British Columbia History

BC Historical News Nov 30, 1974

Item Metadata


JSON: bch-1.0190561.json
JSON-LD: bch-1.0190561-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bch-1.0190561-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bch-1.0190561-rdf.json
Turtle: bch-1.0190561-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bch-1.0190561-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bch-1.0190561-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

'O *
. \
S11 ■
Vol. 8 No. 1 November 1.974
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical fissociation, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their
respective societies. Subscription rate to non-members: $3.50 per
§rear, including postage, directly from the Editor, P.A. Yandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue. Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1.E4.
Executive 1974-75
Hon. Patron: Lieut-Go v. Walter Owen
Hon. President: Dr Margaret Ormsby
President: Mr Frank Street
Past President: Col. G.S. Andrews
1st Vice-President: Mr Jack Roff
2nd Vice-President: Mr Alf. Slocomb
Secretary: Mr Philip A. Yandle
Recording Secretary: Mr Robert Watt
Editors: Mr & Mrs P.A. Yandle
Treasurer: Miss Jill Rowland
Executive members: Mr Donald New
Mr Rex Tweed
Editorial 2
Minutes 2
Society Notes & Comments 4
Jottings 8
Champness. To Cariboo and Back. For salei 1.0
B.C. Books of Interest, by F.Woodward 1.1
Book Reviews:
Exploring Vancouver, by H. Kalman 1.3
John McLoughlin's Business Correspondence,
ed. by W. Sampson 1.4
The Writing on the Wall, by H. Glynn-Ward 15
Agnes Deans Cameron . . A Memory, by Ada McGeer  1.6
Father De Smet in the Columbia Valley,by W.Weir  1.8
Getting Dressed, by C McAllister 23
The cover series for Volume 8, drawn by Robert Genn, focuses on
the Spanish explorers, who were the first whites'to reach the west
coast of British Columbia.
This issue features Esteban Jose Martinez, 2nd pilot on the
Santiago or Nueva Galicia, who accompanied Perez in his voyage to
the Northwest coast in 1.774. EDITORIAL
Over the years society has been mindful to create expressions which
can be used to illustrate particular situations that mankind disseminates.
To this end, like the parson for his sermon, we have chosen the expression
"it depends on whose ox is being gored". There never was such a time
in history when it seemed virtually impossible to reach unanimity on any
two-edged debate. International affairs do not bear thinking about, in
the light of the variety of opinions expressed on the unresolved problems
of the day that seem to threaten our very existence. We live from crisis
to crisis until it seems that the only intelligent reaction is to ignore
it all and hope that it may all go away*
Assuming that we can ignore it and that we are also capable of
turning deaf ears to the frantic multi-party bleatings which emanate
from Ottawa, there is still all the verbal diarrhea that has to be dealt
with at the local level. This is indeed a masterful accomplishment if
one still has sanity after this ordeal. Every spokesman has been right,
and never is there the slightest thought that anybody could be wrong.
And the reaction - why of course it has all been wrong; it is a question
of "it depends on whose ox is being gored".
By this time is it any wonder that the unanswered questions we have
been asking over the past years make us see red? How about a few samples
of what the Association has been bleating about. There is the request
for protection and preservation of the old Brigade Trail from Tulameen
to Hope; what about the Carnegie Library Building in Vancouver and
Haslam Hall in Nanaimo? Why did they drown Kinbasket Lake? And the
loudest cry of all goes up for Nootka. Can't we get something done to
dedicate for all time the birthplace of our province? This is the bicentenary of the first European presence on our shores during the
expeditions of the early Spanish explorers.
Whose oxen are being gored? Why, of course, ours, and one of the
many reasons can be found in the quest for a fast buck.
Minutes of the Second Council Meeting of the British Columbia
Historical Association, held at the home of Mr F. Street, 61.76 Walker
Avenue, Burnaby, on 1.0th November, 1.974 at 1.30 p.m. Present: F.
Street (Pres.); J. Roff (1st Viee-Pres.); A. Slocomb (2nd Vice-Pres.);
Jill Rowland (Treas.); P.A. Yandle (Sec. & Ed..); Anne Yandle (Co-Ed.);
G.S. Andrews (Past.Pres.); R.Watt (Recording Sec); Elizabeth Norcross
(Nanaimo); Gordon German (Victoria); R. Millway (Burnaby); D. New (Gulf
Is.); K. leeming (Victoria); Ruth Barnett (Campbell River); Helen
Ford (Pt.Alberni); A. Turner (Prov. Archivist); T. Bartroli {Visitor).
Moved Leeming, seconded Roff, That the minutes of the previous
meeting be adopted as circulated. Carried.
The Secretary reported briefly on items of correspondence. The Haslam
House issue that had been raised by the Nanaimo Society had at one time
been considered to be resolved, but a recent letter seemed to indicate 3
that all levels of Government were not satisfied that the house in its
present altered condition warranted saving. Miss Norcross wished it to
be known that Nanaimo members considered it still very much an issue and
will -keep the Secretary advised as to what action should be. needed.
A request for names of old school houses in B.C that had been converted
to other purposes came from a Toronto source. The request for information
had been circulated in the last issue of the News and a detailed list
came from Mrs Gustafson, a member of our newest affiliate at Chemainus.
The newly formed American Canal Society had produced a newsletter, which
contained a front page historical account of the Baillie-Grohman canal,
credit being given to Mabel J0rdon and the B.C Historical Quarterly,
The Provincial Government grant had not yet been spent, although an
electric collator had been tried for the last issue, It was felt that
the cost of over $.500 was not justified when all that it accomplished
was to prolong the agony. A letter from Victor Wilson, President of the
Okanagan Historical Society asking for funds for their 50th Anniversary
was rejected. Moved Leeming, seconded New that we write to the Okanagan
Historical Society and inform them that we are unable to assist them
financially. Garried. The Atlin Historical Society had pointed out an
error on the cover of the April issue of the News. The depicted ship
was not a sternwheeler.
The Secretary asked if we should not give a copy of Champness to
Robert Genn in appreciation of his help. Moved Roff, seconded Slocomb
That the Secretary present a copy of Champness to Robert Genn and express
the thanks of the Council for his continued artistic help with the
covers of the News, Carried.
The President asked for a report from Mrs Barnett of Campbell River
regarding plans for the 1.975 Convention, Mrs Barnett outlined proposals
centred around a Friday excursion to Friendly Cove on the M.V. Uchuck.
Considerable discussion and clarification followed including mention of
guest speakers, luncheon and dinner arrangements for the day of the
Friendly Cove trip, and costing. The Annual General Meeting would be
held on the Saturday morning and a variety of activities had been suggested
for the afternoon, with the banquet that night. Following a cuggestion
made by Professor Bartroli, it was MOVED Watt, SECONDED Rowland, that the
President and Secretary write to the Ambassadors of Spain and Mexico,
inviting them to send representatives who would bring greetings from
their respective governments to the celebrations of the Bi-Centennials
of the landings and passage of the Spanish explorers to the Nootka
Sound area. Carried. Professor Bartroli observed that each government
should be aware that the. other wa^ being invited.
Discussion moved to the question of the celebration of the Bicentennial of Captain Cook's landing in 1.778, The Secretary opened the
discussion by reporting  a meeting that he and Mrs Yandle had held with
Mr Turner., the new Provincial Archivist. The Secretary said that he
felt that these celebrations should be something beyond the ordinary and
should involve others in the Province in addition to the Association.
Mr Turner added to the Secretary's remarks and reported in general terms
on a meeting held with the Deputy Provincial Secretary who had received
the idea of a province-wide celebration favourably, Mr Turner then talked
of some ideas he had had concerning the shape of the celebration and in
particular, a conference such ,js the one set up recently at Lethbridge as
part of the Northwest Mounted Police Centennial, celebrations. Moved Andrews, seconded Rowland, that the President be empowered to strike
a special committee at his discretion to deal with the Cook project.
Under new business, the secretary raised the question of the Historic
Sites Protection Acts, both federally and provincially. In their present
form it was difficult to make any use of them due to the length of time
taken for any action to commence.  Mr Turner reviewed a part of his own
experience as former Chairman of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board,
and counselled patience in the light of several problems at all levels.
He stressed the large number of recommendations made by the Board and
approved by the Government, which to date had not been acted upon.
The Secretary read a newspaper announcement about the creation of a
new 130 acre park near Port Alberni, the gift to the province by long time
members, Mr and Mrs Ford, and said he was s>ure the Council concurred in
his feeling that the Fords deserved oongratulations for their very generous
Col. Andrews presented a framed certificate of Life Membership to
Mr New, who replied expressing his gratitude for this tangible memento
of the Association's earlier honour.
Miss Rowland distributed copies of a draft brochure prepared by
■herself and Mrs Yandle, and asked Council to forward their suggestions
to the next Council meeting.
The -Secretary announced the death of Mrs Barraclough of Nanaimo, and
Council asked the Secretary to convey the expression of sympathy of the
Council to Mr Barraclough.
There being no further business, the meeting adjourned on motion at
4 p.m.
Robert D. Watt
Recording Secretary
ATLIN The Atlin Historical Society, Box 111, Atlin, is selling two
publications this year. One of these is a reprint from the B.C Historical
Quarterly, with a pictorial supplement, of a 63 page article by W.W.
Bilsland, entitled Atlin, 1.898 - 1.91-0: the story of a gold boom, selling
for $2.50. The second is ,a handsome collection of twelve sepia drawings,
with text, by Jan Harvey, of Atlin relics and buildings - poignant
reminders of the hard and happy times shared by prospectors and their
families during their feverish scramblings for gold. These drawings are
suitable for framing and would make a very acceptable gift.
BURNABY The annual field trip in July took members to Fort Langley where
they were given a presentation with slides, on early Canadian history.
Members then boarded the Albion Ferry crossing the Fraser River to Maple
Ridge, and after touring significant historical sites of that area they
ended the trip with a picnic supper at the home of Mrs W.E. Dunning,
publisher of The Gazette. During the past few months the Burnaby Camera Club has joined forces
with the Historical Society to provide a public service by copying the
Society's growing collection of old photographs on film. Dr W. K.
Lamb spoke at the September meeting on "Some Hazards of History", with
serious and humorous glimpses into the life of an archivist. At the
October meeting members viewed a film entitled The Drylanders, stirring
up many old memories. Anyone interested is invited to attend meetings
of the Burnaby Historical Society, which are held on the second Wednesday
of each month at the James Cowan Centre, and the President, Mr Reg. Millway,
939-7151, or the Secretary, Mrs Arlene Bramhall, 433-7176, would be glad
to give further information.
CAMPBELL RIVER Through an increased municipal grant, the Campbell River
& District Historical Society has for the first time been enabled to hire
a trained curator for their museum. Mr John Frishholz has been appointed
to this position. As a condition of the increased grant, the historical
society members undertook t° operate the Visitors' Information Centre for
the summer season. This was under the direction of the Vice President of
the Society, Mrs Mary Ashley. At the first regular meeting of the fall
season, members had an opportunity to meet their new Curator-Administrator,
Mr Frishholz. A large part of the Society's activities for the coming
season will be the planning and arranging of next year's Annual Convention
of the B.C.H.A., which is to be held in Campbell River on May 22nd-24th.
CHEMAINUS At a recent meeting Mrs Audrey Ginn, former owner of the first
section of pre-empted land on Kuper Island, told the story of the white
settlers on that Island, The small Pioneer cemetery there, deeded by Mrs
Ginn to the Chemainus Valley Historical Society,is being cleared and
tidied by members. At another meeting members saw a film "The Making of
a Totem Pole", produced by U.B.C-s Dept. of Anthropology, which showed
the late Mungo Martin at work on Some of the totem poles at U.B.C.'s
Totem Park. Col. G.S. Andrews spoke at the September meeting on topography
and surveying. Using two projectors and two screens he showed on one
glass slides of some early maps of B.C, and on the other some coloured
slides of areas in the province while they were being surveyed and prepared
for mapping. In July the members hosted a historical tour of the district
from the Victoria Branch, during which W.H, Olsen, author of 'Water over
the Wheel" gave a talk on the Mount Sicker mines, explaining the significance they played in eventually restoring prosperity to the district
following the Depression of the 1930's. On October 25th Mr Billie Thomas,
the first white male child to be born in the district celebrated his 100th
birthday. Three Society members recorded an interview with Mr Thomas on
tape, which was the subject of a programme earlier in the year. Mr Thomas's
personal story of the early days in Chemainus will feature in a pioneer's
book for which material is being collected by members of the Society.
GOLDEN On June 1st, 1.974, the Golden & District Historical Society '
officialy opened its new museum.' The museum is the result of the dreams,
plans, work and good management of an active group of members. In March
I.968 a group of local residents met to initiate the Historical Society.
Its declared aims were "to preserve records, pictures' and historical items
of interest pertaining to the Golden area; and to work toward the establishment of a museum".   Many buildings were investigated as a home for the museum, but.without success. The Elks Lodge offered to donate a block
of land for a site, and the Society decided to erect a new building for
its museum. Between 1.969 and 1.974 various ventures brought forth funds -
a 22 mile Walkathon realized $1.0,000, a Skateathon realized $1,400, a mini-
Walkathon earned $2000, an auction sale brought in $500, sales of "Kinbasket
Country" brought in $1,200 net, and many other smaller projects realized
much needed funds.  In June 1.971 the first sod was turned and footings
were poured with volunteer labour. In July 1971- a 40 x 50 foot Steiner
Arch Building was erected on these footings by a contractor. The cement
floor was poured in the fall of 1.972, also with volunteer labour. In
January 1.973 a Local Initiatives Project was started in order to get
carpentry, wiring, plumbing and insulation done. At the completion of
the L.I.P. job volunteers moved in and f inished the painting and started
cleaning artifacts, erecting shelves and cataloguing museum materials.
In January 1.974 another L.I.P, project paid for a clerk-typist-custodian,
a carpenter and helper.
Artifacts have been collected from a great variety of sources; they
range from pioneer tools to a natural history exhibit of moths and butterflies. The Town of Golden has cooperated in several ways. The museum
has been exempted from taxesi  the road to the museum has been graded and
ploughed as needed, and the Town Council has given every encouragement
The Golden and District Historical Society is to be congratulated on
its magnificent achievement in such a short period of time, and we wish
them every success.
EAST KOOTENAY  The annual dinner meeting was held on April 28th with
94 present. These included members and guests from Eureka, Libby,and
Rexford in Montana, Fernie, Grasmere, Invermere, Moyie, Sirdar, Kimberley,
Marysville, Chapman C^mp and Cranbrook. In the President's address, Mr
Mayberry mentioned the restoration programme, social events of 1.973, and
said he hoped the Baillie-Grohman canal project for 1.974 would be carried
on with Invermere and District cooperation. Mr Hunter discussed plans
for the forthcoming B.C.H.A. Convention. David Morley of the Fort Steele
staff spoke of work done there recently. Mrs Grace Jeffrey directed a
sing song. Officers for the coming year are as follows: Hon. Pres.:
Mrs Alice Parnell, last surviving daughter of Michael Phillips; Hon. Vice-
Pres.: Chief Joseph Pierre of the Mission Band; Chief Charlie Gravelle
of Tobacco Plains; Colin Sinclair of Grasmere, Arthur Nichol of Fort Steele.
Pres.: Hank Mayberry; 1st Vice-Pres.: Fred Fodor; 2nd Vice- Pres. : Mrs
Mar jean Noble; Corresp. Sec. : Dave Kay, Recording Sec: Mrs Grace
Leighton; Treas.: Mrs Evelyn Ijayberry.
WEST KOOTENAY At their April meeting, Mr F.E. DeVito spoke on a recent
visit to Moscow to attend the World Congress of Peace. He described the
social life and customs as he saw them, and as a former mayor of Trail,
applauded the community service on an honour system, where each citizen
is expected to give one day a week to the community, much of the efforts
going towards keeping the city clean.  At the May meeting W.A. Sloan of
Selkirk College talked about the Interior Salish and Kootenai Indians. He
outlined their cultural and trading patterns before white man came to the
region, and stressed the importance of Colville as a meeting and trading
site. Of particular interest w^.s his discussion on the unique Kootenay canoe, Members viewed a film, The Old Dewdney Trail, at their October meeting,
and a report was given by the Horsemen's Society on the latest progress
in clearing the Dewdney Trail in the West Kootenay.
For years the Society's small collection of museum material has been
stored in various basements, etc Now they have been offered accommodation in the Trail Memorial Centre.
In June the members went on a field trip up the Pend Oreille River above
Waneta Dam to see, perhaps for the last time, the river in its wild state
before another proposed dam is built. Members viewed a huge sluice box
belonging to one member whose hobby is searching for gold. Another member
has started necessary proceedings to enable interested parties to work on
ah archaeological dig before Hydro start construction of access roads.
In August the Society lost a good friend and tireless worker in the untimely death of Marion Redgrave, Mrs Redgrave, an ex-teacher, was an
organizer and charter member of the Council of Women in the Trail area. In
addition to being a member of the Historical Society, she was active with
the Trail Mental Health Group, the Citizenship Council, she organized
Meals on Wheels in the Trail area, and first suggested the Trail Pioneers
Group during the celebration of Trail's 70th birthday in 1971,
Current officers of the West Kootenay Historical Society are Pres,:
A.K. McLeod, Vice Pres.: M.R. Landucoi, Sec.Treas.: Mrs Ralph Cook.
NANAIMO The Society has had a busy summer as a lot of groundwork was
undertaken in connection with preserving the Haslam House. Other Interested
groups joined in on a committee and the matter was taken to Provih'clal
and Federal level. Disappointingly, the Provincial Government did riot
feel it was of sufficient historical or architectural merit to be given
special recognition on a provincial basis. They suggested, however, that
it was possibly so municipally, and meetings are to take place with the
City on its future. We still await the Federal Government's decision.
There has been strong support and behind the scenes work from many quarters,
for which we are grateful. In particular the B.C. Historical Association
is to be thanked for its work.
The summer field trip, accompanied by several members of the Cowichan
Calley Historical Society was to the Forest History Museum at :Duhcan'.
The Fall programme opened with Mr Albert Dunn, Nanaimo's Fire Chief,
recounting the history of the Fire Service. At the October meeting two
members spoke on their life in Nepal.
Nanaimo's centennial celebrations have been more festive than of a
historic nature So far, but the- "historic" part of the year is approaching,
startirig with Princess Royal Day on November' 27th, Mrs Flora McGirr, a
past President of the Society has been Nanaimo's Centennial Queen, and to
mark her part in Nanaimo's life and her long association with the Society,
Life Membership was conferred upnn her.
The Society notew with regret the death of Mrs Wm Barraclough, an
indefatiguable member of the Society. She was a granddaughter of one of
the Princess Royal settlers, and with her death the Society has lost a
living link with the founding of the City.
PORT ALBERNI  In September Mrs Meg Trebett, who was born and raised in
rural Beaver Creek, gave members a nostalgic treat, appropriately titled
"Those Were the Days". She brought to life the joys: and feoroows of farm
life, and rekindled memories among her listeners, A\  the-annual Social
evening in October, Mr Eugene Ruttan gave a short background of the routes 8
taken by the gold seekers of '98, and showed excellent slides taken this
summer when.he and his wife Marjorie hiked the Chilkoot Trail.  At the
Annual Meeting the following officers were elected for the coming year;
Pres.: Mrs Helen Ford; Vice-Pres.: Mr G.C Jamieson; Sec: Mrs Alice
■Riley; Treas.: Mrs Ann Holt.
VANCOUVER The first award of merit presented by the Society was given to
the University Women's Club of Vancouver for its preservation of Hycroft.
Hundreds of hours of manual labour went into the physical restoration -
painting, decorating, and many more hours into fund raising projects.
The Society's field trip was to Squamish in September on the "Royal
Hudson" train. At the September meeting, Mr Gerald Rushton, author of
"Whistle up the Inlet", gave an illustrated address on "Union Steamships:
lifeline on the coast". Mr Harvie Walker spoke at the October meeting
on "The Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail". Mr Walker has spent some time,
working with Harley Hatfield of Penticton in identifying the trail and
studying the records of those who used it.
VICTORIA Member Mr J.W. Awmack, who is a former President, of the East
Kootenay Branch, spoke at the April meeting on "On the Trail of History
in the East Kootenay". He illustrated his talk with some excellent
slides and reminded the members that this was the scenery they could
expect to view if they attended the forthcoming Convention. Rev. J.G.
Titus was a surprise speaker at the May meeting, filling in for Rev. Ivan
Futter, who was indisposed, speaking on the subject "Coastal Mission and
Country Parish". Rev. Titus illustrated his remarks with slides of
British Columbia coastal views.
For the annual field trip on July.6th, two bus loads of members made
an early start for Chemainus where they were met by members of the Chemainus Historical Society and given a conducted tour of local historical
sites. At the September meeting members had the opportunity of meeting
and listening to the newly appointed Provincial Archivist, Mr Allan
Turner, who spoke on "Dust gets in your eyes - the World of Archives".
Dr Joyce Clearihue was the speaker in October when she recounted the
adventures of her grandfather in a number of Pacific North-West gold
rushes, well illustrated with slides of. early photographs and scenes
from a recent visit to the old gold fields.
This year the Society's Historical Awards to two University of Victoria
students went to Miss Barbara J. Mayfield and kiss Joy Smith. Each
student was presented with copies of W. Champness' book "To Cariboo and
Back in 1.862", published by the B.C. Historical Association and the
reprint of Capt. John Walbran's "British Columbia Coast Names".
Some random items from the newspapers! John Raybould sends a full
page spread of text and pictures from the Kamloops Sentinel in praise of
the Kamloops Museum and in particular the work of Mary Balf. "She thinks
people are becoming much more history conscious . . . Younger people are
more interested these days in what the museum has to offer". Dept. of Highways News Release May 1.7th:  "Graham Lea has announced an
allocation of $1.25,000 this year for archaeological and historical site
reconnaissance of proposed highway routes and areas, where upgrading and
maintenance of existing roads is to take place
From the Vancouver Sun, Sept. 1.0th: "A prime tract of waterfront property
on Sproat Lake has been given to the Provincial Government. The land,
donated by Mr & Mrs F. Armour Ford of Port Alberni, has nearly a mile of
lake front". And again on November 9th: "the 1.30 acre piece of land has
been created a Provincial Park by Cabinet Order... Fossli Park, located
on the Stirling Arm on Sproat Lake about 3 miles from the Ucluelet-Tofino
road was donated to the Government by Mr & Mrs F. Armour Ford". We do have
some very nice people amongst our members.
Vancouver Sun, Sept. 4th: "The Provincial Government issued an order
Tuesday stopping the demolition of the old B.C Land Building at 91.8
Government Street in downtown Victoria. The order was issued by Provincial
Secretary Ernest Hall under the Archaeological and Historic Sites Protection Act. Preliminary work on the demolition had already started when
provincial government employees posted the order in one of the windows,
immediately stopping the work". That was a close shave!
Vancouver Sun Oct, 8th: "City officials said it would be about a month
before a recommendation would be made on the future of the old Carnegie
Library at Main and Hastings. Lawyer Harry Fan has proposed leasing the
building for museum exhibits he has acquired from tho North Star Rock
Museum in Minneapolis." "What a business venture, when all other museums
have to be heavily subsidized to keep them opent And what vxill happen
to the building in the proposed alterations?
Readers may be interested in a few extracts from a letter from Gwen Hay-
ball, a former member of the Vancouver and Gulf Islands Historical Societies,
and who now is living in England " Boxing day they always go to
the meet of the South Dorset fox hounds. That took place in front of a
small country house in the village of Affpuddle (used to be Affpiddle)
where there was an extensive green for the large number of riders to
gather and partake of the stirrup cup. There must have been nearly a
hundred horses and riders, including children. Two of the women riders
were outstanding in being extremely well turned out - they might have
stepped out of the Tatler. And one particular male rider was a perfect
Jorrocks character; stocky, rotund and with cheery, ruddy complexion.
Because so many people turn up to watch this most British of British
scenes they collect donations as people pass between the stone pillars of
the entrance to the house, which helps towards the cost of the hunt. We
followed along the lanes on high ridges in cars, so that we could get a
view of the hunters and hounds. I loved being out in the glorious Dorset
countryside and not having to dress up. Above all I was glad that the fox
got away, but of course dared not say so as the wife of a nephew was
riding and most of the family approve of the so called sport ......
Mayne. I miss the peace and solitude of that chapter in my life and of
^course the wonderful view The two organizations which I
belong to relating to history are "Friends of the Red House Museum" in
Christchurch (Dorset) and "The Bournemouth, Christchurch and. Poole Historical Society". I miss the intimacy which one gets in dealing with local
people and places. The B'th, Xch. and Poole Soc is rather highbrow.
Their lectures are given by professors or* universities most of the time
arid the only one which appealed to me was on Newfoundland. ...... 10
"The lecture was very political and was entitled "John Bull's other
Ireland". This society is a branch of The Historical Association, London.
The number of retired teachers among the members is noticeable. Their
annual luncheon, with lecture, is a very formal affair - lots of "Pray
silence for ..." etc. , and toast to the Queen. Sitting opposite me was
a young student who was going to attend Univ. of Victoria, B.C."
Erica Johnson of Trail writes "Mrs Turnbull (Victoria) had sent me a
copy of Gwen Hayball's article on 'Lobsticks', and here she is again in
June issue with an article on Agnes Deans Cameron who, with her niece
Jessie Brown had two Lobsticks of their own. I haven't seen them (on
the Peace R.) but I did get to Herschel Is (I96l.) off the Mackenzie Delta.
I have a copy of the Cameron book and have met the Brown family- in Victoria."
The Ontario Historical Society Bulletin has a bit of advice for those
uninitiated into the rules of copyright:  "We would like to remind Newsletter
editors that there are copyright laws. One newsletter that we receive
is copying a chapter from a local history each month. This is an interesting idea, which no doubt spreads a lot of knowledge of the locality, but
it is a dangerous one. If you wish to copy an author's work, you should
be sure to have written permission before starting."
A unique evening was held at McPherson Park Jr. Secondary School in
Burnaby on November 1.4th. It was held in honour of Maquinna, chief tan of
the Nootka Indians at Friendly Cove, and the man who met Captain Cook in
1.778. By all reports it was a resounding success and the staff and students who made it possible are to be congratulated.
The Canadian Culture Series, P.C Box 34248, Postal Station D,
2405 Pine Street, Vancouver 9, B.C. is a set of studies, published at U.B.C,
.about the place in Canadian society of several cultural groups, prepared
especially for schools. To date studies have been published on Indian,
Ukrainian, and Japanese contributions. Further details may be ©btained
from the above address.
On October 1.0th the Jewish Historical Society of B.C held its Annual
General Meeting in the Jewish Community Centre at Vancouver. It was
entitled Pioneers' Night, and all members of the Jewish community with
residence in B.C. of 30 years or over were invited to attend and be photographed. The success of the Society is a tribute to Cyril Leonoff, who
was the founder President, just five years ago, and the incoming President,
Myer Freedman outlined a very ambitious programme for the coming year,
the major portion of which would be taping interviews with Jewish pioneers
of the period 1.910 to 1.930.
TO CARIBOO AND BACK IN 1.862, BY Wm Champness. Introduction by Wm Sampson.
106 pp. illus. hard cover. Fairfield, Wash., Ye Galleon Press, 1.974.
$10.00, including postage, to members of the B.C Historical Association.
There are still copies available to our members, and it would be in
the financial interest of members to get their copy before the price changes.
It would make a very lasting and beautiful gift for all ages at this time
of year. Send cheques, made payable to the B.C, Historical Association,
to The Secretary, 3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C V6S 1.E4. 1.1
ALLAN, Andrew. Andrew Allan, a self-portrait; introduction by Harry J.
Boyce. Toronto, Macmillan, 1974. 1.99 pp. illus, $8.95.
BANNERMAN, Gary. Gastown: the 1.07 years, with walking tour supplement.
Vancouver, Unity Bank, Gastown Branch, 1974.40, 1.2 pp. illus. $3.95.
BEAGLEHOLE, J.C. The life of Captain James Cook. Stanford, Stanford
University Press, 1.974. 760 pp. illus. .$1.8.50.
BELL, Michael, ed„ Painters in a new land: from Annapolis Royal to the
Klondike. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1.974, 2,24 pp. illus. $22.50.
BIRD, Annie Laurie, Thomas McKay. Parma, Idaho, Old Fort Boise Historical
Society, 1.972. 86 pp. $3.25.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. Dept. of Recreation and Conservation, Parks Branch.
Bugaboo Glacier Provincial Park and alpine recreation area. Victoria, 1.974,
6 pp.
 Cape Scott Provincial Park. Victoria, 1.974. 5 PP»
  Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park. Victoria, 1974. 10 pp.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. Dept. of Recreation and Conservation. Provincial Museum.
Modern history exhibits. Fort Victoria, 1843-1861. Victoria, 1.974. 4 pp.
BRODIE, Steve. Bloody Sunday Vancouver - 1.938 (Recollections of the Post
Office sitdown of single unemployed) Vancouver, Young Communist League,
1.974. 24 pp. illus. $1.00.
BROWNING, Robert J. Fisheries of the North Pacific. (Anchorage, Alaska
Northwest Pub. Co. 1.974) 408 pp. illus. $27,50.
BURNES, J. Rodger. Echoes of the ferries, Vancouver, 1.974. 1.05 pp. illus.
CALL, Robert E. Land, man and the law: the disposal of crown lands in
" British Columbia, 1.871-1.913. Vancouver, U.B.C Press, 1.974. 333 pp.
illus. maps. $1.4.95.
CANADA. Geological Survey of Canada. Rock and mineral collecting in B.C
by S. Learning. (Paper 72-53) Ottawa, 1.973. 1-38 pp. illus.
CANADA. National Museum of Man. Haida burial practices: three archaeol-
' ogical examples. Ottawa, 1.973. 113 PP« $2.00
CARTER, John. A guide to Kokanee Glacier Park. Castlegar, Cotinneh Booits,
1973. 50 pp., illus.
CLEMS0N, Donovan. Living with logs/British Columbia's log buildings and rail
fences. Saanichton, Hancock House, 1974. 94 pp, illus. $9,95; $3.95 paper.
CZ0L0WSKI, Ted and Stanley. The world of Stanley Park. (Vancouver) Ted
Czolowski Enterprises, 1.974. 96 pp., illus. $2.75.
CULBERT, Dick. Alpine guide to southwestern B.C West Vancouver, Alpine
Guide, 1974. 441 pp. illus, " $5.85.
DOUGAN, R.I. Cowiehan, my valley. Cobble Hill, 1973. 284 pp, illus. $7.50.
GEORGE, Dan. My heart soars, with illustrations by Helmut Hirnschall.
Saanichton, Hancock House, 1.974, 96 pp., illus. $9.95.
GLYNN-WARD, Hilda. The writing On the wall; introduction by Patricia Roy.
(Vancouver, 1921.) Toronto/ tl. of Tor. Press, 1.974. 148 pp.; $4.95.
HANCOCK, David. Hancock's ferry guide to Vancouver Island. Saanichton,
Hancock House, 1.974„'5'0 pp., illus. 95<f:.
HANCOI0K, David, and David Stirling. Birds of B.C. Saanichton, Hancock House,
1.973V 68 pp., illus. $5.95-.
HARDWICK, Walter Gordon. Vancouver. -Toronto, Collier-Macmillan, 1.974.
"214! ppV7 illus. $5<95."
HERITAGE MAP TOURS. Walking tour old town Victoria, Illustrated guide and
map of historic architecture in Victoria. Foldout. 1.974, 95^
HILL, Beth and Ray. Spirit in stone, petroglyphs of the Northwest Coast
'Indians. Saanichton, Hancock House, 1.974. 256 pp. illus. $17.50. 1.2
HULL, Raymond, and others. Vancouver's past..,. (Vancouver) Gordon Soules
Economic & Marketing Research, 1.974. 96 pp. illus. $7.95*
JOHNSON, Ebenezer. A short account of a northwest coast voyage performed
in the years 1.796, 1.797 & 1798. (Boston, 1.798) Vancouver, Alcuin Society,
1.974. 22 pp. $6.50.
KALMAN, Harold. Exploring Vancouver; ten tours of the city and its buildings.
Vancouver, U.B.C. Press, 1.974. 264 pp. illus. $5.95.
KELLY, Nora. Quest for a profession; the history of the Vancouver General
Hospital School of Nursing. Vancouver, Evergreen Press, 1.973. 174 pp.
KEW, Delia & P.E. Goddard. Indian art and culture of the Northwest coast.
Saanichton, Hancock House, 1974. 96 pp., illus. $7.95; $3.95 paper.
KITSILANO SECONDARY SCHOOL, Archives-Clippers Club. Chronicles of Kitsilano.
I966-I972. 2d ed. (Vancouver) 1.973. 24 pp., illus.
LAKESIDE PHOTO STUDIOS. The big country B.C Canada. Williams Lake, Lakeside
Photo Studios, 1.974.  (32) pp., illus. $1.50.
McCLURE, Willa. Memories of Marysville. Kimberley, 1.973. 139 pp., illus.
MacGREGOR, J.G, Overland by the Yellowhead. Saskatoon, Western Producer
Book Service, 1974. 270 pp. illus. $8.95-
McLEOD, Gladys, comp. Hamill's last stand.  (Castlegar, Cotinneh Books,
1973)  16 pp., illus.
MERRIMAN, Alec and Taffy. Logging road travel. Sidney, Saltaire Pub. Co.,
1-973. 2 v. illus. $2.95 each.
MILLER, Charles A. "The golden mountains" Chronicles of valley and coast
mines. Mission, Fraser Valley Record, 1.973- 90 pp., illus. $3.50.
MORTON, James. In the sea of sterile mountains: the Chinese in British
Columbia. Vancouver, J.JS Douglas, 1.974.  280 pp., illus. $1.2.50.
MURRAY-OLIVER, Anthony A.St. CM. and Thomas Vaughan. Captain Cook, R.N. ,
the resolute mariner: an international record of oceanic discovery.
Portland, Oregon Historical Society, 1.974. 1.1.2 pp., illus. $6.00.
NEAVE, Roland. Wells Gray Park. (Burnaby) Miocene Press, 1.974. 1.92 pp.,
illus. .$3,75.
NEW WESTMINSTER, Planning Dept. The preservation of historic sites. New
Westminster, 1.973. 50 pp., illus.
PATERSON, T.W. Outlaws of the Canadian frontier. Vancouver, Stagecoach
Publishing Co., 1974. 72 pp., illus. $3.95.
PEARSON, John. Fur &  gold, (stories, tales and legends of B.C.) sketches by
Liz Preston. White Rock, S.K. Press, 1.974? 1.1.2 pp., illus. $3.95.
PETHICK, Derek. British Columbia recalled, Saanichton, Hancock House, 1.974.
96 pp., illus. $7.95; $3.95 paper.
 Vancouver recalled: a pictorial history fo I.887. Saanichton, Hancock
House, 1.974. 96 pp., illus. $3.95.
POHLE, Adella. Pioneering in two worlds: the life of Carl and Adella Pohle.
Vancouver, 1974. 1.27 pp., illus. $l.o.00
POTTIE, R.H. The Golden Ears trail handbook. Vancouver (1.974) 30 pp. illus.$3.
RUSHTON, Gerald A. Whistle up the inlet: the Union Steamship story. Vancouver,
J.J. Douglas, 1.974. 236 pp., illus. $10.95.
SCOTT, R. Bruce. People of the southwest coast of Vancouver Island, a history of the southwest coast. (Victoria, Morriss, 1.97*0 138 pp., illus.$6.95«
SIMEON, John ed. Natural history of the Cowichan Valley. Cowichan Valley
Natural History Society, 1.974. 47 pp., illus.
SPEARE, Jean E. The days of Augusta. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1.973. 80 pp.,
illus. $6.95.
STACEY, E.C Peace Country heritage. Saskatoon, Western Producer Book
Service, 1.974. 1.83 pp., illus. $8.95.
STANTON, James. Ho for the Klondike. Saanichton, Hancock House, 1974. 64 pp,.
illus. $2.95. 13
SURTEES,.Ursula. Lak-la Hai-ee. Shuswap Indian meaning "to tell"; illustrated by Gwen Lamont. (Vol. 1, Interior Salish food preparation)
Kelowna, Lamont-Sur tees, 1.974. 1.7 pp., illus. $1.25.
TOUCHIE, Rodger. Vancouver Island: portrait of a past. Vancouver, J.J.
Douglas,. 1974. 1.28 pp., illus. $1.2.95.
WATSON, George and Ilene. Pioneer breweries of B.C.: a look at B.C. breweries
from a collectors' point of view. Nanaimo, Westward Collector, Pub. Co.,
1974. 80 pp., illus. $4.95.
WEBBER, Harold. People & Places, ed. by Derryll White. Castlegar,
Cotinneh Books, 1.973. 1.23 pp., illus.
■WHITE, Helene E. comp. Fifty bloomin' years.... Creston, Printed by the
:Creston Review Ltd., 1.974. 20 pp., illus. $1.00.
EXPLORING VANCOUVER: Ten tours of the City and its Buildings, by Harold
Kalman and John Roaf. Vancouver, University of British Columbia Press,
1974. 264 pp., illus. $5.95.
Guide books make fascinating reading. The famous Michelin Guide of
France has led many weary travellers to a delicious meal or a comfortable
bed. The century old German Baedecker Guide is still a treasured source
of historical information for both tourists and scholars.
Harold Kalman's Exploririg Vancouver is a guide with a specific focus:
architecture. The book is not only a pictorial guide but a record of
architectural trends during the few decades of Vancouver's existence,
thus providing us with a much needed historical perspective of the peculiar
architecture of this city.
Th© author impresses with his well researched information on architects, builders and owners and, particularly in the case of older buildings,
the socio-economic ambiance of the times in which buildings were erected.
.He thus gives teasers to the more than casual reader to explore other
aspects of the history of our young city.
Kalman divides the city into six walking tours of Vancouver and four
driving tours of the greater Vancouver area. This device to exploring
the city works particularly well on the walking tours,'but despite our
dependency on the car to get around, the driving tours are too-spread out,
thus losing the specific atmosphere of a series of streets one experiences
when walking. As I have explored many cities on four continents on foot,
;,I feel that the observer would have gained much if he were encouraged to
■park his car and take in smaller areas on foot. It would have given the
author an opportunity to point out lesser buildings but nevertheless of
historical value, such as the lower part of Lonsdale Avenue in North
Vancouver, to mention only one unfortunate omission.
The selection of buildings on the whole, however, is excellent, giving
the visitor and student to building history a splendid cross section of
lesser and important architectural achievements in Vancouver. I find it
particularly refreshing to see many insignificant structures included
which however are part of the nostalgic or emotional fabric of many long
time residents of the area. 1.4
The crisp and simply factual photography isolates the individual
buildings from their surroundings, allowing the reader to observe the
overall design and specific details. ' I only wished when leafing through
the book or walking along the prescribed routes that each chapter were
concluded with full street scenes to record the total setting of the
individual buildings. Even with this omission the guide isasuperb
historical documert providing pictorial proof of the architectural
diversity of Vancouver, especially as some of the featured buildings
crumble under the blades of bulldozers.
Unmentioned by the author, but intensely present to the reader is a
real concern for the preservation of the architectural heritage and it
is hoped that this guide will encourage those who have not been concerned
with conservation to raise their voices when yet another historic structure
is slated for destruction. After all the Europeans have successfully
saved good and bad structures of the past for us to see.
It is my hope that the author will expand his guide and possibly
consider publishing it in pocket size format and on a tough airmail type
paper (like the Michelin and Baedecker forerunners) to make it truly
Werner Aellen.
Mr Aellen, a former architect, is now a motion picture director.
Sampson. Seattle and London, University. of Washington .Press, 1.973.
. Ii, 1.79 PP^ illus. $1.2.50.
One hundred and one letters, written by Dr John McLoughlin between
March 1.847 and May 1.848, form the nucleus of this work. These are taken
from a letter book purchased in 1.962 by the United States National Park
Service and at present on loan to the Oregon Historical Society, Portland,
Oregon. As the editor, Mr W. Sampson, points out, "The letter book is a
valuable addition to the scant information available on his (McLoughlin's)
business activities in Oregon City". One can appreciate this when the
wonderful written records pertaining to McLoughlin's era with the Hudson's
Bay Company, published in large part in the three volumes of The Letters
of John McLoughlin (E.E. Rich, ed.), are contrasted with the scarcity
of material for the period following his retirement from the HBC in 1.846.
The letters in John McLoughlin's business correspondence, 1.847-48
were, with one exception, written by McLoughlin. Most deal with the day-
to-day operations of his businesses, though some are concerned with
personal affairs and several contain remarks about developments in the
Oregon region. It is these comments which the majority of readers will
find most interesting. I agree with Mr Sampson's assessment that "The
letters afford no basis for re-examining the economic history of Oregon
for the period" though "they do provide a tantalizing glimpse into the
various trading ventures of an early 'merchant adventurer'".
However narrowly the letters confine that tantalizing glimpse, Mr
Sampson has broadened the glimpse considerably with a fine introduction
:and superlative notes. These additions require more type than do the
letters. The introduction, 37 pages long, gives a summary of McLoughlin's 15
life, a description of the letter book and its acquisition by the United
States National Park Service, and an explanation of the editorial
procedures. Extensive footnotes clarify matters introduced in the letters.
In addition, three appendices, three supplementary letters, a lis*bing of
commercial ships, other than HBC vessels, which visited the Columbia
River during 1.846-48, and biographical notes on thirty-one of McLoughlin's
correspondents and persons mentioned in the letters are provided. A
bibliography, index of correspondents, and a general index, each accurately
and fully compiled, complete the book.
The result is a polished product. The reader receives a new look
at the controversial McLoughlin. It is rather interesting to discover
that the "Father of Oregon" "rarely used punctuation, and his sentences
run on interminably;" that he was "an erratic speller at best" and "in the
matter of capitalization . . . was at his most versatile" - a striking
contrast with the laborious grammatical precision of the "Father of
British Columbia", McLoughlin's successor in the HBC, James Douglas.
George Newell
Mr Newell is a member of the Victoria Branch of the B.C. Historical Ass'n,
THE WRITING ON THE WALL, by Hilda Glynn-Ward; introduction by Patricia
Roy, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1.974. 1.48 pp., $4.95.
(Social History of Canada series No. 20)
Any student of British Columbia's history should take the time to
read The Writing on the Wall, a rabidly anti-Oriental novel set in our
province, which was first published in 1.921. and has recently^been reprinted
with a valuable introduction by Patricia Roy, by the University of Toronto
Press. Dr Roy's introduction is extensive and informative, placing Hilda
Glynn-Ward's novel within its historical context, and the novel itself
clearly conveys the spirit of racism common to this province from its
earliest days.
In the introduction, Dr Roy has drawn on her extensive research into
the anti-Oriental mood in British Columbia to produce an outline that
describes both the genesis and evolution of the anti-Oriental spirit and
the place of this novel within that movement. The conclusion to the
introduction is a short study of Glynn-Ward herself, illustrating her
personal contribution to the anti-Asiatic mood in British Columbia. The
introduction is so useful it should be examined both prior to reading the
novel, in order to better comprehend the historical roots of The Writing on
the Wall, and upon completion of the book, in order to pause and consider
the novel's role as an expression of racism in this country.
As for The Writing on the Wall itself, it is a ringing propaganda
•tract, designed to expose the corrupt, self-serving politicians and capitalists
who were supposedly selling the country out to the Oriental menace. The
novel may be fiction to current readers, but it is clear that Glynn-Ward
intended that the story be edifying, not entertaining. The author, as an
activist against the Asiatic menace, hoped that readers, informed of the
horrific future possibly in store for British Columbia, would act to
halt the Asiatic take-over of their land. 1.6
As to the literary merit of The Writing on the Wall, Patricia Roy's
assessment that it is "... a penny dreadful", is correct. The
characters are absurd caricatures, the text is sketchy, and the sudden
transfers ;through time, from the past to the present and into the future,
which are accompanied by the most skeletal outlines of events during the
intervening yet important years, were most unsettling. Yet, to stress
the low literary quality of the work would be to miss the point of the book;
Glynn-Ward was more concerned with the political than the literary impact
of her book. The story is sketchy in order to concentrate on the
dramatic, the sudden shifts in time occur in order to suggest the
immediacy of the Oriental challenge, and finally, the characters are
exaggerated in order to shock the reading public to act. Present readers,
aware of- the extremism of The Writing on the Wall, should, however, not
consider it an isolated instance of local racism.
A product of the mainstream of British Columbia life, this novel is
hardly an insignificant historical document, as has been suggested elsewhere. Dr Roy, while noting the limited number of reviews given the book
in 1.921 (an apparently common occurrence at the time), states that,
"Because of the extent and variety of anti-Oriental agitation in the early
1.920's, it is impossible to isolate the impact of The Writing on the Wall.
Clearly the book had a wide reading public; according to a source active
in the book-selling trade at the time, Glynn-Ward's novel was a local best
seller which graced the coffee tables of many Vancouver homes. Thus the
University of Toronto Press is to be complimented for bringing us an
important document from-this province's past. At the same time, it is sad
that the initiative for reprinting The Writing on the Wall had to come
from Ontario, not British Columbia.
William C McKee
Mr McKee is an assistant archivist at the Vancouver City Archives
The article I read about Agnes Deans Cameron, written by Gwen
Hayball, in the June edition of the B.C. Historical News, brought back
vivid memories of my childhood days in Victoria, particularly those
spent at South Park School, when Agnes Deans Cameron was the Principal.
After several primary years at private schools, where I learned
nothing, my parents decided to send me to South Park public school which
was near our home. This was in 1.902, when I was 1.2 years old. School
then became a delight rather than a drudgery, particularly when I passed
into Miss Cameron's class room.
The school, still operating, is in a lovely part of Victoria, near
the northern end of Beacon Hill Park. We lived at the southern end.
Every morning on my way to school, I would see Miss Cameron returning
from her daily walk through the Park. She always wore a tailored suit,
which became her slim mannish figure, (she would have enjoyed wearing
slacks).' - t 17
When the bell rang we lined up in the school yard and marched into
the Assembly room, to say the Lord's Prayer, sing the National Anthem, and
listen to any pithy comments concerning the school and ourselves which
Miss Cameron saw fit to make. I well remember the day I was the embarrassed
A well known Shakespearean Company was due to perform The Merchant
of Venice. As a publicity ploy, one of the daily newspapers offered a
prize for the best essay on the play, written by a pupil. I sent my
contribution in without consulting anyone, carelessly failing to check
the spelling of the characters' names. As I won the prize, the newspaper
printed my essay, incorrect spelling and all. The next morning at
Assembly^ Miss Cameron read it to the whole school, making scathing
remarks on my carelessness and the dishonour I had brought to the school.
After 70 odd years I still remember my humiliation. Hers, too, apparently,
for she had picked me to pass first into high school. The fact that I
did, indirectly involved her in one of the many situations she seemed to
court. Miss Cameron taught all the subjects for entrance into high school,
except drawing. The teacher for this subject was a poor disciplinarian,
whose lessons were periods of "high jinks" for our class. When our drawing books were submitted as part of our final exams, the examiner failed
most of the class, contending that we had drawn freehand lines with a
ruler. I got a bare pass mark which pulled my average down considerably.
A bitter controversy arose between Miss Cameron, the examiner and, eventually, the School Board, which ended in the whole class being summoned to
appear in;court. This disturbed the parents, and Miss Cameron was severely
censured. However the pupils enjoyed appearing with their drawing books
before the fatherly Judge, who settled the matter satisfactorily for both
I remember another altercation with the City Council. This was over
the extension of Bird Cage walk which is now Government Street. At that
time the street ran.from Belleville past the Government Buildings, as far
as Michigan, where it stopped smack in front of the Camerons' home. The
city wished to cut the street straight out to the sea front at Dallas Road,
which necessitated demolishing the Cameron house. Mrs Cameron, who was in
her 80's, did not wish to leave her home. From her front windows she could
look down Bird Cage Walk as far as James Bay Bridge, she could see the
homes of her two married sons and those of other pioneers, like herself.
She could chat over the wooden fence with friends who lived nearby, such
as the Carr girls, including "Emily, with her outlandish ideas and painting
kit". Her indomitable daughter delayed the action of the city with every
device she could think of. She succeeded, until her Mother settled the
matter by dying in 1.906 at the age of 84.
There were other contentious matters in Miss Cameron's life at this
time, which finally resulted in her dismissal as principal of South
Park School. This proved to be a blessing, for she could now devote her
life to writing, lecturing and travel, which brought her world fame. But
there are many of her former pupils who remember her for her criticism of
outmoded ideas and her untiring work for school reform. It is the
fortunate pupil, who in the oourse of school days encounters a teacher
who kindles a spark for learning. Agnes Deans Cameron did this for many
of her pupils. Thankfully, I was one of them.
************** 1.8
Following is the text of an address presented by Mrs Weir on 24th May,
1.974, at the Annual Convention of the B.C Historical Association.
The invitation to speak to you about Father Pierre Jean De Smet
is something I am most grateful for, for if I had not had this opportunity I might never have learned all that I have about this very remarkable man. Because I have long been interested in the history of the
Windermere District I had long ago heard about Father De Smet. I knew
that he was a missionary priest who had explored the west and had worked
with the Indians, baptizing large numbers into the Catholic faith. I
knew the story of -his being in our Columbia Valley and visiting Baptiste
Morigeau, the first white man to reside in our area. But I did not know
what a truly amazing man he was nor of the vast amount of information he
had compiled about his travels and the people he met.
To give you his background briefly, Father Pierre Jean De Smet of
the Society of Jesus was born in Belgium in 1.801 of a well respected
family. Educated in a seminary, he was a distinguished pupil and excelled
also in sports; in fact so great was his physical strength that he was
nicknamed Samson.
Hearing of the need for missionary priests in America, he voluntarily
exchanged the life of civilization in Belgium for life among a people
who he understood were barbarous. He pawned his personal belongings to
raise funds for the trip to America in 1.821. He was ordained in 1.827 in
St. Louis University. There is no doubt as to Father De Smet's zeal and
devotion to the cause of bringing Christianity to the Indians. The depth
of his religious fervour is evident in all his letters, yet this man has
been elected to the National Cowboy Hall of Fame, surely an unusual
honour for a man of his calling. This rotund, devout, courageous man,
armed only with his Bible and his crucifix, invaded the wilds of America's
most barbarous natives, suffering hardships and braving dangers that
caused him to risk his life countless times.
For ten years after his ordination in 1.827 he taught students and
functioned as a priest, then started a mission in Iowa. For years the
Flathead Indians had been begging for a Blackrobe,.as they called the
Jesuit priests. De Smet met their delegation and requested the.assignment,
which was approved by the bishop. r
In the spring of 1.839 he was set ashore from the ship, St. Peter, on
the Missouri River in hazardous Dakota land. After landing him the seamen
rowed hastily back to their ship, fearful of Indian attack. Alone on the
shore, Father De Smet was reviewing in his mind the message he wished to
bring In the language he had learned as a requisite for his assignment,
when suddenly Indians leaped from the woods around him, their stone point
arrows were set on taut bow strings. De Smet raised one hand in the
universal gesture of peace. As he grasped his crucifix with his free hand,
one Indian tore open his black robe, and found he was unarmed. Puzzled by
his garments and his calm manner.the natives took him to their chief
where the priest attempted to communicate, and gestured to the Great
Spirit. The chief got his intent, was convinced of his friendship and let
him stay. He baptized their children and attended their sick as well. 19
It seems that Father De Sme*fc was blessed by Divine Providence,
because while several of his fellow missionary priests died while on
similar missions, he emerged unscathed from one hardship or adventure
after another. Once he was caught in a blazing canyon fire and escaped
only by a fortuitous turn of the wind. Once he had to wade in deep and
icy waters to escape scalp hunters. He was lost frequently in strange
mountains; once he was down to two meals a day in which the food consisted
of frozen potatoes and a morsel of fresh meat. Once on the lower Columbia,
he left his companions in a frail craft while he walked on the bank. The
canoe was caught in a violent eddy and five men were drowned. Once he
"faced shipwreck which he described.thus, "waves rose in pyramids and masses
of water, torn by the fury of the wind, were hurled upon us in floods".
Travelling west in 1.840, he described one experience. "I had been
no more than six days in the wilderness", he wrote, "when I was overcome
by intermittent fever, with chills that ordinarily precede the attacks
of heat. This fever never left me until I reached the Yellowstone on my
way back to the mountains. I cannot give you any idea of my deplorable
state. My friends advised me to go back but I went on. I stuck to my
horse as long as I had the strength, then I would go and lie in a cart on
the boxes on which I was jolted often as we crossed deep and perpendicular
ravines, throwing me sometimes with my feet in the air, sometimes like
a thief between the boxes, cold as an icicle or covered with sweat and
burning like a stove. During the three days that my fever was at its
height, I had no water except what was stagnant and dirty".
Another time he contracted cholera and was given the last rites of
his church by a fellow priest. Hours later he heard a weak call for help
and tottered to the bedside of that same priest to administer the last
rites to him before he died. Because he had formed the habit, of keeping
a journal recording his experiences, we know all these things from his
own memoirs.
But tonight I want to tell you, not of Father De Smet's adventures
with the Indians to the south of us, but of his experiences in our
Columbia Valley. His journal tells us that before noon on September 4th,
1845,. he'was at the source of the Columbia River. The two lovely lakes
Columbia and Windermere, which are really widenings of the river, he
described as the reservoirs of its first waters. He pitched his tent on
the bank of "the first fork that brings in its feeble tribute" to the
head of this mighty stream, and here he met Baptiste Francois Morigeau,
a French Canadian and the first white settler in our valley, whose
descendants are still to be found in our midst. Father De Smet wrote a
lengthy description of this man in his usual = poetical style.: He called
him "The Canadian, the Monarch who rules at the.source of the Columbia.
The skins of the rein 'and moose deer are the.walls of his portable palace
and, to use his own expressions, he. embarks on horseback with his wife
and seven children and lands wherever he pleases. His sceptre is his
beaver trap, his law a carbine, his numerous furry subjects are the beaver,
otter, muskratj martin, fox, bear, mountain sheep and goat and moose. He
extracts from them the tribute of flesh and skin. He does not forget his
duty as a "Christian, and each day, morning and evening, devoutly recites
his prayers amidst his little family." Father De Smet's description of
our first white settler was longer than that, but I will not quote.him
further. Suffice to say that because Morigeau had never had the services
of a priest to unite him with his Indian wife, who was the daughter of 20
the Shuswap Indian Chief Kinbasket, Father De Smet performed the nuptial
rites and baptized the seven children all during the same ceremony. Following the ceremony Morigeau entertained his guest royally, and Father De
Smet described the meal with relish, a ragout consisting of the two paws
of a. bear, roast porcupine, a moose muzzle and a great kettleful of stew
.containing back fat of the buffalo, venison, beaver tails, quail and
rabbits, dumplings and broth.
Father De Smet described the flocks of water birds in our valley, and
at the north end of Lake Windremfere the salmon, cut and battered from their
long trip up the Columbia to spawn. He visited what is now Fairmont Hot
Springs, describing them as water "soft and pellucid and of the same temperature as milk drawn from a cow".
A little wooden church on the Shuswap Indian Reserve has a truly
amazing memento of his visit there as recorded in his own narrative. It
is the original cross erected by Father De Smet on September 8th, 1.845.
It is fastened by thongs to the western wall of this tiny church which
has only nine pews, each seating four persons. On that warm September
day in 1.845, Father De Smet wielded a crude axe to fashion this large
cross from timber cut from the hillside. Before him stretched waving
grasslands on a mountain prairie that he named the Plain of the Nativity.
Sweat stood out on his brow as he worked alone, watched by a group of
Kootenai Indians as he chipped away forming the cross arms to fasten to
the main stem of the tall cross he was creating. His journal tells us
he carved the top end of the upright with a religious symbol and also the
ends of the cross pieces to add beauty to the simple design. Finally,
with the crude tools at his disposal he burned holes in the cross piece
and the upright at the point where they joined, and inserted wooden pegs
to form the cross. Then he dug the necessary deep hole in which to set
it upright in the ground. We can imagine the amazement of the Indians
watching this rotund and far from young man exerting himself to such a
degree to erect this symbol of his belief.
Nearly a hundred years later a group of men who had read of its
position determined to find the cross if possible. They searched the long
grass on the mountain prairie. It was not difficult to locate the site
because the priest had made a most exact topographical map of the area on
which he had marked clearly the locations of two crosses he had erected.
The map on which the locations are marked is beautifully executed in detail
with name places in French. All land marks are accurately drawn and the
elevations are shown in freehand drawings. They are not, however, drawn
to scale. The map shows the source of the Columbia River, traces Father
De Smet's trail along the eastern shore of Columbia Lake to the Plains of
the Nativity and shows clearly where he erected the Cross of the- Nativity.
The cross was twelve feet in height and the cross bar five feet across,
both members roughly hewn of fir. The pins which held the two parts together through the burned area were tree limbs of suitable circumference.
It is not known how long the cross remained upright or what violent
wind finally brought it toppling to the ground. When found it showed
evidence of having been lying in -the grass for many years. The shaft had
rotted to about half its original thickness and the cross was in three pieces.
The parts were collected with care and it was brought to the Shuswap
Reserve where it was mended with infinite care and erected on the wall
inside, fastened to it with leather thongs. 21
After erecting the Cross of the Nativity, Father De Smet journeyed
to the summit of Sinclair Pass, forded the Kootenay River and followed
the,Cross River to its source. Here on the east shore of a little lake
he planted a second cross on September 15. This he marked on his map as
the "Croix de la Paix". This cross has never been found. It was here
that Father De Smet paused long enough to write a letter describing his
trip through the Columbia Valley, a letter that is one of the most graphic
descriptions known of those very early days. He described, among other
places, passing through what we know now as Sinclair Canyon, which has
toweiing red rocks that are one of the landmarks of our valley and which
many of you may know. He called Sinclair Pass the Liars' Valley, saying
the Indians knew it as the "Place where the old man lied", and he reported
that no Indian spoke as he passed through it.
From the Columbia Valley he travelled to Boat Encampment, where he
embarked on the Columbia and journeyed to the Arrow Lakes and thence south
again to Washington. Of tiis trip he also wrote graphic descriptions.
In 1846 he set off from Fort Jasper on a hazardous trip across the
mountains to Boat Encampment where the Canoe River enters the Columbia.
This was said later to be the severest test of his physical powers to
which Father De Smet was ever subjected. For a large part of the way he
had to wade the icy waters of the streams. He lost the nails of his toes
and suffered such hardships that he declared he would not have survived
had it not been for the aid of a small band of Indians whom the party
encountered. Because of Father De Smet's excessive weight it had been
recommended that he should not make this trip, much of which had to be
on snowshoes. So great was his resolution that he set out to reduce his
weight by a rigorous fast of thirty days and he was reasonably successful.
After he started the meagre provisions available gave him no opportunity
to regain his weight.
He was said to be of a genial and buoyant temperament, fond of jest
and merriment and with a keen sense of humour, He once said "I am
naturally inclined to laughter",and relished telling a joke on himself.
In writing to his niece he suggested that they make the door of one bedchamber six inches wider than normal so that when he visited them he would
be able to pass through.
Father De Smet was concerned about the influence of the white man
upon his beloved Indians. On one occasion he wrote, "one cannot help
being anxious for the fate of the Indians. The treasures concealed in
the iheart of the mountains will attract thousands of miners from every
land and with tbomwill come the dregs of civilization, gamblers, drunkards,
•robbers and assassins".
The story of the settlement of the west has been enriched by Father
De Smet's own descriptions of his travels. He fell into the habit of
keeping a record of the distances travelled, and in later years estimated that
he had traversed some 180,000 miles. He crossed the Atlantic seventeen
times. He compiled an elaborate album, much of it written in his own hand,
with sketches, poems and prayers as well as descriptions.
In a letter fo the Mother Superior of an Orphanage he told of awaitj <-■<•'
a shipment of goods which consisted of certain things for his church and
clothes for a year. He had been without shoes for a year and for some weeks
had been destitute of supplies. The Indians he was with at the time were 22
eating acorns and wild roots. At last Father De Smet and his Indians heard
that the long awaited boat was approaching. They went to the highest hill
and watched it nearing the shore. Father De Smet arranged for two carts to
•go for the supplies. Then he reached the shore just in time to see the
vessel strike a rock and sink rapidly in the waves. The confusion was
great but no lives were lost. Total damage was estimated at $40,000, a vast
sum in those days. Of the supplies four things were saved: a plough, a
saw, a pair of boots and some wine.
His memoirs tell us that they used the plough to plant a large field of
corn; the saw to build a house and enlarge the church. With the boots,
Father De Smet said, he was able to walk in the woods without fear of being
bitten by the serpents that thronged there, and the wine was used for mass,
a privilege that had been denied them for some time. They returned with
courage, he reported, to their diet of acorns and roots until a month later
another boat arrived.
It is a fact not easily explained that Father De Smet did not again
return to this great field of missionary work, and only twice revisited the
western territory, both times on other business. Yet he was heard to say
over and over again that it was the cherished desire of his heart to spend
the remainder of his days among his beloved Indians. "I am like a soldier1',
he said, "when I receive orders I march where I am sent. I may have my
preferences and. these are decidedly for the Indian country." And later again
he said, "I regret very much the plains, the Indians and the wilderness with
all their privations, miseries and dangers. They were treats, indeed, compared with the monotony with which I am now surrounded". In a letter to his
Father General he asked the privilege of being sent away to some obscure
mission to spend the rest of his days.
One of the sorrows of this world is the regrettable fact that true
zeal, talent and effort so often goes unappreciated and unrewarded. So it
was with Father De Smet. Accused by his contemporaries, possibly because of
their jealousy, that his descriptions were poetical flights of the imagination and not true pictures of the situation, Father De Smet defended himself in another letter to his Father General. "When you were my superior,
you frequently corrected me for being dejected when things were against me,
to which I muet plead guilty. Something of the kind has occurred again, and
from headquarters, which has brought me very low indeed, the more so as I
have the full conviction that the charges against me are untrue, false and
unjust and bring evil in their train".
He was charged, it seems, and again I quote from his letter, "of the
neglect, in a great measure, of the Indians for whom I would gladly have
sacrificed the remainder of my days. I stand accused (l) that my letters
have done a great deal of harm in America; (2) that they are nothing but
imagination and poetry, false and untrue; and (3) that I have lost the
mission by over-liberality to the Indians and by promises to them which the
fathers have been unable to fulfil".
He had the satisfaction of having justified himself to the Father
General and he hoped then to be allowed to spend the rest of his life among
the Indians. ______
Mrs Weir is the President of the Windermere Historical Society.
**************** 23
GETTING DRESSED by Clare McAllister
Dressing for school in winter involved a child iia quite a bit of winding. I am thinking back to a time around 1.91.1, when I would "haves started
school in British Columbia's West Kootenay.
For me, as a small child, heavy, black cotton, ribbed drawers buttoned
at each hip were the cold weather winter garment. There were heavy ribbed,
black cotton stockings to put on, over. First the drawers' long legs had to
be wrapped carefully,' tight round each ankle, the stockings then cautiously
pulled over the underwear, hopefully leaving the pant legs still neatly and
tightly wound. A long white vest had been slept in all night, affording
additional warmth under a heavy flannelette nightgown. For daytime wear a
"waist" was put on over the "shirt" (which was what we  mostly called an
under-vest). The waist was a sort of bodice, double layers of heavy cotton,
additionally strengthened with tapes sewn over its surface. It was perhaps
a hangover from days when young girls would have to be prepared for later
wearing of a corset? Its purpose, beyond warmth-giving, was to serve as a
point of attachment for garters. (Some called those suspenders, but, in
our house, suspenders were what held up men's pants.) Each garter had a
metal nipper to hold one elastic strand to the waist; this bifurcated below,
to hold two elastic strands, each terminating in a metal nipper, two to a
stocking top. The next wrapping task was to get the stockings over each
underwear knee without too much bunchiness, and held by garter nippers, with
just enough slack to permit movement. One petticoat of cotton covered this
assemblage.  (There still were extant in the cupboard, from covering me
when I was a smaller child, petticoats from the days when a cream wool
flannel one was worn under a cotton one - dress history in the closet!)
The moment of being finally dressed (at least for Indoor purposes)
culminated, along with the rattling of the coffee grinder on the kitchen
wall. The day's chosen dress, perhaps of scratchy, good wool, blue serge,
dropped over the underthings. A dress might ofrten be covered by a pinafore -
a kind of sleeveless sack of cotton print. In the days before cleaning
establishments, when mothers wished to avoid having to sponge spots off
serge, pinafores were a useful laboursaver - that is, if one did not think
of washing and ironing and starching the pinafores!
Sorry, the mind runs on.
Mother's brushing and winding and parting and braiding of the hair,
x\rith red ribbons to hold tight the braids, might precede or follow the
descent downstairs. There was the good warmth of the diningroom heater.
A modern family, we scorned porridge, and took newfangled nourishment:
shredded wheat, with Niagara Falls rushing down the carton; or Post Toasties,
with a black cat sitting by the package-s pictured hearth. Blobs of yellow
cream crowned the poured milk. The table napkin slid from the lap, as the
rush to get on outdoor garments began.
Under the hallrack sat my father's overshoes and my outer footwear.
No friend's memory, and not my own, lets'me give a name to the gear that
kept children's shoes from snow and wet. Imagine an ordinary pair of
rubbers, with the feet of a very heavy pair of ribbed woollen stockings
cemented inside the rubbers, the legs extending above. So"the shoe, encasing
the leg, already wound in long underpants and hose, had to be carefully
inserted into this outer woollen stocking, and down into the rubber,
cautiously finding its proper relationship with toe and heel. Then the 24
stocking had to be pulled up and grabbed by the nippers already holding
cotton hose. The time had come to get on one's coat. I myself never rose
to the glory of a "red river" heavy blue blanket-cloth coat, with a red,
knitted, cheerful sash, voyageur style. I remember brown coats. Buttoning
up was followed by the business of unwinding one's toque, a sort of double
stocking thing, which, inevitably, in the taking off, had got pulled out
into a long shape, without a hole. This puzzle had to be unwound, and
doubled into itself, so as to stash on one's head, and pull down over the
ears, A scarf, wound round and round the neck and nose, finished the job.
Soooooo, down the elevated, snow-deep wooden sidewalk; past the first
livery stable; past two morning-closed saloons; past the second livery stable,
the one with a working blacksmith at its forge, to which the pack-horses
trotted back, unaccompanied, from the mines; . . . sooooo, to school.
All the winding and unwinding of outer clothes was to do again twice,
home-going and returning, in the one and a half hour noon break. Merchants
and children alike went home for a hot dinner. Perhaps the extra half-hour
was required for winding and unwinding?
Bypassing Sunday and party clothes, I recall stiff-frozen clotheslines
of long gone days. A child knew well what was the winter wear of other folk.
Those gentlemen who did not wear thick, ribbed winter combinations wore under-
drawers and vests of fine yellowish wool, which- for some odd reason, had
always a fine red strip knit along wrist and ankle margins. There was also
an inferior underwear, of an off-white sort, with blue-grey streaks pervading
the material. Men's underdrawers had loops at waistline, front and back, so
that suspender tabs might afford security to underpants as well as to
trousers-. Englishmen's trousers, but not your ordinary Canadian's, had
high-rise backs to attach to- presumably shorter suspenders. Men's shirts
had long,long shirt-tails, both front and back; indeed, the front tails
must have forked to nearly reach each knee - no question of separation
between shirts and pants! When cuffs and collars had had their ultimato,
thrifty "turning", there was lots of material left from strong-woven..shirts,
to make women's aprons, or children's pinafores. When I was small, men's
vests had already left behind any special, fancy weaves, for a uniformity
with the material of suit coat and trousers. However, the photos of fathers
and brothers and uncles with check or brocaded vests were still about, on
mantels or pianos. Gentlemen's trousers had a tiny watch pocket ensconsed
■in the waistline, from which a leather bootlace might entwine into the same
loop that held braces. With the more affluent, watch-chains draped across
both sides of the vest, perhaps dangling fobs or seals. Men's overcoats
were of double-woven, thick coating, and "weighed a ton". Their velvet
collars showed prosperity. In the seat of the hall-rack were "german socks
to pull above shoes and up over "trouser cuffs when mountain snowfall was
especially deep. These were of coloured knit, and had drawstrings with metal
tag-ends. They were supplementary to metal-clasped, rubber and woven overshoes,
And ladies' dress? - aaah, ladies' dress!  Old pictures and old family
tales mix with direct recollection, because the family had been in Rossland,
"before the railway", and that was before I was born, in;Nelson. The old,
worn, velvet-covered album still shows ladies, tarn o'shantered, thick-
'pullove'red, with a snow-shoeing party on top of Mt. Spokane. Their woollen
skirts' trailed on winter snows of over 20 feet in depth. My mother's skirts
cleared her ankles, revealing neat boots, with airspace between skirt and
snow. 25
I do not recall later addiction to similar daring in her dress,
perhaps the reverse. I never knew my mother to travel by train, or lake
boat, without donning black, glove-silk bloomers over her ordinary cotton
drawers. Did this go back to the days when it might be feared carriages
Could overturn? More likoxy it was traceable to the bottom dresser drawer,
where there lay, under bleached salt-sacks full of dried rose petals, outmoded ladies' drawers, with two legs and a curious crotch that doubled
over, but was not seamed together. These in turn perhaps harked back to
the days of long-gone pantelettes? Scottish Naomi Mitchison, in a 1.973
biographical recollection of her Edwardian childhood, refers to woollen
combinations - clean on Sundays - "the edges round the slit at the bottom
tended to get a bit . . scratchy.- Over these one wore serge knickers . . .'
Ladies, of course, still wore corsets, though not with VERY tightly
laced waists. That very modern invention, the brassiere, had not come
yet. A garment called the corset-cover decently obscured the bust, which
was propped up by the expanding top of the corset. Early corset-covers
were of white, machine-embroidered fine cotton, lace garnished. Later,
in the daring days of peekaboo crepe de chine blouses, corset-covers might
be of brocaded ribbon, to glimmer through pale bronze, or softest blue,
sheer crepe. An Ontario friend recalls "a sort of bodice, precursor of the
brassiere, I suppose, which was boned with fine bones, and made ladies
stick out in front, like a bigger kind of bubble. No cleavage! With
some ladies who lacked frontage, the bubble was hollow. With others only
too well filled". These must have been peculiar to the effete East. I
can guarantee you they did not make their way to mountainous Kootenay.
Blouses and skirts were much worn by ladies in the old photographs
of picnic parties and excursions to mine workings. They show that, in
the time before I remember, ladies affected the wearing of masculine
wide-brimmed Stetson hats. In the time of my own recollection, for "good"
wear, ladies rustled in changeable taffeta, ruffled petticoats, in a
most feminine manner.
Young ladies, who had perhaps just "turned up" their long hair, had
party bags of satin and taffeta silk, with corded drawstrings, in which
to carry their dancing pumps, while they walked with their beaux to a
dance, in the Eagle Hall, or some other place of respectable resort.
Not yet risen to the luxury of taffeta petticoats, they might have hand-
embroidered frills of fine cotton, to flutter below the swirl of tight-
waisted party dresses, in the heat of the polka or two-step.
What were the boys wearing? - the boys, obscure spectators of
feminine flutter. The old picnic photos show at mothers' skirts small
boys in long cotton Buster Brown stockings, above their well-polished
boots. Some wore sailor suits with short, and some with long pants. Later
there were knickerbocker pants for boys, buckled below the knees, with
three-quarter hose over the cuff ends. For summer wear, even town boys
might resort to that most comfortable of garments, the loose blue overall,
with shirt well tucked within. Summer-hot boys wore farmers' straw hats.
Winter found them wearing caps. Immigrant English small boys wore grey
* Mitchison, Naomi. Small talk. Bodley Head, 1.973. p.42. 26
flannel pants, striped belts and'round grey felt hats. The dashing young
males,-those affluent enough to proceed on to high school, were indeed
gloriously arrayed. Most conspicuous were their bright silk socks - red,
purple, paddy green. In summer they affected straw boater hats, perhaps
banded with "Yip aye addy aye eh" or "o you Kid". Their ties were daring.
Unlike their fathers, they did not wear stiff-starched collars, the
rigid product of the steam laundry. Thus at ease, they could sing, "Kelly
with the green necktie" or warble at passing girls, "I'm forever blowing
Some old ladies were still dressed as a quite different section of
the female portion of the population, dripping with jet and fringes;
cloaked, rather than coated; bonnetted, rather than hatted. Such fashions
had an air of some eccentricity, permitted rather than expected of the
common run of old lady.
Babies were already freed of the long dresses, known only in photographs of older sisters and brothers. However, they were still much
swaddled and wound in shawls. Toddling girls were in stiff-starched.,
lawn, like enough with lace inserts. Toddling boys wore rompers, a
bloomerish sort of one-piece garment, usually of coloured cotton print.
Print . . . lawn . . . dimity . . . who knows dimity now? Who has
heard of nun's veiling for a "Sunday dress"? Who knows the names of
laces? . . . Valenciennes, cluny, torchon, Honiton, Irish, Who uses a
bodkin to run pink ribbon through the insertion lace of nightgowns and
corset-covers? Who would starch and blue washed cotton garments? Who
remembers burnt orange and Alice blue and Kelly green? Gone are cotton
stockings, with lisle stockings for best. Silk hose have been replaced
by nylon pantihose.
The clothing of yore is with us no longer, but we are here for a
while to remember, however much it may astonish those who've come after.
Mrs McAllister is a member of the Gulf Islands Branch of the B.C. Historical


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items