegates and visitors from both
Societies assembled in Room 300 of
Donald Cameron Hall to hear
Maryalice Harvey Stewart speak on
"Park Wardens in Rocky Mountain
Parks." Her talk traced the trails
and tribulations of the park wardens over the past century with special mention of the earlier ones.
Several humorous incidents were recounted. The development of fire
fighting techniques, warden schools,
and methods of travel were included. After coffee break John Adams of
Victoria spoke on "Heritage
Cemeteries: Finding History in a
Graveyard." This well documented
slide presentation included various
methods of marking graves and burial areas as practised by ethnic
groups in many parts of the province. Two tours of the Walter
Phillips Art Gallery concluded the
afternoon. Displays here are ever
changing and the current exhibit
featured items used by handicapped
individuals.
Syd Feuz of Golden gave a slide
show with commentary on "Alpine
Guiding; The Swiss Guides and
Others". Feuz's grandfather, father
and two uncles had been mountaineering guides for the CPR. from
1897 - 1930. Syd is a practicing
heli-ski guide. The views shown covered climbers from 1900 to modern
daredevils climbing icefalls and
steep cliffs.
Friday evening concluded with a
panel discussion of "Umbrella
Groups; Their Role in Heritage
Preservation." chaired by Terry
Chapman of Medicine Hat College.
Panelists were Ross Keith from
Regina, Saskatchewan Myrtle
Haslam of Duncan, B.C., and Morris
Flewelling of Red Deer, Alberta. All
participants agreed that specific
projects of historical worth must be
undertaken, sources of funds must
be sought and cooperation between
parallel organizations intensified.
Provincial umbrella groups could include such groups as archaeologists,
architects, gemologists, historical,
museum and other heritage organizations interested in preservation, pride, and mutual support.
On Saturday morning, May 7,
participants could choose from three
workshops held at 9 a.m. and one
from three topics offered at 10:45
a.m. A popular choice was "Helpful
Hints to Would be Writers" by Dr.
G.P.V. Akrigg and Helen Akrigg.
Items covered by these speakers
started with the gathering of working tools, choosing a topic, use of index cards, maps, pictures, through
assessing the written product, approaching a publisher, and advice re
marketing. "Preservation of Old
Books" was demonstrated by
Charles Brandt of Black Creek,
B.C., while Donald J. Bourdon of
the Whyte gallery in Banff illustrated his talk on "Care and Handling
of Archival Collections for Small
Institutions and Collectors." Choices
for the later session included further
instruction on Book Binding by
Charles Brandt; "Tracing Your
Family Tree" by Genealogist Enid
Fitzsimmons of Edmonton; and a
slide presentation on "Medicinal
and Nutritional Wild Plants and
Herbs" by Donna Coulter of Fort
McLeod with "Pioneer Foods and
Recipes in Alberta and B.C." by
Bunny Barss.
After lunch participants either
toured the Whyte Museum, or the
Cave and Basin, or went on a conducted hike up Tunnel Mountain.
Half the hikers were with a guide
from Parks Canada while the others
were escorted by Harvey Locke, a
lawyer from Calgary. The weather
was perfect for enjoying the Rockies
at their best.
Approximately 140 members
and guests assembled for the banquet of roast beef, Yorkshire pudding and the trimmings. Margaret
Stoneberg was presented with a corsage in recognition of her eleven
years as Recording Secretary,
B.C.H.F.. Honorable Greg Stevens,
M.L.A. for Banff-Cochrane and
Minister of Culture and
Multiculturalism presented the
Historical Society of Alberta Award
of Mr. Bill Peters. Mr. Don Sale,
Chairman of the B.CH.F. Writing
Awards Committee presented a
Certificate of Merit to Mr. Jim
Spilsbury, author of Spilsbury's
Coast. He then presented the
Lieutenant-Governor's Medal and a
Certificate of Merit to Mrs. Lynne
Bowen, author of the 1987 winning
historical book Three Dollar
Dreams.
The after dinner speaker was
Mr. Jon Whyte, Curator of the
Whyte Museum. He gave a brief
background of Banff which celebrated its centenary recently. Pointing
out the importance of geography
and mythology, he went on to refer
to great epics such as Chaucer's
Canterbury Tales, Shakespeare's
works, Dicken's Tale of Two Cities
and Berton's National Dream. He
then regaled his audience with samples of local poetry rich in alliteration, imitative harmony, metaphors
and similes, expertly narrated with
expression. Naomi Miller, retiring
president of the B.CH.F. suitably
thanked the speaker. A memorable
joint conference was brought to a
close with a "Thank You" to
Leonard McCann for initiating the
idea, and with an invitation to
Albertans to join us in Burnaby in
1992.
Submitted by T.D. Sale
Secretary, B.C.H. Federation
Nanaimo, B.C.
COMING
SOON
Packtrains in the Cassiar, Curio
Dealers in Victoria, a
Settlement Scheme for
Galiano, and Excerpt from
Edgar Dewdney's Journal will
be in Volume 22 No. 1.
Theme for Spring 1989 issue is
to be "Education". This can be
on formal or informal education.
Deadline for these articles is
March 1,1989.
The Fall 1989 issue will be
"Memories of the 1930's".
Best Article
Winner 1987
Ron Hawker received a
Certificate of Merit for his article
"Chateau Prince Rupert: A
Forgotten Dream." Hawker was attending the University of Victoria at
the time, where he earned a
Masters degree in History in Art.
(M.A.) His thesis topic was
"Gravestones Among TsimShan
Indians". He presented a paper at
the B.C. Historical Federation second Symposium on Heritage
Cemeteries.
Following graduation from the
University of Victoria, Hawker and
his wife moved to Japan. Both are
teaching English at a private conversation school in Matsuyama.
Look for another article by this
author in the coming issue.
Ehse Corbett
29
RC Historical News Bookshelf
Whalers No More, A History of
Whaling on the West Coast
by WA. Hagelund, Madeira Park,
B.C., Harbour Publishing Company
Ltd., 1987
211 Pages $24.95
This book is a pleasant switch
from the currently popular apologetic school of writing on the history of
Canada's whaling industry. It is
written by a former whaler who provides a first hand account of the reasons men went whaling, their experiences at seas, and their lives
ashore. There sure no mind-numbing
statistics presented nor impassioned
arguments for either side of the
whaling controversy. There is rather
a vivid social history of the nearly
forgotten whaling life.
When asked how he could kill a
whale the author presented the argument that whaling provided society with many essential products
and that it was traditionally the
pursuit of the very poor, the very
hungry, and very desperate men.
The pointed out that the industry
brought out the best and the worst
of the men who laboured there: <...
courage, tenacity and feats of seamanship were virtues... but they
were also guilty of greed and
waste.>
His personal horror at the killing
of his first whale is evidence that
whalers are not wanton killers but
rather the professional hunters of
the sea: <If filled me with awe for
the great creature we had hunted
and mortified me with the first time.
Later our skills because more keen
and I hardened to the job of hunting
and dispatching whales; these feelings could be submerged and ignored in the necessary routines of
the job which was earning me a liv-
RC Historical News
ing.> Other passages give insights
into how the whalers learned their
trade aboard ship.
The book is excellent in describing the technology and social history
of the modern Pacific steam whaling, both at sea and ashore. Of particular use is the inclusion of diagrams of vessels and whaling
stations at Naden and Coal
Harbour. While the author relies primarily on his own experiences for his
material he also records the early
history of Pacific whaling and the
men who made the industry - the
gunners, pilots, and entrepreneurs.
Another reason this work is
available is that it recognizes that
the romance of whaling persisted up
to the twentieth century and the advent of the modern whaling vessel
which had steam powered ships.
After reading the book, however, few
readers will conclude that steam
whaling does not have a romanticism of its own. This is touchingly
pointed out in the author's reason
for writing the book: <... because an
old man held determinedly to a
dream long enough for [the author]
to realize that when he and his
dream went we would have lost an
important touchstone with our country's historic past... his dream was
to refit the old steam whaler Green
to go to sea again. It was an impossible dream for almost twenty years
he nursed it, and it became his vital
spark of life.>
Taken from the point of view of
the participant rather than the protester this book shows that modern
Pacific steam whaling is as romantic
as traditional whaling. Given a century's time it too may be deemed
worthy of commemoration. As with
the author's previous book on B.C.
30
whalers, Flying the Chase Flag, it
is a valuable contribution to British
Columbia's maritime history as well
as being thoroughly enjoyable to
read.
Duncan Stacey
Duncan Stacey is a fishing historian
based in Vancouver, and currently doing work
for the National Museum of Canada.
Three Dollar Dreams
by Lynne Bowne. Lantzville,
B.C. Oolichan Books, 1987. PP 373;
illustrated, bibliography, glossary
and index $29.95
Three Dollar Dreams is Lynne
Bowen's second book about the coal
miners of Vancouver Island. Her first
work. Boss Whistle, describes the
Island's mines in the words of the
men and women who lived the story
during the twentieth century. Three
Dollar Dreams traces the origins
and development of the mining communities during the previous century. Bowen begins with the efforts of
the Hudson's Bay Company to import miners and produce coal at Fort
Rupert in 1848. The subsequent
emergency of the mature industry
forms the backdrop for her narrative.
The book focuses on the lives of the
men who worked the mines, their
families, the dangers associated
with working the coal, and the frustrations and joys of their daily lives.
Bowen writes with a clear affection
for her subjects; and both books reflect a dedication and enthusiasm to
ensure that the memories of the
miners and their families are not
lost now that the mines are closed.
Boss Whistle was firmly rooted in the extensive interviews with
twentieth century miners conducted
by the Coal Tyee Society. It was, in
Bowen's words, "a book about coal
miners ... built from the words of
coal miners." It called upon the
memories and language of the participants for its inspiration and its
detail. Three Dollar Dreams is necessarily a different type of history.
The actors are no longer available
for one last interview. Still, Bowen
would have the participants tell
their own story so far as possible.
Instead of tape recorded interviews,
she calls upon "diaries, letters,
court transcripts, newspapers and
Royal Commissions" to provide the
words of the miners. These are not
usual tools; they are the common
property of all historians. Thus, she
has produced a more traditional
work of history -- in so far as its
sources do not set it apart - and, as
such, it is dependent upon the writer, not the historical actor, for its
form, substance and direction.
The result is an episodic narrative, frequently rich in detail, and
occasionally tinged with nostalgia.
Two shop-worn themes run through
the book: "it is about a time when a
young boy could start in the mine
as the lowest of workers and could
become through a lot of hard work
and a little luck, a boss or even a
millionaire." It is also "about a time
when many, no matter how hardworking, did not achieve their
dream and settled for a lot less."
The Horatio Alger myth embodied
in the rise of the Dunsmuirs and a
few others is presented in counterpoint with the all too stark realities
of life for most miners and their
families. It is this second theme
which informs the bulk of the books.
Both themes are presented rather
uncritically and are used as organizing frameworks for the narrative.
Bowen presents a wide range of
subjects to the reader with a strong
emphasis on the details of individual lives. The early histories of the
coal mines and the communities
that grew up beside them --
Nanaimo, Wellington, Cumberland
and others are described in consider
able detail. There is a strong sense
of place: commerce, politics and social events are interwoven with details from the histories of the
Hudson's Bay Company, the
Vancouver Coal Mining and Land
Company, and the Dunsmuir companies. Efforts to unionize the
mines against the absolute opposition of the Dunsmuirs or along the
more paternalistic lines of other coal
operators are explored. The world of
work underground and the changes
brought about by new technologies
are clearly described. Conflicts stemming from the employment of
Chinese and Japanese in the mines
are presented in terms that are
sympathetic and understanding to
all parties. But Bowen is at her best
and makes the most eloquent use of
the words drawn from the past
when she draws upon the reports
and inquests following explosions
and fires in the mines. The tales of
the survivors offer a grim testimony
to the dangers inherent in earning a
living digging coal.
If anything, Bowen has attempted to tell too much too quickly. One topic flows rapidly into another; the result is sometimes
confusion, sometimes an engrossing
story. Three Dollar Dreams is based
on solid research which is evident
from the extensive bibliography. The
glossary is also quite useful for
those who are not familiar with coal
mining terminology. But the effort
to provide a wealth of detail on all
topics sometimes does a disservice
to the reader as it disrupts the narrative. A higher degree of selectivity
in her use of the evidence available
to her could have produced a more
tightly organized book.
Unfortunately, to have done so
would have been at the expense of
the stories of individual lives that
give the book much of its strength
and one of its primary reasons for
having been written.
Taken together, Three Dollar
Dreams and Boss Whistle, provide
the general reader with a good introduction to the coal mines of
Vancouver Island. They also rescue
the lives of many of the less-than-
31
famous from obscurity. Three Dollar
Dreams is particularly valuable in
that it makes a large body of scholarly research on the origins and development of coal mining and miners available to the general public in
a readable if less argumentative
form. The lack of footnotes will
present a problem for the academic
reader but should not pose any
problem for the general reader who
wishes to know more about the
mines, the lives of the miners, and
the history of Vancouver Island.
Logan W. Hovis
Logan Hovis is an industrial
historian, based in Vancouver.
Steaming through Northern
Waters
by Phyllis Bowman. Port
Edward, B.C., 1987. 80 p. illus.
$5.95.
Steaming through Northern
Waters is the latest in Phyllis
Bowman's series of photo essays on
north coast subjects. In the 80 pages of the book there are many photographs of old river boats and coastal
vessels, with extensive captions
which make up most of the text.
Some of the material has appeared
elsewhere, and a few of the photographs suffer from poor reproduction. The book is available from the
author at 688 Skeena Drive, Port
Edward, B.C. VOV 1G0.
John Kendrick
John Kendrick's, a member of
the Vancouver Historical Society has
recently had his second local history
published - People of the Snow - the
history of Kitimat.
Shuswap Chronicles, Vol. 1,
1988. Published by the North
Shuswap Historical Society. 32 p.
This is the first annual publication of the North Shuswap
Historical Society whose goal is to
"combine accurate historical analy-
RC Historical News sis with entertaining anecdotes from
our pioneers". This issue has a variety of articles, varying from
"George Mercer Dawson, Shuswap
explorer" to "Cooking for the Crew".
It is available from North Shuswap
Historical Society, General Delivery,
Celista, B.C. VOE 1L0.
birth of the City of Trail.
Winter snow still covered the ground
when in January, 1896 construction of a
narrow-gauge tramway to the Rossland
mines was begun.
Despite the weather, grading went
ahead while on the water-front at the
steamboat landing tracks were laid and a
small depot built.
Early in April a scowload of rolling
stock was towed downriver from
Arrowhead and an engine and four ore
cars which had been used on the
Dunmore & Lethbridge Railway in
Alberta were unloaded.
In a short time No. 2, an eight-wheel
engine, was running up and down the
track under the Big Bridge on Bay Ave.
After one or two trails over greasy
rails, the end of track was reached and
then the job of forwarding ties and rails
was begun by all hands.
Laying one-quarter to one-half mile
a day, the work crew made rapid
progress and by June the first trains ran
from Trail into Rossland, winding up the
steep hillside in a series of switchbacks.
Two daily trains and a night train
were needed to handle all the freight and
passengers. More rolling stock was acquired in Salt Lake City from the Utah
Northern Railroad.
Eleven flatcars, six boxcars, an engine, a first-class coach and a private
care which had belonged to the president
of the Mormon railway, John W Young,
a son of Brigham Young, were brought to
Northport and then upriver to Trail by
barge.
The former private coach was remodelled, one-half being fitted as a
drawing room and was used by Heinze on
his frequent visits to Trail.
The passenger coaches were well patronized and a visitor reports that occupants were packed in like sardines in a
can, while on gala days people even
clung to cowcatcher and tops of cars.
Trail was now, as the masthead of
the Trail Creek News proclaimed, "a Rail
and Steamboat Headquarters."
F. Augustus Heinze, the highflying
buccaneer capitalist from Butte,
Montana, was the builder of the Trail
Creek Tramway.
It was he who had conceived the
idea of smelting Rossland ores at the
steamboat landing on the Columbia
River and accordingly had erected a copper smelter on a bench above the river.
At first ore was hauled downhill
from the mines to the smelter yard by
horse-drawn wagons but Heinze constructed the narrow-gauge to replace the
horses.
Not content with this, he organized
the Columbia & Western Railway
Company and obtained a charter to build
a railroad from Trail to Midway.
Main offices were established in a
big frame building up the hill st Smelter
Junction - that same building was demolished but a few weeks ago.
Late in 1896 the Columbia &
Western absorbed the Trail Creek
Tramway and the following year built a
rail line along the Columbia River from
Trail to Robson.
In 1898 the CPR bought Heinze's
property in British Columbia and became owners of his smelter and railroads.
The little narrow-gauge line to
Rossland was widened to standard width
and in 1903 the depot was moved from
the waterfront to its present location on
Cedar Ave.
The advent of the railway made
sternwheelers on the river obsolete and
for many years the railway brought supplies to Trail and carried passengers to
distant points.
Now that era has passed and the
tracks have been taken up to make way
for motor transport on a modern highway.
John Adams
John Spittle
RC Historical News
32 THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL FEDERATION
Honorary Patron:
Honorary President:
Officers
His Honour, the Honourable Robert G. Rogers, Lieutenant-Governor of
British Columbia
Dr. W. Kaye Lamb
President
1st Vice President
2nd Vice President
Secretary
Recording Secretary
Treasurer
Members-at-Large
Past President
Editor
John D. Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Road, North Vancouver, B.C. V7R 1R9
988-4565 (residence)
Myrtle Haslam, 1975 Wessex Road, Cowichan Bay, B.C. VOR 1N0
748-8397 (residence)
Dorothy Crosby, 33662 Northcote Crescent, Mission, B.C. V2V 5V2
826-8808
T. Don Sale, 262 Juniper Street, Nanaimo, B.C. V9S 1X4
753-2067 (residence)
Shirley Cuthbertson, 306 - 225 Belleville Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 4Y9
387-2407 (business), 382-0288 (residence)
George R. Newell, 27 Seagirt Road, R.R. 1, Sooke, B.C. VOS 1 NO
642-5072 (residence)
Margaret Stoneberg, PO. Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
295-3362 (residence)
Alice Glanville, P.O. Box 746, Grand Forks, B.C. V0H 1H0
442-3865
Naomi Miller, Box 105, Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
422-3594 (residence)
Naomi Miller, Box 105, Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
422-3594 (residence)
Chairmen of Committees
Historic Trails
and Markers
B. C. Historical News
Publishing Committee
Lieutenant- Governor's
Award Committee
John D. Spittle
Ann W. Johnston, R.R. 1, Mayne Island, B.C. VON 2J0
539-2888 (Residence)
Naomi Miller
Publications Assistance Helen Akrigg, 8-2572 Tolmie Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6R 4M1
Committee
(not involved with
B.C. Historical News)
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