British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical News 1983

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Full Text

 Published by the British Columbia Historical Association
$3.00
BRITISH
COLUMBIA
ISTORICAL
VOLUME 16, NO. 3
Spring 1983
r 11 i »; "
*I llXtqjfc.tTTTTTiJ !!■ ■ On the cover .
Militia Camp near Port Essington
"C" Battery of the Canadian Militia camped near Port Essington at the mouth of the Skeena River. The
militia was called out on forty-eight separate occasions between 1867and 1914to helpcivil authorities.
Usually used to intervene in strikes and Orange-Catholic riots, they were used in northwestern British
Columbia in the summer of 1888 to impress the Gitksan people of the upper Skeena River basin of the
strength of the Queen's law.
story starts on page six.
MEMBER SOCIETIES
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Member societies and their secretaries are responsible for keeping their addresses up-to-date. Please enclose
a telephone number for an officer if possible also.
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Alberni District Museum & Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M7
Atlin Historical Society, P. O. Box 111, Atlin, B.C. VOW 1A0
BCHA — Gulf Islands Branch, c/o P.O. Box 35, Saturna Island, B.C. VON 2Y0
BCHA — Victoria Branch, c/o Patricia Roy, 602-139 Clarence St., Victoria, B.C. V8V 2J1
Burnaby Historical Society, c/o Kathleen A. Moore, 3755 Triumph St., Burnaby, B.C. V5C 1Y5
Campbell River & District Museums & Archives Society, 1235 Island Highway, Campbell River, B.C. V9W 2C7
Chemainus Valley Historical Association, P.O. Box 172, Chemainus, B.C. VOR 1K0
Cowichan Historical Society, P.O. Box 1014, Duncan, B.C. V9L 3Y2
Creston & District Historical & Museum Society, c/o Margaret Moore, Box 253, Creston, B.C. VOB 1G0
District 69 Historical Society, c/o Mildred Kurtz, P.O. Box 74, Parksville, B.C. VOR 2S0
East Kootenay Historical Association, c/o H. Mayberry, 216 6th Avenue S., Cranbrook, B.C. V1C 2H6
Golden & District Historical Society, Box 992, Golden B.C. VOA 1H0
Ladysmith New Horizons Historical Society, c/o Mrs. V. Cull, R.R. #2, Ladysmith B.C. VOR 2E0
Lanceville Historical Society, c/o Susan Turnbull, Box 76, Lancefille, B.C. VOR 2H0
Nanaimo Historical Society, P.O. Box 933, Station "A", Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
Nanooa Historical & Museum Society, R.R. #2, Texaco, Box 5, Nanoose Bay, B.C. VOR 2R0
New Denver Historical Society, c/o Janet Amsden, Box 51, New Denver, B.C. VOG ISO
Nootka Sound Historical Society, Box 748, Gold River, B.C. VOP 1G0
North Shore Historical Society, c/o Doris Blott, 1671 Mountain Highway, North Vancouver, B.C. V7J 1M6
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum, Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
Sidney & North Saanich Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Ray Joy, 10719 Bayfield Road, R.R. #3, Sidney, B.C.
V8L 3P9
Silverton Historical Society, c/o P.O. Box 137, Silverton, B.C. VOG 2B0
Society Historique Franco-Colombienne, 9 avenue Broadway E., Vancouver, C.-B. V5T 1V4
Trail Historical Society, P.O. Box 405, Trail, B.C. V1R 4L7
Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 3071, Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3X6
West Vancouver Historical Society, c/o Bernard Holt, P.O. Box 917865, West Vancouver, B.C. V7Z 4S1
Windermere District Historical Society, Box 1075, Invermere, B.C. VOA 1K0 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL NEWS »2tES
Letters to the Editor        4
News of the Association        5
Features
The Skeena River Uprising of 1888        6
by Maureen Cassidy
The Brigade Trail: Nicola Lake to Kamloops       13
by R.C. Harris
Discovery: 1895    18
News and Notes     20
Heritage B.C  20
Local History Books     20
Reports from the Branches    22
Historic Trails Update  23
News from the British Columbia Heritage Trust     24
Bookshelf
An Account of a Voyage to the North West Coast of America
in 1785 and 1786 by Alexander Walker
review by Freeman Tovell     25
Gentlemen Emigrants: From the British Public Schools to the
Canadian Frontier by Patrick A. Dunae
review by Marilyn Baker      26
Builders of British Columbia: An Industrial History by G.W. Taylor
review by Robert A.J. McDonald    27
Arches in British Columbia by Chuen-yan David Lai
review by David Mattison      28
A Reader's Guide to Canadian History 2: Confederation to
the Present by J.L. Granatstein and Paul Stevens, eds.
review by W.A. Sloan    29
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical Association, P.O. Box 1738, Victoria, V8W
2Y3. Our Charitable Donations number is 0404681-52-27.  Printed by Fotoprint, Victoria, B.C.
Correspondence with editor is to be addressed to Box 1738, Victoria, V8W 2Y3.
Subscriptions: Institutional $15.00 per year. Individual (non-members) $7.00 per year.
The B.C. Historical Association gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance of the British Columbia Heritage Trust. To the Editor
The Editor:
The British Columbia Heritage Trust is
continuing work on restoration of the Keremeos
Grist Mill which it purchased in 1979. The current
phase of work is focused on the reconstruction of
the mill machinery.
The Trust is requesting assistance in locating the
following:
(1) photographs of the mill interior (pre-1979)
(2) exterior photographs showing the flume
and/or the waterwheel.
The Trust would appreciate hearing from you if
you have any of the above photos or if you have
any "leads" as to their possible whereabouts.
Any photograph, even if not of the best quality,
may provide a needed clue to the original
workings of the mill machinery.
Roberta J. Pazdro
Project Officer
British Columbia Heritage Trust
Parliament Buildings
Victoria, B.C.   V8V 1X4
(604) 387-3381
Subscribe!
Walter MacK. Draycott
1521 Draycott Road
North Vancouver, B.C.
Canada V7J 1W3
Catherine Henderson,
B.C. Historical News
P.O. Box 1738,
Victoria, B.C. V8W 2Y1
Your Ladyship:
You will please find a Personal Cheque for
the sum of $4 — — the Extra dollar is for Postage.
Am taking a Chance at Longevity at my age of 99
years & 9 months — thinkest thou?
Your Ancient Scribe,
Walter MacKay Draycott
NEXT ISSUE
Deadline for submissions for the Summer issue of
the NEWS is June 1, 1983. Please type double
spaced if possible. Mail to the Editor, B.C.
Historical News, P.O. Box 1738, Victoria, B.C. V8W
2Y3.
1
Yes, I wish to subscribe to B.C. Historical News. I enclose a cheque or money order payable to the
B.C. Historical Association, P.O. Box 1738, Victoria, B.C. V8W 2Y3.
Individual     Four issues for $7.00 ( )
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page 4
British Columbia Historical News A Message from
the President
First things first. I was very impressed at the Feb-
uary council meeting with the reports of the local
societies and with the way history is being
recorded and presented throughout the
province.
It was decided to publish the B.C.H.A. News
with quarterly issues as at present. There will be a
further announcement at the convention in June
about the number of issues and the introduction
of the new editor.
I would like to thank Maureen Cassidy for her
work as editor. She improved the B.C.H.A. News
to a marked degree.
Here I send greetings to two of our members
whom we miss very much at our meetings: Ken
Leming and Mr. New. Hope to see them both at
the convention.
I am sorry the date for the convention is late this
year, but our host society had the choice and this
was the best for them.
The report of the convention plans at the
February meeting was very interesting. We can
look forward to an informative, interesting and
pleasant convention. I hope you will give your
support by attending. It will be a busy convention
this year. There is a lot to be resolved. This is a
crucial year in our development. Changes to the
constitution and policy are to be resolved.
Hope you enjoyed the new newsletter. This is
an effort on our part.
See you at the convention in June.
— Barbara Stannard
British Columbia
Historical Association
Annual Convention
June 2, 3, 4,1983
Royal Towers Hotel
New Westminster
Call Irving House, New Westminster (521-7656) if
you require more information.
M.f?oawsotV
arbutus pcv/vr WhaRF^
CopyrightNAAfOOA MA/S.
Winter 1983
Page 5 Maureen Cassidy
The Skeena River Uprising
of 1888
In the early hours of the morning of June 19th,
1888, a man known as Kitwancool Jim was shot in
the back. He was fleeing from a Special Constable
of the British Columbia Provincial Police. The
constable had been sent to the upper Skeena
region to arrest Jim for murder. Jim, who had been
armed, died about an hour later.
This set in motion what has been called the
Skeena River uprising. Covered extensively in the
provincial press and nationally as far away as
Toronto, Kitwancool Jim's story and the
subsequent events after his death are illustrative of
the forces of social change which touched the
natives of British Columbia in the nineteenth
century.
In the interior of northwestern British
Columbia, the Gitksan people lived in seven
villages spread out along the Skeena River and its
tributaries. Kitwancool Jim was from Kitwancool,
one of the more isolated of these villages. The
Gitksan were Tsimshian speaking and were
related by language and culture to the Coast
Tsimshians and the Nishga of the Nass Valley.
The town of Hazelton sat in the middle of the
Gitksan's territory. Situated where the Bulkley
River meets the mighty Skeena, it had been laid
out on its present site in 1871 by Edgar Dewdney.
As the practical head of navigation on the Skeena
River, it was the jumping off point to the gold
fields of the Omineca. Few white people came to
live in the region until the building of the Grand
Trunk Pacific Railway caused the area to boom in
the years after 1908.
With the whites came diseases to which the
Gitksans had no immunity. The Gitksans suffered
great losses as successive epidemics swept
through the region. There was a particularly bad
epidemic of measles in the winter of 1887-1888.
Large numbers of people died, especially the very
young. Many blamed the whites or felt that they
were being deliberately poisoned.1
Measles killed the son of Kitwancool Jim. Jim's
wife, Fanny Johnson, of the neighbouring village
of Kitsegukla, blamed a shaman of her villge for
the death. In her opinion, the shaman had killed
the boy through spells to stop him from assuming
his rightful position as a powerful chief. Upset by
the death of his son, Jim met the shaman on the
trail between Kitwancool and Kitsegukla and
killed him on February 1,1888.2
The angered villagers of Kitsegukla were
convinced by their resident missionary, the
Methodist Reverend W.H. Pierce, that they
should not avenge the shaman's death but should
"show that Christianity had taught them better
things" and report the murder to provincial
authorities.3 According to some accounts,
however, the people of Kitsegukla did accept
compensation for the death in the traditional
manner.
The provincial authorities eventually, in the
slow ways of the north in winter, received word of
the murder. A warrant for the arrest of Jim was
issued in April. On May 8th, a party of five Special
Constables accompanied by the Indian Agent
from Metlakatla started up the Skeena River to
arrest Kitwancool Jim and bring him to trial. They
had been informed that Jim was armed and
intended to defend himself.
A Gitksan informer eventually led two
constables to where Jim was hiding it Kitwanga,
another Gitksan village. Jim's death set off bad
feelings on both sides. Fear, threats, and difficult
communications combined to make the whites in
the area fearful for their safety. For the Gitksans,
Jim's death was unnecessary and even murder.
They believed he was about to turn himself in. He
was the first Gitksan to be shot by a white man.
In the whole of a region from present-day
Terrace to Burns Lake, there were at that moment
five constables, one Stipendary Magistrate and no
jails. The handful of whites gathered together in
the now-fotified Hudson's Bay compound at
Hazelton. On July 1, they wrote Attorney General
page 6
British Columbia Historical News Alexander Davie that "our lives and property are
in great, and we fear immediate danger."4
The provincial government decided to act
decisively in the face of what was called "an
alarming state of Indian Affairs at Hazelton".5 On
Monday, July 16th, an expedition consisting of the
ten officers and seventy-two men of "C" Battery
of the Canadian Militia along with ten Special
Constables proceeded from Esquimalt in Her
Majesty's Ship Caroline.6 Superintendent of
Provincial Police H.B. Roycroft had gone the
evening before by the steamer Barbara Boscowitz.
Roycroft, with the constables, was instructed by
the Attorney General to go to Hazelton "for the
relief of the white people at that place", while the
militia would wait at the mouth of the Skeena.7 If
the party was obstructed by Gitksans, Roycroft was
instructed to call in the militia. Constable Green,
the man who shot Kitwancool Jim, was to be
arrested for homicide.
When Roycroft got to Hazelton on August 1, he
found the Gitksans off fishing and the white
residents "at liberty".8 It became evident that the
"uprising" was not quite as serious as supposed.
As the Victoria Colonist headlined on July 30, "The
Hazelton Indians Have Committed No Outrage".
On August 2, Roycroft wrote the commander of
the "C" Battery camped at Port Essington that the
"Indian matters are now quiet up here and I think
I shall be able to deal successfully with them. I
should therefore advise your immediate return to
Victoria".9 After another three weeks of waiting
for a boat, "C" battery went back to Esquimalt.
Seven months after the affair began, it was over.
This wasn't the only time a show of force had
been made in the northwest of the province, but it
was the largest. Just four years before, Roycroft
had been to Hazelton to arrest another man
accused of murder.10 Gunboats had been sent up
the coast in 1872 and 1885.
What resulted from all this storm and fury over
what was with hindsight a relatively small matter?
The first and only amusing result was a large
argument between the provincial and federal
governments over whom would pay for the
mobilization of the militia.11
For the white residents of Hazelton, the affair
left certain tangible benefits. White authority had
been asserted in a convincing manner, two
constables remained in town,and an Indian Agent
was hired the next year.
For the Gitksans, the affair represented the end
of a way of life. On August 8th, 1888, Stipendary
Magistrate N. Fitzstubbs and Superintendent
d&Z JP^'
__---*—
'•&+**»*+■
id
Hudson's Bay Company Stockade, 1899
The Hudson's Bay Company had established its post at Hazelton in 1880. The twelve
foot high stockade and the log bastions were erected in 1888 by the constables. C.W.D.
Clfiford, the man in charge of the post, was one of the leaders in pressing the provincial
government for action in the affair. The piles of wood in front of the stockade are for
the sternwheelers who plied the Skeena to Hazelton after 1891 and tied up near by.
Winter 1983
Page 7 Roycroft called together the chiefs of the Gitksan
people. The thirteen chiefs who came were
informed by Fitzstubbs of "the terms on which for
the future we are to live." These terms were that
the "law is the British law not the Indian law." No
longer would the chiefs be the arbitrators: "You
may not settle your own quarrels."12
Superintendent Roycroft was even more
explicit: "If you ever defy the Queen's authority,
although you may kill a great number of whites,
the Queen's soldiers would pursue you
everywhere and shoot you down like rabbits."
On August 14th, Roycroft wrote Davie. He
noted that the expedition had been successful
and that no further trouble would arise with the
Gitksans on the upper Skeena. As he put it, "they
seem now perfectly to understand our power."13
Maureen Cassidy is the author of From Mountain to
Mountain, a history of the Gitksan Village of Kispiox.
She has been the editor of the B.C. Historical News for
the last two years.
1 "Copies of correspondence in and out re the Skeena
River Uprising. Transcript 1888", Attorney General,
Provincial Archives of British Columbia. Letters by N.
Fitzstubbs (July 27,1888), Margaret Hankin (August 7) and
H.B. Roycroft (August 14), Provincial Archives of British
Columbia.
2 For an extended interpretation, see Marius Barbeau, The
Downfall of Temlaham, Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers,
1973.
William Henry Pierce, From Potlatch to Pulpit, Rev. J.P.
Hicks, ed. Vancouver: Vancouver Bindery Ltd., 1933,
p.59.
"... corresponedence... re Skeena River Uprising", letter
of July 1,1888.
"Minutes relative to the Indian troubles on the Skeena
River", British Columbia Executive Council, 1888.
Provincial Archives of British Columbia, p.1.
See Desmond Morton, "Aid to the Civil Power: The
Canadian Militia in Support of Social Order, 1867-1914",
in Studies In Canadian Social History, eds. Michiel Horn
and Ronald Sabourin, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart,
1974, for background.
"... correspondence ... re Skeena River Uprising", letter
of July 15, 1888.
Ibid., letter of August 3, 1888.
Ibid., letter of August 2,1888.
See I.V.B. Johnson, "The Skeena Uprising 1888",
typescript, no date, for a discussion of this event. It is
available at Ethnology Division of National Museum of
Man, Ottawa.
Compare, for example, the draft prepared for the British
Columbia Executive Council, with the final version
which can be seen in Public Archives of Canada, R.G. 10,
Volume 3802, file 49,774.
The transcript of this meeting can be found in Public
Archives of Canada, R.G. 10, Volume 3802, file 49,774, no
pagation.
"... correspondence ... re Skeena River Uprising", letter
of August 14,1888.
Public Archives of Canada, Indian Affairs, RG 10, Babine
Agency, British Columbia, General Administration Files,
letter of July 3,1897.
w-V
Kitwancool Village
Remote Kitwancool village resisted the work of government surveyors and the arrival
of white settlers for decades. In 1897, the chiefs of Kitwancool wrote A.W. Vowell,
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for British Columbia: "We the Chiefs of Kitwankool
do not want you to come to Kitwankool to make a Reserve for us, because we
continually remember the death of our Chief Jim, who was killed by the white man
who was sent by the Government to kill him
'13
iCourtesy of the British Columbia Provincial I
page 8
British Columbia Historical News Winter 1983
Page 9 Courtesy of the British Columbia Provincial Museu
page 10
British Columbia Historical News — --      H^iiifci . ^m ft j§"
^?r~
,-.-%«*-
55 •
Provincial Archives of British Columbia 11137
Kitsegukla, a Christian Village
Kitsegukla is located on the Skeena River between Hazelton and the coast. Reverend W.H.
Pierce, a Methodist missionary, had resided in the village singe 1885. When the shaman from
Kitsegukla was killed by Kitwancool Jim, Rev. Pierce managed to convince the people of
Kitsegukla that they should lay a complaint before the provincial government rather than
settle the manner in the traditional way.
Winter 1983 page 12
British Columbia Historical News Nicola Lake to Kamloops
The Brigade Trail
R.C. Harris
Kamloops was an important depot on the fur
trade's main route through what is now British
Columbia. While its importance waned as a fur
collecting centre, it became the hub of the horse
traffic on the five hundred mile horse portage
from Fort Alexandria on the upper Fraser River to
Fort Okanagan on the Columbia River. Horses
could winter at Kamloops, particularly at the
Garde Lafferty, northwest of the fort.1
When traffic to the Columbia River was
obstructed by the 49th parallel, it was diverted
southwest via Nicola Lake to the lower Fraser
River, first (1848) to Fort Yale, then (1849-1860) via
the upper Similkameen basin to Fort Hope. This
was not the first use of the Kamloops-Nicola route,
which was used routinely by early travellers.
At the "Company on the Coast" conference in
Nanaimo, May 1982, Ken Favrholdt of the
Kamloops Museum and Archives suggested a
reconnaissance of this twenty-five mile stretch of
the Brigade Trail as part of his inventory of historic
trails around Kamloops. We did this in July 1982.
Before the trip, we examined early records to
help define the location of the trail, and the extent
it was used.
When reviewing old records, it is important to
remember the concept of "Similkameen"
reached north to the Nicola Lake country one
hundred fifty years ago. Then, the present
Tulameen River was the Similkameen, mainly
because an important route ran along its northern
side, as shown by A.C. Anderson on several of his
maps.2
First Uses
Alexander Ross of Astor's Pacific Fur Company
travelled from Kamloops via Nicola Lake and the
Similkameen to the lower Okanagan in January
1813. Archibald McDonald of the Hudson's Bay
Company made the same trip in October 1826,
and shows it on his 1827 "Sketch Map of
Thompson's River District"3
A.C. Anderson travelled from Kamloops to
Nicola at least twice during his 1846-47
explorations for a horse-portage from Kamloops
to the sea. H.B.Co. Governor Eden Colvile also
made two trips over the trail, travelling from
Kamloops to Fort Hope, and stopping at what
became the regular campsites. His first trip in the
summer of 1849 took six days. In October 1852, on
poorer horses,he took seven days, but
commented:
... the new road from Thompson's River to Fort
Hope has been passed without any material loss of
horses and is susceptible of improvement, so that
communication from the sea to the interior
through British territory may be considered as
attained.
References to the trail, both manuscript and
cartographic abound during the Fraser River gold
rush, starting in 1858. Maps were made by
Arrowsmith, the Royal Navy (Mayne), the Royal
Engineers (under Moody), the Royal Geographic
Society and sundry promoters of "routes to the
gold fields", of whom Anderson and Epner are
among the best.4
Judge Begbie, with his registrar Arthur Bushby,
and Gold Commissioner Peter O'Reilly, walked
from Hope to Kamloops in September 1859, on
Begbie's second assize circuit in the interior. As far
as Campement des Femmes on Tulameen River,
Begbie and party accompanied Lt. Palmer, R.E.,
who was exploring the Brigade Trail from Hope to
Fort Colvile in Washington Territory. At the
Tulameen River, they met the ancient north-south
Similkameen trail, here Begbie and colleagues
turned north, while Palmer and his H.B.Co. escort
turned south.
Begbie reached Nicola Lake via Quilchena
Creek, whose long history is manifested by four
earlier names:  McDonald, Bourdignon,
Winter 1983
Page 13 ^   Garde Lafferty   {1j   NORTH
KAMLOOPS
LAKE
« THOMPSON R.
PAUL PK 3510'
Thompson's River A. 1812-13  D^jT
Posts: B. 1812-42
C. 1842-62
D. 1862-82
GUERIN
CK
HfcAf
KAMLOOPS
SOUTH THOMPSON
RIVER
KNUTSFORD
\J\KNUTSF0RD
PETERSON CK.
f\ HILL 3091'
McLEOD^  ^W\. /^°
SHUMWAY
HILL 3624'
Km
0    2    4     6    8   10   12
%
k...     01    2345678
Miles i    i    i    i    i—i    i—i    i
0, brigadePRigade
^LK. 3270'4/VH
-*w-" Brigade Trail y^
. — Old Nicola, and other, trails     ^
•• Route 5 (if different)
SEE APPENDIX
FOR ALTERNATIVE
PLACE NAMES
Jwp. 100
IV.
s I
1/        (FISHING STNS AT 1R2,1R3)
RICHIE LK.
IINAPIER LK.
TULLEE LK.
SOUTHERN LIMIT
. t,. ../..I,...
OF RAILWAY BELT|	
MINERAL HILL 2902'
V
STUMPLAKE CK.
John Jane's township
base line, 1894
former
outlet    ff*
STUMPLAKE   f^g^
(former lake) gffi
/  BRIGADE TRAIL
THE
NICOLA   £
LAKE 20451
NICOLA |t<c
NICOLA LAKE TO KAMLOOPS
1849-1860
QUILCHENA
/CREEK
DOUGLAS
LAKE
page 14
British Columbia Historical News Governor's and Hamilton.5 In later life, Begbie
often recalled with pleasure his first trip through
the park land north of Nicola Lake.
Township Surveys
The first township surveys between Nicola and
Kamloops were run by John Jane, a former
corporal of the Royal Engineers who came to
British Columbia in 1858 with the North American
Boundary Commission. When this field work
finished in 1862, he transferred to Colonel
Moody's Columbia Detachment, in the Lands and
Works Department. After the detachment
disbanded in the fall of 1863, Jane continued in
public service, sometimes locating roads and
surveying land, at other times being a constable.
When part of Jane's survey was covered later by
the Dominion Railway Belt (a strip of land
extending twenty miles on either side of the
Canadian Pacific Railway's main line), the relevant
field notes were transcribed into Dominion Field
Book No. 5156, and certified correct by the
Surveyor General of British Columbia, W.S. Gore
at the Lands and Works Department, Victoria, 31
August 1886.6
From these transcribed field notes, we learn:
... In continuing the survey from the Nicola
Valley (which ends here) towards the Thompson
River, it is presumed there will be but little
agricultural land to survey — but there are rich
tracts of grazing land which ere long will be
sought after.
I propose therefore to establish a line of
Townships and section Posts the whole way, so
that the position of the land can be fixed on the
plans without any trouble, as it is taken up. (August
26th, 1874)
When John Jane had surveyed his group of
townships, they numbered from 87 to 111, and
extended some distance north of the Thompson
River.7 His base-line, or "line of section Posts"
referred to above, ran from Stump Lake due
north, past the east edge of Brigade Lake and
through downtown Kamloops, never very far
from the Brigade Trail. Jane's six-mile square
townships were plotted in the Lands and Works
Department at the standard British scale of six
inches to a mile, resulting in some very large plans.
A few survive. Township No. 100, surrounding
Stump Lake, allows us to trace the Brigade/Nicola
Trail over the low divide to Napier Lake. Its eastern
edge is also the start of Jane's base-line to the
north. Township No. 100 was plotted from Jane's
field notes by F.G. Richards of the Lands and
Works Office, and was certified by Richards as
correct, and closing well, on April 9th, 1875.8
In the 1880's, the Dominion surveys of the forty
mile wide Railway Belt spread westward from a
prime meridian near Winnipeg, with a new set of
townships six miles square. The Railway Belt
reached south, almost to Stump Lake, obliterating
earlier surveys unless title had been given. Within
the Belt, only two quarter sections of Jane's old
townships are left.
The Dominion township plans were plotted at a
more practical scale of two inches to a mile.
Where extra detail was required, quarter
townships were plotted at four inches to the mile.
Railway Belt township plans survive in many
editions, and are a great help in finding the
Nicola-Kamloops section of the Brigade Trail.
These plans also show the alternative "Old Nicola
Trail", which ran just east of, and below, the
Brigade Trail for several miles, and may have been
the preferred trail in some seasons.
Dawson
Conforming with the terms of union with
Canada in 1871, which called for a geological
survey of British Columbia, George M. Dawson of
the Geological Survey of Canada traversed every
main trail in southern British Columbia between
1877 and 1895.9 This resulted in several detailed
maps and lengthy reports, now of historical as well
as geological interest. His 1895 Kamloops sheet, at
four miles to the inch, shows and names the
course of the "Old Brigade Trail" to Nicola Lake.10
Dawson also recorded some interesting history
of Stump Lake, which he found to have a long
tradition of slowly flooding and receding. He
talked to local Indians who recalled the lake
flooding in the 1820's, and drowning the trees
along its shore, resulting in its English name. The
French name of fur trade days, Lac des Chicots,
means the same.
At present, the lake's level is well below its
outlet channel, although Dawson noted this had
been deepened by several feet in the 1870's when
settlers downstream noticed their irrigation water
failing, and the lake receding, despite a good
inflow at the north end from Stumplake Creek.
Their weathered sluice gate, high and dry, is still in
place.
Dawson suggested some derangement of the
underground channels which drain Stump Lake,
presumably towards the Nicola. However, where
Droppingwater Creek turns north at the divide
between Stump and Napier lakes, we have a
situation reminiscent of the Columbia and
Kootenay Lakes at Canal Flats. Droppingwater
Creek may at times have continued south into
Stump Lake, rather than turn north into Napier
Winter 1983
Page 15 Lake and Campbell Creek (Lakes River). There is a
marshy connecting channel, presently dammed at
two places (see Tullee Lake on the map). The
Brigade Trail ran to the east of this marshy channel
in crossing the gentle divide to Napier Lake.
Modern approval of the Brigade Trail's direct
north-south route between Kamloops and Nicola
is seen in a high voltage wood pole transmission
line which is never more than a quarter mile from
the trail in the sixteen miles between Knutsford
and Stump Lake. To local residents, this is the Long
Lake range. The decision to rename Long Lake as
Brigade Lake was taken in August 19,1908, and is
recorded in Dominion Field Book 9105.11
Reconnaissance
Starting our reconnaissance northwards on
Route 5 from Quilchena, we soon reached the
deltaic flats at the mouth of the upper Nicola
River. Here the trail went inland slightly to avoid
the marshy flats, and crossed at, or near, the
►♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦<
APPENDIX
PRESENT and Early place
KAMLOOPS LK.
LAC DU BOIS    "")
BATCHELOR HILIJ
KAMLOOPS
CAMPBELL CK.
BRIGADE HILL
second bridge up, then over the upland to avoid
the cliffs crowding the lake. The power line also
crosses the upland. At the north end of the
upland, there are several parallel trail grooves
descending the grassy sidehill to rejoin Route 5.
The trail, as Route 5, runs east of swampy,
brushy land in the floor of the valley; old maps
show a small lake here. Nearing Stump Lake,
Route 5 swings westward, while the Brigade Trail,
now a narrow, damp gravel wagon road,
continues north. This fork in the road was once
Rockford post office. The gravel road passes east
of Mineral Hill before reaching the east bank of
Stump Lake, which it follows to the head. Mineral
Hill was one of the earliest lode mining localities in
the province.
At the head of Stump Lake, about where the
gravel road crosses Stumplake Creek and passes
west through Lot 229, the Brigade Trail continued
north, just east of the line of marshes typified by
Tullee Lake. Here the Brigade Trail crossed the
gentle divide and Droppingwater Creek, and is
BRIGADE LK.
BLEEKER CK.
NAPIER LK.
STUMPLAKE CK.
STUMP LK.
NICOLA R.
(upper)
NICOLA LK.
QUILCHENA CK.
names on the map.
Shuswap/Shew-whap Lk.
Garde Lafferty, (an HBCo horse park)
Thompson's River Post,
Fort Shuswap, etc.
San Poil River (Indian tribe?)
Lake(s) River
Skyetayen
Skye-ta-ken
Skyetaken
Long Lk (the Post Office
was two miles north of the lake)
Fish Ck.
Whalea, or
Whatea
R. de la Prairie
Fraser Ck.
Hamea
Tahamea
L. des Chicots (stumps)
Embarras (log jams)
Smeehatlon
McDonald's R.
R. Bourdignon (frozen rapids)
Governor's R.
Hamilton R.
page 16
British Columbia Historical News rejoined by Route 5, which continues along the
west shore of the chain of lakes. At the north end
of Richie Lake (Lot 445), the Brigade Trail starts
climbing the grassy sidehill to the Long Lake
range, passing between Brigade Lake and Brigade
Hill.
The alternative Old Nicola Trail, continues
north as far as Trapp Lake before starting the
sidehill climb to rejoin the Brigade Trail at
Knutsford. An attraction on this lower trail was the
trout in Trapp Lake, on which there are two small
Indian fishing stations, IR2and IR3. Bleeker Creek,
entering Trapp Lake from the east, was formerly
Fish Creek. From IR2,the Old Nicola Trail climbs
only part way to the plateau, passing below
Shumway Hill.
Returning to the Brigade Trail, Brigade Hill is Lt.
Mayne's "Skyetayen" in his 1859 map and report,
made while exploring ashore from H.M.S.
Plumper at the request of Governor Douglas:
... 3600 feet above the sea. The view from here is
very extensive and beautiful, ranging as far as the
Semilkameen Valley and the Shuswap (Kamloops)
Lake, and disclosing a fine tract of grass land ...
Mayne must have written this some time after
his visit; at best one can only see the tops of the
hills bounding Kamloops Lake and the
Similkameen, however his "fine tract of
grassland", steppe, or prairie, is there. Looking
northeast down Lakes River, now Campbell
Creek, one is reminded of the great meltdown at
the end of the Ice Age, pouring through here en
route to the sea, following the general course of
the original fur trade route to the Columbia. The
narrow channel was overdeepened, and partly
filled with loose glacial debris and slide material,
providing another possible underground outlet
for Stump Lake.
The trail now runs north over the Long Lake
range as a gravel road, passing the former post
office of Brigade Lake at the cross roads, after two
miles. Being heavily used, it was extensively
braided, and not all of it lies under the gravel road.
From McLeod Lake, where the road diverges a
little to the west, there is a more direct alternative
route passing east of "hill 3660" and rejoining the
road near Anderson Creek. Hill 3660 gives a good
view north to conspicuous Knutsford Hill, which
the Brigade Trail passes on the west side, while the
Old Nicola Trail passes on the east.
The Brigade Trail crosses Peterson Creek
alongside Knutsford Hill, then both the trail and
creek make their descents to downtown
Kamloops. Peterson Creek has cut a deep canyon,
so the trail makes a more gradual descent a little to
the west, passing through Lots 410 and 416, and
running near Guerin Creek down to the
waterfront.
The destination of the Brigade Trail at the
waterfront varied over the years. Until 1842,
Thompson's River Post (Kamloops) was in the
northeast corner of the river junction; then until
1862 it was located northwest of the junction.
After several floods, it was moved south of the
river, about half a mile west of the Overlanders'
Bridge.
Use of the Brigade Trail between Hope and
Kamloops ceased in the early 1860s, as better trails
and roads were built by the new colony of British
Columbia. Eastwards, the big loop north to
Campement des Femmes, between Hope and
Princeton, was eliminated by the Dewdney Trail in
1860, and the Hope Trail in 1861. Northbound
traffic no longer had to avoid the Fraser Canyon.
First a good mule trail was built north from a
rejuvenated Fort Yale in 1861; then the renowned
Cariboo Wagon Road was completed beyond
Cache Creek by 1863. The two ferries were
eliminated by the Alexandra Bridge near
Spuzzum, and by Spences Bridge at Cooks Ferry.
1 Surveyor General of Canada. Sectional Map No. 95. 1
in.=3 miles. Kamloops sheet (Railway Belt). Revised to
28th September 1904.
2 Provincial Archives of British Columbia, 8000 L10
"Original Sketch of Explorations between 1846 and
1849". Alex. C. Anderson. Provincial Archives of British
Columbia. 0 615 pBC A545m 1867-f "A portion of the
Colony of British Columbia ..."
3 "A Sketch Map of Thompson's River District, 1827" by
Archd. McDonald, Hudsons Bay Co.
4 "Sketch of Part of British Columbia, 1859" by Lt. R.C.
Mayne, RN, of HMS Plumper. Royal Geographical
Society, London, 1861: Map "to illustrate papers by Mr.
Justice Begbie; Com'r Mayne, RN; Lt. Palmer, RE; and
Mr. Downie."
5 Provincial Archives of British Columbia, 8000 L10
"Original Sketch of Explorations between 1846 and
1849". Alex. C. Anderson.
6 Transcript of Survey of Townships, 1874. Nicola Lake to
Thompson River. Dominion Field Book 5165.
7 Geological Survey of Canada, "Map of a portion of the
Southern Interior ..." George M. Dawson, 1877. Shows
)ohn Jane's townships.
8 Township No. 100, Kamloops Division, Surveyor
General of British Columbia. Surveyed by John Jane,
1874. Plotted by F.G. Richards, 1875; 6 ins to 1 mile.
9 Geological Survey of Canada, Report of Progress, 1877-
78 Section B, G.M. Dawson.
10 Geological Survey of Canada, 1894 Annual Report VI,
Section B Plate III, opposite p. 6 shows "Stump Lake
from the South". Geological Survey of Canada, 1895.
Map: Kamloops Sheet, 4 miles to 1 inch by G.M.
Dawson.
11 Dominion Field Book No. 9105 — a note written by plan
of Long Lake: "Should be Brigade Lake, decision of Mr.
Whitcher; August 19,1908. W.L.M."
Winter 1983
Page 17 Discovery: 1895
(Editor's note: This by-law, called the "Public
Morals Amendment By-Law, 7895", was passed by
the Municipal Council on December 30th of that
year. And to think that they now hold bathtub
races!)
"Corporation of the City of Nanaimo, B.C.
BY-LAW RELATING TO PUBLIC MORALS
The Municipal Council of the Corporation of the
City of Nanaimo enacts as follows: —
BATHING
1. No person shall bathe or swim in the stream
known as the Mill Stream or in the waters of the
Harbour of Nanaimo within the City limits
between the hours of six o'clock a.m., and ten
o'clock p.m., without a proper bathing dress
covering the body from the neck to the knees, but
any person wearing such proper bathing dress
may bathe at any time in any of the waters within
the City limits or in the Harbour known as
Nanaimo Harbour.
INDECENCY
2. No person shall indecently expose any part
of his or her person in any street or public place
nor shall the plea of answering the call of Nature
be considered a palliation of the offence.
3. No person shall post up any indecent placard
writing or picture or write any indecent or
immoral words or make any indecent pictures or
drawings on any public or private building, wall,
fence, sign, monument, post, sidewalk, pavement
or on any other thing or place in any street or
public place or grounds.
4. No person shall sell or offer to sell any
indecent of lewd book, paper, picture, plate
drawing, or other thing, nor exhibit any indecent
or immoral show of exhibtion or perform any
indecent, immoral or lewd play or other repre
sentation of the like effect within the city limits.
HOUSES OF ILL FAME
5. Any person who shall be found guilty of
keeping or maintaining or being an inmate or
habitual frequenter of, or in any way commected
with, or in any way contributing to the support of
any disorderly house or house of ill fame or who
shall knowingly own or be interested as proprie-
to, landlord, tenant or occupant of such house
shall be subject to the penalties of this by-law.
SWEARING OR IMMORALITY
6. No person shall make use of profane
swearing, obscene, blasphemous or grossly
insulting language or be guilty of any other
immorality or indecency on any street or public
place.
DRUNKENNESS AND VAGRANCY
7. Any person found drunk or disorderly in any
street or public place, and all vagrants (the
meaning of which shall be as laid down in the
Criminal Code of 1892 of the Dominion of
Canada) found within the city limits shall be
subject to the penalties of this by-law.
GAMBLING
8. No person shall expose in any street or public
place any table or device of any kind whatever
upon or with which any game of chance or hazard
can be played, and no person shall play at or upon
such table or device or at any unlawful game or
game of chance or hazard in any street or public
place.
9. No person shall keep or permit to be kept or
used in any house, room or other place for the
purpose of gambling any faro bank, rouge et noir,
roulette table or other device for gambling or to
permit or allow any games of chance or hazard
with dice, cards or other device to be played for
money, liquor or other thing within such house or
place and the Police Magistrate or other Justices of
the Peace may order all faro banks, rouge et noir,
roulette tables and other devices for gambling
page 18
British Columbia Historical News found in any such house, room or other place, to
be seized and destroyed.
BEGGING
10. No person shall go about from door to door
soliciting charity or as a common beggar, nor shall
any person in the street importune others for help
or aid in money nor shall any malformed,
deformed or diseased person expose himself or
be exposed in any street or public place in order
to excite sympathy or induce help or assistance
from private or public charity.
SALE OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS,
TOBACCO, OR CIGARETTES TO MINORS
11. No persons shall sell or give any intoxicating
drink tobacco or Cigarettes to any child underthe
age of sixteen years other than his own child or
employe (sic) to remain in such saloon, bar-room,
or other place where spiritous or intoxicting
liquors, tobacco or cigarettes are sold or kept for
same, or to engage in any game of cards, billiards,
bagatelle or any other game in such saloon, barroom or place aforesaid.
CRUELTY TO ANIMALS
12. No person shall be guilty of wantonly,
cruelly or unnecessarily beating, abusing overdriving or torturing any cattle, poultry, dog,
domestic animal or bird, nor shall any person
while driving any cattle or other animal by
negligence, ill-use the same by means whereof
any mischief damage or injury is done to such
cattle or animal, nor shall any person encourage
aid or asisst at the fighting or baiting of any bull,
bear, badjer (sic), dog, cock or other kind of
animal whether domestic or wild nature, nor shall
any person build, make, maintain, keep or allow a
cock-pit to be built, made, maintained or kept on
premises belonging to or occupied by him.
13. Any person convicted of breach of any the
provisions of this By-Law shall forfeit and pay at
the discretion of the convicting Magistrate a fine
not exceeding fifty dollars for each offence
exclusive of costs either forthwith or within such
period as the said convicting Magistrate shall think
fit to order or be committed to prison for any term
not exceeding one month at the discretion of the
convicting Magistrate, and in case such fine and
costs shall not be paid at the time appointed, the
same may be levied by distress or sale of the goods
and chattels of the offender and for want of
sufficient distress such offender may be imprisoned for any time not exceeding one month, the
imprisonment to cease upon payment of the fine
and costs."
Winter 1983
Page 19 News and Notes
Local Support
Heritage Society of
The Dogwood Heritage Society of B.C.
(Heritage B.C.) is the provincial heritage society
affiliated with Heritage Canada. We are an
umbrella group whose primary purpose is to
facilitate communication and dissemination of
information and to act as a "voice" for our mutual
concerns about heritage.
Heritage B.C. holds a conference each year in a
different part of the province. The conference
consists of workshops (whose topics are based on
requests from the membership) and general
meetings. Travel subsidies to attend the meetings
are available for one representative of each
member group.
Heritage B.C. publishes a quarterly news
magazine, Heritage West, which is sent to each
member group. We try to include information on
group activities so that everyone is kept abreast of
current happenings in the realm of heritage. This
information is, of course, in addition to feature
articles, photo features and other items.
Heritage B.C. is designed to provide support to
local groups throughout the province. The
directors have each been assigned an area of the
province and work with groups in that area to
ascertain and attempt to meet the groups'
concerns.
When a group expresses concern about a
project, the society will write letters and make
presentations on behalf of that group. This past
year Heritage B.C. made presentations to
commissions investigating "Site C" and the
Vancouver Roundhouse. The society has been
active in preservation efforts for the Cascade
Wilderness area. Letters to government officials
have been sent supporting efforts of various
groups around the province.
When a group joins Heritage B.C. they are also
joining Heritage Canada. The Heritage Canada
foundation is a national organization working at
the national level to improve the position of
heritage conservation.
For more information write:
Heritage Society of British Columbia
P.O. Box 520
Postal Station A
Vancouver, B.C. V6C 2N3
Columbia
This year the conference will be in Delta on
June 10, 11, and 12. All heritage-minded
individuals and organizations are invited to come.
Local History
Books
Continued from last issue
The following is a list of books which were
offered for sale by the Vancouver Historical
Society at the B.C. Historical Association Annual
Conference, April 30-May 2, 1982. This list does
not include those titles which were also sold at the
B.C. Studies Conference last October and which
were listed earlier in the News (Volume 14, No. 4:
Summer 1981).
These titles are not obtainable from the
Vancouver Historical Society. They may be
purchased from the addresses listed, or, if none,
through your local bookstore.
Halpin, Marjorie M. Totem poles; an illustrated guide.
Vancouver: University of B.C. Press, 1981. $7.95.
Hastings, Margaret Lang. Along the way; an account of
page 20
British Columbia Historical News pioneering White Rock and surrounding district.
White Rock: Author, 1981. $6.95. (Margaret Lang
Hastings, City of White Rock Museum, 1030 Martin St.,
White Rock, B.C. V4B 5R3.)
Indian Masterpieces from the Walter and Marianne
Koerner Collection in the Museum of Anthropology,
University of B.C. Vancouver: U.B.C. Press, 1975. $4.95.
Johnstone, Bill. Coal dust in my blood; the
autobiography of a coal miner. Victoria: Provincial
Museum, 1980. $3.00.
Keane, Frank. The Vancouver Stock Exchange from
bucket shop to world venture money capital.
Vancouver: Chinook Communications Inc., 1981.
$8.95.
Keller, Betty. Pauline; a biography of Pauline Johnson.
Vancouver: Douglas and Mclntyre, 1981. $19.95.
Kershaw, Adrian and John Spittle. The North Bentinck
Arm route; Lt. Palmer's trail of 1862. Kelowna:
Okanagan College, 1981. $6.50 (John Spittle, 1241
Mount Crown, North Vancouver, B.C. V7R 1R9.)
Klassen, A.E. ed. Yarrow; portrait in mosaic. Rev. ed.
Yarrow, B.C. 1980. $13.95. (Miss A.E. Klassen, Box 49,
Yarrow, B.C. VOX 2A0.)
Leslie, Susan, comp. In the Western mountains; early
mountaineering in B.C. Victoria: B.C. Provincial
Archives, 1980. $3.00 (Sound Heritage No. 27.)
McMicking, Thomas M. Overland from Canada to
British Columbia. Vancouver: University of B.C. Press,
1981. $19.95.
Moore, Vincent. Angelo Branca; "gladiator of the
courts". Vancouver: Douglas and Mclntyre, 1981.
$16.95.
Norcross, Elizabeth Blanche ed. Nanaimo retrospective. Nanaimo: Nanaimo Historical Society, 1979. $7.50
(Nanaimo Historical Society, Box 933, Nanaimo, B.C.)
Norcross, Elizabeth Blanche. The warm land; a history
of Cowichan. Nanaimo, Island Books, 1975. $7.95. (E.B.
Norcross, 7109 Hamilton Ave., Nanaimo, B.C. V9R
4G6.)
Northwest Coast Indian Artifacts from the H.R.
MacMillan Collection in the Museum of Anthropology, University of B.C. Vancouver: U.B.C. Press,
1975. $4.95.
Obee, Bruce. The Gulf Islands explorer; the complete
guide. Sidney, B.C. Gray's Pub., 1981. $7.95.
Pearson, Anne. Sea-Lake; recollections and history of
Cordova Bay and Elk Lake. Victoria: Sea-Lake Editions,
1981. $8.25. (Anne Pearson, 784 Claremont Ave.,
Victoria, B.C. V8Y 1K1.)
Stacey, Duncan A. Sockeye and tinplate; technological change in the Fraser River cannery industry, 1871-
1912. Victoria: Provincial Museum, 1982. $4.00.
Treleaven, G. Fern. Rivers, roads and railways; 100
years of transportation in Surrey. Cloverdale: Surrey
Museum and Historical Society, 1981. $7.95. (Surrey
Museum and Historical Society, P.O. Box 1011,
Cloverdale, B.C. V3T 4X4.)
Treleaven, G. Fern. The Surrey story. Cloverdale, B.C.:
Surrey Museum and Historical Society, 1978. $9.95
(Surrey Museum and Historical Society, as above.)
Turner, Arther J. Somewhere — a perfect place.
Vancouver: Boag Foundation, 1981. $3.50 (Boag
Foundation, 576 Keith Road, West Vancouver, B.C.
V7T1L7.)
Turner, Robert D. Railroaders; recollections from the
steam era in British Columbia. Victoria: Provincial
Archives, 1981. $3.00 (Sound Heritage No. 31.)
Varley, Elizabeth Anderson. Kitimat my valley. Terrace,
B.C.: Northern Times Press, 1981. $12.95. (Northern
Times Press, Box 880, Terrace, B.C. V8G 4R1.)
Ward, W. Peter and Robert A.J. McDonald, comps.
British Columbia; historical readings. Vancouver:
Douglas and Mclntyre, 1981. $12.95.
Wejr, Patricia, and Howie Smith, comps. Fighting for
labour; four decades of work in British Columbia,
1910-1950. Victoria: Provincial Archives, 1978. $3.00
(Sound Heritage No. 23.)
Whitehead, Margaret. Cariboo mission; a history of
the Oblates. Victoria: Sono Nis Press, 1981. $8.95.
Whitehead, Margaret. Now you are my brother;
missionaries in British Columbia. Victoria: Provincial
Archives, 1981. $3.00. (Sound Heritage No. 34.)
MAPS
Cityscape: a map of downtown Vancouver.
Vancouver: Weiler Cartographic, 1982. $1.65. (Weiler
Cartographic, 543 East Broadway, Vancouver, B.C. V5T
1X4.)
Gold Regions of British Columbia (Epner, 1862.)
Historical Map Society of B.C. $3.00. (F. Woodward,
3794 West 24th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1L6.)
Winter 1983
Page 21 News and Notes
Reports from the Branches
Golden & District
1982 was an exceptionally good year for the
Golden and District Historical Society. The
teamwork and enthusiasm was at an all time high.
The paid staff worked so well together that one
couple became engaged in December. We ended
the year "in the black".
A Canada Community Development Project
ran at the Museum from December 7, 1981 to
December 3, 1982. Three young adults brought
order out of the chaos in the filing system, built
dozens of shelves for archival and artifact storage,
created a new room for period displays, built a
large shed to house farm implements and other
bulky artifacts, prepared the log schoolhouse for
display, painted several large signs, and
maintained good public relations with the
community.
Attendance at the museum was up by one
thousand visitors due to the many hours the
building was open. The Lions and Kinsmen gave
financial assistance to provide cement for the
front sidewalk and material to fence the property.
With fresh paint inside and out, and a groomed
lawn the Museum has become a more attractive
community facility.
Numerous personal histories, additional
photographic views of early Golden, and several
fascinating artifacts were brought to the Society
during Anniversary Days in June.
"Golden Memories — revised", came back
from the publishers on September 1st. Two
hundred copies had been sold by advance sale.
This three hundred page book is the product of a
hard working committee. Ethel King, editor,
assumed the heaviest responsibility for collecting
and compiling family histories. There are over two
hundred pictures in this book, many loaned
specially for this printing. Financial support was
obtained from New Horizons, B.C. Heritage Trust,
and sales of the previous society publication
"Kinbasket Country".
"Blaeberry Homesteaders", a unique book
prepared by a Society member, came on the
market during the summer of 1982. Arvid Seward
compiled histories of the pioneers in rural
Blaeberry and Moberly. His one hundred fifty
page book was lovingly prepared with hand
lettering, well illustrated with old photographs
and his own delightful drawings.
Yes, 1982 was a good year, tempered with
sadness at the passing of Ellen Cameron and Arvid
Seward, and illnesses of Bill Yurik, Chris Schiesser
and others.
— Naomi Miller
Nanaimo
An historical symposium, "The Company on
the Coast", was the big 1982 project of the
Nanaimo Historical Society. This symposium,
initiated by the Society, was carried out in
conjunction with Malaspina College.
The project carries forward into 1983 with the
publication in early March, it is expected, of the
symposium papers. This soft-bound, 6" x 9" book
of close to one hundred pages includes not only
the papers presented at the symposium, each with
its footnotes, but a map covering the territory with
which the papers deal, an index, a listing of
Hudson's Bay Company Archives' material, and
photographic illustrations.
The book may be obtained direct from the
Society at a cost of $5.50, which includes handling,
if received before May 15,1983. After that date it
will be carried by some book stores at a mark-up
above that amount, and orders addressed to the
Society will be filled at the same figure.
The Nanaimo Historical Society feels that this
little volume will not only be of interest to the
history buff but alsoserves as a valuable tool for the
student. Orders should be addressed to the
Nanaimo Historical Society, P.O. Box 933,
Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2.
— Elizabeth B. Norcross
page 22
British Columbia Historical News Historic Trails Update
Yukon Telegraph Trail
Last summer it was reported that I had hoped to
re-trace a section of the trail through Raspberry
Pass southeast of Telegraph Creek. Unfortunately,
in spite of a helicopter standing by to assist us
across the swollen rivers, poor weather coupled
with an extensive forest fire in the area forced last
minute cancellation of our plans.
Whilst the section between Hazelton and
Telegraph Creek had originally been surveyed by
P.J. Leech for the ill-fated Collins Overland
Telegraph, the line was not completed until the
Dominion Government built the Yukon
Telegraph.1 In 1936 it was reported:
The telegraph trail and bridges north of Hazelton
and especially along the headwaters of the Nass,
Babine, and Kispiox Rivers having been washed
out. for many miles by unusually destructive
floods, the four telegraph stations between
Hazelton and Telegraph Creek could not be
provisioned for the ensuing year and were closed,
and communication over the 325 miles of land line
was necessarily discontinued.
Telegraph service, however, was maintained to
the extreme northern portion of British Columbia
and the Yukon by means of emergency wireless
stations which, the previous year, had been
installed at Hazelton and Telegraph Creek and are
now handling this traffic very satisfactorily.2
The radio telegraph station at Telegraph Creek
was built alongside the Stikine River on the edge
of the old village and some miles downstream
from the point where the telegraph line crossed.
Its empty cabin still stands together with the
antenna poles on which the insulators still hang. It
is understood to be privately owned by someone
living in Victoria.
My interest here however lays more in the radio
equipment itself. Has any of it survived? Museums
and collectors appear to have made a concerted
effort to preserve line equipment and there is a
thriving trade throughout North America in
insulators, but little attention seems to have been
paid to the early "wireless sets". I would be
pleased to hear from any reader who has specific
knowledge of such equipment.
Cascade Wilderness
The provincial government's decision to allow
logging in the Cascade Wilderness has been a big
Dominion Telegraph Radio
Station at Telegraph Creek,
B.C. It maintained
communication with
Hazelton when four
telegraph stations on this
section were taken out by
unusually destructive floods
in 1936. The line was never
re-opened.
disappointment to the Okanagan Similkameen
Parks Society who worked so long and hard to
have this region preserved. Harley Hatfield is
reported to be directing his efforts now to cooperating with various advisory committees set up
to try and preserve as many of the trails as possible.
Victor Wilson, according to his wife, is now
working on preserving Father Pandosy's trail to
Okanagan Mission. How about a short report to
include in this column, Victor?
Dewdney Trail
A recent letter in the Vancouver Sun suggested
that a section of the Dewdney Trail through the
Pend d'Oreille valley would be threatened if the
provincial government goes ahead with a
proposal to raise Seven-Mile dam. Being
unfamiliar with the region I cannot comment
further. Once again, how about a few words from
someone in the Trail Historical Society?
1 See David R. Richeson, "The Yukon Telegraph", BCHA
News, Winter 1982 and R.C. Harris, "The Route Adopted
by the Government ...", BCHA News, Winter 1983 for
further background on the Telegraph Trail.
2 Government of Canada, Department of Public Works,
Annual Report on Government Telegraph Lines, 1936-37.
— John D. Spittle
Winter 1983
Page 23 News from the
British Columbia
Heritage Trust
The British Columbia Heritage Trust recently
awarded substantial grants to assist with major
restoration projects being undertaken around the
province.
• The Kelowna Museum Association was
awarded a grant of $45,000 toward restoration of
the Laurel-Cascade Packing House, Kelowna.
Restoration plans for this building, now owned by
the City of Kelowna and leased to the Museum,
are quite unique. Formerly a fruit packing plant, it
will be converted to a combination of commercial
and non-commercial space to provide needed
room for arts activities such as pottery, weaving,
sculpture, performance as well as area for an
Orchard Museum.
• The City of Dawson Creek is determined to save
its remaining grain elevators. In 1949, thirteen of
them dotted the city's skyline; today, only two of
these wooden structures remain. Out of necessity
the Alberta Wheat Pool Elevator was relocated
adjacent to the former Northern Alberta Railway
Station. Together, these structures will be restored
to form the nucleus of Dawson Creek's arts and
cultural centre. Aid from the Trust was provided in
the form of a $32,000 Building Restortion grant.
• Since 1945, Locomotive #374, which pulled the
first transcontinental passenger train into
Vancouver on May 23,1887, has been on display in
Kitsilano Park, Vancouver. The West Coast
Railway Association and Pacific Coast Division of
the Canada Railroad Historical Association have
Church of St Francis Xavier, Shelley
 Alberta Wheat Pool, Dawson Creek.
been awarded a grant of $40,000 (over two years)
to restore #374 to its original state for display at
EXPO '86.
• The Fort George Band, Shelley, received a
$15,000 grant to restore the Church of St Francis
Xavier, built in 1913-14. The spires are of the type
that were once manufatured in Quebec and
shipped in kit form all over the country
Historical societies provide a major impetus for
undertaking heritage projects in the province.
Recent awards made to historical societies
include:
■ A grant of $3,900 was awarded to the Wells
Historical Society for restoration of the Wells Pool
Hall. Funds were providedfor stabilization of the
building as the first phase of its restoration.
■ The Riondel Historical Society received a $4,000
grant to restore the Riondel Gold Club House.
This log structure, built in 1905 by Lord Ebury, was
used as a private residence until 1951.
■ The Nanaimo Historical Society was awarded a
grant of $1,300 to assist with publication of the
findings of their symposium "The Company on
the Coast" held in the spring of 1982.
■ A $2,000 grant was awarded to the Golden &
District Historical Society in support of publication
of their local history entitled, Golden Memories.
- Roberta J. Pazdro
page 24
British Columbia Historical News Bookshelf
AN ACCOUNT OF A VOYAGE TO THE NORTH
WEST COAST OF AMERICA IN 1785 AND 1786 BY
ALEXANDER WALKER. Robin Fisher & J.M.
Bumsted, eds., Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre,
1982. P. 319, illus., $24.95.
The first publication of Alexander Walker's account
of his voyage with James Strange is a significant event.
Considering its importance to the history of the North
West Coast, it is natural to speculate why we have had
to wait for it so long. To publish it now, the editors
point out, is "the belated accomplishment of the
author's intentions", but in undertaking the task of
bring it to the light of day, they clearly had a higher
purpose and have served Walker well.
Strange's journal of the same voyage has recently
been reprinted by Ye Galleon Press (and reviewed in
British Columbia Historical News, Fall, 1982). The
appearance of Walker's so soon afterwards is
fortuitous as they complement each other to an
unusual degree. Even though the expedition fell far
short of its ambitious objectives and was a failure from
a commercial and geographic point of view, Walker's
account — and to a lesser extent Strange's — must be
considered a positive result. The account covers a one
month stay in Nootka Sound and seventeen days in
Prince William Sound. The scope of his observations
and the conclusions he draws constitute a major
document of ethnohistory and must rank in
importance with Cook, written eight years earlier, and
Mozifio, six years later.
Walker was a young ensign in the service of the East
India Company. His restless nature, combined with
the poor economic prospects of the Company, led
him to seek a leave of absence to participate in a
proposed fur trading expedition to the North West
Cost of America. Strange planned this venture to be
the first since the publication of Cook's Third Voyage
had revealed the high prices to be obtained for sea
otter furs in Canton. Walker wrote in his preface, "as...
nothing but peace for a long time [was] to be
expected, I thought I could not employ myself better
than visiting a country little known which might afford
many objects of curiosity". In point of fact, he
expected to remain behind in charge of a small
detachment of fifteen Company soldiers as a token of
occupation should Strange's "prospects succeed."
Walker does not explain why it did not come about
and the surgeon, Mackay, was left behind alone
instead.
The journal now published is not the one Walker
kept on the expedition. The original was apparently
lost in transit to England. Walker was able to
reconstruct it over the years from notes and extracts he
had copied. His foresight in retaining these was
fortunate as what we have now, in the words of the
editors, "represents a subtle blending of the first hand
observations of the young observer with the critical
understanding of the mature soldier, veteran of thirty
years of Indian service."
This service, which enabled him to develop a serious
interest in native cultures also gave him a longer view
of what he had observed, recorded and read. As a
consequence, his findings and conclusions are much
less Eurocentric ("May we not be unjust in our
judgment of Savages? When we accuse them of cruel
and treacherous actions, have we made sufficient
allowance for their Motives and Feelings? Europeans
inflict on them injuries, and then complain that they
show their resentment by the only means in their
Power ... Those who visit their Shores imagine that
they have a right to constitute themselves their
Judges.")
Successive revisions enabled him to change some of
his conclusions, as for example, on the tortured
question of cannibalism. His approach was that of a
trained observer rather than of a scientist such as
Mozino, but little escaped his curiosity. His interests
extended beyond anthropology and ethnology as
evidenced by passages devoted to birds, plants, fish,
climate, soil, trees food and minerals. Of particular
interest is his "memoir" on the fur trade, its
economics, prospects and suggestions for improving
on methods of the day which are in fact a criticism of
Strange.
What stands out in a close reading of this fascinating
document is Walker's acute perception and shrewd
judgment. He quickly sensed, for example, the extent
to which Maquinna sought to monopolize the fur
trade, the need for conservation of the resource if the
trade was to last, the arrangement of families in multi-
family houses, the protocol surrounding tribal
hierarchy, the the "lucrative commerce" which could
be developed in India and China in forest products.
Added to this faculty is a capacity for recording
>♦♦♦♦♦*♦<
Patricia Roy is the Book Review Editor. Copies of
books for review should be sent to her c/o B.C
Historical News, P.O. Box 1738, Victoria, B.C. V8W
2Y3.
Winter 1983
Page 25 Bookshelf
important details that escaped others. He notes, for
example, that women are better sources of
information than men; he gives detailed descriptions
of arms and weapons, and tools for household use. He
writes in an unpretentious, straightforward style,
interspersing his comments periodically with such
philosophical gems as "hospitality is not perhaps a
Savage virtue."
The editors, both distinguished scholars, have
approached their task with both the expert and the
non-expert in mind. Complementing their excellent
introduction are nearly five hundred informative
footnotes, some of them little essays in themselves.
The footnotes are to be found at the end of the
volume and printed sequentially, a device which
makes consultation much less frustrating. (One minor
error was noted: in footnote 474, the names of the
commanders of the ships of the Spanish expedition of
1775, the SONORA and the SANTIAGO, have been
reversed. Bodega commanded the former and Heceta
the latter, not the other way 'round).
The publishers are to be congratulated on a well-
produced volume. The sturdy binding will ensure
many hours of handling. The design is particularly
pleasing and the colour of the ink, an off tint, is
relaxing on the eyes. The maps are uncluttered and
relevant to the text. The illustrations, however, are not
as sharp as they might be, but this is a minor fault.
Unfortunately only one page of seven of Walker's
pencil sketches of weapons and household artifacts is
reproduced.
Freeman Tovell has a long-standing interest in
maritime exploration. He recently spoke to the
Victoria Section of the BCHA on the voyage of yuan
Francisco de la Boega y Quadra.
GENTLEMEN EMIGRANTS: FROM THE BRITISH
PUBLIC SCHOOLS TO THE CANADIAN FRONTIER. Patrick A. Dunae. Vancouver: Douglas &
Mclntyre, 1981, P. viii, 276, illus., $18.95
A well-bred Englishman who had lost his way nearly
died of thirst beside a river. He did not drink the water
because "I didn't have a bally drinking cup, don'tcher
know." (p. 135) Such stories ridiculing gentlemen
emigrants were very popular in Canada at the turn of
the century, and helped to establish the image of the
snobbish, lazy, incompetent, remittance man, paid to
remain in the colonies for the good of his family at
home.
Patrick Dunae seeks to rescue gentlemen emigrants
from the negative stereotype which in the early
twentieth century turned them all into ne'er-do-well
remittance men and from the neglect which in more
recent years has concealed their experiences. He
shows that the gentlemen emigrants were a diverse as
well as a controversial and colourful group.
They came to Canada in two waves. In the period
before 1870, half-pay officers attracted by land grants
in the colonies were joined by adventurers lured by
the discovery of gold in the interior of British
Columbia. In the second and much larger wave which
increased in size up to the First World War, the
gentlemen emigrants were generally younger and less
experienced in the ways of the world. Indeed the
modern reader is struck by the number of references
to youths of sixteen or eighteen years of age who came
to Canada to make their living.
These emigrants were often younger sons whom
the laws of primogeniture and the rise of competitive
exams barred from employment considered
respectable for a gentleman in Britain. Wealthy or
poor, from bourgeois or aristocratic backgrounds,
emigrants were distinguished as gentlemen because
they had received the education of a gentleman,
usually at a British public school.
Individuals come to life in Gentlemen Emigrants.
Along with their sisters, gentlemen emigrants were
Canada's most literate settlers. They liked to write and
they wrote well. Hence they have left rich accounts of
their experiences in both published and unpublished
form. Dunae has researched the emigrants' own
record very thoroughly and he uses their letters,
diaries and memoirs to communicate the detail and
flavour of individual lives. The personal accounts are
organized to illustrate the range of activity undertaken
by gentlemen emigrants.
In Ontario, gentlemen emigrants became part of
the white collar labour force. James Cockburn, who
liked the social life of the city, achieved contentment
perched on a high stool in the office of a patent
solicitor in muddy Ottawa. Frederick DelaFosse finally
acquired financial security as chief librarian in
Peterborough after discouraging attempts to survive
in the West by bucking cordwood, working as a navvy,
shovelling coal, and delivering newspapers.
For other gentlemen emigrants, western Canada
presented strong attractions. In the West, British sons
of gentle birth or breeding could associate with other
expatriate British gentlemen and attempt to recreate
the essence of British country society on the ranches of
Alberta and British Columbia, in the fruit growing
district of the Okanagan, in the farming and sheep
raising areas of Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands
or in cloistered colonies such as Cannington Manor
on the the prairies.
The Church brothers, who established themselves
on a ranch near Calgary after a not particularly
profitable spell as farm pupils in Ontario, are most
page 26
British Columbia Historical News Bookshelf
memorable for their very large steamer trunk, the
"Woolwich Infant". The"Woolwich Infant" seems to
symbolize much of the culture which the emigrants
hoped to transport cross the Atlantic, for in addition to
clothes suited to a gentleman, it contained fishing rods
and tackle, sporting rifles, tennis rackets, cricket bats,
medicine, books, and games.
Dunae's sympathetic portrayal of the gentlemen
emigrants is intended to draw attention to the
contributions they made to Canada. Many of the
individual emigrants whom he uses as examples did
indeed achieve material and social success in the
Dominion. However, any general assessment of the
fate of gentlement emigrants as a group is much more
difficult. It is obvious in the book that there were also
gentlemen emigrants who failed, who took to drink,
who were unable to adapt to the work required of
them in Canada.
The balance between those who succeeded and
those who failed, between those who made
contributions and those who became a problem,
remains obscure. The evidence does not exist for
definitive conclusions, but a more detailed analysis,
even in appendices, of the school and institutional
records used by Duane would help to complement
the rich personal memoires of the emigrants.
Dunae also proceeds only part way towards his aim
of demonstrating that the gentlemen emigrants were
members of a distinct ethnic group. Fascinating
glimpses of the relation between ethnicity, social class,
and culture recur throughout the book, but the
significance is not developed.
Gentlemen emigrants were avid sportsmen. Again
and again Dunae makes reference to the importance
which gentlemen emigrants attached to hunting,
tennis, or cricket, and to the way in which sporting
activities gave cohesion to their society. The role of
sport in defining or reinforcing the ethnicity and social
class of the gentlemen emigrants begs for more
attention.
One hopes the interest aroused by Dunae's very
readable account of the trials, adventures, and
contributions of the gnetlemen emigrants will lead to
further studies.
Marilyn Barker, who teaches Canadian history at
Carleton University, is preparing a study of
gentlewomen emigrants.
*4,
BUILDERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: AN
INDUSTRIAL HISTORY. G.W. Taylor. Victoria:
Morriss Publishing, 1982. P. 231, illus., $15.95
(cloth). [Available through Sono Nis Press, 1745
Blanshard Street, Victoria, B.C.]
Applying the word "industrial" in the broadest
sense to mean "trade" rather than simply
"manufacturing", Geoffrey Taylor's Builders of British
Columbia explores the business history of British
Columbia from the beginning of white settlement to
the present. After examining the evolution of B.C.'s
transportation network from nineteenth century
roads and riverboats to today's air transportation and
pipelines, the book considers the role played by
communications systems in binding the diverse areas
of the province into an interconnected whole.
Concluding Taylor's overview are chapters on
►♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦<
Content
A recent book, To Market, To Market: The Public Market
Tradition in Canada by Linda Biesenthal (Toronto: PMA, 1980,
$22.95) is a handsomely illustrated study of public markets across
Canada. It does not, however, include photographs of the oldest
continuing public market in British Columbia. In what city is it
located?
The British Columbia Historical News will award a copy of To
Market, To Market for the first correct answer drawn in our
spring contest Entries should reach the editor (P.O. Box 1738,
Victoria, B.C. V8W 2Y3) before May 15,1983.
Winter 1983
Page 27 Bookshelf
metropolitan centres, manufacturing enterprises,
electrical power, and coastal harbour facilities.
Taylor's narrative is typical of a form of historical
writing that aims to present a wealth of information
about the province's past in a readable fashion to a
non-academic audience. For the most part he
succeeds in this endeavour. The author has
researched the topic extensively through archival,
dissertation, and manuscript sources, most of which
are well known to those specializing in the field. But
Taylor does break new ground when discussing the
critically important role of the Huddersfield,
Yorkshire, accounting firm of Armitage and Norton in
channelling money into the Victoria and Vancouver
real estate and utilities markets during the 1890s.
Geoffrey Taylor is much more assured when stating
the bare facts of history than he is when interpreting
their significance. The interrelationship between, and
chronological significance of, events often leave him
confused.Thus we are told at one point that in the early
days "all merchandise from both Vancouver Island
and the mainland" was funnelled through Victoria, yet
on the same page (p.126) we learn that only the
"greater portion" of imports took this route. Taylor
states that by 1914 Victoria "was fast becoming the
administrative centre of B.C." (p.131), a fact that would
have seemed odd to the colony's administrative elite
of the late 1860s or the province's political elite of the
1890s. Vancouver is said to have "first gained
metropolitan status" after 1905 (p.139), a position it
had clearly attained by the turn of the century. And in
one of the most curious passages, Taylor concludes
that "the three most influential economic units in
B.C." in the late 1920s were the Vancouver Province,
B.C. Telephone Company, and B.C. Electric Railway
Company (p. 112). One wonders why these three
organizations should be considered more influential
to the B.C. economy that such industrial giants as the
Canadian Pacific Railway, the Canadian Western
Lumber Company, or the Powell River Paper
Company.
Much clearer are Taylor's economic and social
biases. Builders of British Columbia is a hymn of praise
to the men and companies who shaped the province's
commercial landscape. Taylor's approach does not
include a structural analysis of the economic forces
that underpinned B.C.'s business growth. Rather,
history is seen as occurring from the top down,
created by larger-than-life men such as "the great
booster" Frank McMahon (p.86) and the "great" trail
builder Edgar Dewdney (p.127). The'large companies
they created are viewed as necessary and positive
agents of the province's constantly progressing
economic development. Landmark buildings, the
visible symbols of corporate success, are often
presented in heroic terms. Taylor virtually ignores the
fishing industry because, as he says it "built no roads,
attracted no railroads, established no major towns
(with the possible exception of Steveston) ... (p.17).
Obscured by this rush to find tangible evidence of
material progress are more subtle, but often more
significant measures of economic development. For
example, lost in Taylor's narrative are the significant
profits that accrued to Victoria merchants from the
salmon trade during the 1890s, a reflection of salmon
canning's pre-eminent position, along with Island coal
mining, in the coastal economy of the decade. Also
missing are the workers who, no less than the
entrepreneurs, made significant contributions to
B.C.'s industrial expansion. Taylor's "builders", in
short, are the very opposite of the miners, sawmill
workers, fishermen, and labourers praised forty-five
years ago by socialist William Bennett in another book
entitled Builders of British Columbia. In his own way
Taylor is as much a polemicist for the capitalist class in
western Canada's "Company Province" as Bennett
was earlier for the opposing workers.
Robert A.J.  McDonald teaches British Columbia
history at the University of British Columbia.
DM
ARCHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. Chuen-yan
David Lai. Victoria: Sono Nis Press, 1982, Pp. 122,
illus., $8.95 paper.
The unusual nature of David Lai's study is justified by
the once prominent place such architectural
ephemera as arches held for communities. The arches
were temporary tribute to visiting Canadian or foreign
dignitaries, or were intended to celebrate a notable
event. The historical record regarding such structures,
as Lai points out in his preface, is silent on exactly how
many have been built, but his excellent research
uncovered over 120 arches erected between 1869 and
1946.
The earliest instance found by Lai were the four
arches put up by Barkerville in 1869 to celebrate the
visit of Governor Anthony Musgrave. Among the
arches greeting his visit was the volunteer firemen's
hook, ladder and bucket balancing act. A photograph
of this arch is probably the oldest visual record in the
province of such structures.
The Barkerville arches, however, were not the first
to have been built. Victoria erected three arches to
commemorate the arrival of Governor Arthur E.
Kennedy on March 25,1864. Who paid for these has
not been determined, but it was likely through
donations. The arches were put up across the James
Bay Bridge; at the corner of Yates and Government
streets; and on Dickson, Campbell & Co.'s wharf
page 28
British Columbia Historical News Bookshelf
where the governor was to disembark.
The three newspapers reported various aspects of
the construction work as well as criticizing features
such as the mottoes ("might be considered in
questionable taste") and the portraits ("rather a tax
upon the imaginative powers"). Victoria was not alone
in arch construction for that event; Esquimalt also put
up two arches for Kennedy. The latter arches,
reported the Da/7y Chronicle, were built without a
subscription list (contributions).
Four other major visits for which arches were
erected were meticulously researched by Lai. The
background to each occasion is clearly stated and the
route of each tour described and depicted in separate
maps. Over 75 photos illustrate the diverse and
ceremonial splendour of these objects.
The detailed treatments are preceded by an
introduction to the subject of arches in general, their
history and their engineering aspects. An overview of
arches in British Columbia's history is also presented.
The final chapter covers the author's role in the
development of the Gate of Harmonious Interest in
Victoria's Chinatown, only one of three permanent
arches in the province (mini-quiz: What are the other
two arches?)
Footnotes to source material and an index makethis
work a good reference tool. None of the
photogrpahers, except for one, has been credited, but
there is a source list. The caption information is
minimal; some linking has been done between text
and photos, but none between photos and text. The
reproductions are halftone and the quality varies. A
few spelling errors and a couple of dating errors mar
an otherwise fine production.
David Mattison is an archivist and photo-historian in
the Sound and Moving Image Division, Provincial
Archives of British Columbia.
A READER'S GUIDE TO CANADIAN HISTORY2:
CONFEDERATION TO THE PRESENT. J.L.
Granatstein and Paul Stevens, eds. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press, 1982. P. xiv, 329. $8.95
paper.
This bibliographical guide is a revised and expanded
version of two earlier editions. The Guide's purpose is
to "focus on the most recent research and writing in
the major areas of Canadian historical writing", to
provide critical comment, the location of articles or
publishers, and, in general, to aid newcomers to the
field of Canadian history. In this edition new chapters
have been added on urban history, labour history,
British Columbia and the North. The latter two
chapters are the focus of this review.
In the past ten years a number of British Columbia
history courses have been established in the provincial
universities and in a few regional colleges and courses
with British Columbia historical content have been
taught in the high schools. This well-organized
bibliographic aid prepared by Patricia Roy adds critical
insight into the many disparate sources available for
use in these courses. A comprehensive guide, it is well-
organized under headings which effectively reflect
the diversity of the society and history of the province.
The book in general and the section on British
Columbia in particular reveal a scholaraly interest.
Outlining developments in historiographical debate
will arouse interest mainly among college and
university academics though the "rating" of articles
provides an invaluable basic tool for a teacher. The
Guide is especially useful when used in conjunction
with Jean Friesen's "Introduction" to Historical Essays
on British Columbia edited by J. Friesen and Keith
Ralston and the list of works on British Columbia in the
bibliography prepared by Alan Artibise, Western
Canada Since 1870.
The section on the North begins with a general note
on reference which attempts to define the region.
These baselines have been mainly supplied by
geographers although in The Opening of the
Canadian North Morris Zaslow, the author of this
bibliographic essay, provides an excellent analysis with
much detail and defines the broad outlines of
We invite you to attend the ninth annual
conference of the Canadian Oral History
Association to be held at the University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, on June 2 and 3,1983.
Our conferences are designed to allow
delegates to share the latest developments and
research findings in the field of oral history.
For the last four years COHA conferences have
been held in conjunction with the Learned
Societies conference. Registered delegates may
therefore attend sessions of other associations and
avail themselves of services provided by the
conference.
For further information please contact:
Allen Specht
Provincial Archives of British Columbia
Legislative Buildings
Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4 Phone 387-6748.
Winter 1983
Page 29 Bookshelf
northern history. The section has been organized
under the headings reflecting characteristics of the
main historical epochs of the north with one notable
omission, the Yukon gold rush for which readers must
refer to Zaslow's book.
It has been said by good authority that the North has
captured the imagination of non-northerners by the
"double illusions" of either "mirages or disappointments". The extreme views of the North — a southern
hinterland, or a wilderness never to be touched; a
place inhabited by the good Indian, the noble savage,
or the bad Indian "devoid of technical skills,"
"drunken," "irresponsible" — are illusions which can
only be overcome by a more systematic and analytic
approach.
Harold A. Innis once remarked that development in
Canada, particularly the West and the North was
frenetic and telescoped in an intensity comparable to
a cyclone. The prevailing myths and illusions held by
many Canadians about the North in correlation with a
rate of growth in that region which is apparently
accelerating once again make knowledge of the area
vital. It is a vast fragmented land in a geographic, social,
and as most recently demonstrated, a political and
psychological sense. This Guide provides a basic tool
for such serious historical analysis.
W.A. Sloan teaches History at Selkirk College and has a
special interest in the North.
New Titles
Bernard, Elaine. The longdistance feeling: a history of the
Telecommunications Workers Union. Vancouver, New
Star Books, 1982. 180 p., $14.95.
Blackman, Margaret B. During my time: the life history of
Forence Edenshaw Davidson, a Haida woman.
Vancouver, Douglas & Mclntyre, 1982,192 p., $24.95
Bowman, Phylis. Land of liquid sunshine. Prince Rupert,
B.C., the author, 1981. 144 p., $16.95
Breen, David and Kenneth Coates. The Pacific National
Exhibition: an illustrated history. Vancouver, University
of British Columbia Press, 1982. vi. 121 p., ill. $22.00 bd.,
$10.95 pbk.
Breen, David and Kenneth Coates. Vancouver's Fair: an
administrative and political history of the Pacific National
Exhibition. Vancouver, University of British Columbia
Press, 1982. 192 p., $24.00.
Chan, Anthony B. Gold mountain: the Chinese in the
new world. Vancouver, New Star Books, 1982. 270 p.,
$14.95.
Green, Lewis. The boundary hunters: surveying the 141st
meridian and the Alaska panhandle. Vancouver,
University of British Columbia Press, 1982. 256 p., $18.95
Haig-Brown, Roderick. Writings and reflections from the
world of Roderick Haig-Brown. Edited by Ann Haig-
Brown. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1982. 222 p.,
$16.95.
Hastings, Margaret Lang. Along the way —; an account of
pioneering White Rock and surrounding district in British
Columbia. White Rock. M.L. Hastings, c1981. Available
from author, 15560 Russell Avenue, White Rock V4B 2R3.
Lembke, Jerry and William Tatum. One union in wood: a
history of the International Woodworkers of America.
Madeira Park, B.C., Harbour Publishing, 1982. 200 p
$9.95.
MacKay, Donald. Empire of wood: the MacMillan
Bloedel story. Vancouver, Douglas & Mclntyre, 1982. 416
p., $24.95.
York, Lillian, ed. Lure of the South Peace: tales of the early
pioneers to 1945. Dawson Creek, South Peace Historical
Book Committee, 1981. 1050 p., ill., $30.00.
The B.C. Heritage Trust has granted financial aid to
the following recently published books:
Historic Railroads of the Powell River Area, R. Ken Bradley,
B.C. Railway Historical Association, Victoria, 1982. 99 p., ill.
Whistle Stops Along the Columbia River Narrows: A History
of Burton and the Surrounding Area, published by the
Burton New Horizons Book Committee (Box 25, Burton,
B.C. VOG 1E0), 1982. 411 p., ill.
Totem Poles of Prince Rupert, Frank Drew and Dawn
Hassett, Museum of Northern B.C., 1982.
Skeena: A River Remembered. Joan Skogan, B.C. Packers
Limited, 1983. Distributed by Raincoast Book Distrib.,
Vancouver. 99 p., ill.
The Rainbow Chasers, Ervin Austin MacDonald, Douglas &
Mclntyre, 1982. 272 p.
Frontier Theatre, Chad Evans, Sono Nis Press, Victoria, 1983.
326 p., ill.
Historic Armstrong and Its Street Names, Jessie An n Gamble
& Mary H.E. Blackburn (Editors), Skookum Productions Ltd.,
Penticton, 1982. 100 p., ill.
Because of Gold, Branwen C. Patenaude. (Available from
Branwen C. Patenaude, 1582 Beach Crescent, Quesnel, B.C.
V2J 4J6.) 88 p., ill.
Ninety Years of Vernon Illustrated, Edna Oram and John
Shephard, Greater Vernon Board of Museum and Art
Gallery, 1982. 98 p., ill.
Golden Memories, Ethel King, Golden & District Historical
Society, 1982. 314 p., ill.
75th Anniversary: The History of the University Women's
Club, 1907-1982, Phyllis Reve, The University Women's Club
of Vancouver, 1982. 102 p., ill.
Page 30
British Columbia Historical News THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Honorary Patron:
Honorary President:
His Honour, The Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, Henry P. Bell-Irving
Anne Stevenson, Box 4570, Williams Lake, V2G 2V6
392-4356 (res.)
Officers
President:
1st Vice President:
2nd Vice President:
Secretary:
Treasurer:
Members-at-Large
Past-President:
Ex Officio:
Barbara Stannard, #211-450 Stewart Ave., Nanaimo, V9S 5E9
754-6195 (res.)
Leonard G. McCann, #2-1430 Maple St., Vancouver, V6J 3R9
736-4431 (bus.)
Naomi Miller, Box 1338, Golden, VOA 1H0
344-6447
Frances Gundry, 255 Niagara St., Victoria, V8V 1G4
385-6353 (res.)
387-3623 (bus.)
J. Rhys Richardson, 2875 W. 29th, Vancouver, V6L 1Y2
733-1897 (res.)
Tom Carrington, 125 Linden St., Victoria, V8V 4E2
383-3446 (res.)
Myrtle Haslam, 1875 Wessex Road, Cowichan Bay, VOR 1N0
748-8397 (res.)
Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River, V9W 3P3
287-8097 (res.)
John Bovey, Provincial Archivist, Victoria, V8V 1X4
387-3621 (bus.)
Maureen Cassidy, Editor, B.C Historical News, 2781 Seaview Rd.,
Victoria, V8N 1K7
477-6283 (res.)
Chairmen of Committees:
Historic Trails: John D. Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Rd., North Vancouver, V7R 1R9
Place Names Committee: Winnifred Weir, Box 774, Invermere, VOA 1K0
342-9562 (res.)
B.C. Historical News Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River, V9W 3P3
Policy Committee: 287-8097 (res.)
Publications Assistance Committee (not involved with S.C. Historical News):
Helen Akrigg, 4633 W. 8th Ave., Vancouver, V6R 2A6
228-8606 (res.) IT
1983
ANNUAL CONVENTION
British Columbia Historical Association
NEW WESTMINSTER
JUNE 2 - 5
REGISTRATION FORM INSIDE

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