British Columbia History

British Columbia History British Columbia Historical Federation 2006

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Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation  | Vol.39 No. 4  |   $5.00
This Issue: Tribute to Anne Yandle | Fraser Canyon Park | Bells | and More
/ British Columbia History
Journal of the British Columbia Historical
Federation Published four times a year.
ISSN: print 1710-7881 online 1710-792X
British Columbia History welcomes stories, studies,
and news items dealing with any aspect of the
history of British Columbia, and British Columbians.
Please submit manuscripts for publication to the
Editor, British Columbia History,
John Atkin,
921 Princess Avenue, Vancouver BC V6A 3E8
e-mail: johnatkin(§
Book reviews for British Columbia History,
Please submit books for review to:
Frances Gundry
PO Box 5254, Station B., Victoria BC V8R 6N4
Subscription 6t subscription information:
Alice Marwood
8056 168A Street, Surrey B C V4N 4Y6
Phone 604-576-1548
e-mail amarwood@telus. net
Subscriptions: $18.00 per year
For addresses outside Canada add $10.00
Single copies of recent issues are for sale at:
- Arrow Lakes Historical Society, Nakusp BC
- Book Warehouse, 4th Ave fit Broadway, Vancouver
- Books and Company, Prince George BC
- Gibson Coast Books, Gibsons BC
- Galiano Museum
- Gray Creek Store, Gray Creek BC
- Royal Museum Shop, Victoria BC
- Otter Books in Nelson
- Caryall Books in Quesnel
This publication is indexed in the Canadian Magazine
Index, published by Micromedia.
ISSN: 1710-7881
Articles appearing in this journal are abstracted and
Production Mail Registration Number 1245716
Publications Mail Registration No. 09835 Member of the
British Columbia Association of Magazine Publishers
While copyright in the journal as a whole is vested
in the British Columbia Historical Federation,
copyright in the individual articles belongs to their
respective authors, and articles may be reproduced
for personal use only. For reproduction for other
purposes permission in writing of both author and
publisher is required.
British Columbia Historical Federation
A charitable society under the Income Tax Act Organized 31 October 1922
PO Box 5254, Station B., Victoria BC V8R 6N4
Under the Distinguished Patronage of Her Honour
The Honourable lona Campagnolo. PC, CM, OBC
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia
Honourary President
Naomi Miller
Patricia Roy - 602-139 Clarence St., Victoria, BC, V8V 2J1
First Vice President
Tom Lymbery - 1979 Chainsaw Ave., Gray Creek, BC, VOB 1S0 Phone 250.227.9448
FAX 250.227.9449
Second Vice President
Webb Cummings - 924 Bellevue St., New Denver, BC, VOG 1S0 Phone 250.358.2656
Pam Welwood - 1383 Mallard Road, Parksville, BC, V9P 2A3 Phone 250.752.1888
Members at Large
Tony Cox - Box 571, Lions Bay, BC, V0N-2E0 Phone 604.921.9496
Lorraine Irving - 1131 East 23rd Ave., Vancouver, BC, V5V 1Y8 Phone 604.874.8748
Past President
Jacqueline Gresko - 5931 Sandpiper Court, Richmond, BC, V7E-3P8 Phone 604.274.4383
Historical Trails and Markers
Charles Hou - 3378 West 39th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V6N 3A2   Phone 604.266.2214
W. Kaye Lamb Essay Scholarships Committee
Marie Elliott - c/o BC Historical Federation, P.O. Box 5254, Station B., Victoria, BC, V8R 6N4
Writing Competition Lieutenant-Governor's Award
Barbara Hynek - 2477 140th St., Surrey, BC V4P 2C5 Phone 604.535.9090 the Federation's web site is hosted by Selkirk College in Cast/egar, BC BCHF Prizes | Awards | Scholarships
"Any country worthy of a future should
be interested in its past"
W. Kaye Lamb, 1937
w. KAYb LAMb bssay scholarships
Deadline 15 May 2007
The British Columbia Historical
Federation awards two scholarships
annually for essays written by
students at BC colleges or
universities, on a topic relating to
British Columbia history.  One
scholarship ($750) is for an essay
written by a student in a first or
second year course; the other
($1000) is for an essay written by a
student in a third or fourth year
To apply for the scholarship all
candidates must submit (1) a letter
of application and (2) a letter of
recommendation from the professor
for whom the essay was written.
First and second year course essays
should be1,500-3,000 words; third
and fourth year, 1,500 to 5,000
words. All essays must be on a topic
relating to the history of British
Columbia. By entering the
scholarship competition the student
gives the editor of BC History the
right to edit and publish the essay if
it is deemed appropriate for the
Applications should be submitted to:
Marie Elliott, Chair BC Historical
Federation Scholarship Committee,
PO Box 5254, Station B, Victoria, BC
V8R 6N4
BC History Web Site Prize
The British Columbia Historical
Federation and David Mattison are
jointly sponsoring a yearly cash award
of $250 to recognize Web sites that
contribute to the understanding and
appreciation of British Columbia's
past. The award honours individual
initiative in writing and presentation.
Nominations for the BC History Web
Site Prize must be made to the British
Columbia Historical Federation, Web
Site Prize Committee, prior to 31
December 2007. Web site creators
and authors may nominate their own
sites. Entry information can be found
Best Article Award
A Certificate of Merit and fifty dollars
will be awarded annually to the
author of the article, published in BC
History, that best enhances knowledge
ot British Columbia's history and
provides reading enjoyment. Judging
will be based on subject development,
writing skill, freshness of material,
and appeal to a general readership
interested in all aspects of BC history.
The Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation | Volume 39 Number 4 2006
Remembering Anne
Stanley Park's Lost Garden
Chris Hay 4
A Tradesman's Paridise
Jude Goertzen  8
Ingraham Beer Parlour
GlenMofford  13
A proposal for a New Park on the Fraser Canyon
Charles Hou 16
Origins of the Vancouver Name
John Robson 23
King's Lynn Celebrates
For Whom The Bell Tolls
Dudley Booth 26
Con Jones & the Don't Argue Tokens of Vancouver: Token History
Ronald Greene  28
Archives and Archivists 31
Book Reviews 33
Miscellany 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       1 Remembering Anne
Anne McMaster (Carson) Yandle, 1930-2006
One October, Anne Yandle took
the ferry to Gabriola Island to
participate in a tribute to
Malcolm Lowry and his final
novel, October Ferry to Gabriola. When her
turn came to speak, she stood with folded
arms, twinkling eyes, sly smile, and with the
lilt of Irish laughter in her voice turned her
presentation, dryly entitled "The Lowry
Collection at UBC" into something warm
and meaningful for every one in her
audience of scholars, collections, writers,
librarians, artists, assorted bookworms, and
a representative group of Lowry's friends
and neighbours.
She began with a little about herself, "In
1961,1 was a fairly recent immigrant and knew
little about Canadian literature. I was
interested in Canadiana, and took the position
in Special Collections because, to me, it was
the best job in the library, the best job in B.C."
Then, as she spoke about the Lowry
Collection, how it came to be, how it
developed, and the people involved, she,
perhaps inadvertently, revealed how her
unique blend of hard work, people skills,
canniness and sheer charm, made her a
beloved and respected doyenne of the book
community, and a magnificently successful
fund raiser.
While presiding over and nurturing the
books, manuscripts, and memorabilia, she
found their intrinsic value enhanced by their
human associations. We who have enjoyed her
kindly hospitality, appreciate the
understatement in her remark, "Although I
don't operate a hotel, many of these people
have stayed at my house from time to time
and have become firm friends." Some guests
tried her patience more than others, like the
Lowry biographer who "burned gallons of
midnight oil and drank pints of her gin telling
her about his detective work in piecing
together his book." But they provided
material for the wicked and witty stories with
which she spiced her conversation.
And she did like to talk about people.
When I moved to Gabriola from Vancouver,
she became my major source of news. Our
final exchange of e-mails concerned two sets
of mutual friends who seem about to live
happily ever after. She found us interesting,
amusing, and for the most part likeable.
Researchers whom other librarians
considered tediously obsessed, she enjoyed
for those obsessions, and usually managed
to earth in their particular interest
something to benefit Special Collections. She
loved connections, putting people in touch
with each other, even matching the right
book with the right reviewer, not necessarily
the most favourably deposed reviewer.
Of course, she tended much more
than the Lowry Collection. A browse of the
UBC Rare Books and Special Collections
web page turns up documents from
Canadian authors, Pre-Raphaelites, trade
unions, political parties, explorers and
pioneers and writers of books for children.
She took an interest and delight in every part
of her trust, preserving and adding to the
collections, and sharing her interest and
delight. She once led me deep into the stacks
to gaze upon an Alice in Wonderland
illustrated by Salvador Dali. One could not
predict what might strike her as wonderful.
When I first came to know her well,
in the late 70s, British Columbia was gearing
up to celebrate the Captain Cook
Bicentenary. Anne would come to coffee
break full of excitement about rare editions
of the Journeys, and anecdotes about
historians and geographers. But it was not
only the Very Important Explorers and
Eminent Scholars who mattered to her.
While appreciative of the
achievements and contributions of
professional historians, scholars, and
writers, she valued the little community
histories and self-published personal
memoirs, and believed the mandate of the
large British Columbia libraries should
include collecting British Columbia
publications. After her retirement she used
her new freedom to find these modest
documents and bully libraries into acquiring
them. Through Marco Polo Books, which
she and Jill Rowland started after her
retirement, and their catalogues and
displays at book fairs exhibitions and
conferences, notably the Annual Conference
of   the   British   Columbia   Historical
Federation, she publicized and promoted
the printed record of the province and its
She had an infinite capacity for
friendship. She visited us when we were sick
and empathized with our triumphs and
disappointments. She loved Bard on the
Beach and concerts at the Chan Centre. She
cared about books and buildings and people
and fair play. She cared about us.
We miss her very much.
Phyllis Reeve
Anne Yandle had many friends
who were interested in British
Columbia's history; and she
frequently introduced those
who shared this common interest. Often this
happened to me and in one case the
individual involved was Dr. W Kaye Lamb.
While I was working at Selkirk
College, Anne contacted me at the Library
in late 1997, to ascertain whether or not we
would be interested in receiving complete
sets of Champlain Society (including the
Ontario series) and Hudson's Bay Record
Society publications. The major BC public
university libraries already had these
publications and did not wish to have
duplicate copies. Such a collection was
deemed to be a most useful asset for college
faculty and student researchers, so
arrangements were made with Dr. Lamb's
daughter, Elizabeth Hawkins, to ship the
books from Ottawa to Castlegar, naturally,
an inventory was taken when the shipment
During this evaluation, it was
discovered that the provenance of the
collection was historical in more ways than
one. The earlier imprints were originally the
property of Dr. Lamb's friend, Judge F.W.
Howay and when Dr. Lamb inherited the
collection he continued to subscribe to the
same series number. It also became evident
that a few of the titles relating to British
Columbia were not included in the shipment
e.g. David Thompson's Narrative and the
Journal of Lady Aberdeen. It was assumed
that Dr. Lamb had packed them in his move
back to Vancouver —this assumption
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3 proved to be correct.
In May 1998, while attending the BC
Historical Federation's Surrey conference,
Anne and I visited Dr. Lamb at his West End
apartment. He was bedridden, but alert and
loquacious. After the usual introductory
small talk (he was my first library employer
as the National Librarian of Canada), I
broached the topic of the missing titles and
vividly remember his cryptic response:
"Greedy bugger aren't you!" This remark
took both of us completely by surprise, but
we frequently had a chuckle about it
whenever we met.
Selkirk College Library did receive
these "missing' books to complete the set
where they are now safely shelved in a
locked, glass cabinet.
R.J. (Ron) Welwood
It is with great sadness that the
members of the Vancouver Historical
Society and the British Columbia
Historical Federation mourn the
death of Anne Yandle, one of their longest
serving members. Anne died of cancer on
December 12* 2006 after a comparatively
short illness.
Anne was born near Ballymoney,
Northern Ireland, December 27,1930. She
grew up there with her two brothers Robert
and David. She received her B.A and B.Com
at Trinity College Dublin before coming to
Canada in the late 1950s. Anne worked
briefly at the Vancouver Public Library
before attending McGill University School
of Librarianship. Her career as a member of
the Special Collections Division of the
University of British Columbia Library
began on July 1961. By the time of her
retirement in 1991, Anne had developed one
of the most outstanding research collections
in North America with special emphasis on
British Columbia history and literature.
Very soon after settling in Vancouver,
Anne joined the Vancouver Historical
Society where she became one of the most
active members. Anne's love for history,
especially that of her province, was always
reflected in her work. As W. Kaye Lamb
wrote in 1937, "any country worthy of a
future should be interested in the past".
Anne served on many committees and
through her various contacts she was always
able to suggest names for speakers and
projects. One of the most important projects
was the Vancouver Bibliography which was
published in four volumes in 1986. It is now
on-line at the University ofBritish Columbia
as a result of Anne's efforts.
Anne and her husband Phil published
and edited the BC Historical News (now BC
History) for more than ten years. Anne also
began to edit the book review section of the
News which she continued until her death.
After her retirement, Anne and her friend Jill
Rowland established Marco Polo Books. The
collection was always heavily oriented to BC
history and travel. Anne always had a table
at the annual conference of the BCHF where
she met friends and made new
acquaintances. Anne was a wonderful friend.
She gave support to all who needed help. Her
home was always open to everyone.
Anne lived life to the fullest, enjoying
travel, music, opera, theater and outdoor
activities. Although Anne maintained
membership in many societies, she gave
most of her support over the years to the
Vancouver Historical Society and the BCHF.
Both organizations and her many friends
have suffered a great loss.
Melva Dwyer
Anne Carson was born in
Ballymoney, Northern Ireland,
on 29 December 1930, and died
in Windermere Hospice on 12
December 2006. After obtaining her degree
in Commerce in Dublin, she came to
Canada. She worked as a library assistant
for Vancouver Public Library before leaving
to attend McGill Library School. After
graduation in 1961, she was hired, along with
two classmates, to work in the University of
British Columbia Library. She worked in
Special Collections, which Basil Stuart-Stubbs
confidently left her in charge when he became
University Librarian. Anne was responsible
for the development of the many fine
collections, including British Columbia and
Canadian history, early children's literature,
and for encouraging her colleagues to build
the manuscript collections, University
Archives, and the historical maps and
cartographic archives, and she was one of the
first librarians to see the value of ephemera
and alternative literature.
Anne built up relationships with both
the antiquarian and new book dealers
around the province, and with leading
dealers around the world. On her sabbatical
year, she spent six months working with
dealers in England, and six months at the
Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington,
New Zealand. She was one of the founding
members of the Special Collections Interest
Group of the Canadian Library Association,
and served as president of the council of the
Bibliographic Society of Canada.
Anne was very well-known in the
Irish community in Vancouver, and
provided a home-away-from-home for
many visitors and new residents. When it
became known that a special reproduction
of the Book of Kells was to be undertaken,
the Irish in Vancouver gathered money to
buy a copy for Special Collections, and had
a special stand built to display the book.
Anne was well known, and well
thought of, across the campus, and around
the city and province, and she had friends
across the country and around the world.
When she took early retirement in December
1991, many people from the Library, SLAIS,
the Irish community in Vancouver, book
dealers and others from off-campus were in
attendance. She was active in her retirement
in the Alcuin Society, the Bibliographical
Society of Canada, the British Columbia
Historical Society - later the Federation
(continuing her interest in the British
Columbia Historical News, now British
Columbia History, which Anne and her
husband Phil had founded), the Friends of
Simon Fraser University Library, the Friends
of Vancouver City Archives, the Friends of
the British Columbia Archives, and running
Marco Polo Books. Anne left us with one of
the most notable special collections in North
America, a wonderful collection that should
be the pride-and-joy of the University of
British Columbia.
Frances M. Woodward
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3 Stanley Park's Lost Garden
Reclaiming a Lost Landmark
By Charles Hay
Chris Hay is a UBC
graduate with majors
in both history and
anthropology. This
background proved
most useful
with the long
research into the
history of the rock
UPDATE: Chris has
had good publicity
about the garden in
the local and national
media. And the wind
storms earlier this
year, which damaged
much of the park,
also revealed more
of the Rock garden.
It would seem much
more of it exists than
previously thought.
Charles Montgomery
standing in front of the
Stanley Park Pavilion
Author's Collection (below)
Charles and visitors in the
upper Rock Garden, 1917
Author's Collection (right)
Vancouver's Stanley Park is well known for
its many attractions such as Siwash Rock,
Lumberman's Arch, Lost Lagoon and the
Hollow Tree. However, few people
remember or are aware of a garden that was once the
park's feature attraction and a source of civic pride in
the young city. Overgrown and unknown today, the
Stanley Park rock garden was entirely the creation of
one man, John Montgomery. He began work on the
garden in 1911 and at the time of his death in 1920 it had
grown to an amazing size and prominence. Yet,
somehow the exact location and significance of this
garden was forgotten until recent research into the family
history of John Montgomery shed new light on it.
For almost 120 years Stanley Park has served
its citizens well not only as a playground and
naturalist's delight but also as a focus of civic pride.
In 1886 Vancouver's first city council petitioned the
federal government for the lease of 1,000 acres (400
hectares) of this former military reserve for park use.1
The request was granted and on September 27,1888
the park was officially opened and named in honour
of the then Governor General of Canada, Lord
Stanley2 who dedicated the park in person on October
29 the following year.3
In the early 1900s the City of Vancouver was
experiencing tremendous growth. As the population
increased from 24,750 people in 1900 to 93,700 in 19104
and the park became more popular, late in 1910, the
Vancouver Parks Board started to plan a large
entertainment area within the park5 near the entrance
at Coal Harbour where a small refreshment pavilion
(1905)6 and bandstand had outlived their usefulness.
The Board decided to relocate and replace the
bandstand and to demolish the old pavilion and build
a new one.7 After much deliberation over several
different pavilion designs, the board selected Otto
Moberg as the architect to design both the pavilion
and the bandstand.8 The rustic chateau-style pavilion
measuring 133 feet by 53 feet was to be constructed
with an exterior of stone on the lower floors, half-sawn
logs for the upper floor and was to be surrounded by
a spacious open verandah.9 The landscape plan
included spacious lawns, ornamental plantings, lily
pond, pathways and a substantial bandstand.
In March, 1911 the board decided to proceed
with construction and called for tenders. Ulysseys G.
Patterson was the successful bidder. Work proceeded
quickly and by May the bandstand was open.
Although the pavilion was completed later that same
year it was not officially opened to the public until
May 4,1913. By the end of 1914 the lawns and gardens
surrounding the pavilion were finished.10
In the early years many Vancouver citizens
contributed to the evolution of Stanley Park.
Unfortunately, as time passed, many of their
achievements and stories have been forgotten. One
such story was the important and lasting contribution
made by a Scotsman John Montgomery. Montgomery
was born in Strachur Argyll, Scotland on March 24,
1844.u He was apprenticed as a butcher and
eventually opened his own shop in Peebles. On
September 17, 1873 John married Barbara Allan
Campbell12 and together they raised a family of nine
children. With the success of his business he soon
became a councillor and Dean of Guild for the Town
of Peebles. After his children had grown John
concentrated on his great passion of landscape
gardening and "possessed a very fine garden of his
With four of their children having immigrated
to North America, John and his wife soon
contemplated it as well. Their eldest son John had left
the British navy in Esquimalt and became a
quartermaster aboard the ill-fated steamship Valencia
which, sank in January 1906 off the west coast of
Vancouver Island with the tragic loss of 136 lives,14
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 (this tragedy resulted in the building of the West Coast
Lifesaving Trail on the coast of Vancouver Island). As
well, John and Barbara's eldest daughter Annie, a
trained nurse, had arrived in Vancouver in 1898 and
had married Malcolm Griffith a successful contractor.
With the encouragement of Annie and the financial
backing of her husband the family was eventually
persuaded to emigrate.
On June 18, 1908 Montgomery, his wife
Barbara and two of his younger daughters sailed on
the maiden voyage of the Allan Line's SS Hesperian
from Glasgow to Montreal, arriving in Vancouver by
train three days later.15 For several years the family
ran a rooming house at 1232 Hornby Street16 in
downtown Vancouver. Nearby stood Stanley Park
whose majestic beauty had captivated John from the
time of his arrival in the city. Montgomery visited
Stanley Park regularly and in 1909 at the age of 65
applied for a position as park gardener. The
Vancouver Park Board who recognized his
remarkable gardening expertise eagerly accepted his
application.17 By early 1916 the Montgomery family
had moved to 1560 Comox Street so John would be
closer to his daily work in Stanley Park. This early
West End residence survives and is listed on the
Vancouver Heritage Register.18
Excavations for the foundation of the new
pavilion had left an unsightly heap of boulders that
concerned the park commissioners. While working in
the area, Montgomery noticed this pile of rocks and
saw an opportunity to use it. When he asked, the
commissioners told him that they planned to bury the
rocks in a deep hole. Montgomery responded, "Why
they are priceless? let me have them," as he proposed
to build a rockery. The commissioners, likely startled
by this unusual request, accepted his suggestion and
instructed Montgomery to lay out a sample for them.
On seeing it, the commissioners told him to "carry on"
and soon gave him complete responsibility for the
design and upkeep of the rock garden.19
Starting on the north side of the pavilion,
Montgomery used an irregular ravine as a foundation
for the gardens. Boulders were placed on the slope of
the ravine and added adjoining rock-lined pathways
to form a feature garden of much magnificence.
Several rose covered arbours arching over the
meandering pathways greatly enhanced its elegance.
Simple yet effective, these rustic structures added that
extra element of beauty to the garden surroundings.
The 1914 Vancouver Park Commissioners
Annual Report described the "the principal feature
of the scheme being the layout of a sunken rock
garden, in which almost every kind of rock plant,
flower, water lily and various flowering shrubs are
planted."20 The rock garden was adorned with a wide
variety of perennials such as rock iris, alpines and
various heathers, likely many from Montgomery's
native Scotland. Some of the larger flowering plants
included rhododendrons, azaleas and roses. These
were well placed among larger evergreen shrubs and
trees giving a welcoming balance with the many other
varieties of plants throughout the rock garden. The
floral diversity of the rock garden was complimented
by many special rock plants obtained from Europe.21
A 1927 Vancouver Sunday Province feature article
entitled "Where Spring Carpets the Rocks with Bloom
and Verdure" described the garden's skillful
composition as follows:
So cleverly, so carefully, has the rock garden been built,
grounded with greenery of tender plants and fern-like wild
ones. There, one will notice, things are planted in longish
drifts, and not in clumps or patches, the length of the
drift going with the natural stratification. Again, as the
season advances, one will notice the further care in
selecting the plants whose colours will harmonize with
the corner of the rockery to which they have been
Abbreviations: BPC (Board of Park
Commissioners); COV (City of
Vancouver); VPS (Vancouver Park
Board - includes: Board of Parks,
Board of Parks and Public
Recreation) All of these records
are located in the City of
Vancouver Archives (CVA).
I. BPC, Fourth Annual Report,
2 . The Daily News Advertiser
[Vancouver], September 28,1888,
3. Stanley Park Dedication,
January 1958,
AM0054.013.04329, CVA
4. BPC, First Annual Report,
5. VPB Minutes, November 9,
1910,157-158; November 23,
1910,162-163; DaUy News
Advertiser, November 24,1910,
6. VPB Minutes, March 8,1905,
268; March 22,1905, 269; April
7. BPC Second Annual Report,
8. VPB Minutes, January 25,
1911,179; February 22,1911,
184; March 8,1911,190.
9. The Daily Province,
[Vancouver], February 27,1911,13
10. VPB Minutes, March 8,
1911,190 and March 22,1911;
Daily News-Advertiser, March 23,
1911, .1; BPC First Annual
Report, 1911,22 and Third
Annual Report, 1913,17 and
Annual Report, 1914, 9.
II. John Montgomery, Birth,
March 24,1844, Parish Church
Registers, Strachur, Argyll,
12. John Montgomery, Barbara
A. Campbell, Marriage,
November 26,1873, Parish
Church Registers, Edinburgh,
Midlothian, Scotland
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       5 13. Daily World, [Vancouver],
March 16,1920, 9
14. Wreck of the Steamer
Valencia, Report to the President
of the Federal Commission of
Investigation, April 14, 1906,
(Washington, Government
Printing Office, 1906), 9
15. Montgomery Family
Documents, Author's Collection
16. "John Montgomery,"
Henderson's City of Vancouver
Directory, 1910,395
17. VPB Minutes, March 24,1920,
2 [130]; Canada Census
1911,Vancouver, B.C., District 9, .4;
Daily World, March 16,1920,9.
18. Elizabeth Letitia
Montgomery, Marriage
Certificate, Peebles, Scotland,
November 25,1905; "1560
Comox Street," City of
Vancouver Heritage Register,
October, 2005,15
19. Daily Province, February 27,
1911,13 and March 18,1920, 6;
Daily World, March 16,1920, 9;
J. Mitchell Boyd, Editorial,
Vancouver Sunday Province, April
3,1927, 9
20. BPC Annual Report, 1914, 9.
21. VPB Annual Report, 1921,11.
22. Vancouver Sunday Province,
March 27,1927,1.
23. BPC Fourth Annual Report,
1914-1915, 32 and VPB Minutes-
Memorandum Re-Framing the
Estimates for the Year 1916,
February 21,1916.
24. "John Montgomery," Daily
World, March 16,1920,16; VPB
Minutes, March 24,1920, 2;
25. The Vancouver Sun, July 7,
1934,19; DaUy Province, July
26. Daily World, Vancouver,
March 18,1920,11.
27. BPC Annual Report, 1920,
By 1915 this incredible garden stretched almost
a mile. Starting near the Coal Harbour entrance to
Stanley Park at the main park drive, it followed the
north edge of the pavilion grounds, continued back
behind the pavilion and eventually joined up with
Pipeline Road. In 1916 there was a further significant
expansion to the north of the rock garden in the flat
land leading down to Coal Harbour.23 Many visitors
to the nearby pavilion and bandstand would have
been enticed by the colour and variety of plants to
enjoy the peaceful surroundings away from the
activity of the main lawn. These plants and foliage,
visible in later postcards, show the lavish beauty of
the garden at the height of its splendour. Such
observations clearly recognized Montgomery's talents
as a master gardener and his remarkable skill to
transform this once overlooked area to a major
destination within Stanley Park.
Montgomery worked daily on these rock
gardens as a park employee from the time of the
pavilion's construction in 1911 until his death on
March 20, 1920 at age 74. His death brought
recognition for all that he had achieved. The Park
Board noted his contribution at their monthly meeting
on March 24,1920 and in the local newspaper. Many
other tributes appeared in the local newspapers
recognizing Montgomery's amazing contribution.24
Many family members, friends and dignitaries
including Superintendent of Parks William S.
Rawlings and Allen S. Wootton (park civil engineer
who later designed the Malkin Bowl)25 and
representatives for the park commissioners and
employees attended the funeral as did Montgomery's
friend and fellow park employee Joe Fortes the well
known lifeguard at English Bay beach.26
The 1920 Parks Board Annual Report again paid
homage to their recently deceased employee John
Montgomery. It stated:
This garden representing as it does one of the outstanding
features of our park system, extends for a mile, and to try
and maintain it with only one regular gardener is to
attempt the impossible, if it is to be kept to the standard
worthy of its importance. At least one extra man will in
future have to be allotted to this work. Its contents
represent the work of years' accumulation and
development, and are far too valuable to risk deterioration
and loss through lack of proper attention.27
Unfortunately this view did not last and for
unknown reasons, in the early 1960's, the rock garden
was abandoned although many of its stone
foundations remain in place. This could have been a
result of cost cutting measures, other emerging garden
priorities or, perhaps, simply a result of ever
increasing shade from the large trees surrounding this
north facing garden. This once highly regarded park
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 rock garden eventually became just a memory.
John Montgomery held a prominent role in
both the development of Stanley Park and in the city
itself. His rock garden lasted as a major tourist and
visitor site in the park for more than 50 years. 28
Referred to by various names over the years — rock
garden, rockery, sunken garden and grotto — it was
featured in postcards and tourist booklets from as
early as 1916.29 Both the City of Vancouver and the
Vancouver Parks Board featured pictures of it in
various annual reports over the years.
Adjacent to these former magnificent rock
gardens stood the Stanley Park Pavilion which the
City of Vancouver now lists as a "Class A" heritage
building. In 1924 the pavilion had a new addition
completed on its south side containing a ballroom on
its upper floor and a dining area below.30 Recently
renovated in 2005-06, the pavilion still holds a
prominent and prestigious position in the daily
activities of Stanley Park.
The grounds surrounding the pavilion also
have historical significance. Pn September 22,1919,
Edward Prince of Wales, later King Edward VIII, gave
a speech from the pavilion bandstand. He
commended the excellent services rendered by the city
and province during World War I and awarded
decorations to many soldiers or their next of kin. The
crowd at this event was noted as being the largest
ever assembled in the history of Vancouver. On July
26,1923 President Warren Harding, the first United
States president to visit Canada while in office, spoke
from the pavilion bandstand to an equally large and
enthusiastic crowd. Following his untimely death a
week later, a large memorial was dedicated to his
memory on September 16,1925. It faced the north side
of the bandstand where Harding had given his last
public speech. The bandstand was replaced in 1934
by the Marion Malkin Memorial Bowl, an outdoor
Just to the north of the pavilion and in its
shadow lies an equally valuable legacy, the rock
garden. It was a testament to the thoughts and dreams
of John Montgomery who was able to see the beauty
in something as simple as some discarded rocks and
then create from them a most magnificent garden.
Unfortunately, unlike the other surrounding heritage
features John Montgomery's work has been allowed
to fade away. The one-hundredth anniversary of the
rock garden is fast approaching. If the remaining
portion is recognized as an historic site and dedicated
to its creator John Montgomery, future generations
will be able to appreciate his work and remember the
outstanding contribution of an early citizen of
Vancouver. •
The Rock Garden pictured
in a booklet published for
the City's Jubilee in 1936
Frank Gowen photograph
(far left)
The Stanley Park Pavilion
and the garden
photographed in 1916
frank Gowan photograph
Author's Collection (left)
28. VPB Annual Report, 1960,
29. Stanley Park Rock Garden,
Postcard, 1916, F. Gowen
(Official Park Photographer),
Author's Collection
30. 610 Pipeline Road, [Pavilion],
City ofVancouver Heritage
Register, October, 2005, 23; BPC
Annual Report and Financial
Statement, 1923, 40-41 and BPC
Annual Report and Financial
Statement, 1924, 33.
31. Daily World, September 22,
1919,1 &14; Daily Sun,
September 23,1919, 2; Daily
Wor/d, July 26,1923,1, 2 & 3;
BPC Annual Report and Financial
Statement, 1923,12, Daily
World, July 27,1923, Part 2, 9;
Daily Province, September 16,
1925,1 & 4; The News Herald,
[Vancouver] July 9,1934,8.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 A Tradesman's Paradise
Class, Ethnicity & Housing, Fernwood, Victoria, 1880-1916.        By jude Goertzen
Jude Goertzen is a
mature 4th year
undergraduate at the
University of Victoria
majoring in History,
and Greek and
Roman Studies.
Town of Victoria,
Vancouver Island, 1861
from the official map. J.
Despard Pemberton,
Surveyer General
BC Archives CM B69
"Fernwood", 1863; the
B. W. Pearse residence.
BC Archives C-08746
(top right)
The city of Victoria presents a microcosm of
a British Columbian historical phenomenon.
"The Great Mgration"1 ofBritish immigrants
between the completion of the CPR inl885
and the outbreak of war in 1914 resulted in a British
legacy that was unparalleled in any other area of
Canada. Victoria was shaped and fashioned by the
architects, artisans and residents who chose to work
and live there. The physical legacy of this migration
is evident in the work of such legendary architects as
Francis Rattenbury and Samuel Maclure. Rattenbury's
Empress Hotel and Parliament buildings and the many
private homes that Maclure designed for the well-to-
do have been well documented. Less is known of the
many more ordinary British immigrants and the houses
they built. This segment of Victoria's society can be
studied by examining the city's heritage homes and
determining who their first residents were, why they
came, and how they influenced Victoria's society.
Historians have often portrayed Victoria in
simplistic terms; dominated by a white collar,
gentrified, upper class British colonial gentry.
Architectural historian Robin Ward, for example,
described Victoria as the "home ofBritish Columbia's
pioneering aristocracy," and included in his list of
"colonial high society" such "greats" as James
Douglas, Matthew Baillie Begbie and Francis
Rattenbury2 Janet Bingham, another architectural
historian, asserted that "Victoria's upper class
consisted largely of old colonial government families"
rather than "the successful businessmen, lawyers and
judges" that made up Vancouver's upper class.3
Despite such notable exceptions as the coal miner
Robert Dunsmuir who built Craigdarroch Castle and
the dry goods salesman David Spencer who
established a chain of department stores and built a
mansion on Moss Street in the fashionable Rockland
area, journalist Harry Gregson claimed that, "those
engaged in trade were considered to rank lower than
those of good birth." Gregson argues that scceptance
required the hallmark stamp of land, or an upper
position in government or the Hudson's Bay
Company4 Wealth, however, speaks, and the marriage
of Dunsmuir's daughter, Jessie Sophia, to Sir Richard
John Musgrave of Waterford, Ireland, "was the social
highlight of the season" Yet, the illusion of old,
colonial aristocracy persisted. In 1913, "an English
actress passing through town apparently warmed
many hearts by declaring that 'Victoria is like a bit of
old London, it is wonderfully responsive,
magnificently English, and charmingly educated.'"5
This essay will argue against these statements
by studying the results of an extensive survey of the
Fernwood neighbourhood of Victoria and the heritage
homes that are either registered or designated. This
study reveals that the majority of the inhabitants were
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 British or of British descent; that most built their
homes themselves in British styles, and that most of
these home owners were trades-people who, over
time, became the 'new and emerging' middle and
upper class of Victoria. Relatively humble British
origins combined with upward social mobility were
the distinguishing feature of the Fernwood settlers.
Few members of the 'colonial high society'
popularized by most historians of Victoria6 settled in
Fernwood. These findings apply only to Fernwood
but future scholarship could determine if the
Fernwood patterns occur elsewhere in Victoria.
Fernwood was originally part of the First
Nations territory known as Swengwhung (Songhees).
In 1850, James Douglas, on behalf of the Hudson's
Bay Company, purchased this land for the paltry sum
of seventy-five pounds. Such dispossessions of the
Native people were common throughout British
Columbia and were accomplished without apparent
resistance. Once the area had been surveyed, Roderick
Finlayson, Chief Trader for the HBC and Benjamin
W Pearse, assistant Colonial Surveyor, bought it for
one pound per acre.
From the beginning, Fernwood was a 'good'
neighbourhood. The first houses built here were
country estates such as Pearse's Fernwood Manor
built in 1861. Dr. T.J. Jones spent $8000 building
Trebatha in the 1880s, and Rattenbury designed the
third Victoria High School that was opened in 19027
In the 1880s, a building boom saw the beginnings of a
larger migration of
less affluent citizens
to this still fashionable area and the
construction of
smaller, more accessible houses.8
The new
settlers came to
Victoria for many
different reasons.
Vancouver Island
reminded them of that
other, slightly larger
island and its
temperate climate
reminded them of
Devon and Cornwall.
More importantly, the
economic climate in
Britain was stagnant
and allowed for little social mobility whereas the
active and burgeoning economy of Victoria provided
an unprecedented opportunity for those with a good
work ethic and an entrepreneurial spirit to rise. As
early as 1859, a Victoria booster in England noted that
"in no case of any other new town do I know of so
many small proprietors who own their own houses
on their own land."9
Who were these entrepreneurs, one of whom
described himself as an "'umble tradesman"?10
According to the Victoria Heritage Foundation's
history they were primarily tradesmen and the majority
were British (fig.l). Of the eighty homes for which
sufficient background information was determined,
British immigrants owned forty-one and the children
of British immigrants owned another six. Of these forty-
seven, the greatest number of owners(ten), were
carpenters. An additional thirteen were directly
involved in the building trades as bricklayers, masons
and builder/architects. Of the entire eighty houses
surveyed only twelve could be classified as owned by
professionals. That included a mayor, a master mariner,
a Lieutenant-Governor and assistant Receiver-General
(both English), a teacher, an accountant and a Forestry
Engineer, also of British origin.11
Between 1880 and 1916 these immigrants
constructed their homes in a distinctly British pattern,
the Arts and Crafts style, Queen Anne, Italianate and
Vernacular; the Canadian-born inhabitants followed
suit.11 Of the ninety houses examined, seventy-nine
1. Jean Barman states that "by
1914, there had been, in
essence, a single massive
generation of British immigration
[to British Columbia]." Jean
Barman, "The World that British
Settlers Made: Class, Ethnicity
and Private Education in the
Okanagan Valley," 600-26 in W.
Peter Ward and Robert A.J.
McDonald, ed., British Columbia:
Historical Readings (Vancouver:
Douglas & Mclntyre, 1981).
2. Robin Ward, Echoes of Empire:
Victoria & Its Remarkable
Buildings (Madeira Park, BC:
Harbour Publishing, 1996), xiii.
3. Janet Bingham, Samuel
Maclure Architect, (Ganges, BC:
Horsdal & Schubart Publishers
Ltd., 1985), 74.
4. Harry Gregson, A History of
Victoria, 1842-1970 (Victoria:
The Victoria Publishing Co. Ltd.,
1985), 100.
5. Derek Pethick, Summer of
Promise: Victoria, 1864-1914
(Victoria: Sono Nis, 1980), 175
6. Historians, including Peter
Baskerville have restricted their
analysis to the upper classes and,
by so doing, have overlooked the
complexity and diversity of what
was, after all, a British
immigrant society that in fact
attracted a representative cross-
section of the British class or
social system. Baskerville states
that "between 1880 and 1900 the
nature of Victoria's fortunes
changed dramatically, but the
composition of its ruling class
and the attitudes which that
class promoted changed
imperceptibly if at all." Peter A.
Baskerville, Beyond the Island:
An Illustrated History of
Victoria, (Burlington, ON:
Windsor, 1986), 68.
7. 8. The Victorian Heritage
Foundation for the City of
Victoria, This Old House: Victoria's
Heritage Neighbourhoods
(Victoria, BC: Victoria Heritage
Foundation for the City of
Victoria, 2004), 12,17.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 9. Donald Fraser (1859) quoted in
Baskerville, Beyond the Island, 28.
10. Terry Reksten, "More English
than the English" A Very Social
History of Victoria (Victoria BC:
Orca, 1986), 94.
11. Barman's research shows that
between 1891 and 1921, nearly
175,000 British immigrants
settled in BC, of whom about
24,000 were middle or upper
class, leaving a very sizeable
immigrant population majority of
tradesmen and labourers. Jean
Barman, Growing up British in
BritishColumbia (Vancouver:
University of British Columbia
Press, 1984), 2.
12. The dates used here reflect
the available data correlated
into tables 1 and 2.
13. This Old House, 84.
14. This Old House, 148.
15. Bingham, Samuel Maclure
Architect, 65.
16. This Old House, 152.
17. This Old House, 35.
18. This Old House, 81.
19. Baskerville, Beyond the
lslandx 26.
20. This Old House, 36.
21. This Old House, 41.
22. This Old House, 63.
Rankha was a member of the
Canadian Women's Icelandic
League until her death and this
small Icelandic community has
also left an architectural legacy
in Victoria.   This Old House, 38.
Reksten, "More English than the
English," 94.
23. Ward, Echoes of Empire, xiii.
24. Ward, Echoes of Empire, xi.
fall into one of these four categories (fig.2).
British architects developed the Queen Anne
style from the 1860s. Twenty-three of the Fernwood
heritage homes were built in this style. Only sixteen of
them were self-built but they included Rossland at 1270
Yates Street, a landmark structure that was designed
and owned by the Mitchell family from Ontario.13
The Arts and Crafts style, which British artists
and architects also created, was also popular locally.
According to This Old House, these architects were
"reacting to several features of late Victorian life,
principally the dehumanizing effects of
industrialization."14 In Victoria, Samuel Maclure, the
architect son of a British immigrant and member if
the Royal Engineers adapted the Arts and Craft style
to make what became known as the Craftsman style
uniquely Canadian by using local wood and stone. It
shared commonalities with the flexible interiors used
by Frank Lloyd Wright, his famous American
Architects, however, had little direct effect in
Fernwood. Of the eighty-eight heritage homes
examined only two or possibly three, were definitely
designed by an architect (fig.2). In Fernwood, the most
popular style was the Vernacular, which also included
the Folk Victorian style. Thirty Fernwood homes were
Figure 1
The District of Fernwood: Occupations and birth origins for
resident/owners of heritage houses built and
occupied between 1880 and 1916.
Great Britain
Sales (dry goods, furnishings)
2 (US/Iceland)
Master Mariner
Store Owner
Ships Steward
Watchmaker/ Jeweler
1 (Iceland)
1" (Australia)
Railway Dispatcher
Army Major
Mill Owner
Superintendent (Railway)
Boat builder
Boot Maker
Commercial Traveler
Vice-President Tramway
1 (Denmark)
Assist. Receiver-General
Pipe layer
1 (Italy)
1 (Iceland)
Forestry Engineer
Source: This Old House, 12-87
Numbers accented by an asterisk indicate birth
of British
mmigrant parents. Survey covers eighty of the one
hundred houses listed.  Churches, schools and houses
fficient information were omitted.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 of this kind, that is, structures "built or designed by
someone without formal training.. .not conforming to
any established styles."16 These thirty houses were
mainly self-built. The owners did not necessarily do
the work themselves but instead of hiring architects
they employed small, local contractors, who they
directly supervised. Not all of the houses were owner-
occupied; seven were used as rental income, (fig. 2).
Three exceptions to this self-built principle were
a Folk Victorian cottage at 1192 Fort Street that was
designed by John Teague, an architect, who was
commissioned by a Scottish farrier and blacksmith.
Parfitt Brothers, local building contractors built the
other two. The Parfitt Brothers, who came from a coalmining village in Somerset, were an extremely
important addition to the Fernwood community.
Between 1910 and 1914 these master builders
constructed five houses, one apartment block, one
shop/complex, one commercial office/apartment
block and Oaklands School. Their own home was an
Edwardian Vernacular Arts and Crafts house at 1921-
23 Fernwood Road built in 1909. In 1914 it was
replaced with a two-storey commercial block. They
also built in other areas ofVictoria and became one of
"Victoria's best known and longest surviving
construction firms."16
Several other contractors built their own
homes. John Creed, for example, was a small building
contractor and an artisan in art glass and leaded lights.
His home at 1621 Fernwood Road reflects these skills
and it was probably built with the help of his family
and his brother George, a carpenter.17 Hutchinson
Hodges, a builder and contractor form Yorkshire, built
his own house at 2103 Fernwood Road in stages, as
time and money became available. Hodges' enterprise
perfectly illustrates how these immigrants operated
and attests to their entrepreneurial spirit and hard
work.18 Hodgson is also remembered for his thirty
Figure 2
The District of Fernwood: House styles for the period between 1880 and 1916.
Style                                                      #
of homes
Arts and Crafts (Craftsman)
Arts and Crafts (Classical)
Arts and Crafts (Bungalow)
Arts and Crafts (British)
Queen Anne
Queen Anne (Italianate)
Queen Anne (Victorian)
Queen Anne (severe/simplified)
Queen Anne (Edwardian)
Italianate (Late Victorian)
Italianate (Vernacular and Queen Anne)
Italianate (Cubical)
5 [a]
Edwardian eclectic
Romanesque Gothic
Mansard or Second Empire Style
Gothic Revival
2 lb]
Vernacular Foursquare
Vernacular (front-gabled)
Edwardian Vernacular (Arts and Crafts)
Folk Victorian
Two-storey Cubical
Colonial Bungalow
Architect employed
1 Samuel Maclure
1 JohnTeague (possibly)
[a] popular with working class in Victorian era
[b] one of the oldest, very rare, Wentworth Villa, 1862.
[c] popular working class houses, generallv rented.
1 John Teague
Source: This Old House, 12-87.
This part of the survey examined eighty-eight of the one hundred homes and excludes schools, churches and
apartment blocks.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       11 ^H^bW^u-^J^A
House possibly in the
Fernwood neighbourhood
BC Archives F-07720
years of breeding "prize brahma chickens in the back
yard."19 These exceptionally large chickens originated
in Brahmaputra, India; their size may explain why
he wanted to breed them.
What these examples show is that the
immigrants who lived and built homes in Fernwood
were tradesmen who achieved upward social mobility
by the value of their own enterprise. There are many
examples of this 'rise in society' within both the British
immigrant sector and the population outside of it.
Perhaps the most remarkable rise can be attributed
to T.W. Paterson. Born in Scotland in 1851, he
emigrated to Canada with his family in 1854. After
working as a railway labourer "shoveling dirt.. .along
the Welland canal," he came to Vancouver Island
where he made his fortune as a railway contractor
and investor. Paterson owned 1162 Fort Street which
was built in 1905-06. In 1909, he became Lieutenant-
Governor of British Columbia.20
While the British were prominent, Fernwood
was also home to forty Icelandic families who settled
in the Spring Ridge area in the 1880s. One of them,
Thorkel "Kelly" Johnson, built three of the Fernwood
heritage homes. Another couple of Icelanders, Oliver
and Gudrun Johnson emigrated as adults and were
married inVictoria in 1888. Gudrun, who specialized
in moving freight, was commissioned to move the old
"Bird Cages" to a new site on Government Street. His
son, Byron Ingemar "Boss" Johnson, who with his
brothers ran a building supply company was premier
of British Columbia from 1947 to 1952.21 In 1975, when
she was 92, Rankha, the daughter of Thorston K. and
Ragnhilder Anderson - still lived in the house they
built (c. 1889; 1899).
There appears to have been
little 'class' snobbery in Fernwood.
The rector of St. Barnabas Anglican
Church lived next to a farmer, and
a major and a lawyer of unknown
origin lived next to a paint and
paper salesman. Lieutenant-
Governor, Thomas Paterson, was
flanked on one side by an English
sea captain and an Irish miner on
the other. The lone Italian,
Guiseppe Zarrelli, a pipe-layer by
trade, lived next to an Icelandic
joiner and a carpenter from Nova
Scotia (fig.l). Occupation and status
seem to have been of little
consequence in this fashionable
area of Fernwood yet there were some tensions and,
as Terry Reksten states, "the 'first families who would
have continued to be members of the middle class had
they remained in Britain, formed the nucleus of
Victoria's aristocracy. They found it easy to remember
that they belonged to the professional class and hard
to forget that some of the families who were elbowing
their way into their ranks had made their fortunes 'in
Observers of Victoria's history and
architecture are left with a quandary. Victoria has been
presented for almost a century as a "milieu that
attracted a corps of British colonial officials lured by
prospects of comfortable retirement in a clubbable
setting complete with English climate and Scottish
coastal scenery."23 It has been accepted as an "Outpost
of Empire" that contains a "lingering, somewhat
eccentric British air."24 The reality is somewhat
different. In fact, tradesmen, not the white-collar,
gentrified or 'high society' immigrants who have
dominated historical interest, provided the
foundation of Fernwood and perhaps Victoria
generally. Fernwood owes its architectural and
cultural heritage to British tradesmen, especially to
carpenters, bricklayers, plumbers and masons. It
would be interesting to know the extent to which
tradesmen also dominated the economy and the
atmosphere of Victoria generally in the three decades
before the First World War. Blanket generalizations about
Victoria's languid and genteel atmosphere do not apply
to this part of Victoria. It will be up to future historians to
ascertain if a 'genteel Victoria' existed at all. •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 The Ingraham Hotel Beer Parlour 1960 - 2003
A Victoria, B.C. Institution By Glen Mofford
At one time the Ingraham Hotel housed the
biggest beer parlour in British Columbia
and had the unique distinction as the
largest selling Labatt's house in the world.
But after forty-three years in business the Ingraham
Hotel closed its doors in 2003 and reopened as a Hotel
8. In 1957 Victor Ingraham, a colourful and dynamic
entrepreneur, who had previously owned the
Yellowknife Hotel and the Arbutus Hotel in
Courtenay hired Farmer Construction to build his
new hotel at 2915 Douglas Street near Topaz. The 50-
room Ingraham Hotel opened June 28,1960 at the cost
of one million dollars, "aimed mainly to provide top-
class accommodation for commercial travelers."1 The
hotel featured two banquet rooms, a dining room,
coffee shop, lounge and a huge 500-seat beer parlour
at its rear by the parking lot.2 The three-story building
front facing Douglas Street was painted in a
checkerboard of lemon yellow and robin-egg blue,
and boasted a distinctive hotel sign best described as
something out of a 'Jetson's cartoon'. The base,
painted bright yellow, was in the shape of a rocket
ship, which rose several feet off the ground into an
oval shape with the word Ingraham written in black
on a white background and topped with two
intersecting circles.
From 1927 to 1964 beer parlours in British
Columbia were required by law to provide a separate
entrance for men and another for ladies with escorts.
Inside the Ingraham, an artificial wall divided the
beverage room in half, separating the sexes and
thereby avoiding the potential volatile mix of men,
women and beer.3 The Ingraham beer parlour had an
ingenious retractable wall that was set on wheels.
When one side of the beer parlour filled with thirsty
customers, two waiters would wheel the wall to the
emptier side allowing for more space while complying
with liquor regulations. When customers walked
through the swinging doors, they would first notice
neatly uniformed rows of tables covered in fire-red
terry-cloth that was used to soak up spilled beer.
Lavish red leather chairs from the T. Eaton Company
provided patrons with comfort while they sat and
enjoyed their ten-cent glass of draft or a twenty-five
cent bottle of beer. The chairs proved to be so popular
that they began to mysteriously disappear and
eventually had to be replaced with less expensive
The early beer parlours of Victoria and
Vancouver were, by law, very basic and simple
beverage rooms. The new Ingraham beer parlour was
no exception as there were no television sets, no
games, no food and no drinks for sale other than draft
or bottled domestic beer. Liquor regulations
prohibited customers to stand or walk with a beer so
if a customer wished to move to another table a waiter
was summoned to move the beer on his tray. In spite
of these restrictions, the beer parlour became an
instant success. The majority of customers were
mostly male, blue-collar workers who filled up the
men's side after work and on weekends. Most patrons
ignored the spartan-like atmosphere of the early
beverage rooms and treated it as their own social club.
It was a place where they could relax, swap stories
and enjoy the companionship of their friends and coworkers while consuming cheap beer.
Service in the Ingraham, like many beer
parlours in the 1960's was excellent. Albert, a waiter
in the Ingraham from 1962 to 1965, recalled that
management demanded first-class service from the
staff. Any waiter who kept a thirsty customer waiting
for more than five minutes would be pulled aside after
his shift and given a stern warning. Waiters, (there
were no waitresses until the mid to late 1970's) were
well dressed in a white collar shirt with black bowtie,
black slacks and shining black shoes. Waiters did not
carry moneychangers in those days but carried one
and two dollar bills in their fingers, larger
denominations in their top shirt pocket and coins in
their trouser pockets. A good waiter could make a
comfortable living off his tips so naturally the tables
Len Ingraham in his
memento filled office
Greg Moffat is a
Victoria based writer
who believes that
the social history of
local drinking
establishments has
not yet been
uncovered. There is
so much to discover
under the beer-
soaked history of
Victoria's saloons,
beer parlours and
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       13 Notes
1. "New Hotel to Cater to
Business Public," Victoria DaUy
Times, June 28,1960.
2. In 1935, the Victoria Cycle
Racing Club built the first
"cycledrome" on this site.  The
wooden structure lasted five
years before vandalism and the
elements forced its demolition in
3. Robert A Campbell, Sit Down
and Drink Your Beer, (Toronto:
University of Toronto Press,
2001), 31.
4. John McKeachie, "Passing of
an Era - The Ingy Has Been Sold,"
The Victorian, March 29,1972, 4.
that tipped the most received extra attention. Waiters
were kept very busy in the Ingraham, especially on
Friday and Saturday nights when the place would
often fill to capacity. The standard full beer tray held
twenty, eight-ounce glasses of draft beer which
weighed approximately 22 pounds. In an hour a
waiter might carry as much as 300 pounds of beer.
Victor Ingraham died from heart failure at Saint
Paul's hospital in Vancouver, BC on November 14,
1961. Ownership of the hotel went to his 31 year old
son, Len. Like Victor, Len loved and promoted sports
and during his tenure the beer parlour became a
favourite watering hole for all kinds of sports teams.
Len was a member of 28 organizations including the
Shriners. His many associations and sponsorship of
sports teams ranging from "stock cars, super stocks"
to "baseball, lacrosse, bowling, curling, basketball,
and hockey" earned him the nickname of Mr.
Hospitality. Len managed the Ingraham Hotel until
April 2,1972, when he sold the hotel to Ian Duncanson
and Neal Patterson. Neal had owned the Empress
Hotel in Chilliwack.4
By the late 1960's and into thel970's liquor
regulations became less restrictive. As laws regarding
drinking relaxed the beer parlour went through a
metamorphosis from a paltry drinking room to a
much more congenial place for customers to gather
and enjoy. New changes allowed for the selling of BC
cider, wine; spirits and imported beer giving patrons
a good choice of products. The decor at the Ingy, as it
was affectionately called by the regular customers,
changed with the addition of four pool tables, two
shuffleboard tables, a cigarette machine, a few
television sets, a jukebox and food service. The food
service was located near the centre of the pub. A copy
of the Ingraham Hotel "grub menu" from 1971
contained its own charm as customers were
encouraged to "try our horrible golden bilingual
French Fries," or to order "hot corned beef on rye
samwich, not in the bottle." The retractable wall and
the separate entrances were no longer required but
the separate entry signs remained as relics of an
antiquated past. During the 1970's and 1980's the pub
continued to do a good business. The games tables
were popular with customers as was the addition of
more television sets. Sports teams would meet at the
Ingy after the game and a steady stream of regulars
loyally drank at their favourite tables in the pub.
But by the mid to late 1990's the age of the "beer
barn" was in decline and business at the Ingy began
to wane. Prices for beer increased while attitudes
towards drinking were changing. The economics of
the city was shifting from resource-based to 'high-
tech' jobs requiring computer skills. The British
Columbia Forest Products sawmill on Gorge Road
closed while small industry continued to shrink and
the new global economy began encroaching on
traditional types of employment. Also more people
began to stay at home and simply went to the pub
less. An attempt to lure customers back and generate
revenue by providing live music was not enough to
attract customers on a regular basis or to fill the large
500 seat pub.
The Large Family, owners of a Vancouver Island
grocery chain, purchased the hotel in May 2002. By
August, the Liquor Board amended its regulations to
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 allow private liquor stores to compete with
Government owned stores and the Ingraham received
one of the first licenses under the new Act. It was a
shrewd move as the new owners of the Ingraham
hotel purchased their license before a City of Victoria
zoning by-law restricted the size of private liquor
stores. The Ingy Pub was to be replaced by the largest
privately owned liquor store in Victoria. The taps went
dry for good after forty-three years at closing time
Saturday August 8, 2003.
A Hotel 8 has replaced the once familiar
Ingraham Hotel and a Liquor Plus private liquor store
now operates where the beer parlour once stood. A
small pub, eventually opened where the Big I cabaret
used to be inside the hotel. To remind the public of
these changes the current owners coined the slogan,
"It's not the Ingraham anymore." Past customers and
staff who have fond memories of time spent in the
Ingraham beer parlour and lament its passing, have
little reason to celebrate. Like the fate of the
cycledrome that preceded it, the Ingraham beer
parlour succumbed, for better or for worse to an ever-
changing world. •
Are you glad you came?
2915 Douglas Street
Victoria, B.C,
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       15 A Proposal for a New Park in the Fraser Canyon
By Charles Hou
Charles Hou is a
retired Burnaby high
school teacher who
was the recipient of
the first Governor
General's Award for
Excellence in
Teaching Canadian
History and for many
years gave his
students a first hand
experience of BC
history by leading
them on a hike over
the gold rush trail
from Port Douglas to
29 Mile House.
The Fraser River Canyon is one of Canada's
most important transportation corridors,
and has as much significance in the history
of British Columbia as the St. Lawrence
River has in that of Central Canada. The convergence
of the many historic events which took place in the
canyon make it the logical place for an historic park.
The canyon, which separates the Coast and Cascade
Mountains, provided our ancestors with natural
resources and some of the greatest road and railroad
construction challenges in our history. It is important
to manage and protect this part of the Fraser canyon
for future generations. This article proposes the
creation of an historic park centered in the Fraser River
Canyon between Alexandra Bridge and Hell's Gate
(the Black Canyon).
Historic parks help to interest students and the
general public in the history of their province and
country. They are also a good way of interesting
people from outside the country in our past. The
Fraser Canyon an ideal place for such a park. A park
would preserve the footprints of the past in the Fraser
canyon - archaeological sites, settlements, trails, roads,
railways and fishways - and celebrate some of the
most significant events in British Columbia's history,
including Simon Fraser's 1808 trip down the Fraser
River. The 200th anniversary of Fraser's trip also
provides an opportune time to commemorate the
many historic, artistic and cultural contributions the
native (Nlaka'pamux) people of the area have made
to the development of British Columbia.
The Fraser Canyon offers ideal locations for
hiking, mountain biking, rafting and horseback
riding. The Anderson's Brigade Trail, in particular,
offers challenges to anyone interested in participating
in sports and recreation. The trail offers both historic
significance and great views of the canyon. Other
hiking, mountain bike and horse trails could be rebuilt
(e.g. the Douglas Portage from Yale to Spuzzum, the
Cariboo Wagon Road and Fraser Canyon highway
from Alexandra Bridge to Spuzzum, Lake House to
Boston Bar, Chapman's Bar to Alexandra Bridge etc.).
Communities along the Trans-Canada
Highway through the Fraser Canyon have suffered
an economic decline due to competition from the
Hope-Princeton Highway, the Coquihalla Highway
and the Pemberton to Lillooet Highway. An historic
park centered in the middle of the Fraser Canyon
between Hope and Lytton would be one way of
revitalizing this route. The area is within easy driving
distance of the Lower Mainland and is already on one
of the most spectacular drives in the world
At the present time the Hell's Gate Airtram is
the biggest tourist attraction in the canyon. The
proposed park and museum would give tourists
another reason to visit the canyon and provide
employment opportunities for people living in the
valley. This would provide increased long term
business for restaurants, service stations, motels, bed
and breakfast establishments, rafting, guided tours
and horse rental companies and other small
businesses, and would help create long term
employment to offset the closure of the sawmill at
Boston Bar.
The proposed park would start at Alexandra
Bridge, in the heart of the Fraser Canyon and near
where the Hudson's Bay Company fur brigades
crossed the Fraser River in 1847-49. It would extend
east to the dividing line between the Fraser and
Anderson River watersheds and then north to
Anderson's Brigade Trail, where it would head in a
northwesterly direction to Hell's Gate. The Canadian
National Railway would form the western boundary,
except for Chapman's Bar and the land included in
Alexandra Provincial Park. The park would include
nearly all of the important historic sites in the Canyon.
It would not include reserve land and other private
property unless it was purchased and became part of
the proposed park. The park would preserve the
viewshed experienced along Anderson's Brigade
The best way to provide tourists with
information about the history of the park would be to
build a museum at Yale outlining the significant history
of the area. Native sites are found throughout the
canyon, some dating back over 10,000 years and
recognition of the contribution of the native people to
our past presents an obvious museum theme. Simon
Fraser visited here in 1808, and his trip set in motion
major events that would dramatically change the
natives' way of life. Yale would therefore be a logical
place for exhibits on life in the canyon before the gold
rush and a commemoration of the 200th anniversary
of Simon Fraser's trip down the Fraser River.
The museum would provide tourists with an
introduction to important sites throughout the Fraser
Canyon and the problems involved in the construction
of a railway in the canyon. Yale was the headquarters
of construction for the railway through the Canyon and
has a Chinatown dating back to the gold rush.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 Nearby, Alexandra Bridge is already the site of a
small provincial park. The museum could focus on the
construction of the bridges in the area, the history of the
Royal Engineers, and the work of the men who
constructed the Cariboo, Fraser Canyon and Trans-
Canada highways and the hydroelectric transmission
lines. Work needs to be done to preserve the second
bridge built at the site as it offers a spectacular location
for viewing the river and native fishing sites. A trail could
be built connecting this bridge to the new bridge to the
south and to Alexandra Lodge.
Alexandra Lodge is found at the southern end of
Anderson's Brigade Trail. The trail starts just north of
the lodge and has a significant place in BC history. It is
one of the ten best hiking trails in the province.
Chapman's Bar, one of the many bars in the canyon
mined during the gold rush, is just across the highway
from the lodge. The lodge itself is a fine example of the
type of resting place built all along the Cariboo Wagon
Road and the Praser Canyon Highway. It was likely built
around 1864 and underwent extensive renovations in
1929. The brigade trail, following a trail used by the
native people for centuries, connects with the Bluffs trail
overlooking the Black Canyon.
The Bluffs trail can also be accessed by means of
a logging road that starts just east of Alexandra Bridge.
If this road were upgraded and paved, tourists who are
not able to hike up Anderson's Brigade Trail could drive
to the site. The view from the ridge is what makes the
brigade trail one of the best hikes in the province. The
small lakes in the area provide good picnic sites, with
room left over for people interested in hiking and
camping. Relatively easy hiking trails exist along the
ridge, around the lakes and to Gate Mountain. A Lake
House built in 1848 once stood near the large lake. A
museum at Yale would inform tourists about the history
of the trail and would likely result in a major increase in
its use.
As part of a forestry exhibit detailing the history
of logging in the canyon, mention could be made of the
forestry lookout on Gate Mountain.This is an excellent
site for viewing the extent of logging in the area as well
as the mountainous terrain surrounding the Fraser
Canyon. On a clear day you can see for over twenty
miles in all directions.
The Hell's Gate airtram already enables viewing
of the fishways which helps spawning salmon pass
through the obstructed part of the canyon. Like
Alexandra Bridge, it is an excellent site for viewing the
most difficult section of the river. The CPR, CNR and
remnants of the early trails and wagon road can be seen.
The proposed museum at Yale would describe
the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway and
Canadian National Railway through some of the most
difficult terrain in the world, and illustrate life in a
railway community. Many people are fascinated by
railways, and they are still of prime importance to
the provincial and national economies.
At present there is an art gallery and museum
at Siska. The local band members are very interested
in the portrayal and use of plant materials. An ecology
centre here or in the museum could portray the
transition of plant and animal life from the coastal
rain forest to semi-arid terrain.
Timeline of Significant Events in the History of the
Fraser Canyon
8000BC - the approximate occupation date for
Nlakama'pamux people in the Fraser Canyon
1808 - Simon Fraser descends the Fraser River to
Georgia Strait
1812 - the American-owned Pacific Fur Company
erects Fort Kamloops
1813 - the North West Company purchases the Pacific
Fur Company; Fort Alexandra built
1821 - union of the Hudson's Bay Company and the
North West Company
1826 - fur brigade takes furs from New Caledonia to
Fort Vancouver and returns with supplies on the
Cariboo-Okanagan route
1827 - the Hudson's Bay Company erects Fort Langley
1828 - George Simpson canoes the Fraser River from
Lytton to Fort Langley
1843 - the Hudson's Bay Company builds FortVictoria
1846 - Alexander Caufield Anderson explores the
Harrison-Lillooet route and the Coquihalla-
Similkameen route to Kamloops; the Oregon treaty
extends the border between British and American
territory from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific
Ocean along the 49th parallel
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       17 1847 - Anderson explores a route from what is now
Yale to Spuzzum to Kequeloose to the Anderson River,
which connects with a trail to Fort Kamloops
1848 - the Hudson's Bay Company's annual fur
brigade uses the 1847 route to and from Alexandra;
the HBC erects Fort Yale
1849 - the fur brigade uses the Anderson Fur Brigade
route on the way from Alexandra to Fort Yale and
returns via a new and better route from Fort Hope
to Alexandra; Fort Victoria replaces Fort Vancouver
as the Hudson's Bay Company's headquarters on the
west coast
1858 - over 20,000 gold miners head up the Fraser
Canyon in search of gold; a canyon war between the
natives and miners erupts; miners erect a crude mule
trail from Boston Bar to Lytton to connect up with
the HBC trail from Yale to Boston Bar; British
Columbia is made a Crown colony; a cable ferry is
completed across the Fraser River at Spuzzum
1869 - Governor James Douglas upgrades the mule
trail from Yale to Lytton
1861 - Douglas orders the Royal Engineers to survey
a wagon route up the canyon
1862 - the Royal Engineers and private contractors
begin construction of the Cariboo Wagon Road
1863 - Joseph Trutch completes a suspension bridge
north of Spuzzum (the first Alexandra Bridge)
1864 - likely date for the completion of Alexandra
Lodge; Francis Bernard begins stagecoach service
from Yale to the Cariboo
1865 - the Cariboo Wagon Road is completed from
Yale to BarkerviUe
1871 - British Columbia enters Confederation;
Canada promises to build a railway across Canada
within ten years
1880 - rail contractor Andrew Onderdonk begins
construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Yale
1882 - a CPR steamboat, the Skuzzy, passes through
Hell's Gate
1885 - Donald Smith drives the last spike on the CPR
at Craigellachie
1894 - floods destroy Alexandra Bridge
1910 - construction ofthe Canadian Northern Railway
through the canyon begins
1913 - the Canadian Northern Railway construction
results in a significant blockage of the Fraser River
at Hell's Gate, and catastrophic loss in salmon
1924-26 - a new Fraser River highway is constructed
through the canyon; a new bridge is completed at
1948 - work is completed on a fishway to help
spawning salmon pass through Hell's Gate
1950s - a forest fire lookout is built on top of Gate
1970 - the Trans-Canada Highway is completed in
the Fraser Canyon
1971 - an air tram is constructed at Hell's Gate
1970s - mountain clubs reopen Anderson's Brigade
1980s - river rafting begins on the Fraser River
between Boston Bar and Yale
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 British Columbia Historical Federation
NO. 18 March 2007
ISSN  print
From the President's Desk
Our members have been busy during the last few months, although
much of the activity has been behind the scenes. As mentioned in
the last Newsletter, Ron Welwood, Chairman of our Web
Committee, and our new webmaster, Alistair Fraser, have brought
our bchistory website up to date and are now redesigning it. Some
ofthe changes are definitely behind the scenes and only a "techie"
will understand them, but the public face will also be undergoing
some changes. A very big "thank you" to both of them. Do watch for
the changes at
Our last Newsletter also mentioned the CBC's Almanac's Gold Rush
project. The deadline for submissions has been extended to April
15th. The easy way to submit a story is to go to and click on Gold Rush Connection. Do
remember to identify yourself as a member of the BCHF.
I look forward to seeing you in Victoria in May.
Patricia Roy
President, BC Historical Federation.
New underground tunnel completed
The Sullivan Mine and Railway Historical Society celebrated the
running of a full train through
the new underground tunnel
which passed with flying colors.
The surface work on the rail
line extension has been
completed and the
underground mining displays
are underway.
The new attraction will open
this spring and is expected to
be a big tourist draw.    The
project was funded under the Canada/BC Infrastructure prog ram and
Teck Cominco Ltd.
Those who attended the BCHF Conference in Kimberley will recall
the exciting train ride and tour hosted by the Sullivan Mine and
Railway Historical Society. If you vacationing in the Kootenays this
year be sure to stop by for a historic train ride and tour.
28 APRIL 2007
Rick Hansen Secondary School in Abbotsford
with workshops, marketplace, visual displays and six
featured speakers
full details on
The History of B.C. Packers
The Richmond Museum is developing a virtual museum which is called
In Their Words which will tell the story of B.C. Packers from the
perspective ofthe people who worked there.
In the 1880's, there were three canneries in Steveston and by 1899
there were 15. By the late 1890s there were more than 50 fish
canneries along the B.C. coast and the intense competition that resulted
drove many canneries to the brink of financial collapse.
In 1902, the B.C. Packers Association was formed and bought 42
canneries  and   by   1905,   the
company had closed down all
but   15.      The      company's
Steveston   operation   was   a
major employer in  Richmond
until it closed in  1997.    The
Imperial    Landing    site    was
rezoned for waterfront condos
and     as     part     of     the
redevelopment agreement, the
company donated its archives,
900 artifacts and $200,000 to
the city for the development of a
museum display.
The development ofthe virtual museum website will cost$179,439 with
the Department of Canadian Heritage covering the lion's share with a
grant of $106,853 with the balance coming from the City of Richmond,
Richmond School District and the Gulf of Georgia Cannery. The
website is directed at school children and is intended to be an
educational tool. A team of 30 people are developing the new website
which is scheduled to be launched at the end of March. In April check
it out at
PICTURE: An unloading crew using peughs to throw salmon from a
boat into BC Packers Cannery. City of Richmond Archives 1978.34.19
Auditor General Sheila Fraser released a Status Report on February
13th which includes a chapter on the conservation of historic buildings
owned by the federal government. While Parks Canada has made
some progress since her 2003 report, Ms. Fraser says in a media
release that the government is still not doing enough forfederal heritage
property managed by other departments.
"The loss of heritage buildings and sites means that future generations
will no longer have access to significant aspects of our history," Ms.
Fraser said. "It is therefore important that the federal government
strengthen its conservation regime for built heritage and set priorities to
decide which heritage buildings and sites should be -preserved."
MAY 7 THRU  12
If you were planning on doing some research while in Victoria,
stay over after the conference, it reopens on Monday the 14th Heritage Award presented to Annette Fulford
For the past ten years, Annette
Fulford has written and edited
the Maple Ridge Historical
Society Family History
Newsletter, which is widely
circulated throughout the
community and to genealogy
organizations. Using a variety
of research tools and
techniques, she has been a
tremendous resource to others
seeking to record their family
Annette Fulford receives
award from acting Mayor
Ernie Daykin.
TOUCHSTONES NELSON new museum opening was a great success
with over 3,000 people visiting over a four day period. For the first two
months of operation, Touchstones had 600+ paid admissions.
Welcome to our new Members
- West Vancouver Historical Society
- The Friends of St. Ann's Academy, Victoria
- Tumbler Ridge Museum Foundation
The  B.C.   Historical  Federation  represents   113  Societies,
Affiliates and Associates with a membership of 12,200+
working for the preservation of British Columbia's history.
TITANIC- THE ARTIFACTEXHIBITwWh over280 artifacts from the
final resting place of the Titanic. The
exhibit runs from April 14th thru October
14th at the Royal British Columbia
Museum. A Titanic gift shop will be
open offering books and mementos
related to the exhibit.
Reserved entry time tickets on sale in
person   at  the   door  or  on   line   at Plan ahead and order your tickets for
a time that fits your schedule. The RBCMuseum is just four blocks
from the Conference site.
STEAMSHIP TRAVEL IN B.C. -The Maritime Museum of B.C. have
mounted an exciting exhibit of pictures, memorabilia and artifacts
from the many ships that serviced the communities on the west
coast of B.C. For the B.C. historian and those who have fond
memories of the Canadian Pacific Steamships and Union
Steamships, this exhibit is one you won't want to miss. The
Maritime Museum is located at 28 Bastion Square which is 15
minute walkfrom the Conference site. Open daily 9:30 am -4:30 pm.
W. Kaye Lamb Essay Scholarships
The BCHF awards two scholarships annually for essays
written by students at BC colleges or universities on a topic
relating to British Columbia history. A $750 scholarship for an
essay written by a student in a first or second year course and
a $ 1,000 scholarships for an essay written by a student in a
third or fourth year course.
All essays must be on a topic relating to the history of British
Columbia. Full details on
Deadline is 15 May 2007
The exciting new facility has generated a membership boom to nearly
800 with a city population of less than 10,000.
VANCOUVER HISTORICAL SOCIETY has been reviewing the incredible
collection   in  the Vancouver CBC Archives  and
recently had Archivist Colin Preston presenting some
of their treasures.    While CBC opened their TV
studios in 1953, the collection also includes footage
of Vancouver and its residents, shot by professional
film companies and amateurs alike.
A recent presentation by Colin Preston to the VHS
included coverage of King George VI and Queen
Elizabeth being driven down Georgia Street in 1939
as thousands lined the sidewalks and cheered.
Everything is in motion, showing the hustle and bustle of 60 and 70 years
ago. A fascinating peek into Vancouver's past.
successful year in 2006 and are looking into the
possible purchase of another two coaches to add
to its rolling stock. The group of 200+ members
logged over 12,000 volunteer hours in 2005. If
you are traveling to the Kamloops area this
_ summer, be sure to take in the historic train ride.
A new, improved website is currently under construction and should be
launched by the end of spring. Negotiations are underway to change our
internet service provider to provide the Federation more flexibility.
Alistair Fraser, our web designer and Ron Welwood have spent
countless hours on this project and the Federation is very grateful for
their volunteer expertise.
The web designers are looking for free use of historic photographs and
especially panoramas from around the province to display on the site.
A description of the photographs and sources will be acknowledged.
Please forward to Ron Welwood at
BCHF Newsletter
Comments & suggestions to
Co-Editors   Ron Hyde
Ron Welwood
mail - c/o Ron Hyde
#20-12880 Railway Ave
Richmond, B. C. V7E 6G2
r-fwelwood(5) &
wfc. ^
*®&&Fr Society
Over 10,000 worldwide family history publications
specialized resources for British Columbia history and
Free to members; $5 per day to non-members
Please call or e-mail to check on weekend holiday hours
or to ask about appointments.
Ubrary: Unit 211, 12837 - 76th Ave., Surrey, B.C.
Mirtrdt act
104 pages
192 photos
.... anover^devv ot'lhe loresl induyCr> aioi^ lhe/\rrow Lakes and Coltunbia Kiveraidspecificaliy
an exciting account of Celgar's operations with regard to running log bundles down Ihe
Columbia River above Revelstoke. Moving 50 ton log bundles along this violent river was.
and never will be again, a stniggle that only the bravest could endure. This is their story.
.,.. A real man's book priced at $25.00 plus $10 bubbiepack postage,
Contact-Arrow Lakes Historical Society Box 819, Nakusp, B.C. V0G1R0
email   alhs@netidea.coin 250-255-0110 or 250-265-3323
Ronsdale Press
The Story of Dunbar
Voices of a Vancouver
Eleven members of the community of Dunbar
recount the history of one of Vancouver's favourite "streetcar
neighbourhoods," with chapters on the Musqueam First
Nation, early settlers, sports, transportation, the schools, the
arts and much more. Based on personal interviews and
illustrated with more than 250 black and white photos,
The Stoiy of Dunbar reminds us that history occurs
in the streets of quiet out-of-the-way
neighbourhoods as surely as on battlefields.
ISBN: 1-55380-040-0     8.5x11     446 pp     $39.95 pb     Index
Available from your favourite bookstore or order from LitDistCo
Visit our website at IJroyal BC Museum Origins of the Vancouver Name
Another Possibility
By John Robson
The City of Vancouver and Vancouver Island
(plus several other features around the world) derive
their name from that of George Vancouver, a late-
eighteenth century British surveyor-explorer. As a
surname, Vancouver is very rare and only made its
appearance about the middle of the eighteenth
century with George Vancouver's own family. It then
all but died out as members of the family had mostly
female children if they had children at all.
Adrien Mansvelt, the consul for the
Netherlands at Vancouver in the 1970s, researched
Vancouver's ancestry and produced a genealogy that
has been accepted by most people since that time,
even though there is little or no documentary evidence
for some of the facts included therein. In Mansvelt's
version, a Reint Wolter van Coeverden, a Dutch
landowner, was George Vancouver's great
grandfather. He was part of an old Dutch family from
Coevorden, a small town in northeastern Holland on
the German border. Reint Wolter married an English
woman, Jane Lillingston, in 1699 and together they
had a son, Lucas Hendrik. Lucas moved to Britain,
where he married a local woman called Sarah. By the
middle of the eighteenth century, the family surname
had metamorphosed to Vancouver and Sarah
Vancouver, George's grandmother, was living in
King's Lynn in Norfolk. She was listed as a property
owner, suggesting that her husband was already dead.
In June 1749, their son John Jasper Vancouver married
Bridget Berners, the daughter of a local family with
property at Wiggenhall St. Mary the Virgin, a few
kilometres to the south of King's Lynn. Bridget's
father, William Berners, had, however, already
dissipated the family fortune some years earlier.
George Vancouver was born in King's Lynn, Norfolk
on 22 June 1757, the sixth and final child of John Jasper
and Bridget Vancouver.
Unfortunately, the documentary evidence for
Lucas Hendrik van Coeverden's arrival in Britain and
his marriage there does not appear to exist rendering
the crucial part of this lineage of the Vancouvers flawed.
In July 1794, George Vancouver was exploring
the Northwest Coast of America. He sent Joseph
Whidbey, master of Vancouver's ship, the Discovery,
off to explore the inlets to the east of Cross Sound in
Southern Alaska. Whidbey ventured through Icy
Strait and then up Lynn Canal and down Chatham
Strait (all named later by Vancouver) before returning
to the ship. Vancouver chose to name various features
seen by Whidbey after his own family, including
Berners Bay and Point Bridget after his mother,
Bridget Berners. The point at the junction between
Icy Strait and Lynn Canal, Vancouver named Point
... a point, which I called after the seat of my ancestors,
Point Couverden... (Voyage. Vol.4, p. 1354)
This would seem to corroborate Mansvelt's
connection between the King's Lynn Vancouvers and
the Dutch van Couverdens. However, some doubt
remains. Vancouver ascribed many of the names to
features on the Northwest Coast of America after he
had returned to Britain and he was still dealing with
the exploits of 1794 just before his death in 1798. At
about the same time as George was writing up the
narrative of his voyage in the middle- to late-1790s,
his brother, Charles, was getting married. On 06 March
1798, Charles married Louise Josephine van
Coeverden, one of his supposed distant cousins, in
Vollenhove in the Netherlands. It is possible that
Vancouver's choice of name for the point in Alaska was
a way of flattering his new sister-in-law's family and
cementing the relationship between the two families.
The lack of documentary evidence for
Vancouvers and van Couverdens in England and,
especially in King's Lynn and Norfolk, prior to 1750,
caused to me to look elsewhere and for variant names.
A genealogical search produced some results and with
them an alternative version for the origins of the
Vancouver name.
An Abraham Vangover married Martha Allen
at the Society of Friends in Suffolk in 1680 /1. Abraham
and Martha Vangover had the following children, all
baptised at Saint Mary at the Quay, Ipswich, Suffolk:
Name Baptised
10 March 1681
16 January 1683
10 December 1687
02 August 1690
The James Vangover born in 1687 married Sarah
Green at Ipswich St Clement Suffolk on 27 April 1712.
James and Sarah Vangover had children but so far I
have only been able to trace a few records, all from
Ipswich, including:
Name Baptised
February 1713/14
13 February 1714/15
26 February 1717/18
John Robson is the
Map Librarian at the
University of
Waikato, Hamilton,
New Zealand.
I believe James and Sarah Vangover to be
George Vancouver's grandparents with Sarah
Vangover being the woman of property living in King's
Lynn in the 1750s. By that time James Vangover had
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       23 Select Bibliography.
Gifford, Alison. Captain
Vancouver, a portrait of his life.
King's Lynn, Norfolk: St. James
Press, 1986.
Lamb, W. Kaye. 4 vol. London:
Hakluyt Society, 1984.
Mansvelt, Adrien. Vancouver: a
Lost Branch of the van
Couverden Family. B.C.
Historical News. 1973. Vol. VI.
pp. 20-3.
Vancouver, George. The Voyage
of Discovery to the North Pacific
Ocean and Round the World,
1791-1795, edited by
died. As yet, I have not found a birth record for a John
Jasper Vangover but I do wonder whether Jonas could
be the man later known as John Jasper Vancouver? We
do not know how either Vancouver or Vangover would
have been pronounced in the eighteenth century and
the new spelling may represent a mistake in
transcription on the part of a clerk when recording a
birth or some other official event.
Also, given that the Berners were an established
land owning family in the county, it is understandable
that John James Vangover sought to boost his own
lineage by claiming connections with similar families
of note and the van Couverdens in the Netherlands
suited his purpose. Vangover was looking to advance
in the world and gain status in King's Lynn so a
pedigree with landed gentry in it would help his cause.
By the time George Vancouver was an adult such claims
may have become established truth in the family!
Interestingly, as the Vancouver name came into
usage, the surname Vangover died out in Suffolk and
Norfolk, thus strengthening the case that the change
had occurred. Of course, this has still not explained
the origins of Abraham Vangover but Suffolk is close
to the Dutch coast and traffic between the two was
common. A Dutch origin is still, therefore, possible
but at an earlier date than previously suggested and
not necessarily with the Van Couverdens.
This version of events is by no means one
hundred per cent proven but I believe it offers a more
credible version than has been presented before now. •
Vancouver Family
Hatton        Bridget
=  Allen
Berners   =    Leach
m.1681 Colchester
Gregory    William       Jane     Elizabeth
Vangover = Green
Berners     Berners = Hotchins   Berners = Loggan
John Jasper
m.1714                    m. 1713
Jonas or
Jget             Gregory     Grace     Justinian
Vangover          A
Vangover / Vancouver
Berners            Berners   =     ?          Loggan
(1719-13 Jan. 1773)
(24 Aug. 1715-June 1768)
m. 22 June 1749
er      Bridget
=    Vancouver Vancouver
(22 June 1757-12 May 1798)
Charles         Martha         John           Elizabeth
Josephine      =   Vancouver     Partridge = Vancouver =   Elliott
van Couverden        (1756-1811)        (9-1807)      (1756-1829)
m. 1798
m.(1)1786           m.(2) 24 March 1810
I                    I
John              Eliza
I                          I
George               Charles
Macarthuer = Vancouver
Vancouver          Christopher
m. 1845
Vancouver   =   ?
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 King's Lynn Celebrates
It's the 250th Birthday of Captain George Vancouver
n 21 June 2007, the arrival of the majestic
tall ship Earl of Pembroke at the Boal Quay
in King's Lynn will herald the start of the
Captain Vancouver Festival in King's Lynn.
The Festival will celebrate the 250th anniversary of
the birth of George Vancouver, the town's great
maritime sailor and navigator.
Born in King's Lynn, on 22 June 1757, he went
to sea as a midshipman with Captain Cook when he
was just 14 years old, and after an illustrious naval
career was given his own ship, The Discovery. He went
on to navigate and survey the uncharted North West
American coast producing the first maps of the area
and thus securing his place in this country's maritime
A long weekend of festivities has been
organised by the Borough Council, with the generous
support of local businesses, to mark this important
anniversary of the town's most famous naval son.
Nick Daubney Deputy Leader of the Borough
Council, commenting on the festival, said: 'This event
gives us the perfect opportunity to celebrate the
town's unique history and rich maritime heritage as
well as developing Lynn's reputation as a festival
town. We hope that visitors will come and sample
what the town has to offer. Over the festival weekend
there will be opportunities to sample local seafood,
take guided tours around the historic heart of the
town, observe traditional trades of the sea such as rope
making, be amused by street entertainers and
characters from the town's past and rekindle the spirit
of maritime King's Lynn in the late 1700s.'
Just some of the events planned for the weekend include:
18-28 June ■ Vancouver's Lynn Exhibition ■ Pen & wash
buildings of 18th-century Lynn by artist Don Noyce.
20 June ■ author of Captain Vancouver North-West
Navigator, Ernest Coleman, will talk about Captain
Vancouver and his incredible voyage and accomplishments.
21-24 June ■ The Earl of Pembroke will be moored along
the waterfront throughout the festival giving visitor's
the opportunity to step on board, meet the crew and
explore below deck.
21 &23 June ■ sausage and mash supper. Step back in
time for an evening in the company of Captain George
Vancouver, who will read excerpts from his journals.
21 June ■ Fans of Fashion ■ discover the world of 18th-
century fashion and the secret language of the fan.
21 June ■ 'By George he did it' ■ entertainment in words
and music inspired by A Voyage of Discovery' researched
and written by Richard Morley.
22 June ■ A Great Navigator and Surveyor ■ lecture by
local historian Bryan Howling.
22 June ■ People's Banquet ■ a rumbustious family
banquet with music.
23 & 24 June ■ Interactive Drama Voyage of Discovery'.
22 & 23 June ■ Feast of music ■ many local bands will be
performing by the waterfront in King's Staithe Square,
showcasing the wealth of established and emerging
talent in the area.
23 June ■ Playford Ball ■ a spectacular event reflecting
the dance, music and costume of the late Georgian
period under the direction of the MC Nicolas
In May, a Captain Vancouver Exhibition in the
town's historic Custom House will introduce the
world of George Vancouver through pictures,
storyboards and a reproduction of his Great Cabin.
The exhibition will run through until October.
Vancouver Marine artist John Horton will have
an exhibition of his Captain George Vancouver
pictures in King's Lynn and through the genrousity
of Mr. Peter Legge andMr. Joseph Segal there will also
be a parallel exhibition at the Vancouver Maritime
Museum. •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       25 For Whom the Bell Tolls
The story of the Puako
By Dudley Booth
Dudley Booth is the
custodian of the
Littlebury photograph
He became
interested in the
Puako after
discovering one of
Littlebury's photos
showed the vessel on
her last voyage;
being towed into
Burrard Inlet on her
way to the scrapyard.
That photo was used
by model maker
Steve Priske to assist
in the creation of his
model of the Puako.
In the old foundry in Oakland California the brass
was heated to a bright red then slowly poured
into the mold that held the name and date of the
ship that was to be launched by Boole & Co. The
name PUAKO and the year 2902 was cast onto the
face of the beautiful bronze bell. It would be mounted
just forward of the helm within easy reach of the
helmsman who would announce the hour by the
tolling of the bell.
During normal times the bell would toll 108
times a day and more often when in fog, warning
other ships of its presence. The PUAKO would be a
four masted sailing ship called a Barquentine and
destined to sail the oceans of the world. The passages
would be lengthy and slow with the ship powered
only by the wind. The cabins were not heated in the
cold climes, nor cooled in the tropics, so comfort was
minimal for crew and passengers for most of the
After the first few days, most of the fresh food
would be exhausted and from then on salted fish and
meat would become the rations. Bread would be as
hard as a rock and milk non existent. Bathing would
be with salt water or not at all except when it rained,
for fresh water was in limited supply and only to used
for cooking and drinking. The ship was rarely level
so living conditions always had the decks tilted away
from the wind. During all these times the bell
announced the hour and when it tolled eight bells, it
was time for the crew to change watch.
The home port of the PUAKO was San Francisco
and she was owned by Hinds, Rolph & Co. The
PUAKO took lumber and other materials to Hawaii
and returned laden with sugar for the C&H Sugar
Mill, thus the PUAKO was one of the Sugar Ships.
James Rolph Jr. became the Mayor of San Francisco
It would only be four years after the launch of
the Puako that the
ilof Adeline 51. Oakland
'ritPHOHE  MAIN390
'  A   BOOLE ....;-i!„ -n    f
fl3TON,       SCCDNO VlCff-
~*ON. }rc«T»dY
Earthquake struck this city, setting it afire and
crumbling much of it to the ground. Perhaps the bell
tolled this event as well.
Other ports of call included Vancouver and
Victoria, B.C., as well as Capetown, South Africa and
Australia. During all these ocean passages the bell
tolled thousands of times.
The first Master of the PUAKO was
Captain George Seeley 1902 - 1907;
followed Captain Adolph "Hellfire"
Pedersen and his two sons who
he appointed as his mates.
Pedersen was Master of the
PUAKO from 1907 until 1918
when he and his sons were
arrested for the mistreatment of
the crew.
Captain Pedersen was charged
with murder and taken to New York for
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 trial. During the time when Pedersen was Master, the
bell tolled innumerable times, often calling to the
attention of the crew the extreme cruelty being put
upon one of their fellows.
After the arrest of Pedersen in Capetown South
Africa, Captain Pearson was enlisted to bring the
PUAKO from South Africa to her home port of San
Francisco. The bell now had a more mellow ring to it,
no longer bringing terror into the eyes of the crew.
From 1919-1925 the Master of the PUAKO was
Captain Charles E. Helms. The era of sailing ships
was rapidly drawing to a close and being replaced
with steam powered ships. At this time the PUAKO
found itself in the seaport city of Victoria, B.C. where
it lay tied to the dock unattended awaiting sale by
auction. The ship fell silent as was the beautiful bell.
The destiny of the PUAKO was that it be sold
to Hecate Straits Towing Co., then towed from Victoria
to Vancouver and there dismantled with rigging and
masts removed as well as much of the decking. It
became a hollow hulk to be used as a barge for lumber
and towed to ports along the coast of British
Columbia. The PUAKO name was changed and she
became the DRUMWALL. The bell, together with all
the valuables, were removed from the ship vanishing
into the hands of the unknown and the mellow tone
was not to be heard again for decades.
By a strange twist of fate the PUAKO bell found
itself mounted on the wall of a tavern in Anacortes,
Washington where it hung for many years. Perhaps
on occasion as the smooth nectar served therein
lingered on the tongue, some may have heard the
PUAKO bell toll once more, calling for another round
of drinks from the bar.
The tavern was sold but the tavern owner
decided the bell had sentimental value and was not
to be left behind. As the years took their toll, as they
do for all, the PUAKO bell fell into the hands of her
son and heir.
Curiosity, timing and generosity played out the
next act in the life story of the bell. The tavern owner's
son was curious about the PUAKO and was seeking
to discover something about this ship upon which the
bell once hung. His search took him to a prestigious
ship model builder Steve Priske. Priske had just
completed building a large model of the PUAKO,
accurate in every detail for Walt Bulski, the grandson
of Helms, the last captain of the PUAKO.
Bulski was contacted by Priske and made aware
of the connection of the bell with the tavern owner's
son. Soon, Bulski's children got involved with the
owner of the bell, with Bulski unaware of their activity.
There was a birthday party in 2006, it was Walt's
79th and the surprise that awaited him was beyond
his wildest dreams. The bell tolled once more.
As time goes by, the destiny of the bell will take
other directions that future generations will discover
and hopefully they too will hear the tolling of the
PUAKO bell. •
Here we see Captain
Helms and his wife Mary
Catherine in the cockpit
of the four masted
Barkentine Puako. Behind
the couple we can see the
ship's bell. Helms was
master of the Puako from
1919-1925 .
(opposite page)
The ship's bell
(this page, left)
This ship model of the
four masted skysail
Barkentine Puako was
built by model shipwright
Steve Priske in 2005. The
model measures over 4
feet long and features all
sails set. It took about
1,300 hours to complete
this scratch built model.
All Photos for this article
provided by Steve Priske - Model
Shipwright - Historian.
For more information on the
Puako's history and sugar ships in
general visit Steve's website
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       27 Con Jones & the Don't Argue tokens of Vancouver, B.C.
Token History
by Ronald Greene
Con Jones was a flamboyant sportsman,
tobacconist, club and pool room operator
in Vancouver, B.C., from 1904 until 1929.
He issued an interesting and diverse group
of tokens and gaming chips over that time.
Con Jones was born in Australia in 1869 of Irish
parents. He brought his wife and young children to
Vancouver in 1904, where he was to spend the rest of
his days. He obtained his first business licence in July
of that year, for a pool room with nine tables. By 1912
he held licences for 60 tables. In 1919 when Jones
had 62 tables, the next largest pool room operator in
the city had only 12 tables.1
His first billiard parlour was known as Con's
Billiard Room at 320 Cordova St. West. In 1908 he took
over the Tooles Billiard Parlour location at 47-49
Hastings St. East, changing the name to the Limit Pool
Room. In late 1914 Con Jones installed a bowling alley
at 330 Cordova St. West, which he gave up by 1919.
By 1909 he had added the Brunswick Pool Room at
58 Hastings St. East. The Brunswick Pool Room,
moved in 1912 to 26 Hastings Street East and was still
running until 1936 when it became the Brunswick
Sports Club. Over the years Con Jones operated at a
dozen different locations and at each of these locations
he sold tobacco and candy.
Con Jones is famous - at least in Vancouver -
for his slogan "Don't Argue," which he started using
in his regular newspaper advertising August 25,1914.
The ad read, "Don't Argue! Con Jones sells fresh
Tobacco." Some time later he registered "Don't
Argue" as a trade mark.
From September 1911 until August 24, 1914,
Con Jones had been running a regular ad in the
Vancouver Province which read, "Go with the Bunch
to the Brunswick Pool Rooms."
From the time that he arrived, Con Jones was
involved with association football (soccer) and field
lacrosse. He was the manager of the Vancouver
lacrosse team in 1911 when they defeated the
defending Minto Cup champions, New Westminster
to take the Cup. In those days the Minto Cup was
emblematic of the Senior Lacrosse Championship of
Another of Con Jones' involvements, the
National Sports Club, was incorporated in 1901 as the
English Bay Bathing and Athletic Club. On October
31, 1906 it changed its name to the National Sports
Club. Con Jones was its secretary treasurer for a
number of years. In 1909, he tried to obtain a liquor
licence for the club but the licence was declined as
"not in the interest of the public," which was the
standard reason for a licence refusal.3 The club
operated a card room at 320 and later at 330 Cordova
Con Jones' "Don't Argue"
sign on Granville Street is
often mistaken for a
advertisment for
theatrical production.
Granville Street, Vancouver, B. C.
If mrJ      i>   \
28 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 Street West for some years, and it is probably where
the gaming chips described below were used. While
gambling was illegal the club avoided prosecution by
charging the players for use of the cards and tables
and not taking any part of the stakes. According to
the city prosecutor this made it impossible to obtain
a conviction.4 The club was last listed in the 1913 city
directory and was dissolved in 1924 for failure to file
annual returns.5
In 1918 Con Jones arranged a three year lease
from the Parks Commission for the Brockton Point
athletic grounds. He agreed to pay $700 a year rent
and to spend $5,000 to put the grounds into the best
possible condition. For this he would have exclusive
use of the grounds on Saturdays, public holidays and
some other days.6 In September 1920 he bought a
two-block tract of land opposite Hastings Park (the
site of the Vancouver Exhibition, later the Pacific
National Exhibition) from John Callister which
became known as Con Jones Park. He used the site
for professional baseball and Pacific Coast League
soccer. After Jones died, mortgage payments stopped
and the property reverted to Callister. His heirs
donated it to the city and today it is known as Callister
In May 1929 Con Jones incorporated a
company, Con Jones Limited, to take over his
business. The transfer was effected May 17,1929 and
just two weeks later he suffered a brain hemorrhage,
which led to his death June 3,1929, two months short
of his sixtieth birthday8 He was survived by his wife,
four sons, a daughter, and a brother.
1. Vancouver City Archives,
Business Licence Registers 383,
location 126-A-2, et al
2. Vancouver Province
September 11,1911, p. 10. gives
a full account of the final game,
but no mention of Mr. Jones.
3. GR0095 Provincial Police
files, Vol 1,413
4. Victoria Colonist, November
28,1936, "Gambling is big
menace, Vancouver Inquiry told
5. GR1438 Attorney General,
Registrar General, (Registrar of
Societies) S0087, on microfilm
6. Vancouver Sun, April 27,
1918, p.3
8. Vancouver Sun, June 3,1929,
p. 1, Death Certificate 1929-09-
417156, microfilm B13136
9. In 1920 the bowling alley at
330 Cordova W has become the
Vancouver Bowling Alley
operated by Patrick Keough and
A. Morgan, but the Jones listing
still shows a bowling alley at this
address. Possibly the listing was
inadvertently left unchanged
from 1919
10. Con Jones Ltd., tobacconists
were listed in 1955, but not 1957
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4       29 At various times Con Jones and his successor
company, Con Jones Limited, operated at the
following locations:
320/330 Cordova St. W by 1906 to 1919 <
- (Con's Billiard Room 1906-1910), (possibly from 1904)
- (National Sports Club 1907-1908, 1910-1913)
- (Con Jones' Bowling Alley 1914-1919) '
601 Granville
1926 to 1932
622 Granville
698 Granville
718 Granville
1921 to 1930
898 Granville
26 Hastings St. E.
1912 to 1938
- (Brunswick Pool Room)
47 Hastings St. E.
- (Limit Pool Room)
58 Hastings St. E.
1909 to 1912
- (Brunswick Pool Room)
612 Hastings St. W.
1920 to 1955
Con Jones was a prolific issuer of tokens. His
first piece was an encased cent issued in 1909 or early
1910 when Con Jones was already operating at several
locations, but had not yet adopted the "Don't Argue"
slogan. All known piece contain 1909 Lincoln Head
cents. There was also a 1927 Jubilee of Confederation.
He also issued nearly a dozen different tokens, of
which six could be exchanged for a 5 cent candy.
These "premium" tokens had different addresses 601
Granville St, 718 Granville St, 26 Hastings St. E., and
612 Hastings St. W., and different shapes for each
location. The four token issuing locations were only
operating simultaneously from 1926 to 1930. This
would argue (and Don't Argue!) for their period of
issue starting with 1926.
Ever since they were discovered by
numismatists the Don't Argue gaming chips were rare,
no more than 2 or 3 of each type being known. This
changed in 2004 when a trunk once belonging to Con
Jones came up at an auction sale in Vancouver. Inside
there was a large quantity of gaming chips. Now the
pieces are quite common. The chips are known in
denominations of 5 (cents), 25,100 and 500. •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 4 Archives and Archivists
Edited by Sylvia Stopforth,
Librarian and Archivist, Norma Marian Alloway Library,
Trinity Western University
Submitted by Lisa Codd, President of the AABC
Preserving the Past While
Planning for the Future
Preserving the past is a complicated
business. Our clients and visitors are often
drawn to museums, archives, and heritage
sites to find comfort in connecting
themselves to history. Families visit historic
sites so parents and grandparents can share
stories about the past with children.
Genealogists access archives to find the
documents that tell them who they are, and
where they came from. While these visitors
seek comfort and stability in our product,
behind the scenes our organizations can be
anything but comfortable and stable.
While we are busy preserving the
past, who is making sure our associations,
archives, museums, and historical societies
are going to continue into the future?
As a sector, we are facing many
challenges. Funding from government is less
certain, and we have seen cuts to federal
programs including modest programs like
the Museums Assistance Program (MAP),
the Commercial Heritage Properties
Incentive Fund (CHPIF), and student
employment programs that we rely on.
Volunteerism is in decline in our society,
especially among the types of volunteers we
typically rely on. Succession planning is a
challenge for many organizations as baby
boomers retire and long-serving board
members and volunteers face burn-out. Our
legal and administrative world is more
complicated, as a variety of regulatory
frameworks - from firearms licensing to
privacy legislation - impact our museums
and archives.
This past year, the Archives
Association ofBC (AABC) has been working
toward implementing strategic planning as
a way to sustain our organization in the face
of a changing business environment. The
work has shown the value of taking the time
to assess the challenges we are facing, and
to bring people together to find solutions.
With funding from the Centre for
Sustainability's Arts Partners in
Organizational Development (ArtsPOD)
program, we were able to work with a
consultant to complete an organizational
assessment. This helpful tool provides an
assessment of what is working in the
organization, and what is not. It helps
people agree on realistic steps that can be
taken to begin implementing change.
We are now ready to embark on the
next step in our journey: with additional
support from ArtsPOD we are establishing
a strategic plan. This plan will help us
develop concrete plans for the next three to
five years, and will include a review of our
mission, goals, and strategies. We will
examine the roles and responsibilities of
board members and volunteers. Finally, we
will evaluate our programs, and develop
means of raising the money required to
implement those plans.
Most importantly, we will get together
to talk about and create solutions that will
work for the organization. Those of us in the
business of preserving the past often forget
that an organization is made up of people:
the collections we care for and programs we
offer are the by-product of strong and
sustainable organizations.
More information about the ArtsPOD
programs can be found at: HYPERLINK
For more information about the
AABC, visit HYPERLINK "http://" •
Submitted by George Brandak, Manuscripts Archivist UBC Library Rare Books and Special Collections
What's New at Rare Books and
Special Collections at the UBC
On August 30th, 2005, Rare Books and
Special Collections opened its doors for
researchers at the garden level of the Irving
K. Barber Learning Centre, 1961 East Mall,
on the site of the former north wing of the
Main Library. Reference services are
provided in temporary quarters until the
permanent reading room is opened in ca.
November, 2007.
Since the move, Rare Books and
Special Collections has a new website
(http: / / /spcoll /). To
view manuscript collections, click on
manuscript collections and on the ensuing
page click on the letter of the alphabet of
the name of the fonds or collections you wish
to see; you can view either a brief description
or, by clicking on its pdf, view a finding aid
to it. If researchers can identify the box
number(s) required prior to a visit, retrieval
time will be shorter. Most archival material
is in the Automated Storage and Retrieval
System (ASRS) and a robot will retrieve the
material for researchers, upon request.
Books, photographs, and audio-visual
material are still in a vault. The hours are still
9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday to Friday, and
the office phone no. is 604-822-2521.
Rare Books and Special Collections
has attempted to follow its mandate of
acquiring significant research material
relating to the economic, political, cultural,
and literary activities of British Columbia.
Owing to the archival backlog that has
occurred in following this practice, RBSC has
become very selective in accepting material
until the backlog is significantly reduced.
The following is an example of the
kinds of archival materials that have been
acquired between 2004 and 2006. All fonds
and collections are available for research
unless otherwise noted.
Mike Apsey Research Collection on
the Lumber Wars, 1980-1994, 15 meters of
textual records. The Collection consists of
textual records, reports, briefs,
correspondence, printed material and other
items relating to Canada-United States trade
issues with specific reference to softwood
lumber export and tariffs.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3        31 Mining:
Albert (Bert) Reeve fonds consists of
his records generated in the exploration and
operating process of Blackdome Mines,
1970s to thel980s, including 118 maps, 399
slides and an ingot made of the 200,000th
ounce of gold produced.
Two lease agreement for fishing rights
from First Nations people regarding the use
of their fishing territories near Inverness
Cannery, 1877 and 1878.
A letter from J. Thain to his son
describing conditions in BC regarding
commercial fishing for salmon, July 17,1877.
The Homer Stevens fonds consists of
records created during his leadership of the
United Fishermen and Allied Workers'
Union including correspondence, prison
publications, and subject files from his year
at Mt. Thurston Camp; he was imprisoned
for contempt of court, 1967-1968.
The Lee Straight fonds consists of
scrapbooks containing over 30 Roderick
Haig-Brown letters relating to fishing and
The British Columbia Wildlife
Federation fonds consists of minute books,
The fonds of Rosemary Brown,
politician, feminist, author, and social
activist, consists of correspondence, subject
files, speeches, lecture material, day
planners, research notes, and articles on
various issues such as discrimination,
inequality of women, affirmative action, and
sexual assault. The papers also include
material gathered and created for the books,
Being Brown: An Autobiography and African
Detailed work record books kept by
Leslie Coppan, a longshoreman, in which
he listed in detail each firm he worked for
as well as his compensation, 1957-1988.
The Janet Nicol Collection consists of
correspondence, clippings, questionnaires,
and printed material relating to a union
campaign to organize Vancouver office
workers, 1988-1989 by the Service, Office,
and Retail Workers of Canada (SORWOC)
and clerical organizing in general in BC.
Cultural groups:
Additions continue to the Doukhobor
Manuscripts Collection including over 40
letters written by Peter V Verigin, 1912-1924.
Accruals to the Jim Hamm
Doukhobor Research Collection continue to
add photographs, interviews, and
documents related to the production of his
film, The Spirit Wrestlers.
Literature and Art:
The Roy Miki fonds consists of
material relating to his poetry and literary
career as well as significant records
pertaining to the activities of the Japanese
Redress Committee.
Accruals to the records of the
Association of Book Publishers of British
Columbia and the Alcuin Society arrive on
a scheduled basis.
Accruals to the Jack Shadbolt fonds
and Doris Shadbolt fonds, are to be
processed and are not available in 2006.
Good luck to all in their future
research.   •
In the last issue the captions were dropped
from the images that accompanioned the
article. Here they are: A 1950s clipping,
Fritz Wurster Collection, and Skating on
Kitimat's outdoor rink opened in 1962 at
City Centre, Max Patzelt Collection.
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BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3 Book Reviews
Carving the Western Path: Routes to
R.G. Harvey. Surrey, Heritage House, 2006. 190p., illus.
$18.95. pb.
Not only did Premier Bill Bennett
follow his father's policy of building roads
but he is also indirectly responsible for
turning district highways engineer R.G.
Harvey into a historian. In responding to
the premier's request for a talk on the
Okanagan Highway to a Kelowna Chamber
of Commerce meeting, Harvey uncovered
a wealth of documents in his office. That
"hooked" him on history; this is his fifth
history of transportation in British
This volume includes extended
versions of two articles that previously
appeared in the British Columbia Historical
News;1 as well as essays on the early trails
and roads of the Okanagan Valley; the roads
and ferries at Kootenay Lake; an informative
account of the Highways Department
ferries, their predecessors and successors;
and on the impact of weather on roads and
bridges. Harvey used a variety of secondary
sources and government records — some of
which he believes have since been destroyed
— to provide the setting. His engineering
knowledge allowed him to give clear
explanations, for example, of how avalanche
control and reaction ferries work. Most
significantly he is a good story teller whether
relating his own experiences or those of his
Harvey regards many highway
workers as heroes. He records a ferryman's
rescue of a logging truck driver who floated
downstream atop his load after his truck
went into the Skeena River. Their work was
not always appreciated. After one foreman
stood in a freezing lake for almost an hour
holding an injured woman after a bus
skidded into the lake during a sudden
change in weather, an insurance adjuster
chided him for not having had the road
sanded. Nor did bystanders always
understand engineering principles. When
an ice jam threatened Quesnel, a city
councillor suggested having the Royal
Canadian Air Force bomb the jam; Harvey,
the engineer in charge, rejected the idea lest
Books for review and book reviews should be sent to:
Frances Gundry, Book Review Editor, BC History,
P.O. Box 5254, Station B., Victoria, BC V8R 6N4
the bomb destroy the pulp mill.
Harvey cites several instances of
politics influencing transportation policies
including the Crow's Nest Pass Agreement
on freight rates. He attributes the lack of a
good road on the west side of Okanagan
Lake between Kelowna and Vernon to the
influence of Forbes G. Vernon, the long-time
Member of the Legislature for Yale. In his
own time, Harvey rues the privatization of
many activities of the Highways
Department. He argues "coastal ferry
division ran smoothly for many years. It had
no labour problems, it did not build the
wrong kind of ferries, it suited the job and it
fully fitted the truisim 'If it ain't broke, don't
fix it.'"(p. 129) He notes how its workshops
devised snow plows and sanding trucks that
were superior to their commercially made
counterparts and researched alternative fuel
sources for its ferry fleet.
A nice assortment of well-chosen
photographs and a fine selection of clearly
drawn maps enhance this lively and
informative glimpse into the history of
transportation which Harvey correctly
describes as the "key" to developing British
Patricia E. Roy is the president of the BC Historical
1 "The Trek of the Huscrofts in 1891," British Columbia
Historical News, 35.2 (Spring 2002), 2-7; "The Crows Nest
Railway," British Columbia Historical News,37.3 (Summer
2004), 17-22.
Interred With Their Bones: Bill Miner in
Canada 1903-1907
Peter Grauer. Kamloops, B.C., Partners in Publishing,
2006. 642pp.lllus.,biblio$.$35.
American stagecoach and train robber
Bill Miner spent thirty-three years
incarcerated in the San Quentin Penitentiary
and the years 1903 to 1907 roaming around
British Columbia. Kamloops author Peter
Grauer spent the years 2000 to 2006
researching, writing and editing his six
hundred and forty-two page book about
Miner's life, especially the four years here.
The result of Miner's time in B.C. was a
lifetime jail sentence in the BC Penitentiary
for his May 8 1906 train robbery near
Kamloops that has been spun into a legend
and was once discussed in the House of
Commons. The result of Grauer's effort is a
meticulously researched, entertainingly-
written, must-be-read volume of twenty-
eight chapters that he states, is "a modest
attempt" to assemble "all of this primary
and secondary material [about Miner and
the robbery] into one definitive volume."
Grauer's caveat about the claim of the
"definitive volume", however, is that he
knows there is more material about Miner
still out there so he encourages his readers
to contact him with it at his website Arrangements can also
be made there to purchase his self-published
book or to have him appear as a guest
authority on the legendary Miner and his
With its anecdotal, colourful and
easily readable style, Interred With Their
Bones, will appeal to a general readership
interested in learning more, a lot more, about
Miner as the man glorified in the feature
film, The Grey Fox, and often presented in
publications as a Robin Hood who stole
from banks and railroads to provide funds
to the poor, even if the poor were the "soiled
doves" and women with "chequered
careers", or the hangers-on or poker-playing
horse thieves and cattle rustlers he
befriended. But as Grauer's interviews and
well-documented research show, "Old Bill"
aka George Edwards, had a large following
of law abiding friends and admirers as well.
For an audience of historians,
researchers and archivists, the book's
approximately 80 pages of detailed end
notes, the extensive bibliography,
subcategorized by books, censuses,
collections, directories, Emails, interviews,
journals, manuscripts, letters, maps,
government documents, newspapers,
unpublished notes, periodicals, voters' lists,
websites, and an index will delight them no
end. So too will the fact that Thompson
Rivers University in Kamloops is now the
repository for Anthony Martin's entire
private collection of the materials he
"rescued from the closing of the B.C.
Penitentiary."   And   all  readers   will
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3        33 undoubtedly be captivated by Grauer's
newly found documentation strongly
substantiating that Miner's trial may have
resulted in a gross miscarriage of justice for
one of the accused, an alleged accomplice
identified by witnesses as The Third Man
during the Ducks (now Monte Creek)
What readers will also find is a
carefully structured story with Bill Miner
centre stage but surrounded by a fully
fleshed out early 1900's world of wide
ranging references to well and lesser known
individuals of the time (Prime Minister Sir
Wilfrid Laurier and Kamloops' first Black
alderman, John Freeman Smith), to major
and minor historical events (the arrival of
the telephone and the minutes of Kamloops
City Council), and to the geography of
British Columbia, especially the
Similkameen and Kamloops areas. The book
is also replete with insights into the motives
and make-up of key characters. There are
the Jekyll and Hyde descriptions of Miner,
who despite all the documented evidence
to the contrary, staunchly claimed he was
not the American robber and ex-convict Bill
Miner but rather trapper, prospector and
rancher, George Edwards. At times Grauer
presents Bill posing as a friend and confidant
to teenagers, a gentleman to ladies like
Susan Allison, "the first white woman in the
Similkameen Valley," and a free spender
with cowboys and ranchers. At other times
he shows him as he smooth talked gullible
followers into doing his bidding, stole
horses, or was involved in Canada's second
but abortive train robbery near Mission, or
as he escaped from the B.C. Penitentiary
after serving only a year of his lifetime
sentence for the Ducks robbery. His
accomplice, William "Shorty" Dunn was
eventually released from prison, returned to
the Princeton area, and then settled in the
Burns Lake region where as John William
Grell he became a Canadian citizen just
before his accidental death by drowning.
Well profiled too is the life of the easily-led
second accused accomplice, Ontario-born
Lewis Colquhoun who died in prison of
tuberculosis at 34 years of age. Grauer also
makes a compelling case for the
involvement of Paul Stevens of Little Fish
Lake in the Ducks affair and outlines the
roles reclusive Princeton area rancher and
horse thief, Jack Budd, played with Miner
and others of his cadre over the years.
Each chapter centres on an issue,
event or character integral to the unity of
the book. But within each chapter there are
also sub-stories and threads of stories tied
back to earlier chapters or cast forward to
later ones. And the chapters involved in the
chase and capture of the train robbers
proceed from different points of view before
converging into the finality of the capture,
all adding to the drama and tension of the
day-by-day documented records of the
pursuits. Early on Grauer mentions that all
statements in quotation marks are accurate
transcriptions not fictional accounts, and
cites their sources throughout.
Among the main chapter and subchapter stories are those of the CPR officials
and their employees affected by the
robberies at Mission and Ducks and of the
law enforcement officials who brought the
robbers to justice. Officers such as BC
Provincial Police Superintendent, F.S.
Hussey, BCPP Chief Constable Ernest Pearse
and Constable William Fernie both of
Kamloops and their colleagues and Indian
trackers are painstakingly accounted for, as
are the members of the Royal North West
Mounted Police detail who captured and
brought the bandits to the Kamloops Gaol
after a shootout in which Shorty Dunn was
wounded but Miner, Colquhoun and their
captors were unharmed. The account of the
trial with its excerpts from the transcripts
and extracts from newspapers of the day
about the exploits of prosecutor, Frederick
Fulton, and defence attorney, Alexander
Mclntyre, both of Kamloops, makes for
compelling reading, especially with the
subsequent revelations about Mclntyre's
weaseling attempts to collect more than his
fair share of legal fees from the defendants,
based on rumours of bonds stolen from the
earlier Mission robbery but never recovered.
For heightened interest there are the archival
photographs of the accused taken by
Kamloops photographer, Mary Spencer, and
the allegations around them and their
newspaper publication for the fairness and
impartiality of the trial, a trial which
occurred in two versions, the first a three
day affair which resulted in a hung jury, the
second following immediately in one day
and resulting in a conviction. And the
depiction of W.S. Seavey as the braggadocio
American detective attempting to usurp
credit for the capture of the trio illustrates
that not all the morally corrupt of the era
were on trial.
Equally riveting in the book is the
detailed description of prison life for the
convicts in the New Westminster B.C. Pen
and especially of the byplay of the outsiders,
guards and convicts who contributed to
Miner's escape and to the unfortunate
consequences for the Acting Warden of the
time, the paranoid David DominickBourke.
After Miner's escape, which neither Dunn
nor Colquhoun participated in, he
disappeared from Canada only to resurface
in rumoured sightings. But as Grauer points
out, "The fact remains that no reliable
information exists for where Miner went
directly after his escape nor how he got back
to the United States." What is known,
though, as Grauer records, is that Miner was
later imprisoned in Newton County, Georgia
and died on September 2, 1913 in the
Midgeville prison.
But while Bill Miner died after
spending most of his life in prison, Old Bill's
legend lives on a hundred years after the
Ducks robbery, a fact Peter Grauer willingly
acknowledges and even encourages.
Grauer's yeoman service in separating the
facts from the fiction of Bill Miner's (aka
George Edwards') years in Canada deserves
widespread recognition. His benchmark
book should be top-of-the-charts reading
and a part of every library collection in
M. Wayne Cunningham, Kamloops, B.C.
34 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3 Tweed Curtain Pioneers.
Betty Gordon Funke. Victoria, B.C.,Trafford Publishing,
2004. 114p., Ulus. Paperback. $17.95
Every community is filled with
women whose activities support and unify
the area. Their influence is often lost to
history. In "Tweed Curtain Pioneers," Betty
Gordon Funke points out that "in the past,
men held the spotlight" even though there
were females who were vital to their regions.
In an effort to highlight the
accomplishments of women on Vancouver
Island, Funke presents "sketches of women
who took a back seat" in the Oak Bay area
of Victoria. Their endeavours "made a
difference" and include Ida Uhthoff who
was a painter, art teacher and founder of the
Victoria School of Art; Margaret Alice
Beckwith who, among other things,
organized a number of Oak Bay
playgrounds, formed a committee to help
restore "the oldest standing school in
Western Canada, and in her later years was
president of the BC School Trustees
Association; Harriet Pat Brown who, in 1962,
helped inaugurate the Oak Bay Tea Party
and participated in the event for over 40
years; and E. Marjorie Hill, the first female
graduate of architecture from a Canadian
university, who designed several buildings
inVictoria including "the first purpose-built
seniors' housing built in Canada." The only
group profile is of the seven women who,
in 1911, carved an oak reredos for the Church
of St. Mary the Virgin. In 1959, the reredos
was moved to the Memorial Chapel in the
new church.
Each biography is short, well
researched, and often amusing. In some
cases, the use of footnotes or other
supplementary material would have been
useful for the reader. For example, Funke
mentions the "clashes and conflicts"
between James Douglas and Richard
Blanshard but does not give any background
or explanations for those antagonisms.
Likewise, she mentions that Edythe
Hembroff-Schleicher, "the Emily Carr
watchdog" made enemies and caused
controversy, but does not elaborate any
further. That said, each profile does contain
intriguing material. One example is the story
of Alma Russell, who in 1897 was "the first
trained librarian west of Ontario." She was
hired to classify and catalogue, by hand as
there was not a "typewriting machine," the
20,000 or so books in the BC Legislative
Library. Alma was dismayed to learn that
the city librarian catalogued his books
according to size and colour. She could not
dissuade him from the practice. While she
lost that battle, Alma was successful in other
endeavours: to name a few, she made up
library loan boxes of 100 books that were
distributed to small towns across the
province. Alma also devised methods to
catalogue historical maps and the material
held in the Pacific Northwest History
collection, and she was a founding and
active member of the British Columbia
Library Association. Alma worked so hard
that she had two nervous breakdowns and
"had occasion many times to muster to my
aid every ounce of courage I possessed."
Betty Gordon Funke is an award-
winning journalist and has taught creative
writing at Camosun College, the Juan de
Fuca Recreation Centre, and the Braille
Institute in Los Angeles. She is a "pioneer"
herself for recording and preserving the
contributions of Oak Bay's female "leaders".
Sheryl Salloum writes for Vancouver magazines.
Philip Timms' Vancouver, 1900-1910.
Fred Thirkell and Bob Scullion. Surrey, B.C., Heritage
House, 2006. 192p. 200 btw illus. $39.95 hard cover.
People once used the postal system
to send short messages to friends and
relatives. To cater to the potential market at
the beginning of the twentieth century
commercial photographers produced
picture postcards illustrating local scenes
and events. One of them, Philip Timms
"deliberately set out to produce a
photographic record of Vancouver and its
neighbouring municipalities."(p. 8) He left
over 3,000 photographs of which more than
1,500 became postcard images. In addition
to his artistic eye, Timms had a sense of
humour or, perhaps, a sense of what
Vancouverites might send to eastern friends.
Among several snow scenes in Vancouver
is one of a line of street cars on Granville St.
led by one advertising, "Skating. Trout Lake.
Ice Kept Swept." On the face of the card, he
printed, "Must we admit it?"
Drawing on about 200 examples of
Timms' cards, Fred Thirkell and Bob
Scullion divided their work into a number
of sections, mainly geographical. Well
known photographs such as an automobile
parked in Stanley Park's hollow tree, the
hustle of Hastings Street under a banner
"Many Men Making Money Means Much
for Vancouver," and the fishing fleet at
Steveston are here but so too are a number
of lesser known images such as those of the
rural area of Eburne, the mill town of Port
Moody, and of industries such as shipping
and wholesaling. Two sections concern the
company town at the Canadian Pacific
Lumber Company Mill at Barnet on Burrard
Inlet and the Britannia townsite and copper
mine on Howe Sound. Among the action
photographs are those of a dredge digging
drainage ditches on Lulu Island and of a
logging train in the Capilano Valley. There
are, of course, pictures of people at play in
Stanley Park and at English Bay and of
Dominion Day parades. A striking image is
that of neatly dressed Japanese children
waiting to visit two Japanese cruisers in 1909
but curiously there are no pictures of
Vancouver's Chinatown but there is an
image of "the [Indian] Mission" in North
Much has changed and the authors
explain what happened to buildings that are
no more. Some such as the New
Westminster Exhibition Buildings and King
Edward High School disappeared from fire.
Others were victims of "progress." The
Arcade on Hastings St. was demolished by
1910 to make way for the Dominion Trust
Building. The authors rue the loss of such
important buildings as the Rattenbury-
designed Bank of Montreal in New
Westminster and its replacement by "a less-
than-inspired Art Moderne structure." (p.
163). Some structures have been
transformed. The North Vancouver School
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3        35 became the city hall and now houses the
city's archives and museum. In showing the
surviving buildings, including the original
Pantages Theatre, Thirkell and Scullion
plead for preserving them and for
rehabilitating Hastings Street that in 1910
was a premier shopping area. The authors
praise past and present efforts to revive
Gastown, the north part of Main Street, and
Granville St.
Thirkell and Scullion introduce this,
their seventh history based on postcards,
with a brief biography of Timms and his
extended family. Each section has a few
paragraphs of background and each image,
a paragraph or two on its circumstances and
often on the architect involved. Despite
minor slips such as putting the opening of
the original Vancouver Hotel in 1867 and
referring to the Canadian Bank of Canada
rather than the Canadian Bank of
Commerce, their descriptions are generally
historically accurate. This is a fine, nostalgic
and celebratory look at Vancouver
approximately one hundred years ago with
a clear message for heritage planners.
Patricia Roy
Far West: The Story of British Columbia.
Daniel Francis. Madeira Park, Harbour Publishing, 2006.
175p., illus., maps. $36.95 hardcover.
Daniel Francis set out to write a book
about British Columbia's history that will
be suitable for readers aged nine and up. He
provides background information about the
unique society that emerged in British
Columbia in the last few hundred years and
shows that British Columbia is a rich mix of
the native cultures that have been here for
centuries and the cultures of the people who
have come here from all over the world in
search of wealth and a new way of life. He
brings the book up to date by explaining
how we are currently attempting to meet the
challenges presented by our environment,
our treatment of First Nations citizens, our
ethnic mix, our increased urbanization and
our changing economy. Francis succeeds in
his task primarily by his ability to write
history clearly and simply, making the book
accessible to both young people and adults.
He makes the book interesting by providing
sidebars on topics of high interest and
relevance, supplementing the narrative with
short descriptions ofBC places, BC persons,
BC creatures, fast facts and short quotations,
and with an abundance of well chosen
photographs, drawings, paintings, maps
and original illustrations. For those
unfamiliar with BC place names he provides
some help with pronunciation and
numerous easily read maps locating most
of the places. The illustrations are lavish and
make the book appealing as a coffee table
book for readers who want a quick and easy
overview ofBritish Columbia's history. The
book will likely appeal to students, new
Canadians, people who have moved here
from other provinces, and BC residents who
want to improve their knowledge about our
past. Francis has done a fine job of covering
the basics of our history - the people, events
and topics which are essential for anyone
who wishes to understand how our society
and culture have evolved. His book will help
people understand what makes our
province tick, and is just the sort of book BC
residents should have on hand when
entertaining guests from outside the
province or country. Selection is always a
problem when writing such a short book.
Daniel Francis misses some topics such as
the Komagata Maru incident and skips over
other important topics such as World War II
and labour history. However, he does such
a fine job of dealing with Native history and
weaving in some women's history and
ethnic history that such deficiencies will
barely be noticed. In any case the book is a
great tease - it shows the reader that BC
history is really interesting and unique, and
it will whet the reader's appetite to learn
more about our past. There are many books
about BC available for scholars and people
with a deeper interest in history, but this is
the best non-academic book currently
available for young people and the general
public. There are a few errors in the book.
Francis states that Alexander Mackenzie
hiked through "snowbound mountain
passes" to reach the Fraser River, while
Mackenzie actually canoed up the Peace and
Parsnip Rivers in May and June. He
misidentifies a well-known photograph of
a wagon train on the Cariboo Wagon road
as being taken on the Fraser River rather
than on the Thompson River. He also repeats
the myth that Begbie was called the
"hanging judge" by his contemporaries.
There is no contemporary written record of
this term, and in fact it was only after his
death that writers used the expression to
romanticize his career. But these are minor
flaws. The Ministry of Education should see
to it that this book is available and used in
every school in the province. Children raised
in BC need to know more about the history
of their province before they learn about the
rest of the country and the world.
Charles Hou is a retired Burnaby high school teacher who
for many years gave his students a first hand experience
of BC history by leading them on a hike over the gold rush
trail from Port Douglas to 29 Mile House.
Greenpeace - the inside story.
Rex Weyler. Vancouver, B.C., Raincoast Books, 2005, 624
p., illus. $24.95 paperback
Wow, what a rush. Reading Rex
Weyler's account of his active participation
in the Greenpeace movement is like being
on the bucking deck of a zodiac crashing
through the bloody wake of a fleeing whaler
- exhilarating, but simultaneously sad.
The men and women who formed this
radical sect brought the eyes of the world to
focus on the high seas where both human
and animal atrocities were being played out
in secret by some of the most powerful
nations in the world. And whether it was
quietly slipping into the exclusion zone of a
nuclear test site, chasing down Japanese and
Russian whalers or confronting
Newfoundland sealers, the men and women
of Greenpeace had several overriding
characteristics in common: social conscience,
principles and courage.
Although some had careers that
synced neatly with the movement - Bob
Hunter was a Vancouver Sun columnist
whose colleague once asked him if he was
reporting the news or making it, and Ben
Metcalf was a CBC personality - many
others suspended or abandoned their
36 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3 chosen fields for the greater good.
Irving and Dorothy Stowe epitomized
the latter. Trained as a lawyer and social
worker respectively, both were so heavily
burdened by the nuclear bomb at Hiroshima
that from then on they adopted the Quaker
concept of "bearing witness" where
speaking out is not only encouraged but is
a responsibility.
"World changers aren't planners."
Weyler writes at the beginning of his book,
"The planners come later, with critics and
social philosophers to mop up and win the
awards." In fact, it was probably the ragtag
nature and idealistic zeal of the founding
members that made them so effective and
in hind sight, so endearing.
Long haired, bearded and more prone
to follow the readings of Fu His's 5000 year
old Book of Changes, the I Ching, than a
concrete operating plan, these "world
changers" elevated the status of the
environmental movement from fruitless
intellectual sparing to direct, non-violent
action fashioned after Gandhi's teachings.
But despite the influence of Gandhi,
Native American spiritual mythology and
the Quakers, the evolution of Greenpeace,
from the basement of the Unitarian Church
on Oak St. in Vancouver - where upon
leaving one night, Irving Stowe said,
"Peace," and Bill Darnell quietly added
"Make it a green peace" - to world
headquarters in Europe, was bound to lead
to some personality clashes.
Despite common goals, nothing is
common about achieving them, and
whenever egos and intellects are involved,
the tussle to be right, and heard, often rubs
up against another's sentiments. To give the
members their due, however, the
environment always came out on top.
I wholly recommend Weyler's book.
Not only is it a well researched and well
written history of the evolution of the
Greenpeace movement told in a dramatic
style by an insider, but it is also an intimate
look at the key players, their foibles, their
doubts, their strengths, but mostly their
confidence that they had the juice to make a
difference. And so they did.
Eric Jamieson, North Vancouver
Labour of Love: a memoir of Gertrude
Richards Ladner 1879 to 1976
Sheila J. Rankin len, Glennis Zilm and Valerie Grant. 1G1
Publications, 2006. 113 p., illus. $30. To order, contact
Sheila J. Rankin len, 5333 Upland Drive, Delta BC V4M
2G3. Add $5.00 for postage.
This is a fascinating book. The coauthors found a Memoir dictated by
Gertrude Ladner prior to her death in 1976.
Her daughter, Edna Ladner, prepared a nine
page booklet for family members. Valerie
Grant inherited Edna's papers in 2002. These
included a note book containing Gertrude's
handwritten recordings of lectures to her
class in 1903-1905.
The Memoir by Edna is presented as
Chapter two for nine pages in French Script.
Chapter three is a typed copy of those words
with a multitude of footnotes. Those
footnotes are definitely useful explanations
but make for stilted reading.
Chapter four is "History of Provincial
Jubilee Hospital and Admission Booklet."
The history names many early figures in
Victoria, and describes the steps taken to
provide nursing or medical care until the
PRJH was established in 1891. The text does
not state which of Queen Victoria's Jubilees
was commemorated in the naming of this
hospital (it must have been the Golden
Jubilee in 1887). The contents of the
Admission Booklet provided for those who
might apply to the Training School for
Students Royal Jubilee Hospital is on a par
with "Rules for Teachers" in the same era.
Your reviewer could visualize the scenario
in those very early years - and was very
thankful that circumstances were more
comfortable fifty years later.
Chapter five, "Gertrude Richard's
Notebook", consists of verbatim notes made
by a conscientious, sometimes struggling
student. Fountain pens were relatively new
in those years. Gertrude alternated between
red ink and dark blue ink. There were spaces
in the notes where she had obviously missed
something said by the lecturer. Many of the
pages would be classified as Materia
Medica. Oh the struggle to spell correctly
and to understand the similarities and
differences of the listed medications.
Sections of this chapter might be daunting
for some readers, but for anyone with a
nursing, pharmaceutical or medical
background it is a delight.
Chapter six, "Nursing Uniforms -
Early 1900s" is a great piece of history with
some novel illustrations. Last but not least
are detailed pages, "References,
Bibliography and Index."
The authors capitalized on the
available reference material to tell the story
of a student training in the first School of
Nursing in British Columbia. Also, Gertrude
typifies "an average nurse" who worked for
a few years, married, moved with her
husband's job transfers, and settled to
participate in community affairs. Gertrude
Richards had a famous sister, Eveline, who
founded the Pitman Business College in
Vancouver. Her husband's family name is
perpetuated in the community of Ladner.
Labour of Love is a nice story presented well
under the presenters own banner.
Naomi Miller graduated from U.B.C. in 1951 and has a
B.Sc. in nursing.
"High Water: Living with the Fraser Floods"
by K. Jane Watt published by the Dairy Industry Historical
Society of British Columbia. 2006. HOO - 32160 S. Fraser
Way, Abbotsford B. C V2T
Dr. K Jane Watt states in her book High
Water: Living with Fraser Floods many of the
people she talked to felt that we are in a time
of historic forgetting. That is likely true: few
regard the Fraser River as the heart and soul
of British Columbia and few indeed realize
the significance to us all of the lands behind
the dykes of the Fraser River estuary. Dr.
Watt's book, supported by the Dairy
Industry Historical Society is certainly a
timely reminder as collectively we
contemplate disastrous floods of 1894 and
1948 in the context of a rapid growth of the
human population, new demographics and
sustainability of the regional economy.
High water displays a fascinating
collection of archival photos and oral
histories documenting attempts since 1870
to establish homes, farms, industry, and
supporting infrastructure on the Fraser
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3        37 alluvium. It is also a story of the devastation
caused by the fury of some of its freshets,
the cutting of railroads and other
transportation links and the isolation of
Vancouver and nearby cities.
Dr. Watt addresses some of the issues
around the Rivers' management past and
present - the complexities, engineering,
biological, economic and societal might
require another book.
As one of the thousands of volunteers
who manned the dykes and loaned a tractor,
I am inclined to ask a few minor questions
as an educational item for the public of
today. Would it have been useful to expand
on the weather in the reference to the
Fraser's tributaries snowpacks and great
lakes of the watershed? And also more about
the recession of the flood waters and the
resilience of the farmers? - by late summer
the floodplain was green again and the
stench of dead vegetation gone. There is a
lesson here the death of crops was largely
due to anoxia (loss of dissolved oxygen) as
the temperature of the shallow receding
waters rose; some farmers saved their
plants, in some areas by quickly pumping
or draining.
V.C. Brink has spent over 50 years working to conserve
BC's natural legacy
Bill Bennett: A Mandarin's View
Bob Plecas. Vancouver, Douglas & Mclntyre, 2006. 298 p.,
illus., bibliog., $22.95paperback.
At the outset of his book Bob Plecas
admits it is neither a full-blown biography
nor an academic account, nor is it written
by an historian or a politician. Rather as a
former career civil servant who previously
worked for six premiers and twenty-five
ministers in ten ministries, his account
presents a personal view aimed at telling the
background stories of "honest men and
women making tough decisions to the best
of their ability." Primarily it is about their
leader, Kelowna's Bill Bennett, who took the
Social Credit Party to three election wins and
served for eleven years as B.C.'s Premier. It
is also "a setting the record straight" account
for the man whom Plecas found had both a
public persona presented by the media and
a private face that not many, even some of
his closest colleagues got to know. His hope
for his book is that it will help "Bill Bennett's
contributions to be remembered," that it will
help the public better understand the man
behind the accomplishments, and that it will
provide a base for historians and researchers
for further studies. And while Bennett was
completely cooperative with Plecas, he
informed him that it was to be Plecas's book,
that he was to "tell the story as you see it,
and let the people be the judge."
For general readers as well as
historians, archivists and political scientists,
the book provides valuable insights into the
political manoeuvring and thought
processes of politicians during a particularly
volatile period of B.C.'s modern history.
Readers on whatever side of the political
spectrum will recall or be introduced to the
controversies and clamour around such
events as the Transpo that morphed into
Expo, the BC Place Stadium, the Sky Train,
the Coquihalla highway, BC Lotteries, the
"dirty tricks" scandal, the BCRIC shares that
broadcaster Jack Webster re-christened the
BRIC shares, and the early 1980's restraint
program and attendant budget and
legislation that resulted in Operation
Solidarity, the subsequent strikes, and the
settlement with the Kelowna deal between
Premier Bennett and union representative
Jack Munro. As well, Plecas points out, there
was the initiation of the Auditor General's
position, the passage of the Ombudsman
Act, the issuance of Native Tree Farm
licences, the settlement of various Native
land claims, and the start-up of B.C.'s first
Ministry of the Environment. While Plecas
provides many of the insights about these
events, his views are frequently
supplemented with the stories, quotations
and filtering of others such as mandarins
Norman Spector and Jim Matkin, business
guru Jimmy Pattison, politicians Grace
McCarthy, Bud Smith, and Dave Barrett,
union icon Jack Munro, reporter Marjorie
Nichols, politician turned broadcaster Rafe
Mair and others whom he interviewed. His
broad ranging research, both primary and
secondary, provides a lot of facts and figures
but it also presents a multitude of colourful
quotations and intriguing, illuminating
anecdotes about incidents such as the "Not
a dime without debate," slogan, the rise and
decline of the Kamloops-based Majority
Movement, the defection of three of the five
Liberal MPs to the Socreds, the disasters that
occurred when Diana and Charles toured
the pavilions at Expo, the creation of
"Grade's Finger" in the electoral redistribution, and the "B.C. is not for sale"
retort. The chapter on Dave Barrett describes
the contrast between his management,
organizational and leadership style and that
of Bennett's, and the chapter on the federal-
provincial discussions for the repatriation of
"the Constitution with a notwithstanding
clause" highlights the behind-the-scenes
drama and tension that infused the talks
along with the humorous intrigue of a
document being surreptitiously passed to
Saskatchewan Premier Allan Blakeney in an
Without belabouring his view of
Bennett's private face, Plecas inserts more
stories and comments about the former
Premier's commitment to his family, his
arm's length relationship to his colleagues
and staff with whom he never lunched,
dined or drank socially, his respect for his
father, his sense of humour, his private life
penny pinching attitude that affected his
concern for public spending, and the
perception of others about him as a man of
integrity, honesty and single-minded
dedication to any task he undertook. There
is a chapter on his early years that expands
on these views and how he came to achieve
them, and several pages of photographs
show him in various settings, formal and
There is little doubt that former
mandarin Bob Plecas has told Bill Bennett's
story as he saw it. It's a story well worth
reading both for its own sake and as a
benchmark for the biographies and studies
yet to come.
M. Wayne Cunningham, Kamloops, BC
38 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3 Red Goodwin.
John Wilson. Vancouver, Ronsdale Press, 2006. 170 p.
$9.95 paperback.
The outlines of Albert (Ginger or Red)
Goodwin's saga are reasonably well known
to B.C. readers. A coal miner and union
activist, Goodwin had worked as a miner in
his native Yorkshire and in various mines
across Canada. He was active in the United
Mine Workers of America as well as the
Socialist Party of Canada, many of whose
members provided the core membership of
the Communist Party of Canada when it was
formed in 1921.
As a Socialist Party member, Goodwin
opposed World War I. He held that worker
should not be fighting worker. Initially,
Goodwin was classified unfit for army
service but following his leadership in a
strike, he was reclassified as fit for combat
service overseas. He fled to the forest near
his old stamping grounds at Cumberland,
B.C. and was shot to death by Special
Constable Daniel Campbell on July 27,1918.
Campbell was charged with manslaughter
but the assize jury of the day refused to
commit him to trial.
John Wilson notes in the epilogue to
Red Goodwin, his fast-paced, easily read
novel for young adults, that two biographies
of Ginger Goodwin provided the historical
background for his story. Those two were
Ginger by Susan Mayse (1990) and Roger
Stonebanks' Fighting for Dignity: the Ginger
Goodwin Story (2004). Citing these two
biographies with their somewhat different
takes on aspects of the life and influence of
Ginger Goodwin underlines the debate that
clusters around him.
However, Wilson doesn't write to
settle the controversies swirling around
Goodwin. He doesn't play with the hints of
conspiracy that show up in some literature
nor does he take his story past the date of
Goodwin's death to deal with possibilities
of a cover up. His novel opens in
Cumberland on July 20 and closes on the
fateful day, July 27. From the prologue, the
reader knows that Goodwin dies on July 27.
The central figure of Wilson's novel
is 16 year old Will Ryan, recently orphaned
when his Captain father is killed at
Passchendaele. Will is sent from his home
in England to live with his uncle, a
superintendent at Robert Dunsmuir's mine
in Cumberland. Will's contacts with
Goodwin and his meetings with a labourer's
bright son, Jimmy Wong and a miner's
young daughter, Morag, begin the process
of his re-education. Will's decision to race
to warn Goodwin of the ambush in the
making is a final step in the process even
though he doesn't succeed.
The other characters, Morag, Jimmy,
Will's uncle Charles and Goodwin are
hardly three-dimensional, and to some
extent exist to declaim their positions on
racism, the place of women, corporate
control and a class society. We meet Ginger
Goodwin, for example, primarily to hear his
arguments and reasoning. For all of the
rhetoric the story is exciting and filled with
twists and tragedy and brings the attitudes
of the era to life. It manages to be both
instructive and engaging.
Ross Carter is a retired college administrator and
Historian and editor of Historiana, the newsletter of the
Bowen Island Historians, and Marlais, the newsletter of
the Dylan Thomas Circle of Vancouver.
Olivia's Mine.
JanineMcCaw.   iUniverse, Inc., New York, 2006. 235p,
$16.95 paperback.
Historical novels set in British
Columbia, especially ones for young adult
readers, are rare, so new ones such as Olivia's
Mine are always welcome. The novel's main
character, Olivia Fitzpatrick, learns many life
lessons when she follows her ambitious
husband Frank, from Seattle to the
mountainside copper mining village of
Britannia Beach a short distance north of
Vancouver. Olivia knows none of the 500
miners and their families at Britannia Beach
when she arrives by steamship in 1912, but
as she finds a way to belong and cope with
disasters and miracles, the reader comes to
appreciate the hardships, prejudices and
joys of small town life only a few generations
Predictably the central characters are
Caucasian and drive the plot, from mine
boss John McMichael to Olivia's friends
Lucy Bentall and Sarah Leiboldt, while those
of other cultural backgrounds, such as
Frenchie Cates, a Scots-Metis, and the Yadas,
a Japanese couple, whose son Jimmy is
proudly Canadian-born, provide foils who
are humorous and wise.
The story belies the idea that nothing
happens in a small town, as everything
seems to happen at Britannia Beach in the
decade Olivia lives there. There is a
landslide, a fire, a cave in and a flood—
events which really did occur. Many lives
are lost, including those of people close to
Olivia. And though cultural groups live
separately within the town and intolerance
is considered normal (another fact of
history), people pull together in many
instances as Olivia discovers. Women play
a traditional role on the surface, but Olivia
proves there are windows of opportunities
to take charge and this she does, despite her
husband's unappealing fits of jealousy.
Still these were paternalistic times,
with miners fired 'Donald Trump' style and
no trade union in place. (The miners
unionized after the Second World War.)
Alcohol and prostitution, in moderation, is
tolerated as a release for the workers. These
facts as well as mining safety concerns, such
as miners' lung disease, are woven into the
story but for the most part, the common
working man's hardships are downplayed
in favor of romantic intrigues. Despite all the
town's disasters (not to mention the First
World War and the Spanish flu epidemic),
the author has a talent to deliver a happy
ending as Olivia's determination and the
towns peoples' strengths carry the day.
Janet Nicol, Vancouver, B.C. is a high school history
teacher and freelance writer.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 3        39 Miscellany
John Anthony Crosse
November 17, 1925 - October 31, 2006
A force of nature has ventured on,
leaving ears ringing with conversations
shared and stories recounted.
"As I was driving through the
southern States in my boss's car, which he
didn't know I had, on my way to the Grand
Caymans to sail with a Galician piper friend
..." was a typical beginning from John
Crosse's world of tales.
He wove his stories in and out of other
talk, repeating his adventures often enough,
with sufficiently different perspective and
detail each time, that they could only be true,
however extraordinary. There was always
something in them relevant to the current
topic, as he lit on new connections and
understandings, never just reminiscing for
the sheer fun of it, although it was fun,
without fail.
John's family and pedigree meant a
great deal to him. He was a great-great-
great-grandson of Rev. Henry Williams,
chief negotiator of New Zealand's Treaty of
Waitangi. He claimed to be the Prince of
Wales from a distant royal affair, and he was
proud of traces of Maori blood in him,
although, in the official record, none existed,
as expected.
He'd danced with Princess Margaret,
cutting in on Peter Townsend. His mother
knew Sir Edmund Hillary, having sat beside
him on a very long plane trip, where she
didn't once mention Mt. Everest, to his great
relief, but engaged him entirely by saying,
"I understand you keep bees."
John graduated from Kings College at
Cambridge, had a Masters Degree in
Engineering from Purdue University,
Indiana, and had worked, he said, on a Ph.D.
in Sunbathing at Rochdale in its Roachdale
days. He'd been a marine engineer, sailor,
executive, professor, historian (author of
Thermopylae and the Age of Clippers), and
more. He'd married his talented artist cousin
Pamela Crosse, moving to Canada with her
and their son Andrew in 1959.
At age 70, John learned from Andrew
how to employ "sheer grit" to temper his
worst depressive and manic episodes, which
had profoundly affected his life till then.
John loved learning, and to learn something
so vital from his son gave him particular joy.
Andrew wrote that his dad "did not
own a car ... he rode a bike. He lived in a
humble basement suite in Kitsilano and
enjoyed every day of his life and every
person he met. His favourite greeting to a
stranger was "Where are you from?" He had
"buddies" around the world, from Cairo to
Christchurch. He had so many friends, from
the affluent to the poor. All were meaningful
to him."
John Crosse burst into my life after a
talk I gave in 1992 about Captain George
Vancouver. John was so excited by the
stories I retold through Vancouver's
triumphs and torments that he spent much
of his remaining years researching and
writing about the Spanish explorer Narvaez,
for his early mapping of the BC coast, and
English sailor Thomas Manby, for his love
of young women, wherever met. John also,
in his final decades, kept journals—dozens
of them, in total—of his daily encounters, a
treasure trove of life lived large.
John died after a bike ride, on the
crisp, clear afternoon. Near five o'clock, he
felt a little weak and walked for a block with
the help of a stranger. On the corner of his
street, he collapsed of a heart attack. The
young woman from next door gave him
CPR, and an ambulance arrived in two
minutes, but he slipped away quickly and
Man, what a day! he would have said.
I kick off with a young woman kissing me,
and they get the excitement of an old guy
dying on the street to tell their friends. What
a perfect Hallowe'en night.
And so John's stories have come to an
end, but not his voice, as it echoes in the
heads of those who heard him and continues
to stir the hearts of those who loved him.
Brenda Guild Gillespie was one of John's history buddies.
Margaret Ormsby Prizes
The Margaret Ormsby Scholarship
Committee is pleased to announce the 2006
winners of the Margaret Ormsby Prize for
the best essay in British Columbia History.
Marlene Roseboom of the University
College of the Fraser Valley has won for her
essay "The Evolution of the
Kwakwaka'wakw Potlatch: From Pre-
contact to Post-ban" and Callie Joyce Smith
of Malaspina University College for
"Cricket, Culture and Empire in Victoria,
B.C." The prize of $300 is awarded annually
to the top essays at UCFV, Malaspina
University College, Thompson Rivers
University, and the University of BC
Okanagan. The Scholarship Fund is now
administered by the Vancouver Foundation
and donations can be made to the
scholarship via "The Endowment Fund for
the Promotion ofBritish Columbia History".
Index to the British Colonist
This spring saw an expansion to the
on-line collection of histories of Victoria in
the Victorian era including Leona Taylor's
index to the British Colonist from 1858-1919.
This index makes much of the historic
Colonist easily findable by historians for the
first time. Other new additions include work
on time capsules and cornerstones in
Victoria, the BC Electric Railway Company,
the gardens and the surveying of the
distinguished Pemberton family, and the
first death of a policeman on duty in the city.
John Lutz
Patu on Display
Richard Wells would like readers to
know that the model he made of the patu
featured in the Banks island article (Vol.39
No. 3) is on display at the Port Hardy
Our postcards come from Ron Hyde.
Top: the Sicamous Hotel. Built in the early 1900's the well known Sicamous Hotel was a Tudor style
affair with 75 rooms and a large elegant dining room. Dances were well attended and were dressy and
posh affairs. The hotel was demolished in 1964 but the Chamber of Commerce notes there are still
many inquiries about the hotel.
Bottom: Chief White Elk is standing in front of the Hollow Tree in Stanley Park in the 1920s. The
Vancouver Courier noted that the man who held fundraising Indian shows across Europe for "starving"
children on reserves, and who suggested to Mussolini that fascists and Indians march side by side to
Geneva was in fact an Italian-American actor and con man whose real name was Edgardo Laplante.
Ron Greene notes that the photo of the touring bus shown here last issue was taken at 906
Government Street in Victoria, at the CttC Taxi Service office.
The British Columbia Historical
Federation is an umbrella
organization whose members have
a common goal for the
preservation and display of
British Columbia's history.
MEMBER SOCIETIES are local and
regional historical societies,
archives, historic sites, etc. with
dues paying members.
Membership fees are $1 per
member with a minimum of $25
and maximum of $75 for a
calendar year.
organizations, museums, archives,
historic sites,
etc. without dues paying
members. Membership fees are
$35 for a calendar year
ASSOCIATES are individuals who,
because of geogrphy or other
approved reason, cannot become a
member of a Member Society.
Membership fees are $25 for a
calendar year
All memberships include one
subscription to BC History
magazine and the BC Historical
Federation Newsletter.
For further information contact:
Ron Hyde, Membership Chair
#20 - 12880 Railway Avenue
Richmond, B.C.   V7E 6G2
phone/fax   604-277-2627 Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to Circulation Department.
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Contact Us:
British Columbia History welcomes stories,
studies, and news items dealing with any aspect of
the history of British Columbia, and British
Please submit manuscripts for publication to
the Editor, British Columbia History,
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Vancouver BC V6A 3E8
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Please submit books for review to:
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For addresses outside Canada add $10.00
25th Annual Competition for Writers of BC
History Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for
Historical Writing Deadline: 31 December 2007
The British Columbia Historical Federation invites book
submissions for their annual Competition for Writers of
BC History. Books representing any facet of BC history,
published in 2007 will be considered by the judges who
are looking for quality presentations and fresh material.
Community histories, biographies, records of a project
or organization as well as personal reflections, etc. are
eligible for consideration.
Reprints or revisions of books are not eligible.
Lieutenant-Governor's Medal
The Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for Historical Writing
will be awarded to an individual writer whose book
contributes significantly to the history of British
Columbia. Additional prizes may be awarded to other
books at the discretion of the judges.
All entries receive considerable publicity, Winners will
receive a Certificate of Merit, a monetary award and
an invitation to the Awards Banquet of the Federation's
annual conference.
For mailing instructions please contact:
Barb Hynek,
Chair/Judge of the BCHF Book Competition
2477 140th Street, Surrey, B.C. V4P 2C5
Books entered become property of the BC
Historical Federation.
By submitting books for this competition, authors agree that
the British Columbia Historical Federation may use their names
in press releases and Federation publications regarding the
book competition.


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