British Columbia History

BC Historical News Mar 2, 1974

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 historical
IMS
FEBRUARY 1974
(SotDer^ :     ca% ^mxfeip rm mmm fc%irC   \ti-j BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Vol. 7 No. 2.
February 1.974
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their
respective societies. Subscription rate to non-members: $3.50 per
year, including postage, directly from the Editor, Mr P.A. Yandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1.E4.
N.B. DEADLINES FOR SUBMISSIONS: THE 1.0th Day of Month of Issue.
Executive 1973-1974
Hon. Patron:
Hon. President:
President:
Past President:
1st Vice-President:
2nd Vice-President:
Secretary'..
Recording Secretary:
Editors:
Treasurer:
Executive members:
Lieut-Gov. Walter Owen
Dr Margaret Ormsby
Col. G.S. Andrews
Mr H.R. Brammall
Mr F. Street
Mr J. Roff
Mr P.A. Yandle
Mr R. Watt
Mr & Mrs P.A. Yandle
Miss J. Rowland
Mrs Clare McAllister
lie  H.B. Nash
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Editorial
Minutes
Society Notes & Comments
Jottings
B.C. Books of Interest
Book Reviews:
The Parks of British Columbia
The Unknown Island
Bowen Island
Nature West Coast
The Dollhouse that Travelled, by C McAllister
B.C's Air Survey Story Pt.II, by G.S. Andrews
Page
2
3
5
8
9
1.0
1.1
1.2
13
1.4
16
The cover series for Volume 7, drawn by Robert Genn, will be
focused on the newest affiliates of our Association. This issue
will salute Golden with a picture of an old mountain engine, cl.887 EDITORIAL
So now we have Heritage Canadai What is it and what is its function?
Surely this cannot be another Federal Government ploy to lure us into
believing that all our problems of historic sites are now fully protected
and solved. There is still the evidence around of that inventory of
historic buildings, which emanated from Ottawa and did little to convince
us that it was indeed what it purported to be. And yet what can we
believe when those doing the explaining seem to have a very vague notion
themselves as to what it is all about?
A recent meeting in Vancouver to present the "new born babe" leaves
many questions unresolved. It is not very convincing to say that it is
non-political scope when the pot was sweetened by some twelve million
dollars of Federal money which supposedly would generate enough revenue
to run the foundation. A few more Beryl Plumtre-type safaris across the
country, plus an advertising campaign on too lavish a scale can hardly
convince anyone that the engendered revenue would leave a surplus
sufficient to purchase a suburban building lot in, for instance, Come By
Chanc e, Newfoundland.
However, other statements were made to the effect that this was going
to be a better foundation than the British National Trust, for a comparison.
At this juncture it is only fair to say that the name "Trust" was clarified
to the extent that all doubts were eliminated that it in any way compared
to Yorkshire Trust or Canada Trust, or that type of institution. Now
this type of statement comes very glibly indeed from a group that has
hardly "wbn its spurs" and certainly has not "won the West".
A brief statement of fact on the British National Trust will bring
out the information that it was founded in 1.895 by Miss Octavia Hill, Sir
Robert Hunter and Canon Rawsley, their object being "to preserve as much
as possible of the history and beauty of their country for its people".
It was chartered in 1.895, and in 1.907 an Act of Parliament gave it certain
tax privileges with regards to death duties by property willed to the
Trust. The National Trust now administers more than 430,000 acres in
the British Isles, and several thousand properties. These properties
have come mostly by gift or bequest. One last fact, since 1.965 the
Trust has raised £ 1,900,000 to save the. coastline of Britain and has
brought 1.48 miles of coast line under its protection.
Tell us more Heritage Canada, but please make it simple and stick
to facts. Maybe you are much better than the impression you have created
so far. We are all interested in our Canadian heritage, but we want to
know that the same consideration is to be meted out North, South, East
and West. And one more thought, while we are interested in our old
buildings, we are also interested in our.countryside that has historic
significance and beauty. Just for starters, we would like to mention the
Life-saving Trail on the west coast of Vancouver Island and the Old
Brigade Trail that runs from Tulameen to Hope in the interior, which is
under serious threat of destruction. Do these projects fire your
imagination? 3
MINUTES
Minutes of the Third Meeting of the Council of the British Columbia'
•Historical Association for 1973-74, held in Vancouver Sunday February
1.0th, 1974.
Present: G.S. Andrews (Pres.); F. Street (1st Vice-Pres.); J. Roff
('2nd Vice-Pres.); J. Rowland (Treas.); P. Yandle (Sec-Ed.); Rj Brammall
(Past Pres.); C. McAllister (Exec); H.B. Nash (Exec); A. Yandle (Co-Ed.);
E. Norcross (Nanaimo); H. Ford (Alberni); M. Jordon and A. Hunter (East
Kootenay); D. New (Gulf Is.); G. German and K. Leeming (Victoria).
The President called the meeting to order at 1.45 p.m. Moved New,
seconded Brammall that the minutes be adopted as circulated - Carried.
Arising from the previous Council meeting the President brought up
the subject of the retirement of Mr Willard Ireland and introduced the
draft of a letter he thought should be sent by the President to Mr
Ireland on behalf of Council. The letter was read and it was moved
Yandle, seconded Nash that the President send the letter as read. Carried,
On the discussion as to whether Mr Ireland's position would be divided
by the appointments of a Librarian and an Archivist, the Secretary stated
that he had received a letter from Mr E. Hall, Provincial Secretary,
stating that the wish expressed in our brief would be carried out - namely
it would entail two positions, and it would be an open competition
advertised across the country. Mrs McAllister thought she had seen an
ad. for a combined position. The Secretary said he would check this
out.  (Since the meeting, the Sec. has checked and to date no advertisements
have appeared for the positions.)
Also arising from the previous meeting was the setting up of a
committee to explore the possibility of obtaining a grant from the
Provincial Government. The President and Mr German had had a meeting with
a representative of the B.C Cultural Fund Advisory Committee. On the
discussion of the advisability of Council going ahead and making formal
application, it was felt that we should direct our efforts to obtaining
recognition of the B.C. Historical Association by the Provincial Government in much the same way as the generous assistance granted by most
of the provinces, as,for instance, Alberta and Manitoba, A. Yandle
thought the key person to help in this matter would be the new Provincial
Archivist when appointed. Until this appointment is made, our request
would be in limbo. Moved Mrs Jordon, seconded Mrs McAllister, that the
same committee stand and that it make representation to the Provincial
Government, taking into consideration the correct timing,and to report
back to a future Council meeting. - Carried.
The Secretary reported that there was no report from the Historic
Sites Advisory Board.
The Secretary dealt with correspondence he felt should be brought
before Council. The Brigade Trail from Tulameen to Hope was again in the
news. Th© Vancouver Sun on February 6th had carried a full page article
on the subject, in which it stated that a timber licence had been
granted, in the area of the Brigade Trail. The Secretary read a carbon
copy of a letter by Jack Radford, Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
to Victor Wilson. President of the Okanagan Historical Societv. <-ia+<=d January 21st, which gave no indication that the Government contemplated
the issuance of any licences in this area. The Secretary had sent a
Special Delivery letter to Mr Hatfield of Penticton, who is vitally
interested in this area, outlining the action that could be beneficial
to the cause by getting television exposure on CB.C
The Campbell River Society, through Mrs Ruth Barnett, had done some
preliminary investigation into the feasibility of holding a convention
in the Nootka area. She thought that the arrangements should be made
from Campbell River, which also should be the convention headquarters.
TLj Council was pleased to know that such a convention is feasible and
that Campbell River might offer to host such a convention.
The Secretary gave a short report on the progress of the book dedicated
to the memory of Gordon Bowes and will have some sample copies very shortly.
A letter from Alderman Pendakur of Vancouver was read, asking for
the B.C Historical Association's opinion in regard to the old Customs
and Immigration Building at the foot of Thurlow Street in Vancouver.
Arising from the discussion, Council felt that the building had
(l) no architectural style; (2) no practical future use in relation to
its waterfront position; (3) its removal to another site would not be
justifiable; (4) many bitter memories attached to this building must be
a source of annoyance to many New Canadians. Moved Mrs McAllister, seconded
J. Roff, that this building in the opinion of Council did not have any
significant historical value and that the Secretary so inform the Alderman.
Carried, with one dissenting vote recorded by Miss J, Rowland. The
President asked the Secretary to express the thanks from the Council to
the Alderman for his courteous letter in this matter.
A report from the Constitution Committee gave rise to considerable
discussion, and the Committee was given a directive on motion that should
enable them to prepare a new draft. Moved Leeming, seconded Yandle, that
the Co-Editor, Recording Secretary and the Historic Sites Advisory
Board member be voting members of Council - Carried. Moved Brammall,
seconded A. Yandle, that the two executive members (i.e. Councillors at
large) be full members of Council - Carried,
The Committee agreed to incorporate a request from the Secretary that
in the duties of the President, the matter of the Presidential Address at
the Annual Convention be no longer mandatory, but that, the President
should exercise his own privilege.
CONVENTION 1974 at Cranbrook
After much discussion the following tentative programme was agreed
upon.
Thursday May 23rd  7.00 p.m. Registration and. get together at Town and
Country Inn.- Light refreshments - wine and cheese, coffee, etc.
Friday May 24th 9.00 a.m. Old Council meeting. Registration.
1.0.00 a.m. Annual General Meeting. - Town and Country Inn.
1.2.1.5 p.m. Depart via bus for trip to Fort Steele. Box lunch.
President's Address and a short .address of welcome by
Struan Robertson, Superintendent of Fort Steele Restoration. Balance
' of the afternoon - tour up Wild H0rse Creek; visit to two old
cemeteries and a little gold panning. 6.00 p.m. New Council Meeting.
8.00 p.m. Talk by Marjean Noble - David Thompson's trip through
the Kootenays. Refreshments served. - Town and Country Inn.
Saturday May 25th. 9.00 a.m.   Depart by bus to Kimberley. Tour of
town and mill site. Luncheon served by Kimberley and Marysville
members. Tour to Kimberley North Star Ski Hill. (We are still
hoping arrangements can be made to see the Sullivan Mine.)
4,1.5 p.m. Return to Cranbrook.
6.Q0 p.m. Social hour - no host bar.
7.00 p.m. Banquet. (Roast beef) Short performance by Cranbrook
Drama Club while tables are cleared.
Speaker: Mr Davd Turner of Heritage P:ark, Calgary. Topic to
be announced.
Considerable discussion centred around the inclusion of a trip by bus
to Libby Dam, Montana. It is approximately 300 miles for the round trip
and would include stops at various points of interest, and lunch at the
Dam. There was divided opinion on whether this should be included, as it
would require leaving sharp at 9.00 a.m. and hopefully returning by
8.00 p.m. It was left that should it take place it would be on Thursday
23rd, but Tfchis would depend on how many wanted to take the trip.
Jill Rowland will investigate group air fares to Cranbrook.
Meeting adjourned on motion at 5.30 p.m.
*********************************************************************
Re Libby Dam Trip
The East Kootenay Society would like to have an idea as to how
many people would be interested in the Libby Dam Trip, If you are,
would you please drop a line to Mr Dave Kay, 921 Fourth St. S.,
Cranbrook, preferably by the end of March, indicating your intention.
This will help their committee to have their programme ready for the
April issue of the News
*********************************************************************
SOCIETY NOTES AND COMMENTS
BURNABY  At the November meeting Alan McMillan of Douglas College
related some of his experiences in archaeological research on the B.C.
coast. His work on the Alberni dig.was particularly interesting.
At the December meeting Mrs Eagles and her committee provided a
Russian type dinner, followed by a talk by Dr Blythe Eagles about
historical highlights in Europe that have most directly affected us
here, illustrated by over 200 slides taken by himself and Mrs Eagles
on a recent trip to Russia, Poland, Sweden, and Prague.
The January meeting took the form of a "know your society" night
in which the headquarters room in the Mather House was visited and plans
made for future efforts.
It is with deep regret that we note the passing in NOvember of Miss
Bessie P. Choate, aged 80years. She was the daughter of John Frederick
and Georgina Choate, late of Gil pin St. and Linden Ave., Burnaby. She
was the founder of the U.E.L. Society of Vancouver and the Burnaby
-Historical Society. She was a very active member of the B.C. Historical
Association and was the Editor of the Newsletter prior to the advent of
the present B.C. Historical News. To her nieces and nephews and many
friends we offer our condolences on the passing of a loyal member. CAMPBELL RIVER & DISTRICT  At their January meeting the resignation of
Mrs Rose McKay as museum carator was announced. She was made an honorary
life member of the Society. The new executive for 1974 is President:
Mrs T. Barnett; Vice-Pres: Thor Peterson; Sec: Ruby Wilson and Treas;
Alice Evans, At the request of the municipal council the Historical
Society asked the Comox-Strathcona Regional Board to take over the
operation of the museum as a regional function. This request was refused
and the executive will return to municipal council with a budget request
to provide for a full-time curator id.th part-time help. The Society
thinks the museum has reached the point of being a valuable facility and
needs full-time direction to provide services to the community.
WEST KOOTENAY Constable Keith Burton was the R.C.M.P.'s centennial
policeman at the June meeting of the West Kootenay Society. Constable
Burton showed slides with taped commentary, which outlined the history
and scope of the force from its founding in 1.873 to the present. A
lively question period included such topics as R.C.M.P. traditions, the
controversial Trail police station, and the possibility of a city police
force as an alternative to the R.C.M.P.
In September the Creston Branch invited East and West Kootenay
members to join them in an outdoor get together at Summit Creek Picnic
Park, 7 miles west of Creston. Traces of the old Dewdney Trail can be
seen near the Park, marking the end of the portion from Fort Shepherd
south of Trail. Here the engineers were faced with the problem of crossing the wide Kootenay River flats, sometimes by rafts, according to
season.
A'- meeting was held in November, at which discussion was centred on
ideas for the* Society such as gathering of local history. The January
meeting was addressed by three local old-timers.
NANAIMO At the January meeting the first speaker for Nanaimo's Centennial
year was Patricia Johnson, who gave a talk on the theme "Nanaimo Round
the Year", and from each month of different years she brought to life
events from the past. There is room here for only a few of the highlights:in
March 1.864 was held the annual meeting in London of the Vancouver Island
Coal Mining and Land Co. which expected great things from the extensive
Nanaimo mines. April 1.874 saw the establishment of the Nanaimo Free
Press. In May 1887 150 people were killed in the No. 1 mine explosion.
The first tourists arrived in June 1.792, when Malaspina sent his
Captains Galiano--'and Valdes to explore the coast and, anchoring off
Gabriola, they came into contact with the local people and visited what
was to become Nanaimo. In August 1.852, Mr Joseph McKay "took over" the
Nanaimo area for the Hudson's Bay Company, thus ensuring that the coal
supplies would be preserved for Canada and preventing any attempt by '
America to move in. By September the first shipment of coal was sent to
Victoria in the Cadboro, the mining being donw by the Indians who laboriously dug out the coal and carried it by canoe to the ships anchored off
shore. October 1.879 saw the sale of the Wellington collieries to Mr
Dunsmuir and Lt. Diggle, P.N.; the latter incidentally had been on the
charting and surveying reconnaissances carried out by the Royal Navy, and
tribute should be paid to him for mapping the area. November 27, 1.854,
was the day the Princess Royal sailed into Nanaimo with the first family
settlers, an event which is still commemorated each year. Finally, on
December 24, 1.874 Nanaimo petitioned for and was given her Letters Patent
as a City. The Nanaimo Society notes with regret the passing of Jack Hardcastle,
aged 90, noted maritime artist, and of Mrs Beatrice M. Yates, a life of
member of the Historical Society and a life member of the Native Daughters
of Nanaimo.
PORT ALBERNI At the October meeting Mrs Ketha Adams, President of the
Society for its formative first 8 years, was awarded a life membership.
She was presented with a hand-printed scroll and a copy of Lewis's Wild
Flowers of B.C. At the same meeting Mr Jamieson showed slides he had
;: taken of historical sites in Eastern Canada.
The November meeting was ,the annual social open meeting. Selected
excerpts from the 1.902 diary of George Bird and the 1901 and 1912 diaries
of pioneer W.A. Thompson of Beaver Creek were read by Anne Holt, Meg
Trebett and Pauline Barrett. The diaries included references to the Boer
War, coronation of Edward VII, the Titanic disaster, the cable ship Colona,
etc. in addition to local events. They had particular significance for
the senior citizens of the audience who contributed greatly by identifying
many of the photographs displayed during the evening.
VANCOUVER Mr James Draper addressed the November* meeting with an illustrated talk on the Bulwers of Hatzic, during which he recounted many first
hand accounts of the life of a country gentleman and his family in the
"colonies".  The President, Mr R. Watt, addressed the January meeting on
Heraldry in Vancouver.
The Society noted with regret the death of Dr M.Y. Williams, aged 91,
a long time member. Born in Ontario and educated at Queen's University
and Yale, Dr Williams in 191.2 started a 9 year association with the
Geological Survey of Canada. In 1921 he joined the faculty at U.B.C. and
headed the Department of Geology from 1936 until 1.950 when he retired. In
the 1920's Dr Williams explored the Mackenzie River valley and conducted
pioneering geological work in S. Alberta and Saskatchewan. He was later
in charge of geological investigations along the Peace River in B.C Dr
M.Y. took a keen interest in British Columbia's history and has contributed
to the B.C. Historical Quarterly. To his family we offer our deepest
sympathy and we regret the loss of a very faithful and devoted member.
VICTORIA Dr Patricia Roy of the University of Victoria's History Dept.
was the speaker at the November meeting. Her subject was "Lighting Up
Victoria", an account of early gas and electric companies to provide
illumination in the Capital area. The Christmas banquet, commemorating the
Centenary of Mrs Nellie L. McClung, was held in the Faculty Club, University
of Victoria. One hundred and twenty-six members heard Mrs Horace B.
McClung give biographical notes on her mother-in-law, and the reading by
Mrs Dorothy Laundy of "A Christmas Story" from Mrs McClung's publication
"More Leaves from Lantern Lane". The Royal Scottish Country Dancers
under the direction of Mr Gerry Dunn, and the Oriana Singers, under the
direction of Mrs R.H. Goodacre completed the evening's entertainment.
Gordon Elliot, Dept. of English, Simon Fraser University, entertained
1.30 members and friends at the January meeting to a witty and interesting
account of Ms youth in Williams Lake, under the title "One Summer When
I Was 12". 8
JOTTINGS
In this issue there is a short article by Clare McAllister entitled
"The Doll House that Travelled". She says "In sending the small enclosed
snippet, regarding a sightseer's delight on this island, I had a notion
that it might be possible for you to make a feature of such offerings".
What an excellent idea; now all we need are the contributors.
In the same article she mentions that the Doll House has a Mansard
roof. The Mansard roof was so named because it was frequently used by
the French architect Francois Mansart, although it was not devised by him.
It was in use a great deal in France in the 1.6th century. The slope of
the roof from eaves to ridge is broken into two portions; the lower
portion is built with a steep pitch, sometimes almost vertical; the upper
portion has a low pitch and is nearly flat. This results in a more useful space being provided by the roof structure. Its popularity was in
part due to the system of taxation in France, which was based on the
number of storeys. By using this style of roof a "one-storey" house
could, to all intents and purposes, have as much accommodation as ja  two-
storey house, yet for taxation purposes it was still considered to be a
one-storey house.
************
From Vancouver Sun, Dec 19, 1.973..." CRANBROOK, The last of the Kootenay
River sternwheelers lies sunk in the river, all because of vandalism.
Walter Anderson, the owner, said the 65 ft. Kootenay ... will rest in a
back eddy of the Kootenay River between Fort Steele and Wardner until
spring..... If it can be salvaged it may be put into service on Lake
Koocanusa. Anderson said someone sank it by shooting a hole in its hull.
***********
In the Nov. issue of the News in the, Jottings, there was an itgem regarding the theft of a bronze statue at King's Lynn. A letter from Vancouver
City Archivist, Mr Ogden, states 'You might be interested to know that
the Mayor of King's Lynn has contacted our Mayor and asked us to provide
him with photos of the statue or bust . . . that It might be replaced.
Happily we have been able to comply". He further comments on the portraits
both in Vancouver Archives and the Provincial Archives of Captain Vancouver as "of doubtful authenticity" and states they are most likely
Capt. George's brother John. Does anyone know of an authentic portrait?
************
From Van. Sun, Dec-, 15, 1973« A news item from Victoria to the effect that
the Cowichan Valley Forest Museum, north of Duncan, has been purchased by
the Provincial Government for $30,000. It will be renamed the British
Columbia Forest Museum. It was started in 1954 by Mr G.E. Wellburn who
will become a member of the B.C. Forest Museum Society which is being
established to administer the museum. Mr Wellburn iuS a life member of
the Victoria Historical Society.
From the Oregon Historical News Feb. 1.974 "The results of over three years'
work and research culminates on July 1st, 1974 when Admiral Sir Charles
Madden, President of the Board of Trustees of the National Maritime Museum
of Greenwich, London, officially opens the Cook exhibit....Material relating
to Captain Cook and his hardy crews has been promised from museums across
the world. *********** A most interesting First Annual Progress Report has been received dealing
with Art and Architecture of Old Mission Churches and Cemeteries in B.C.
The two young men engaged in this project are to be congratulated on this
excellent brochure complete with text and pictures and asking assistance to
continue this "neglected cultural heritage". Any of our members who would
like to actively or slently participate in this splendid undertaking may
do so by writing to John Veillette, Box 47, Savona, B.C, or Gary White,
Box 2175, Smithers, B.C.
OTHER CONFERENCES AND CONVENTIONS
Western Canada Study Conference - University of Calgary, Dept. of
History; March 1.6th and 17th. Further information from Vancouver City
Archivist.
Northwest Mounted Police Conference - University of Lethbridge,
May 12th - 1.6th 1974. A part of Alberta's salute to the Mounties. Further
information - Alex Johnston, Chairman, N.W.M.P. Conference, Research
Station, Lethbridge Alberta, TU 4B1.
**********
B.C. BOOKS OF INTEREST, by Frances Woodward
ANDERSON, Doris. Ways harsh and wild. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1973«
239 pp., illus. $9.50.
AURAL HISTORY INSTITUTE OF B.C Manual, compiled by W.J. Langlois. Victoria,
The Institute, Provincial Archives of B.C, 1.973. 52 pp.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. DEPT. OF HIGHWAYS. British Columbia Dept. of Highways
ferries, by Frank A. Clapp. Victoria, 1.973. 37 pp., illus.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. DEPT. OF MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES. The mineral industry of B.C.; reprinted from the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines..,
for the year ending Dec.31, 1.971. •• Victoria, 1973« various paging, illus.
BRITISH -COLUMBIA. DEPT. OF THE PROVINCIAL SECRETARY. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
ADVISORY BOARD. Preserving B.C.'s prehistory. Victoria, 1.973- 15 PP« illus.
BRITISH COLUMBIA INDIAN ADVISORY COMMITTEE PROJECT, 1.968-69, Bella Bella
stories; .... recorded and edited by Susanne Storie and Jennifer Gould.
Victoria, Indian Advisory Committee, 1973. xv, 195 PP«
  Bella Coola stories;... recorded and edited by Susanne Storie.
Victoria, B.C. Indian Advisory Committee, 1.973. xiii, 98 pp.
  Klemtu stories;.., recorded by Susanne Storie, edited by Susanne Storie
and Jennifer Gould. Victoria, B.C. Indian Advisory Committee '73' xiii,67pp.
 . Oweekano stories.... recorded and edited by Susanne Storie.- Victoria,
B.C. Indian Advisory Committee, 1973« xii, 72 pp.
BRITISH COLUMBIA TEACHERS' FEDERATION. 'Vancouver houses, by Vancouver Environmental Education Project, U.B.C, Vancouver, B.CT.F. 1972. unpaged, illus,
CANADA.'vNATIOML HARBOURS BOARD. Port of Vancouver, B.C Vancouver, N.H.B.,
1973. 'unpaged, illus.
CHINESE CANADIAN PICTURE PROJECT, Ad Hoc Committee. Chinese Canadian picture
project catalogue. Vancouver, Historical Photographs Section, V.P.L. 1.973• 159PP
CHODOS, Robert. The C.P.R.; a century of corporate welfare. ToroJ&to, James,
Lewis & Samuel. 1973. 178 pp. illus. $3.95.
GREATER VANCOUVER REGIONAL DISTRICT. PLANNING DEPT. Environmental quality in
Greater Vancouver...prep, by Mary A. Franson. Vancouver, 1973« 39 PP« illus.
INDIAN HERBAL REMEDIES PROJECT, O.F.Y. Indian herbal remedies. Van. 1.973. 44 pp„
LOGAN, Harry T. and Aubrey F. Roberts. The University Club of Vancouver: an
informal history. Vancouver, University Club of Vancouver (1973) 31 PP> 10
PETERSON, Lester R. The Cape Scott story. Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1.974.
1.34 pp. illus. $3.95.
ROBIN, Martin. Pillars of profit. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1.973. 351 pp.
illus. Vol. 2. The Company Province, 1934-1.972. $1.2.95.
ROGERS, Fred. Shipwrecks of the B.C. coast. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1.973.
256 pp, illus. map. $1.0.95.
SHEWCHUK, Murphy and Sandra. Exploring Kamloops country. Kamloops, Peerless
Printers Ltd. & Murphy Shewchuk, 1.973. 48 pp. illus. $1,95.
SMITH, James K. Alexander Mackenzie, explorer; the hero who failed. Toronto,
McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1.973. 1-90 pp., illus. $7.95.
TATREAU, Doug and Bobbe. The parks of British Columbia. Vancouver, Mitchell
Press, 1.973. 133 PP., illus. $3-95.
WATERFIELD, Donald C Land grab: Oliver Buerge against the authority.
Toronto, Clarke Irwin, 1.973. 193 pp., $7.95.
WOODLAND, Alan. New Westminster - the early years, I858-I898. New Bestminster,
Naunaga Pub. Co. 1973. 72 pp. illus. $3.95•
WILTON, Jean, May I talk to John Howard? the story of J.D. Hcbden, a friend
to prisoners. Vancouver, John Howard Soc, 1.973. 234 pp. illus. $5«95«
BOOK REVIEWS
THE PARKS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. A comprehensive guide to B.C. Provincial
and National Parks, by Doug and Bobbe Tatreau. Vancouver, Mitchell Press,
1973. 132 pp. illus. $3.95.
Conceived as an antidote to "wilderness hunger" by two Americans from
San Diego, this attractive book is bound to appeal to both natives and
residents of British Columbia alike. Among its chief assets are—beevity,
clarity of presentation, handsome photographs in black and white and colour,
and a pleasant balance of useful factual information and personal opinion.
It is primarily a guidebook and was written especially with the
American visitor in mind. Consequently there is a section at the beginning
giving information about B.C.'s history, climate, hunting, fishing, and
road regulations and tips on crossing and recrossing the border. However,
the main body of the book is of interest to locals as well. A portion
of the introduction explains that with a few exceptions, the parks which
are discussed are the largest in the province, each one with an area of
at least 1.8,000 acres. Thus we find Pacific Rim, Yoho, Bowron Lakes,
Garibaldi, Strathcona, Tweedsmuir and so on, 26 in all, organized into
five geographic areas; Vancouver Island,. West Coast Mainland, Southern
B.C., Central B.C., and Mountain and Northern B.C.. The exceptions are
one Provincial Park, Mount Seymour, and three historic sites: Barkerville,
Fort Steele and Fort Rodd Hill.
While the names of .most of these parks are familiar ones to British
Columbians, this reviewer suspects that many, like himself, have- only the
haziest conception about how to get to these parks, and what one can expect
to see on arrival. This book is particularly helpfjd. here. Each park is
described separately in terms of its history, size, location, access,
accommodation and chief attractions. These brief biographies give all the
necessary details for a preliminary assessment of the park as a possible
destination for a trip or simply as a jumping off point for knowing more
about the natural attractions B.C. has to offer. Maps are also provided
for over half the parks, whowing, in stylized form, main geographic features
as well as roads and locations of accommodations and campsites. The maps 1.1
produced, as far as this reviewer was concerned, are the only real
irritant in the book. It is not clear why they are not provided for all
the parks and in lease, the map for Golden Ears Park is found with that
for Kokanee Glacier Park, 1.6 pages after the information on Golden Ears.
Apart from this puzzle with the maps, the book is a very good precis
.of some valuable information. It is perhaps significant although not
surprising that it has taken two foreigners to give us this survey of the
riches of our parks. They deserve credit for reminding us of our heritage
in such a handy and readable fashion.
Robert D. Watt
Mr Watt is President of the Vancouver Historical Society.
THE UNKNOWN ISLAND, Vancouver Island, by Ian Smith. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas,
1973. 174 pp. illus. $17.95.
This beautiful book and its Regional Wildlife Biologist author, have
been given generous attention on radio and television. Costly, with 1.20
photographs (of which 90 are in "full colour"), with additional black and
white sketches on the copious margins of its pages, the volume may well
be viewed as falling into the modern genre of drawing-room table books.
These tend to come out at the festival season, ready for those with
generous pocketbooks to bestow on grateful friends.
About every third page of type is sandwiched between full-page or even
double-page spreads of superb colour photographs, - these apart from
smaller colour offerings. Of 1.74 pages, 6?  have any printed matter, print
often taking up as little as one-fourth of the page. Book design, layout
and typography are such as to highlight the splendid photographs. Among
the memorable ones are: the island in snow; early morning mist along the
Gold River; and one of the Pachena light station . . . white and scarlet
buildings set on green lawn, on a black and savagely rocky shore, gnawed
by the frothing sea. A good map affords easy reference to the fiords,
lakes and mountains hghlighted in the text. We learn that Vancouver Island
is almost as long as Ireland. Its place names and qualities may be les s
known, even to British Columbians.
If one considers the matter set in type to be the meat of a book,
there may be less satisfaction with this than with the pictures. The Table,
of Contents covers: The Forests, in five sections; the Mountains, in
three; the Underground, in one; and finally, the Oceans, in four sections.
In all of these areas of interest, animals, birds, fish and marine
creatures, and plant life are given attention.
On occasion, the author writes well, groping to give us in words his
sense of awe. ,."... the static force, a sort of equilibrium involving
the power of wind and surf and the power of the trees and bushes growing in the
face of such adversity" . . ."It is difficult to comprehend the extent of the
mountains and the massive area that they cover". He tells of snow 'til
July and of lakes not clear of ice until August, in the higher parts of an
island that elsewhere fosters evergreen growth such as salal, arbutus and
Oregon grape, with early spring wild flowers, perhaps in February bloom.
The book sets out to be popular. However, although its author has a 12
Master's degree in Wildlife Management, it does not afford the sort of reading that.would lure the lay or amateur observer into seeking a broader
understanding, or scientific approaches. For the southern area wildflowers,
the pleasant names in use by little children are given: "chocolate lily" for
fritillaria; "yellow monkey flower" for mimulus; "Easter lily" for erythronium.
(In other parts of the island this last may be known as "curly lily" or
"dogtooth violet".) Scientific names,, paired with the popular names, which
can vary so treacherously from place to place, can be very useful in luring
the learner into better acquaintance. This lay kind of approach is not
confined to botanical material. Spiders in an island cave are described as,
"in appearance like daddylonglegs . . . one wonders what they eat". No
point of referencel,is noted as to how one might find out more. Lamprey eels
are "ghastly looking things". The writer speaks of "trailing blackberry,
not the common blackberry", seeming not to know that the trailing form is
the native, while two other sorts have spread rampant, even through
unlikely parts of the island, from immigrant stock.
However, such lacks in the relatively scanty text should not be overemphasized. The book doubtless accomplishes its- mission, in giving a
sense of the extraordinary variety of island terrain, how its altitudes
and exposures affect flora and fauna, how logging practices affect wild
life, and how the actions of man have changed all of these. Despite man's
efforts, it is the seemingly indestruetable metal of the grounded ship that
is eaten by the ocean's wash on west coast reef, while the worn rock, the
ragged fir, remain to view.
An index with reference to common and scientific nomenclatures of tree,
plant, animal, bird arid marine life, as well as to place names, would
make the book more useful. ' Perhaps this will be seen in a later edition.
Clare McAllister
Mrs McAllister is Secretary of the Gulf Islands Branch,
3JC       3{C       flt       3{C      '>JC       2fC      9)C       3{£       3JC       5)C       3JC
BOWEN ISLAND, 1.872-1.972, by Irene Howard. Bowen Island Historians, 1973-
1.90 pp. $7.95.
I feel this book will appeal to a great many people, especially those,
like myself, who have fond memories of the island over a long period of
time, forty-six years in my case. In the book's pages and in the splendid
photographs that illustrate it, one meets many old friends. It is evident
that Mrs Howard interviewed many people and spent long hours gathering
facts from many sources, to write the story of Bowen Island.
As a member of the Cates family I felt I knew a lot of the island's
history. When I read the book I realised I really knew very little, except
as it concerned "Uncle John" and the good times I had enjoyed there. Captain
John Andrew was very proud of the fact that he came from Nova Scotia and
his home in Point Grey was called "Bay of Fundy".
Bowen Island 1.872-1972 gives us a good description of how the island
was settled and of how, after that, it became a popular resort for day
excursions. Many people will recall with nostalgia the picnic cruises to
Bowen where the trip to and from the Island on one of the Union Steamship
fleet of ships held all the thrill of an ocean cruise to an exotic isle, 13
The passengers loved the Lady Alexandra, the Lady Cynthia and the Lady Rose.
The high point of many a happy day in the twenties was, to quote from the
book, "As the Lady Alexandra left the dock the orchestra would play and
Percy Dodson would dive from the bridge."
There are four appendices which give the background of the people who
settled there. Appendix III is titled "The Cates Family" and because two
of Captain Charles Henry's sons are mentioned I would like to add a note.
He had three sons. Captain James Francis was the *>joungest and he too served
his city, North Vancouver, as an alderman. The index is in two parts:
"Part 1 - General" and "Part 2 - Persons". I found many familiar names in
the latter. There is also a "Guide to Sources", These were many and varied.
Much of the information contained in this book came.from the Bowen Island
Historians, from printed books, journals, magazines and some pages transcribed by the late Major J.S. Matthews from his Early Vancouver,
I am sure this is a book that will be read and re-read with much
-pleasure by newcomers to the island, as well as by those of us who "knew
it when",
Suzanne Elliott Cates.
Mrs Cates is a member of the Vancouver Historical Society
*********
NATURE WEST COAST: As Seen in Lighthouse Park, compiled and illustrated by
members of the Vancouver Natural History Society; edited by Kathleen M.
Smith, Nancy J. Anderson and Katherine I. Beamish. Vancouver, Discovery
Press, 1.973. 283 pp. illus. $7.95-
The great value of Lighthouse Park lies in the fact that it is a
virgin area which has never been logged over and so retains its
vegetation relatively undisturbed - and yet is so close to a
large centre of population, (p. 1.4)
More than eight years ago, members of the Vancouver Natural History
Society decided to produce a pamphlet. The area to be described in the
pamphlet was Lighthouse Park on the North Shore of Burrard Inlet. The
project was not unique since many other societies were doing similar things.
However, the pamphlet began to feed off the. flora and fauna living within
the park, and the feast was so rich that the pamphlet grew into a booklet
and Was finally published in the fall of 1.973 as a hard covered book of
283 pages.
For all its relatively small size, Lighthouse Park has considerable
variety in vegetation' types and has a rich and diverse flora. Such
diversity in a small area reflects partly the great variations of topography found in the park but is also due in part to the park's location
very close to the transition between two major biogeoclimatic aones. (p.,1.9)
The book literally brings the park to life. First, it places it in an
historical, a geological and an ecological framework. Then it leads the user
off on countless adventures and explorations as he discovers what each life
form is, how it got into the park, and where it can be found. Individual
respect and appreciation of Lighthouse Park can only increase through use of
this book, and in the long run it may contribute significantly to the preservation of the park as one of the few truly natural areas remaining on this
coastline. 1.4
The body of the book contains drawings and descriptions of more than
360 life forms found within the park, from lichens to trees, and insects
to mammals and marine life. Glossaries for each section explain uncommon
terms, and references are p-rovided for additional reading.
CLAM WORM or PILE WORM Nereis vexillosa
Free-living, segmented, with laterally placed paired bristles and
paddle-like projections on each segment which enable it to burrow,
crawl or swim. Distinct head which has two small tentacles, two
palps, four eyes and four pairs of long tentacle-like structures.
Has an extendable proboscis armed with a large pair of black
pincers capable of inflicting a sharp bite. It is carnivorous,
feeding on smaller organisms. COLOUR: Iridescent green or brownish. SIZE; Variable, 2-1.2 inches in length. HABITAT: Abundant
under rocks and beds of mussels on sandy or gravel beaches, or on
wharf pilings in the upper and middle intertidal zone.  (p.253)
Nature West Coast is written in a simple and straightforward manner,
with an emphasis on content rather than style.  The descriptions are carefully worded and the accompanying sketches actually look like what they are
portraying - certainly important, but not always the case in books of this
nature!
This is not a book to sit down and read in front of the fire on a rainy
evening.  Rather, it is a book to be used at Lighthouse Park, and beyond,
since the flora and fauna described can be found throughout the Lower Mainland and the Gulf Islands.  It is one of the most complete "guide "
books I have ever used.
ip^e only real criticism I have of the book is that although it is
intended to be used, it was not designed to be portable.  It has a hard
cover and is a reasonably large size, making it rather cumbersome.  It
should have been smaller and soft-covered, so that it could fit neat ly into
a pocket or pack.
Other than the above, I have nothing but praise for this fine first
effort on the part of the Vancouver Natural History Society.  Whether
you explore natural history as an interested amateur or a knowledgeable
professional, Nature West Coast is guaranteed to bring you many, many
hours of enjoyment and enlightenment.
Janet E.. WiLlson
Janet Willson is an "interested amateur", writer and author.
* ** *********
TIE DOLLHOUSE THAT TRAVELLED    >by Clare McAllister
A kind of gazebo or miniature summerhouse, in the style of old
fashioned park bandstands; under it is a splendid dollhouse, with mansard
roof, much like those so often depicted in Charles Addams' "New Yorker"
cartoons . . . indeed this assembly startles the traveller to a precipitate
halt.  Such a charming sight might anywhere stop the passerby, but how much
more he is enchanted, making the find from the road, standing outside a small
cottage, near the north end of Galiano Island.  Galiano is the first stop
from Vancouver-side, on the Gulf Islands ferries.  It stretches some 1.8
miles north and west from the famous Active Pass.. The cottage of the owner 15
of the dollhouse, Mrs Devina Baines, is located close to Porlier Pass, where
a marina, a lighthouse and an Indian reservation mark the extreme north
end of the island.
Many dollhouses have a front and sides, the featureless back being made
to stand against a bedroom or playroom wall. Mrs Baines' dollhouse, built
in Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island, about 1900, is remarkable in being as whole
as any ordinary house. Peering under the shade of its summerhouse type
shelter, one may walk a full circle round, admiring front porch, side entry,
back porches, gables, attic windows, bedroom windows. Parlour, dining-
room and kitchen are clearly discernable spaces through the shining small
windows. The mansard roof has, in miniature, the fancy shingling of its
period of construction.
Mrs Baines will laughingly tell how her father, Frank Allison, and a
friend, two young Nanaimo bachelors, built the house at the turn of the
century. They agreed that the permanent title to their handiwork should go
to the one who first married. It thus became the property of Mrs Baines'
father. His friend never did marry . . . (but it is not known if.the
lack of the dollhouse was any part of the deterrent.) Mrs Baines knows
that it was devised as a copy of an actual Nanaimo house of the period,
but does not know what house was copied.
When Frank Allison took the post of lighthouse keeper at Porlier Pass,
the dollhouse accompanied him to Galiano Island. That was about the year
1911 or 191.2; it stood on the lighthouse grounds for many years.
Asked if she used to play with the dollhouse as a child, Mrs Baines
says, with a grin, that she guesses "about a hundred kids played with it!"
As there are, even now, only some 327 voters on Galiano, this was a bit
startling, but it was explained that summer visitors' children, even 60
years ago, were drawn to the fascinating house. It was also a sort of
landmark for boats that went past the lighthouse point, through Porlier
Pass.
The dollhouse was shifted to its third site about 1.937 or '38. This
move found it set down outside the house of Harry Baines and his wife
Devina, now respected and well-known as "old-timers of the island. The
canopy, cedar-shingled, was erected to keep the house safe from wet coastal
weather. Mrs Baines has recently refurbished the house itself, replacing
windows and wooden parts as necessary, and supplying a glossy new coat
o&  paint.
So there it shines, a period piece for any wayfarer to admire, and
for any child to covet. As for dolls - who knows what dreams they may have
of occupying mansions that date back to the turn of the century!
PLEASE NOTE: The deadline for the News is the 1.0th day of the month
of issue, namely, November, February, April and June - no'exceptions. 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S AIR SURVEY STORY"
Part II by G. S. Andrews.
It was with the Forest Surveys Division, early June 1.930, that the
author permanently entered the provincial service, as "Party Chief" of the
Flathead Forest Survey. This covered a mountain-cradled watershed of 900
square miles draining south into Jtontana, in the extreme southeast corner
of British Columbia. Transport was entirely by packhorse from the old
coal town of Corbin, south of Fernie. There were no air photos. I had
woiked the previous summer on the Elk Forest Survey, nearby, as undergraduate, on the late E.W. Bassett's party, also without air photos. However the summer of 1.927 had provided a typical introduction to air photc*,
on the Manitoba Pulpwood Survey, east of Lake Winnipeg, under direction of
Roland Craig, Dominion Forest Service, Ottawa. On that job, oblique air
photos were delivered to our party on its return to the lake, 'after several
months scrambling blindly over rocks, muslcegs and lakes of the Pre-Cambrian
Shield. In this case, the photos served more as a post-mortem of difficulties encountered than an aid to the job in progress. The Flathead survey
in 1930, so remote and primitive, I must confess, was one of the most
enjoyed, if strenuous, in my album of survey memories.
Early in 1.931, after the winter in Victoria completing maps, timber
summaries and report of the Flathead Forest Survey^^ I was assigned, for
the coming season, to the Tranquille and Niskonlith Forests in the old
"CP. Railway Belt", north of the Thompson River, between Deadman River and
Adams Lako, near Kamloops. The "Railway Belt" had recently reverted to the
Province after having been under Federal jurisdiction since the period of
railway construction, circa 1885. In th© "Belt" were several "Dominion"
Forests-which the Province wished to incorporate in its array of Provincial
Forests. A large partywas authorized, possibly 20 men, including co'":.
packer, draughtsman-computer, a junior, as well as several "cruiser-ccmpassman"
teams. There was an assortment of motor transport for road access, and pack-
horses for parts beyond. My preparations were well advanced for taking to
the field, when a pal, W.A.A. ("lex") Johnston, who worked with Collins on
Forest Reconnaissance, informed me that part of the Niskonlith Forest was
covered with 1928-30 R.C.A.F. air photos, which were "on handy in custody
of Major Alistair I. Robertson, B.C.L.S. (then) air photo librarian for the
Surveyor General, with whom I was in "bon accord". The photos'were
discreetly "borrowed" for the summer, without reference to "higher authority".
A stereoscope, for observing the photos in three dimensions was also scrounged.
There was no opportunity to even look at the air photos till about mid-
season, when our work progressed toward the area covered, at which time we
were camped luxuriously indoors at the old Louis Creek Ranger Station,
northeast of Kamloops. The photos covered roughly 300 square miles, mostly
to the east. At first it was chaos - spreading overlapping photos on the
floor, like shingles, strip by strip, into a loose mosaic. However, they
displayed a striking continuity of ground features, creeks, lakes, swamps,
and variations in the tapestry of forest cover. The problem was, how to pin
down all this useful information on our base-map, the .photoscales being
larger and variable with ground elevation, then unknown. By good luck,
1.8. Andrews, G.S. "Survey & Management Plan, Flathead Forest, 1930". .
B.C. Forest Branch,'Victoria, B.C., 1930. 17
two members of my party, Marc W. Gormely and Wm Hall, had worked with
Norman Stewart, in the winter of 1929-30, plotting photos for the"P.G.E.
Resources Survey", With their help we contrived to make radial plots of
the photo-strips on waxed (lunch) paper, far from ideal. We soon found, even
with the photos so crudely plotted, how the most efficient layout of our
ground examination strips could be made, both for tying them in on the map,
and for best sampling of the various forest'types. It became reassuring
also, that where our ground strips crossed the various features to be mapped,
as identified and located from the photos, there was good agreement. For
the terrain between ground strips, a mile apart, the photos offered infinitely
more detail than orthodox interpolation by observation, guessing and sketching.
One wet weekend, taking advantage of the shelter of the Ranger Station,
I kept my whole crew in to plot photos. Our boss, F.D. Mulholland, arrived
unexpectedly, as was his custom. The place was a shambles, with most of the
floor space littered with air photos, preliminary to plotting. Explanation
was demanded, and given, Mulholland enjoyed our high respect and loyalty,
but he loved to clarify problems by argument, and would take either side with
relish and brilliance, according to the dictum "from the clash of divergent
opinions the flame of truth will arise". I stood my ground, respectfully,
but with the strength of conviction, and won approval to continue using the
air photos, but'nevertheless to conduct the survey fully on orthodox procedures, with the photos as a supplementary aid, and plotting them in "spare
time". He knew there was no spare time on a survey. The photos saved significant time and labour in the field by indicating the best way to get over
the ground, as well as for locating and tying in ou r ground strips.
In preparing the final returns of survey after.the field season*", in
addition to the customary maps, I made a special sheet for the area covered
by air photos, which showed, with a suitable legend, the information as
obtained with the photos and that which would have accrued without them, by
ground methods alone. The result was convincing proof of the virtues of air
photos. The extra detail and the subtleties of outline derived from them
were striking, and final proof was that wherever our ground strips and traverses
crossed features also derived from the photos, there was full agreement.
.Mulholland was satisfied, and thereafter became a staunch and influential
supporter of air survey.
Some time after the 1931 field season, back in Victoria, the small
nucleus of air survey proselytes there was catechized by a veritable "prophet
from the East" in the person of Brigadier General Sir Charles Delme-
Radcliffe, who had recently retired to Victoria, having been Chairman of the
British Cadastral and Topographical Air Survey Company, Ltd., London. °
Ten years earlier he had terminated a brilliant military and diplomatic career
in Britain, the Mediterranean, India, Africa, etc. 1,22 On this occasion
he gave an evening lecture to a select group of some 25 local Surveyors,
Foresters and Engineers, on the sophisticated Nistri Photocartograph for
3-dimensional plotting of stereoscopic ground or air survey photographs,
which his company had promoted under licence from its makers in Italy. The
lecture was jn the Pemberton (now Yarrow) Building on Fort Street, and it
19. Andrews, G.S. "Survey & Management Plan, Niskonlith Forest, 1.931";
'B.C. Forest Branch, Victoria, B.C., 1.931.
20. File 01.6222, Items 269-277. Surveys Branch, Dept. of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
21. Vancouver Sun, 13 Dec. 1.937, page 1.6. Obit. "Sir Charles Delme-Radcliffe"..
22. Daily Colonist, Victoria, 1.4 Dec 1.937, page 1, Obit, ' "ditto" 1.8
appears that of all present, only two now survive, Mr G. John Jackson, B.C.L.S.
and myself. Neither of Us can remember the exact date, but we agree that
few present, if any, were able to follow Sir Charles' discourse, and I distinctly remember my'old friend, the late H.A. ("Digger") Youdall, B.C.L.S.,
being sound asleep in a back row. Probably my close and brilliant friend,
the late Dr Lyle G. Trorey, P.Eng., was one of the few able to follow the
speaker. Others present would certainly include Messrs McCaw, Campbell,
Stewart of the B.C Phototopographic Division, Mr F.C Green, Surveyor
.General, G.G. Aitken, Chief Geographer, Cyril Jones, City Engineer, and Mr
Musgrave, This lecture was prophetic, since the realization of instrumental
3-dimensional plotting of air photos was not to accrue in British Columbia
for another two decades (almost), when \-ie  installed the Multiplex Plotter in 1950
For the 1932 field season a shortage of funds was forseen. Mulholland
approved my proposal, that to reduce costs and to facilitate operations, a
preliminary map of the Shuswap Forest (east of the Fiskonlith) be compiled
from air photos available, prior to going to the field. This was done with
some temporary help, better facilities in the Victoria office, and experience
gained on the Niskonlith job. With this map, the air photos, a stereoscope
and the usual kit of instruments, I set out for the Shuswap Forest with a
single technical assistant, "Stan" G. Bruce, A packer, Jim Brown of Kamloops,
with half a dozen packhorses was hired for the first half of the season,
working the "high country", Adams plateau and the Crowfoot summer sheep
range, back and beyond. In the later Season we worked uphill from the shoreline perimeter on Shuswap lake, with canoe and outboard motor. The preliminary map and photos made it possible to lay out the ground, strips to best
sample and confirm the air photo identity and location of various forest
types and other detail, and to depart somewhat from the mathematical grid of
random sampling. Cruise strips and traverses up the main valleys strengthened
the control for the photo plots. Elevations were carried by abney level and
barometer, to control quite acceptable contouring by stereoscopic observation of the air photos. On the lake in September, we enjoyed a meeting
with the celebrated surveyor and alpinist, A.O. Wheeler and his wife, who
were on a fisning holiday. Field work terminated in early October, and by
late January 1.933, the final version of the map and timber summaries were
completed in Victoria. The result was some 350 square miles examined and
mapped to higher accuracy and in greater detail than ever before in this
type of survey, by a technical crew of two. The previous season, with the ?_
large party and facilities mentioned, an area of 750 miles had been covered. J
Meanwhile my interest in air survey caused avid reference to what scant
literature was then available. This included Professional Papers 3, 4 and 6
of the (British) Air Survey Committee 24,25,26^ Oxford Forestry Memoirs
8 and 1.3, by Professor Ray Bourne2?'28, and Bulletin No. 62 (Ottawa)2?,
23. Andrews, G.S.. "Survey & Management Plan, Shuswap Forest, 1932"; B.C.
Forest Branch, Victoria, B.C 1.932.
24. Hotine, M. "Simple Methods of Surveying from Air Photographs"; Prof'l
Paper No. 3, Air Survey Committee, G.S.G.S.; H.M.S.C, London, 1.927.
25. Hotine, M. "The Stereoscopic Examination of Air Photographs"; Prof'l
Paper No. 4; Air Survey Committee, G.S.G.S.; H.M.S.0*-; London, 1927-
.26. Hotine, M. "Extensions of the Arundel Method"; Prof'l Paper No. 6,
Air Survey'Committee, G.S.G.S.; H.M.S.C., London, 1929.
27, Bourne, Ray. "Air Survey in Relation to Economic Development in New
Countries"; Oxford Forestry Memoir No. 8, Oxford, 1.928. 19
and a few others. I was much impressed with Bourne's account of mapping
copper-bearing strata in Northern Rhodesia by correlating the underlying
geology with surface vegetative cover, which could be identified and mapped
from air photos. In June 1932 I wrote to the Imperial Forestry Institute,
Oxford University, enquiring about post graduate studies in air survey. I
was informed there were no regular courses, but that special studies could
be arranged under Professor Bourne, for about six months, partly in the U.K.
and partly on the Continent, to begin early in 1.933.
Correspondence was also initiated, early in 1.932, with other air survey
notables, as they became known to me. These included Ellwood Wilson,
(formerly) Chief Forester, Laurentide Pulp & Paper Co., at Grand'Mere, Quebec,
under whom I had worked as undergraduate in the summer of 1.928, Roland Craig
of the Dominion Forest Service, Ottawa, a director of the Manitoba Pulpwood
Survey in 1.927, and Stuart Moir, (then) Manager, Fairchild Aerial Surveys Inc.,
Dallas, Texas and formerly associated with Ellwood Wilson in Eastern Canada.
Mr Wilson mentioned post-graduate possibilities at the Forst Akademie,
Tharandt, Germany, and also referred to- Sir Charles Delme-Radcliffe and the
Nistri plotter. Later in the summer, when possibilities at Oxford and on
the Continent began 'to clarify, I asked Mr Wilson (25 Sep 1932) about a grant
from the Charles Lathrop Pack Forest Education Board, of which he was a
member, and with his encouragement, formally applied for a Fellowship (24 Nov.
'32), The Board's decisions would be made the following Mairch, 1.933. This
initial contact with Ellwood Wilson was to win his encouragement and influential support throughout the critical years which followed. ■■
On our return from the field, Autumn 1.932, Mulholland announced, regretfully, that due to impending budget cuts, we junior forest officers would be
put on "indefinite leave without pay" in the coming fiscal year, I immediately confirmed arrangements to go to Oxford for the programme offered.
Anticipating unemployment, the expense of overseas study, and having only
recently squared off some college debts, strict economy was the. rule. With a
modicum of family influence, discreet allocation of three bottles of Johnny
Walker's "Black Label", (one to my Vancouver "Contact", one to the Ship's
agent in Victoria, and one to the Skipper), and a nominal fee, I worked my
passage to England via Panama on the old Norwegian freighter "MV George
Washington", Fred Olsen Lines, sailing from Ogden Point, Victoria, 31 January
1933^u. Mulholland had contrived to keep me on the payroll till the last
work-day prior to my departure.
After a brief call at Port Alberni to stow some huge squared timbers
on deck, with a full cargo we cleared for Panama, and delayed by gales for
a day or two in the Caribbean, after 43 days at sea we tied, up at Surrey
Docks in the Thames. In London I put up at the Regents Palace Hotel, Piccadilly Circus, a few days to complete and mail the verbal text of my Shuswap
Forest Report ■% which I had not quite finished in spare time at sea. Phone
contact with Oxford advised me to join Professor Bourne at Ye:01de Crown Hotel,
Marlow, Bucks., where, with some senior students he was doing field studiee
in ecological interpretation of air photos. The stay at Marlow was a pleasant
28. Bourne, Ray. "Regional Survey and its Relation to Stock-taking of
Agricultural and Forest Resources of the British Empire"; Oxford
Forestry Memoir No. 1.3; Oxford, 1.931.
29. Canada. Topographical Survey. "The Use of Aerial Photographs for Mapping";
'" Bull. 62, Ottawa, 1932.
30. Victoria Daily Times, 31 Jan. 1933. "Veteran Norwegian Ship Here Today." 20
"introduction to the charming countryside there, and the life style of British
students, which seemed to conceal much seriousf;hard work beneath a cloak of
casual detachment. Returning to Oxford with Bourne, it did not take long
to read through his small library of air survey literature. He then sent
me off to Tharandt bei Dresden, Saxony, where he had arranged a 1.0-week
programme under the celebrated Professor Dr R. Hugershoff.
In delightful spring weather of mid-April, I travelled 2nd Class via
Harwich and Hook of Holland, and was dismayed at the class distinction on
the channel steamer. In spite, of never having studied German I arrived in
Dresden, and took a local train ("Bummelzug") some 14 Km. out to Tharandt,
with full inventory of baggage, money, etc, if somewhat bewildered. Tharandt
was a small dorf surrounded by mixed forest and farm land, where the Forst
Akademie and GeodStisches Abteilung, (Survey School) were located, both
being parts of the main university in Dresden (Die Technische Hochschule
zu Dresden). On the trip across Germany I had noticed at many stations, a
large sign "FRAUEN", and wondered if he were some national hero, but was
later to learn it meant "WOMEN". Somehow I found Hugershoff's office,
where I was cordially welcomed. He and his staff spoke good English. The
Professor had been in the U.S.A. to introduce his Aerokartograph plotter,
and was proud of his slang vocabulary. Helped by other English-speaking
students, including a fellow Canadian, G.W.I. ("Wilf") Creighton from Nova
Scotia,<-■ I soon got settled in and to work.
During holidays in July, I joined. Professor Bourne's forestry tour in
the Jura, Zurich, and the Black Forest, and was surprised to be much in
•demand as interpreter. This gave me some needed confidence in German, and
thereafter progress was better. In Switzerland, I managed a week-end in
Geneva with my sister Mary, then on staff of the Canadian Secretariat to the
League of Nations, under Dr W.A. Riddell; From Les Ve.rrieres I also spent
a Sunday with la famille Benoit, War I friends of a chum at home, at Andelot-
en-Montagne, just across the.border near Pontarlier. There, my tendency to
confuse newly acquired German vocabulary with, high school French could not have
been very diplomatic. In spite of this, the Benoit hospitality was overwhelming,
Meanwhile, a letter from the CL. Pack Forest Education Eoard,
dated 6 March 1933, and forwarded from Victoria, via London, advised that a
grant In my favour could not be made, due to shortage of funds, among other
things. The disappointment was contained by tightening my belt one more
notch. Having heard from Mulholland, also, that re-employment prospects
were still bleak, I returned to Tharandt for the Fall and Winter
semesters, duly registered as a post-graduate student.
Much time was spent in Hugershoff:'s well equipped photo gramme trie
laboratory, which included an early model of the sophisticated Zeiss Stereo-
planigraph (C2) . I also attended Hugershoff's lectures in the following
subjects:
Hflhere Analysis I (Differential'Calculus)
Die Mathematische Behandlung von Beobachtungs Ergebnisse (Statistics)
Vermessungskunde (Surveying)
Hflhere Analysis II (Integral Calculus) ,-".-.'
Photogrammetrie
Methode von Mindestens Quadrate (Method of Least Squares)
31. Afterwards Deputy Minister, Lands & Forests, Province of Nova Scotia, 21
and by way of diversion, heard some forestry courses viz:
Standortslehre Prof.Kraus  (Site studies)
Bodenkundliches Prakticum ditto     (Soils)
Forsteinrichtung Prof. Heske (Forest Management)
Pflantzensociologie und Waldtypen   Prof. Riibner (Plant sociology &
Forest types)
Professor Kraus was a fine old Bavarian, whose greeting was "Gras Gott"
instead of the prevalent "Heil Hitler". Hugershoff's lectures were brilliant
and humorous, during which he smoked cigars. The larger instruments which
he had invented were provided with ashtrays in the basic design. He would say
"Mein Herrn, you cannot operate this instrument unless you smoke! "
Mid-September 1.933, Hugershoff sent me up to Jena for a week-long introductory course in photogrammetry for German engineers and army officers,
sponsored by the famous Zeiss firm there, the principal lecturers being
Professor Otto von Gruber and himself. The array of photogrammetrie equipment there included Hugershoff's Aerokartograph and an early version of the
Multiplex plotter. Interesting members of the Zeiss staff included Dr E.C
Medster, and Herr Hess, whose brother Rudolf was Hitler's mysterious
emissary to Britain, later in World War II. I was interested to learn
how Carl Zeiss, the ingenious instrument maker and Professor Ernst Abbe,
optical physicist, together built up the famous Zeiss Werke, and that a
contributing factor to its success was the propinquity of pure silica sand
deposits from which the Schott Glaswerke made high grade optical glass.
Interesting too that the Zeiss firm was then a cooperative with worker participation in profits and direction, thanks to a benevolent bequest of the founders.
■ Toward the year end, Ellwood Wilson, with whom I had kept in touch, and
who followed my studies with keen interest, advised me to re-apply for a
C.L. Pack Bursary, which I did.
At the end of the "Winter Halbjahr", late February 1.934, I declined
a warm suggestion from Professor Hugershoff to remain another semester to
do a "Doktor Arbeit", not being primarily interested in a fancy degree,
being nearly "broke", and a bit homesick, and having had more optimistic
news from Mulholland about re-employment. My origin from the 'wilds" of
far away British Columbia must have appealed to the Professor's romantic
sentiment, and no doubt it would be good publicity for the University there
if I should do a thesis on application of German photogrammetry in opening
up the great northwest of America. Indulgently, he referred to me as his
"nichtbeissenden grauer BSr aus Britisch Columbien".-^  I became quite
fond of the Professor, a strange blend of genius and fanaticism, but warm
and human withall.
My return to the U.K. included a stop at Copenhagen to visit Hugershoff 's assistant, Dr Christof Neumann, who with his wife, Erika, had shown
me' warm friendship in Tharandt. Neumann was then temporarily seconded to
the Danish government to assist in mapping the east coast of Greenland, with
the Hugershoff Aerokartograph, using oblique stereo air photos taken with
an English "Eagle" air camera. My arrival in Copenhagen by night train from
Berlin, on a bright sunny morning, was with a feeling of unforgettable
relief from the sustained tension and hysteria of Hitler's "Nazionalsozialismus"
which dominated Germany at this time. I felt like a plant, brought from a
32. "The good-natured grizzly bear from British Columbia". 22
dark cellar into the fresh air and sunshine of democracy. From Copenhagen
I continued on to Oslo, to visit an alumnus from the University of Toronto
Forest School, Frithjbf Plahte and his lovely bride, Asta, in her parents'
home. Frithjof and Asta had come down to Oslo, especially for my visit,
from their forest home at Teraak, far up the coast near Namsos. On learning
that Asta's father was senior director of the Fred Olsen Line, I dared not
divulge my trip to England, scrubbing decks on one of their ships! The
first evening at dinner., the whole family, including younger brothers and
sisters, spoke English entirely, for my benefit. The dear old Mother explained,
however, that they could hardly keep this up for the whole of my visit.
Early in March, 1.93^, I survived a stormy crossing of the North Sea to
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and went up to Forfar, Scotland, near Dundee, where I
was put right to bed by my kind hosts, the Rev. and Mrs Alfred Wilson, to
subdue a bout of flu. The Wilson's were paarents of Margaret, wife of my
close friend, Lyle Trorey, of Vancouver„ In a sizable stack of mail awaiting
me at Forfar was a letter from the C.L. Pack Forest Education Board, Washington, D.C, advising the award of a $500 bursary to assist with my  current
studies, This news quickly/ vanquished the flu bug. Too late for an extended
programme in Germany, this windfall provided wider scope for profession al
visits en route home, in the U.K., eastern U.S.A. and Canada. Professor
Bourne arranged valuable contacts, and I carried letters of introduction from
a patron beck home, the late R.P. Bishop, B.C.L.S. to moguls in the British
War Office„ These proved "open sesame" to high calibre and charming people, -
Capt> G.T, McCaw, J, Calder-Wood, Lieut. J.S.A. Salt, Capt. Michael Collins,
and Col. M.N. MacLeod, Chairman of the Air Survey Committee. Capt. M« Hotine
was away on leave. These gentlemen were interested in my impressions of
sophisticated German photogrammetry, especially as qualified by my practical
background in air survey at homd. Only a few years later, several were to
becorr.3 valued friends in World War II. Also, Sir Charles Delme-Radcliffe had
given me a letter to Brig. Gen. H. St. J. L. Winterbotham, Director General,
Ordnance Survey, Southampton, which, not having time to use, I conveyed to him
by mail, with a note of regret, His reply is worthy of quote:
My dear Andrews,
Ordnance Survey Office,
Southampton, 23 March 1.934.
I am sorry indeed to have missed you, for any friend of Sir Charles
Delme-Radcliffe bears his credentials with him.
Let me say that I like the tone of your letter because such new developments as those of air photography are largely obscured to-day by the vested
interests which have produced the different ways of .using them. Air photography is good value for forestry and of value for many other things. You may
apply it with a sledgehammer like our friend Hugershoff, or with a pencil as
we do in the Arundel method. Of all the machine methods the Nistri is, I think
the most practical and cheapest. But a great deal, can be done for individual
cases in simple ways. Had you been able to come in the first instance I should
have merely redirected you to Bourne at Oxford and to his colleague Troop who
is a mine of experience gathered in the.tropical parts of Africa. In your
professional way, however, you went straight to:.the authorities and cut out the
frills. I am sorry you did so because it robbed me of a personal chat with you.
Give my very kind regards to Sir Charles when you see him, and as you land
at Victoria give the island an additional greeting from one who has been there
and loved it.  Yours sincerely, H. St. J. L. Winterbotham 23
This letter belies a waggish nickname for Winterbotham coined by young
subalterns of the Royal Engineers, - "Brigadier Cold-and-stern".
Arriving in New York, early April, after a 1.0-day voyage, "on the velvet"
in a "fast freight-passenger" ship, a day was spent with M.R. Myer of Fair-
child Aerial Surveys, Inc., and a visit to their factory for air cameras,
etc, at Woodside, Long Island. En route to Washington, D.C, a brief stop
at Philadelphia afforded an interview with Ellwood Wilson, my adviser for
the Pack Fellowship. My first contact in Washington was with Mr Tom Gill,
Secretary for the Pack Board, and thanks to him, in several days, I saw all
the important air survey authorities there. These included G.H. Lautz,
M.S. Wright, and H.C. Ryker of the U.S. Forest Service; Majors Wheat, Staack,
Col. Birdseye and Mr Shuster of the U.S. Geological Survey; Major Bagley
and Capt-. Geo. MacDonald of the U.S. Army Air Corps; and Mr Franklin Reed,
Editor of the Journal of Forestry.
Next stop was Montreal, after paying duty a second time on perfume
consigned to a girl friend and her sister in Victoria from their "Auntie
Pickie" in London. Here, I saw Frank T. Jenkins, Paul Laframboise and
A.E. Simpson, in the Air Survey Division of Canadian Airways. A full week
in Ottawa was well spent with most of the air survey notables, including
Roland Craig, H.E. ("Cy") Seely of the Forest Service; A.M. Narraway. R.B.
McKay, C.H. Taggart, of the Tope Survey; W.H. Miller and D.A. Nichols of
the Geological Survey; and Major E.L.M. Burns and A.E. Attfield of the
Army Survey. In Toronto, R.A.N, Johnson of the Forest Branch was my contact, and in Winnipeg I saw George Tunstell and W.N.D. Halliday. Finally,
in Vancouver I was able to convey greetings to Major D.R, MacLaren of
Canadian Airways from F.T. Jenkins in Montreal. These contacts brought me
well up to date in air survey situation in Canada, generally.
Arrival back in Victoria was on Thursday 10 May, 1.934, and on the
following Monday I was re-entered on the Forest Surveys Division payroll,
under Fred Mulholland. By this time, priorities for the coming field programme were already allotted to my stay-at-home confreres, negating the
dictum "Absence maketh the heart grow fonder", and confirming "out of sight,
out of mind". The budget was still sub-normal, so compromises were necessary. Learning of my assignment as assistant chief in an area not covered
with air photos, and that there was a special job in northern Vancouver
Island completely covered with photos, and tope maps made T\dth them
recently by the Phototopographic.Division, I protested to Mulholland, who
at once directed that I accompany CD. Schultz on the Nimpkish job, as
"air photo specialist". When regaled with lurid tales of the previous
season, 1.933* when a single party, entirely of party chiefs, operated up
the coast from the confines of our small motor vessel, the B.C Forester,
I was thankful my time had been spent abroad so profitably to mind and soul,
if not to the purse.
About this time, somehow, somewhere, I prepared a paper on German
applications of photogrammetry to forestry, and mid-May sent it off to the
Forestry Chronicle in Toronto. By unusual luck, it appeared in the June
issue following-'-'. Thanks to Miss Janet Wilde (later Mrs J.L. Bowden) , our
faithful secretary in Mulholland's office, reprints were distributed to air
survey contacts in America and abroad, while Schultz and I were in the field.
It was timely, and well received, especially by people like Ellwood Wilson,
my adviser on the C.L. Pack award.
33. Andrews, G.S. "Air Survey & Forestry - Developments in Germany";
(Canadian) Forestry Chronicle, June 1.934. 24
The Nimpkish job was rewarding in full measure, if strenuous and
spartan, being done entirely on foot with back-pack. Before going to.the
field, several weeks were spent interpreting and plotting forest types from
air photos, on the excellent tope base map. We also used available information from commercial timber cruises. Finally, about mid-July, Schultz
and I took off in a Bellanca aircraft on floats, with a new 1.7-foot Chestnut
canoe lashed between the floats, grub, instruments, camp kit, pack boards,
and some 50 pounds of air photos. Major Don MacLaren was pilot, and Fred
Mulholland came along for the trip. Weather caused a detour from Campbell
River via Gold River and Muchalat Lake to land on Vernon Lake, where we
left the canoe and a grub cache. Mulholland had to try out the canoe, which
he upset for a dunking. We then flew to Woss Lake to place a second grub
cache, and finally to Schoen Lake, where Schultz and I deplaned with the
balance of the outfit,  on a steep salal-covered bank, and wistfully watched
the aircraft ease away from shore for take-off. MacLaren's farewell still
rings in my ears "Well boys, guess you can walk home!". We did (in effect),
It took more than two months,
We covered the watersheds of the Nimpkish, Kokish, Tsitika and Adams
Rivers„ The canoe was for transport down the Nimpkish River, reported
navigable, but log jams were an impediment. Lining up Woss River, swollen
by heavy rains, the canoe fouled in a log jam and collapsed beyond recovery,
injuring our pride more-than our persons or outfit, beyond a wetting. The
canoe had really bean more a hindrance than help. Paring our kit to. an
austere minimum, surplus items were abandoned at the forks of the Woss and
Nimpkish Rivers. I hoped my elegant "Black Diamond" rubber pants would be
found by some logger before disintegrating. Our real "cross to bear", in
adherence to the air survey gospel, was the 50 pounds of air photos,
divided impartially between two packs. Weather and bush prone to being
wet, a routine round our evening campfires was to spread out the photos to
dry, some becoming "toasted" to a light golden brown. The last move on
this job was over the ridge between the lower Adams and Salmon Rivers.
Eating lunch on a knoll overlooking rapids in the Salmon River,vhere we
planned to.ford, the antics of a bear catching salmon amused us till ready
to cross. Then our unkempt appearance must have scared him off. This
summer, living and travelling like two wild beasts in the coast rain forest
was a distinct but refreshing contrast to my  previous year in the sophisticated confines of Europe. It was gratifying, also, to have survived the
vicissitudes with my partner, in harmony and mutual respect. Like War,
the Bush is a proving ground for men,  which engenders a tacit esteem that
does not die in later years, often along quite divergent paths.
My appendix, in part, to Schultz' official report of this job-*'1' follows:
"In the Nimpkish project air photographs provided the basis for
(i) a detailed and accurate topographic base map; (ii) a remarkably good
preliminary forest type map;  (iii) efficient planning and despatch of all
field operations; (iv) accurate and universal horizontal control for locating them; (v) a guide in appraising the reliability of (commercial) cruise
information and extending it to areas for which none was available. Photo-
scale was too small for detail identification of .species, or for data as
to tree sizes.
In conclusion, it is stated with confidence that the final maps,
34. Schultz, CD. "The Nimpkish Forest Report"; B.C Forest Br. Victoria, 1.934, 25
estimates, and report of the Nimpkish Forest project, covering some
1,400 square miles of difficult, largely inaccessible country, containing
one of the largest reserves of merchantable timber in the coast region,
' are of an order of quality comparable to the standard l-j$ forest survey
on the straight terrestrial basis, at l./6th the field cost. The maps
are incomparably superior. This was in part due to available commercial
cruise information, but fundamentally to the advantage of having the
tract covered with aerial photographs, and to having them compiled into
topographic and preliminary forest type maps prior to going into the field."
Acting once more on Ellwood Wilson's advice, I applied, in late November 1.934, to the CL. Pack Foundation for a further bursary to assist
with research in forestry applications of air survey, and some pertinent
travel. Appended was a reprint of my article about Germany, recently
published.-^ In January, 1.935, Henry S. Graves, Chairman of the Board,
advised that a grant of $1,000 had been approved. This good-news set the
pattern for some experimental work and some travel that year, for which I
was excused routine duties by the Forest Branch. Holidays in March Were
used for air survey visits in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Professor
Percy M. Barr at Berkeley helped with contacts in the "Bay Area", and in
Los Angeles I visited Fairchild Aerial Surveys Inc., where Leon T. Eliel
arid Ed. Polley explained their use of the Hugershoff Aerokartograph and the
Zeiss Stereoplanigraph, for large scale projects including the reservoir
for the Boulder Dam. Other air survey agencies in northwestern U.S.A. were
visited in July. "High Priests" on this trip included J.B. Yule at
Missoula, Howard Flint at Spokane, and in Portland, Oregon, Victor Flach
and Lage Wernstedt3-5»36. j Was pleased that the CL. Pack Board again
asked Ellwood Wilson to be my adviser on its behalf, and indeed, mine.
At home, the programme included design and construction of improved
stereoscopes; work on a simple, but intriguing stereo-plotter, based on
fundamentals conceived and proposed by Deville in 1.895, "'; obtaining (from
Ottawa) and cataloguing technical data relevant to the considerable stock
of photos in the Survey Branch air photo library; and making a synopsis of
a bibliography of air survey literature on hand and on record. Efforts
to organize some experimental photo flights with various filters and
emulsions, including infra-red, and scales (altitudes), proved abortive,
mainly from lack of suitable equipment. However an excellent tract of
timber types for age, volumes, species, etc was found (after considerable
field work) in the Greater Victoria Water District, near Spoke Lake. The
most significant project was the determination of tree heights by  simple
parallax measurements, on vertical air photos. This exploited .-several sets
of air photos over the Victoria area of various scales and date's, A
simple parallax micrometer bar\was designed, and beautifully made by a local
instrument machinist, Louis Omundsen. Ground checks on the selected trees
were made with the help of the late Wm F. Veitch, who had been assigned
to me as a student assistant. Results were written up and published in
the Forestry Chronicle for June 1936.38 The full report was accepted by
the Association of Professional Engineers of B.C, as a "Graduate's Thesis",
35« Wernstedt, Lage. "The Orientation of Oblique Aerial Photographs"; U.S.
Forest Service, Region 6, Portland, Oregon, 1.935»
36. Obit. "Lage Wernstedt, 1.878-1959, A Pioneer Photogrammetrist" Canddian
Surveyor, 1.5:2, March 1:960, pp. 128-9.
37. Deville, E. "Photographic Surveying.... " Ottawa., 1.895.
38. Andrews, G.S. "Tree heights from air photographs" Forestry Chronicle,June'36. 26
for professional membership, and reprints, expurgated of numerous errors
in the original publication, were given quite wide distribution. -In due
course, it received quite gratifying reviews in the Canadian Surveyor^?,
the Empire Survey Review**0, and Photogrammetric Engineering**!. It also served
as an acceptable report to the CL. Pack Board, in justification of its award.
Late in 1.935, the Forest Branch decided to initiate a programme of Lookout Photography, for fire protection, along lines applied in the western U.S.A.
The : American equipment was expensive and quite heavy, most of their look-outs
being accessible by road, whereas in B.C back-pack and trail were the rule,
and money was scarce. This being an application of photogrammetry, I was
asked to develop suitable equipment and procedures. A fairly simple modification was made with one of the survey cameras used by the Photop, Division.
To orient the camera in a precise direction, it was mounted on the base of an
old "muzzle-loader" theodolite, in place of the original telescope superstructure, which instrument had been received from W.R, ("Bill") Tait, property clerk in "Lands". This enabled it to be levelled and turned to any
desired angle on the horizontal circle, and precisely set by a vernier and
slow-motion screw. On cleaning up the old instrument, encrusted with verdigris from decades of storage in a dusty vault, I found an inscription on the
underside of the upper plate, which read: "Repaired by Schmolz, San Francisco,
1.8 February 1.858". This suggested the instrument had been a "forty'niner" in
the California gold rush, and had found its way north to the Fraser River
rush, sometime after I858. Although heavy, and not so accurate by today's
standards, it served our purpose admirably. Later, it was re-assembled in
original shape, reconditioned, and is now officially "at home" in the
Provincial Museum.^2
During the 1.936 field season, I was able to verify the procedure and equipment, assisted by Douglas Macdougal, on a number of forestry look-outs on Vancouver Island, and the mainland, it was enjoyable work, Macdougal being an old
field hand, a good companion, and a dry humorist. The work pattern was to drive
by car to the foot of the look-out trail, then back-pack up to the look-out for
overnight. After cooking supper and camp chores, we would set up the ('modern)
theodolite and establish "True North" by observing Polaris. Next morning, we
would read the true azimuth's to prominent points round the horizon, for permanent reference at the station. We would then replace the theodolite with the camera, on the same tripod,^Orient it to Cardinal directions, and expose a complete
•round of photos at 45-degree intervals. The look-out men, usually old timees anc
alone on their stations most of.the summer, were glad of company on whom to expend their accumulated talk. Macdougal carried a neat little ,22 automatic pisto]
with which we could knock over the odd grouse on the trail, a welcome addition tc
the pot for supper. When someone derisively remarked that the pistol would not
be much help against a grizzly bear, Doug would reply with a poker face, "That's
just what it is for, when we meet a grizzly, we can shoot ourselves with it!",
While this project was a diversion from the strict line of air survey research,
its success"made a favourable impression on the powers that be, and proved I was
not completely submerged in obscure technology for air survey. A more
technical treat ment of it appeared some years later.43
39.Review "True (sic) Heights from Air Photographs", P.E.P., Canadian
■Surveyor, 5:11, Jan. 1.937, p.l.
40. Review "Tree Heights from Air'Photographs", E.H.T. Empire Survey Review,
4:24, April 1937, London, p. 1.00.
41, Review "Tree Heights from Air Photographs", O.S, Reading, Photogrammetrie
Engineering, Wash. D.C., March 1.937.
42, Andrews, G.S. "Survey Ntfdies for Doeents". Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C
24 Feb. 1.970, p.5.
43. Andrews, G.S. "Air Survey &-Photogrammetry in'British Columbia",
 Photogrammetric Engineering, Wash. D.C, March 1.948,
TO BE CONTINUED. The foregoing is subject to revision; for which the author
reserves copyright.

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