British Columbia History

BC Historical News Jun 30, 1975

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JUNE 1975
DtOlliliO    fvLGMA   SWKttO
Vol. 8 No. 4 June 1.975
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to members
of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their respective
societies. Subscription rate to non-members: $5.00 Canadian per year,
including postage, directly from the Editor, Mr P.A. Yandle, 3450 West
20th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1.E4.
Deadline for submissions: the 1.0th day of each month of issue.
Executive 1974-75
Hon. Patron:
Lieut-Gov. Walter Owen
Hon. President:
Dr Margaret Ormsby
Mr Frank Street
Past President:
Col. G.S. Andrews
1st Vice-President:
Mr Jack Roff
2nd Vice-President:
Mr Alf Slocomb
Mr Philip A. Yandle
Recording Secretary:
Mr Robert Watt
Mr & Mrs P.A. Yandle
Miss Jill Rowland
Executive members:
Mr Donald New
Mr Rex Tweed
A Flight into Fantasy with a Spanish Flavour 2
Minutes 5
Society Notes & Comments 1.0
Report, by Anne Stevenson, Historic Sites Adv. Bd.   12
Jottings 14
Sound Heritage 1.6"
B.C. Books of interest 17
Book Reviews:
Success & Failure : by W.T. Stanbury 18
Great Gold fields of Cariboo, by W.C Hazlitt 21
Charles Marega, by Doreen Imredy 22
The cover series for Volume 8, drawn by Robert Genn, focuses on
the early Sp anish explorers to the Northwest Coast. During the summer
of 1792 Galiano in the Sutil, in company with Commander Valdes in the
Mexicana, made an examination of the channels bejjween what is now
Vancouver Island and the mainland. A FLIGHT INTO FANTASY WITH A SPANISH FLAVOUR
How much do you know of the Island
Especially the North and the West
Have you ever been over to Friendly Cova.
If you haven't, then you've missed the best.
This year's gathering was at Campbell River,
A place famous for salmon and trees.
You won't see any of the Campbell plaid here
And the men cover their braw bonny knees.
We arrived up-island around Thursday noon,
And picked up our stuff at the Museum.
"There's going to be an eclipse of the moon
If you stay here you bet you'll see 'urn."
We'd made our reservations at the Discovery Inn,.
And so trotted over to fill out the "ticket".
I nearly lost about ten years' groiSrth;
Why bless my soul - that's a picket.
The management said "There's no need for alarm,
It's an illegal strike by our maide".
"You'd better be right, for we'll not stay here
In spite of the deposit we've paid."
That afternoon we were for Kelsey Bay,
To watch how they fall the big trees;
We were a cheery bunch in that pouring rain;
They were all doing their best to please.
When we arrived at the camp we all got out
And we were ushered into a large hall
Where a feast was in store of rich creamy cakes
You could see "arches" starting to fall.
With our bellies well "loaded" we got back in the bus;
Each bus had been assigned a guide
Who described every trick in the lumbering game
In a voice that was brimming with pride.
We saw the logs .dumped and rode the "main line"
That took us back where they were logging
But 'nary a tree die" we see bite the dust;
The fallers had quit and gone joggingl
By the time we returned, there was no strike
And we were now in a legal "pad";
We could trot off to the Legion and meet the folk
And drink just whatever they had. Next morning there would be Council at nine
And get on the buses at ten-thirty; ■
Look out Gold River, we're on our way
Past your rivers and lakes so 'purty'.
The hospitality and church basement lunch
That awaited us at Gold River
Nearly made a convert out of me
Who has spent most of his life, a loose liverl
We were bused to the boats in chosen groups
As there were some who might revile the sea;
The seasoned salts got the smaller boats
And the land-lubbers the Uchuck III.
Three boats set out for Nootka Sound
And we started like a handicap race;
It was apparent quite soon to any of this crew
That the Uchuck was setting the pace.
We'd been assigned to boat Number Two
Who stayed well up in her place,
But Boat Number One soon fell behind
Till we thought she had quit the race.
Gore Island was passed and Anderson Point
When from up front came a thunderous cheer;
"There's Resolution Cove, what a beautiful sight
Then we knew for sure, we were there.
Sure there was more to come at Friendly Cove
And we stopped at the old cannery site,
And the ghosts from the past were present I'm sure
As we walked through the ruins and blight.
We were back once more to the bustle of life
At Gold River we had a dinner date;
One hundred and fifty palates to assuage
That meant we'd get back quite late.
We all assembled on a beautiful morn
At the Masonic Hall for THE meeting;
There -.was lots of business we must deal with
For our time was fast a-fleeting.
Our Pres. Frank Street and Alderman Salts
Made us welcome as we all sat in wonder,
And then it was business, the good solid stuff
Till the Secretary brought up some -founder.
He said he was sick of undemocratic rules
That made our elections a scandal
He read a resolution, he wanted to be passed
Or the next secretary's name wouldn't be Yandle. It was just at that moment, brave Donald got up
"What you're doing0 he said, "is illegal"
"You can have the resolution, and election too,
If you do it my way, it'll be legal.
Good sense had prevailed, and justice was done
And everyone went away most pleased.
We'd had all the reports and several motions too
Just as though the whole thing had been greased.
The tough going was over, and now it was fun;
The Haig-Browns' had:invited us for tea;
The arrangements were made to take us in shifts
To accommodate the whole company.
They have a sylvan setting by the Campbell River
That took me back to when I was a lad;
A house cradled by nature, all bluebells and trees
And that I could be there made me glad. •
We chatted and gossiped, stjriLled down to the river
Oh, the weather was simply divine.-
Both Roderick and Anne were perfect hosts
Such a delectable tea and wine.
(On a caper like this, there's no loitering around
One mustn't be late for the banquet)
So we said farewell to Roderick and Anne
And for them "may the Lord be thankit".
At every Convention, no matter what place
There comes a time to pause and think
And week out old friends of very long standing
And have them drop in for a drink.
It's hard to realise how time does fly
Why, my gracious, it's twenty to eight
We've got to go out to the Masonic Hall
We'll have to take my car or be late.
Now Banquets can be a lot of fun
With good food and a speaker of class
I knew Tomas was honed to razor sharp
As I stood and topped up my glass.
When I turned around and: got a preview
Of what indeed was a gourmet's delight
No wonder there was to' b& an eclipse of the moon
This would be a terrific night.
The feeding went on, with a clacking of teeth
Well mixed with gastric juices;
And the hale and the frail trotted up for seconds
While the wine flowed like opened sluices. Then came a pause and we went out to see
If the moon show was any more spectacular;
Then a call from the Pres, for "silence please "
And Tomas broke into the vernacular.
Then he went to work to show us how
If the Spaniards had carried out their plan
To christianize the native people
That would have eliminated the Englishman.
But like many plans, they were never fulfilled
So all that is left to their fame
Are the memorable dates of the voyages made
And the places that bear Spanish names.
He led us on in his impassioned talk
That would be folly to try to relate
But suffice it to say, he's beyond compare
And as an actor he's simply great.
But like all good things, it came to an end
And the applause and thanks were said,
The Secretary got a pictorial award
And it was time to head back to bed.
Outside the moon was still trying hard
But Tomas he could not eclipse
He had made it full circle all on his own
While the moon was just an ellipse.
Now that's the Bard's story of Seventy-five;
It has just become part of our history;
Make up your mind if you didn't attend
Victoria, next year, won't be a mystery.
4th Council meeting of the B.C. Historical Association for
1974-75, held in the Discovery Inn, Campbell River, May 23rd, 1975-
Present: F. Street (Pres.); J. Roff (First Vice-Pres,); A. Slocomb
(2nd Vice-Pres.); J. Rowland (Treas.); P. Yandle (Sec); A. Yandle
(Co-Editor); A, Turner (Prov. Archivist); K. Leeming (Victoria);
M. Jordon (E. Kootenay); D. New (Gulf Islands); R. Tweed (Campbell
River); R. Barnett (Campbell River); R. Watt (Vancouver); A. Bramhall
(Burnaby); H. Ford (Alberni); E. Stephenson (Chemainus); J.L. NichoUs
(Nanaimo); J.L. Campbell (Gulf Islands).
The President called the meeting to order at 9.00 a.m. Moved
Yandle, seconded New that the minutes of the last Council meeting be
adopted as circulated - Carried.
The S cretary reported that the Association's new brochure was now
printed an! available for use for promoting new affiliations. Moved Jordon, seconded Leeming That the committee be thanked for the excellence
of the new brochure. - Carried.
The Secretary reported on the correspondence he had entered into
with regard to the offer from Mr Gordon Hills of the Tacoma Public Library
to produce a cumulative index for the B.C. Historical Quarterly. He
felt that the Association should be prepared to give all assistance
possible to this project and be prepared to contribute financially to
assure its completion. Moved J0rdon, seconded Slocomb that the Secretary
proceed with this matter and ascertain what financial involvement we could
entail. Carried.
The President reported on the Captain Cook Celebration Committee and
gave a brief outline of the three preliminary meetings that have been
held so far. He asked Mr Allan Turner to bring the delegates up to date
as far as he could as to what the Provincial Government was prepared to
do. Mr Turner stated that he felt the Provincial Secretary approved in
principle the idea of a celebration in 1.978. The Department of Education
bad programming under way for involving the schools. In discussion with
Mr Yorke Edwards, Director of the Provincial Museum, Mr Turner and he were
both in agreement regarding exhibits, but had not entered into the
possibility of there being any travelling exhibits. There had been
overtures made to Bryce Mackasey, Postmaster General, for a series of
commemorative stamps for that year, but no decision would be made until
It was unfortunate that no plans had been made for involving the
native people, and because of the existing problems he felt that it would
be unwise to make any publicity of this fact at this particular time.
Any ideas for stamps, together with specific information, should be
made as a direct suggestion to Mr Laurie Wallace, Deputy Provincial Secretary.
In response to th© suggestion that Mr Laurie Wallace be a Provincial
Chairman of the Cook Celebration Committees, Mr Turner could give no
opinion and felt that such a request should be directed personally to Mr
The request for affiliation with the B.C. Historical Association by
the Cowiehan Valley Historical Society was presented by the Secretary.
Moved Yandle, seconded Leeming that they be accepted. - Carried.
The question of our representative on the Historic Sites Advisory
Board was raised and the Secretary stated he had a very detailed report
from her to read at the Annual General Meeting. It was unfortunate that
Mrs Stevenson could not be prese nt at the Convention, but her duties on
behalf of Cariboo College at Kamloops must take precedence. The reading
•of the report was waived at this time.
The Secretary reported he had written to the Government supporting the
plea made by James Nesbitt to save the mosaic floor tiles in the Parliament
Buildings. His action was fully supported by Council.
Mrs Ruth Barnett read a letter from Verna Jack, Indian Band Leader,
regretting that in view of the present unsatisfactory conditions relating
to unsettled land claims, she could not grant permission to any of our
delegates to land at Friendly Cove.
The meeting adjourned on motion at 1.0.00 a.m.      P.A. Yandle . Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of the B.C Historical
Association, held in the Masonic Hall, Campbell River, May 24th, 1.975..
The meeting was called to order by the President, Mr Frank Street,
at 10.00 a.m. extending a warm welcome to the members. Alderman Salts
welcomed the Conference to Campbell River on behalf of the City Council,
and wished us success in our deliberations.
The Secretary read the minutes of the last Annual General Meeting
held in Cranbrook, May 24th, 1.974, Moved Yandle, seconded Leeming that the
minutes be adopted as read. - Carried,
The Secretary gave his annual report and elaborated on the highlights
of the past year which concerned the action taken regarding Haslam Hall
in Nanaimq and its threatened demolition; the formation of a Committee
for the Celebration of the Bi-Centenary of the landing of Captain Cook at
Resolution Cove in 1778; the sale and distribution of the Association's
joint publication "To Cariboo and Back in 1.862" by W. Champness, and the
final compilation and printing of a brochure covering the aims and objects
and benefits of affiliation with the B.C. Historical Association,
The report contained a summary of the incidents that had taken place
during the eight years as secretary relating to the annual charade that
took place to obtain a full slate of Table Officers. It had become such a
farce that he could no longer support the present undemocratic methods as
prescribed in our Constitution, and offered the following resolution to be
acted upon by the members.
"Inasmuch as the British Columbia Historical Association does not
elect its table officers at its Annual General Meeting and does so at a
Council Meeting of delegates after the Annual General Meeting has been
concluded and adjourned, and further, from time to time, it becomes a
critical and serious problem to get•candidates from those delegates to
Council who are willing to stand for office. Therefore, be it resolved
that in future fhe offices of President, Vice-President, Secretary and
Treasurer be filled at the official Annual General Meeting by a properly
conducted election, and such an election shall be a constitutiona_ order
on the Agenda of all future Annual General Meetings of the British Columbia
Historical Association.
Speaking for an affirmative response to this resolution he pointed out
that he became secretary as a volunteer when none of the appointed delegates
would act, at a convention in Williams Lake, 8 years previously. Since
that time he had been an official delegate for only two of those eight
years and was not an official delegate this year, There would be no
reason to attend the n*w council meeting to be held later that day, and it
must therefore be assumed that if no election was to be held at this
meeting his duties as secretary would end with the adjournment of this
meeting and a new secretary would have to be found.
Other presiding officers also found this present electoral system
distasteful and echoed the remarks of the secretary that it should be this
present body of members that should have the responsibility of electing
the table officers,
Mr New aeked the members to act in a legal manner in bringing about
this change. In spite of a precedent having been created previously,
waiving the right to the provision for 6 weeks' notice of any by-law changes,
He would therefore move, that the resolution be accepted in principle, and 8
that an held, but that the resolution and the results of the
election be referred to the incoming Council for acceptance, and that
proper constitutional changes be undertaken to make the resolution legal
and binding. Seconded Leeming - Carried unanimously.
Mr New, at the request of the President, took the chair and Mr Frank
Street was reelected President by acclamation. President Street returned
to the chair and the following officers were elected by acclamation:
BTice-President: J. Roff; Secretary: P. Yandle; Treasurer: K. Haworth.
The Secretary belatedly asked acceptance of his report. Moved Jordon,
seconded Slocomb the report be accepted. Carried.
The Treasurer reported that the Association was in a healthy situation
financially but stressed the rapidly rising costs of materials and
postage must inevitably bring about an increase in the per capita levy in
the very near future. However she felt that the di©ect subscription rate
to non-members should be increased. The Editor asked that this be dealt
with at the conclusion of his report, which was agreed to.
The Editor reported that there have been no complaints as to format
and material and therefore considers that silence gives consent (as it
does in legal matters) and it must follow that the News is giving satisfaction. In conjunction with the Co-Editor he feels that the affairs of
the Association are well covered in the reporting of all minutes and any
pertinent letters are usually published. The Jottings, B.C.Books of
Interest and Boak Reviews have received favourable commants and the
request is always open for members to submit feature articles. He wished
at this time to make known the, appreciation to Frances Woodward for her
B,C. booklist and to Robert Genn who continues to do our covers. Together
with his Co-Editor he wished to thank all contributors to the News and the
present run per issue is 1.200 copies. Moved Yandle, seconded Roff that
this report be accepted. Carried.
Moved Yandle, seconded Helen Ford that the masthead of the News be
changed to read $4.50 instead of $3*50. Amended Rowland, seconded
Colchester that the change read $5.00 Canadian instead of $3.50. Original
motion defeated and amendment carried.
Anne Yandle read a very detailed and comprehensive report from our
representative to the Historic Sites Advisory Board, Mrs Anne Stevenson
of Williams Lake. (This report is printed in its entirely elsewhere in
this issue.) It was the concensus of opinions expressed that this was
indeed an excellent report and Anne Stevenson must be. highly commended
for her thoroughness. Moved Anne Yandle, seconded P. Yandle the report
be accepted.
By acclamation Mr Armour Ford was elected Auditor for the ensuing year.
Moved P. Yandle, seconded Leeming, that the application for affiliation,
as recommended by Council, from the Cowichan Valley Historical Society,
be accepted. - Carried.
A request for the site of next year's convention was presented by
K. Leeming on behalf of the Victoria Branch. Moved Leeming, seconded
Tweed that Victoria be the site of our convention in 1.976, on or about
the corresponding date in May. - Carried. 9
Reports were read by the following societies: Burnaby, Campbell
River, Chemainus, Gulf Islands, East Kootenay, West Kootenay, Nanaimo,
Port Alberni, Vancouver and Victoria.
There was a suggestion that the two societies of East and West
Kootenay now have redundant names.' They should revert to being specific,
and the East Kootenay should be Cranbrook and West Kootenay should be
Trail. No action was taken on this delicate subject.
Moved Yandle, seconded Tweed, That the meeting be adjourned. - Carried.
Meeting adjourned at 1.2.30 p.m.
Minutes of First Council Meeting of 1975-6, held at Campbell River,
B.C. 24th May, 1975.
Present:Frank Street (Pres.); J. Roff (1st Vice-Pres,); A. Slocomb (2nd
Vice-Pres.); P.Yandle (Sec); A. Yandle (Co-Ed,); Allan Turner (Prov.
Archivist); Don New (Galiano); Rex Tweed (Campbell River); Arlene
Bramhall (Burnaby); Helen Ford (Port Alberni); Mabel Jordon (East Kootenay);
Bdith Stephenson (Chemainus); K.L. Leeming (Victoria); James McCook
(Victoria); J.Len Nicholls (Nanaimo); J. Lorraine Campbell (Gulf Islands);
B, van Olderiborgh (Vancouver). -
President Frank Street called the meeting to order at 2.30 p.m.
Moved R. Tweed; seconded D, New that the recommendations of the Annual
General Meeting- respecting the election of the President, Vice-President,
Corresponding Secretary and Treasurer be accepted. Adopted.
Elections were then held to fill the remaining offices of the Council-:
Recording Secretary: . P,E. Roy
Second Vice-President: A. Slocomb
B.C. Hist. News Co-Editors: P. and A. Yandle
Executive members:: D. New and Rex Tweed,
Historic Sites Advisory Board
Representative:        ■;. A. Stevenson
K. Leeming volunteered to assist A. Ford in auditing the books.
Moved Mrs J.M, Campbell; .seconded P. Yandle that the first viee-
president be responsible for planning the site of future conventions..
Moved P. Yandle; seconded, A. Yandle that J. Roff contact member
societies and collect news and comments for the B.C. Historical News.
Moved P. Yandle; seconded A. Slocomb that K. Leeming chair the
Constitution and Nominating Committee. Adopted.
A discussion of future election and annual general meeeting procedures
followed, A. Turner suggested that the By-laws Committee make provision
for a nominating committee, A. Yandle proposed that all six table officers 1.0
should be elected at the annual general meeting. R. Tweed recommended that
consideration be given to having a resolutions committee prepare material
for the annual general meeting.
Moved A. Yandle; seconded, K. Leeming that the per capita assessment
remain the same as last year. Adopted.
D. New inquired about honorary appointments. The Council decided to
take no action for the present.
Mrs A. Ford reminded members to write to the Postmaster General,
Bryce Mackasey asking that a special stamp be issued to commemorate the
Captain Cook bicentenary. Copies of such letters should be sent to the
Corresponding Secretary, P. Yandle.
The meeting adjourned at 3-25 p.m.
P.E. Roy.
ALBERNI At the February meeting Gerry Andrews spoke on his "South
American Safari" which he had undertaken for the Canadian Executive Service
Overseas. The Society's request for recognition of Heritage Canada Day,
February 1.7th, received a gratifying response from the Mayor and Council.
In April Professor and Mrs Akrigg gave an evening of slides and
commentary on the early days of the Hudson's Bay Company in British Columbia.
Visitors to the Society's 1.0th anniversary in March included B.C.H.A.
President Mr F. Street and Mrs Street, as well as members from Campbell
River, Nanaimo and the newly formed District 60 (Parksville and Qualicum)
Societies. At that meeting Mr Ron Hamilton, s well known painter and
carver, and a member of the Opetchesaht Band, whose Indian name means
"Reviver of the Past" spoke of the importance of history, with relation
to his own people.
The Society now has 76 members, plus two honorary life members, Ketha
Adams, the founding President, and Walter Prescott, a charter member and
source of invaluable information in early years. The Society's major
current project is to publish a booklet on the place names of the Alberni
Burnaby New officers for 1975-76 are: President: Mr Reg Millway,
Past President: Mr Frank Street, Vice-President: Mrs Nancy Peter, Secretary:
Mrs Ethel Derrick, Treasurer: Mr J. Davy, Curator: Mr D. Cubitt;
Historian: Mrs A. McCloskey, Directors: Miss Catherine Rees, Mrs Pat
• Cubitt, Mr B. Bellinger, Mrs Arlene. Eramhall.
Gulf Islands Six meetings were held during the past year. Last Junes
Alan Hoover of the Provincial Museum gave an illustrated talk on the "Indians
of the West Coast". In July Constable Mitchell of the R.C.M.P. spoke of the
Northwest Mounted Police and the present R.C.M.P. Clare McAllister spoke
on two occasions, once on Early Days in the West Kootenays and the other on
Old Fashioned Hospitality in the Kootenays, In March Beth Hill repeated
her presentation on Petroglyphs on the coast, this time on Pender Island.
At the latest meeting in April Miss Ida New entertained members with a
description of life on the Gulf Islands, Saturna in particular, between
1914 and 1.91.6. 1.1
Last summer's outing included visits to Craigdarroch Castle, the
O'Reilly home and the Saanich museum. Old records of Pender Island Hall
and of Pender Island School were received from Mr S.P. Corbett, These were
turned over to the Provincial Archives. Gulf Islands Patchwork has. been
reprinted and is once again available. As there was no response by the
Department of Indian Affairs to the society's request for names of suitable
candidates,, the bursary to a native Indian cdntinuing in high school or
post secondary education was not awarded,
.East Kootenay A lot of work has been carried out during the year on Perry
Creek cemetery, also Wild Horse and Moyie. The main project for the coming
year is the establishment of the old Baillie-Grohman canal as a historic
spot in the East Kootenays, The project is located at Canal Flat. The
society started communicating with the various departments about this in
April 1974. It appears that B.C. Hydro has contoDi of the land and has
promised cooperation. Baillie-Grohman's prejoct*blossomed into the
draining of the Creston flats and the' Grohman Creek controls on the•
Kootenay Lakes.
West Kootenay  On two occasions since January the Society had a good turnout to look at and comment on collections of old photographs of movies
of early Trail and district, thanks to Mike Landucci and Fred Robbins.
To wind up the season Horace Keys spoke on the Alaska-B.C. Boundary Dispute
and that chunk of Alaska which has, on the map, spilled down a portion
of what geographically should be British Columbia.' Cominco's mining
history includes the Big Missouri Mine and Tulsequah, both of which are
"behind the barrier" as it affects transportation.
During the past year the society has affiliated with the Trail and
District Community Arts Council. "Present officers are: Pres. A.K, McLeod;
V_ce-Pres. H.M. Keys; Sec.Treas. M. (Peggy) Cook; Directors, M.F. Edwards,
M.R, Landucci, Ethel Mcintosh; Programme Comm. Viwian I. Swanson; Past
Pres. S. Saprunoff.
Nanaimo Members participated at the March meeting when a number of them
shared memories of their childhood through objects that had been in their
families for many years. Mr Hurford, who is an avid collector, brought along
a number of bottles and Chinese items he and his wife had acquired through
diligent searching. In April, the Society were lucky to have Dr and Mrs
Akrigg as their guests and enjoyed with them a sight and sound tour of the
old Hudson's Bay posts. In May," Mr John Dunham, Nanaimo's Harbour
Commissioner, was the speaker on the. history of the port of Nanaimo.
During the year a Committee worked on the matter- of marking historical
sites in Nanaimo and hope to continue this in conjunction with the
Heritage .advisory Committee.
Early in 1975, through the generosity of Mr Barraclough, the Society
became trustee for a fund Which will provide prizes for work in the
historical field to students in Nanaimo's secondary schools. The interest
of the fund will be used as an ongoing memorial to the late Mrs Barraclough-
The Society has been fighting during the past year to save Haslam
Hall. A report on these activities will appear in a later issue of the
" New officers for the year are: President: Mr J. Len Nicholls; -
Vice-President: Mr Jim Hurford; 2nd Vice-President: Mrs Helen Timmins;
Treasurer: Mrs Emily Kneen; Secretary: Mrs Pamela Mar. 1.2
Vancouver In the fall of 1.974 the membership enjoyed two field trips,
one to Squamish on the Royal Hudson steam locmotive, and the other a
behind the scenes tour of the Orpheum Theatre, due for restoration in the
near future.
On April 6th the Society celebrated Vancouver's 89th birthday, at a
dinner in the Stanley Park Pavilion. Two awards were made - one to Mrs
Aileen Campbell for her many articles of historical interest in the Vancouver
Province. and the other to the Army & Navy Stores for its efforts to
restore the Lonsdale Building, a Cordova Street landmark.
A weekly television programme is now being presented by the Society,
called "Then and Now", on Channel 1.0, "Vancouver, on Thursdays at 9.30 p.m.
Victoria  During the year the Oral History group has done excellent work
by obtaining some find recordings of reminiscences of old-time residents.
New officers for 1975-76 are as follows: Pres.: K.L. Leeming; First Vice-
Pres.: James McCock; Second Vice-Pres.: Kent Haworth; Corresponding Sec.c
Mrs E.F. Stewart; Recording Sec: Miss Frances Gundry; Treasurer: L.G.
Toms; Ass't Treasurer: L.W, Turnbull.
REPORT TO B. C HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, by Anne Stevenson, Representative
on the Historic Sites Advisory Board.
Now approximately two years old, tho Historic Sites Advisory Board
is progressing slowly toward acquiring properties and developing properties
already provincial possessions, e.g. Barkerville and Fort Steele. As yet
there are no definite terms of reference established. Because of the size
of British Columbia time is very important in a fast growing province„
There are many immediate needs requiring instant priority - the Board and
Department have been hampered by the lack of a research officer, but a few
months ago Mr Don Tarasoff was appointed. At the same mmeeting the Board
welcomed Mr Allan Turner, Provincial Archivist, as a new member. Mr Yorke
Edwards was congratulated as the new Provincial Museum Director,
It must be remembered that the Historic Sites Advisory Board is just
that - an Advisory Board under the Hon. Ernest Hall, Provincial Secretary
and Minister of Travel Industry. Priorities of historic significance must be
established throughout- the province on a limited budget. The Board urges
all local historical groups and interested people to communicate with it so
that general priorities may be established throughout the province, be it
plans to acquire and develop certain areas, or only to acquire as an
historic site with or without the prospect of future development, e.g. open
space, historic trails, etc. I am sorry that because of distance from my home
in Williams Lake, and time involved, I have not been able to attend meetings
.of the B.C. Historical Association. Hopefully my involvement with education
will lessen a little next year. I have not sent periodic reports because
events move slowly and the Board does not always meet regularly. I am the
only member of the Board who lives in the interior. I should be most happy
to.receive ideas from members of -the B.C. Historical Association as well
as duplicates of letters sent to the Advisory Board,
The guiding philosophy is that historic sites be developed to preserve
regional themes and to retain the overall historical atmosphere of the area. 13
BARKERVILLE'S .THEATER ROYAL What changes, if any, should be made to
conform with the concept of the original Theatre Royal? What should the
future concept of the show be - bigger in numbers necessitating attendant
space, dressing rooms, stage, seating, etc? The crowds that the show
attracts attest to its popularity, but does this popularity depend upon
size which, of course, is not the original concept of historic Barkerville.
The mode of life of its heyday must be the guide. Tourist accommodation in
all its facets still poses a problem for Barkerville as well as Fort Steele.
FORT STEELE The question of the future development, points of interest,
interpretive,, centres, information booklets, is uppermost. Speaking of
education booklets, education is of prime importance to any information
booklet, but cost, too, is a guiding factor. Picnic areas for the many
tourists and overall security continued to be problems as did the housing
of the industrial machines of their day. The store operation will follow
the custom set by Barkerville -. the owners will continue to live in their
home for their lifetime, and the future operation of the store will be
performed by park personnel.
SANDON The future plans continue to be a subject o£ discussion controlled
by historical significance and budget.
ST. ANN'S CHAPEL, VICTORIA Board members were pleased to hear of the
acquisition of St. Ann's Academy by the Government, and of the chapel and
the entrance leading to the chapel. Board members were pleased, too,
because of the historic nature of the chapel, that fche Government planned
to preserve and incorporate the chapel and entrance, into the new Government building to be constructed on the site. Members asked that a letter
be sent to the Deputy. Minister of Public Works recommending that the fajade
of the two older portions of St. Ann's Academy be preserved and that the
chapel be restored and that a small public exhibit be created in the three
or four reception rooms adjacent to the chapel.
POINT ELLICE HOUSE The house has been .acquired from Mr and Mrs O'Reilly.
Mrs O'Reilly has been retained for one year as Curator.
YALE Plans are being made for an interpretive programme. The Board noted
the adverse effect of publicity on plans not yet finalized - a grave
problem and an area of- deep concern when real estate may be involved. The
Board members were asked to respect the confidentiality of certain plans..
FORT DEFIANCE It was recommended that a cairn be constructed to commemorate
Captain Gray's expedition and his winter post at Discovery Cove 1791-92.
CAPTAIN COOK The forthcoming bicentennial of Captain Cook's landing and
the Spanish occupation of Nootka were considered. The Board dndorsed the
idea that provincial designation should be accorded the site. Discussion as
to the nature of the, marking required some guidelines to be established.
It was noted,that archaeological designation was accorded this site on
December 6th, 1966.
The Chairman, Mr Laurie Wallace, advised that a preliminary meeting
was held with members of the B.C Historical Association, which resulted
in a Government Committee being formed "bo work with the Association in the
proposed celebration programme. The Provincial Secretary has already written
to the Postmaster General proposing that a commemorative series of stamps
be issued. 1.4
KEREMEOS GRIST MILL Mr Taraeoff advised of enthusiastic local concern that
the mill be preserved in situ. There will be further investigation and
S.S. NARAMATA The vessel was designated an historic object 'because of its
contribution to trade on Okanagan Lake.
HISTORIC MARKERS AND CAIRNS Markees and cairns are under discussion. It
is felt that control must be exercised that the historic information is
The work done by many Government departments is focussed on the
Historic Sites Advisory Board. Any Department - Forestry, Parks, etc
may be consulted to extend information at hand. Mr D. Tarasoff is a most
useful Research Officer because of his expertise. More definite plans and
terms of reference should be presented for discussion at our next meeting.
Of necessity it has taken time for the various members to be sure of their
roles as well as the goals of the Board.
May 1.975.
From the McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Eaculty of Business-.
Anyone wishing to purchase Papers of the Business History Conference may
do so for $5.00 by Xtfriting to McMaster University, attention Prof. Albert
K. Steigejwalt, Faculty of Business. He would like to communicate with
any local historical society, to whom he will send copies of the Newsletter,
gnatia on a regular basis.
From the Conservation Information Program, Office of Museum Programs,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. The offer is dk ie to
acquaint small museums and organizations on the professional care of
textiles and costumes, professional care of paper, mending broken pottery,
cleaning and protecting silver objects, etc These are slide presentations
and are on a short loan basis, a fee of $4,00 being charged to cover cost
of packing and shipment. Each slide presentation includes a script
cassette or single-side audio tape, one or two carousel trays, instructions
for the projectionist, and written material. Further information may be
obtained by writing to the Smithsonian,
This might be of interest to members in the local Vancouver area.
The Greater Vancouver RegionalDistrict have an illustrated 1.6 page booklet
on the role and responsibilities of the G.V.R.D. These are free and available
by phone from the G.V.R.D. office 731-1155,  or Bud Elsie's office, 736-3368,
or by writing to 2294 West 1.0th Avenue, Vancouver,. B.C. V6K 2H9. 15
Voyages to Hawaii before 1.860, by Bernice JUdd (originally published
in 1929) Second edition, enlarged and edited by Helen Yonge Lind, University
Press of Hawaii for the Hawaiian Mission Children's Society, Honolulu,
Hawaii, 1.974<> 129 pp. This is a record of published first hand descriptions
of Hawaii and her people beginning with Captain James Cook in 1778 and
ending with the first Japanese embassy to the U.S. in March 1.860. Arranged
in three sections, cross-referenced. Price $10.00, Order from Mission
Gift Shop, 553 South King Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813-
From Simon Fraser University, Professor P. Auty, Chairwoman, Department
of History,
.CAPTAIN JAMES COOK AND HIS TIMES; an international and interdisciplinary
symposium,, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B-C will present this
symposium in mid-April, 1978, on the occasion of the Bicentenary of
Captain James Cook's Landing at Nootka Sound, March-April 1.778, during
his Third Voyage of Exploration and Discovery (1776-1780).
This symposium is designed to offer a forum for the presentation in
papers, panels and discussions of new research and reappraisals by scholars
in many fields. The symposium will focus on the impact ion British Columbia,
the Northwest coast of North America and the North Pacific littoral of
Cook's third voyage, as well as the impact on Oceania, North America and
the European world of Cook's life of exploration and discovery.
Please direct any enquiries, suggestions or comments to: Chairman
(Captain Cook Symposium), Department of History, Simon Fraser University,-
Burnaby, B.C V5A 1S6.
In the last issue of the News we published four letters from Richard
Cadman Etches to Sir Joseph Banks, which were sent to us by a descendant
of R.C Etches, Charles E. Etches of South Pasadena, Florida. In return we
sent him a copy of the News, with Professor Bartroli's introduction and
editing. We recently heard from Mr Etches, commenting on the fine
interpretation that Tomas Bartroli had done on the letters, and enclosing
the following piece of information:
"When my wife and I visited Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound ,.n August 21,
1974, we visited a small on the top of a hill. The west
side of the church faces the Pacific Ocean and the east side Nootka Sound
with Friendly Cove at the foot of the hill. The church was not built until
1956, but according to the records Mass was said on this, spot in 1793.
In the entrance to this church' there are two brass plaques on the walls
depicting the history of Friendly Cove.
No. I Capt. James Cook, R.N. with his two small vessels, H.M.S. Discovery
and H.M.S. Resolution entered Nootka Sound, March 30, 1778, being the
first whites to land in this locality. They were greeted by hundreds, of
natives and because of their amiable disposition, Capt, Cook named the little
bay, Friendly Cove,
No, II Four hundred yards northerly of-this small cove (Capt) John Meares
built and launched the 50 ton Barque, North West America. This vessel
with the Ephiginia, the Argonaut and Princess Royal were later seized and
their crews arrested in Friendly Cove, and sent to San Bias, Mexico, by the 16
Spanish Commandant Estevan Jose Martinez, in 1.789. This unwarranted'
seizure, aggravated by the mendacious report to the British Government
by Meares almost resulted in war between the two nations. The Nootka
Sound Convention, signed in 1.790, and its terms amicably consummated at
the meeting of Captain George Vancouver, R.N. and Commandarit Bodega y
Quadra of the Spanish navy in Friendly Cove in 1792 closed this critical
incident. - -   	
A stained glass window in this church presented by the Spanish
Government depicts the meeting of the Spanish commandant and Captain
George Vancouver in 1.792, after which this territory became British.
The Ephiginia which flew the Portuguese flag and the North West America
which flew the British flag belonged to Capt. John Meares, an Irishman,
formerly an officer in the British Navy. The Argonaut, Capt. James Colnett
and the Princess Royal, Capt. Thomas Hudson belonged to John and his
brother Richard Cadman Etches & partners, and these vessels flew the
British flag. The four ships seized by Martinez in 1.789 belonged to a
joint-stock company formed by John Etches and John Meares in Canton,
China in 1788.
The Aural History Programme at the Provincial Archives has been
offering a series of aural history workshops for interested groups
around the province. Bill Langlois, Director of Aural History, conducted
a workshop for a New Horizons group in Vancouver who were undertaking an
ecclesiastical aural history of the United Church. Derek Reimer, Assistant
Director of the Programme, conducted workshops on January 7**8 and May 3-4
in Revelstoke and Fort Steele respectively. Langlois and Reimer conducted
a one-day workshop in 100 Mile House on March 22 and Reimer and Allen
Specht, Research Officer for the Aural History Programme, conducted a
workshop in Mission on April 1.2. Another workshop was conducted in Victoria
on May 1.2th. 1
Techniques of aural history were discussed, especially as they
related to the specific interests of the participants. In several cases,
arrangements were made so that tapes could be either copied or deposited
and thereby preserved in the Archives' permanent aural history collection.
Where sufficient demand exists, members of the Aural History staff
are available for similar workshops. They are particularly interested in
individuals or groups who are launching aural history programmes foir the
first time and who have short term funding such as L.I.P., New Horizons,
of O.F.Y. grants.   At the end of June they are planning another session
in Williams Lake.
C 1. If he would only sit down I'd be able to see Friendly Cove too.
A R 2. Yes, my dear, the great captain named it Resolution Cove.
MI 3»I wonder if there's anywhere here we can get our rubber dinghy patched,
P V 4. Who was that just fell in the river?
BE 5" These people at Nootka are certainly camera shy.
E R 6. I wonder now if perhaps I should have worn a hat for this gala occasion.
L 7. Just marry the girl or leave and never darken my door again.
L 8. I promised to split 50-50 on this deal so where do you get that'60-40 stuff.   1.7
B.C. BOOKS OF INTEREST, by Frances Woodward
BURNS, Ronald M., ed. One country or two? with an introduction by John
J. Deutsch. Montreal, McGill-Queens Univ. Press, 1.971, 287 pp. $7.50.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. British Columbia's agriculture in
retrospect. (Victoria, 1.975) 5 pp.
Mapping Branch. Survey systems within the Crown Domain; colonies to
confederation British Columbia. Victoria, 1.975. 27, xiv pp. illus.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. DEPT. OF MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES. Mining communities in B.C. a social infrastructure analysis; by Clifford G„
Bancroft. (Victoria, 1975) 91 pp.
  Mining in B.C; there have been some changes.,, (Victoria, 1.975) 13 Pp.
BRITISH'COLUMBIA. LAND COMMISSION. Keeping the options open, Burnaby, 1.975.
14 pp., illus.
CANADA. AGRICULTURAL & RURAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY. Ocean Falls Regional District, a rural development study; by Stephen L. Pattison. Victoria, Rural
Development Office, ARDA, 1971. 86 pp., illus.
CANADA. CANADIAN FORESTRY SERVICE, Pacific Research Centre. Saltspring
Island, a landscape analysis. Victoria, 1.9^4. 53 PP«j illus.
CANADA. NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MAN* Archaeological investigations in the
Hecate Strait - Milbanke Sound area of B.C. by Bjorn 0. Simonsen.
Ottawa, 1973. 117 pp., illus. $1.75.
COON, Danny. A collection and description of paintings by a young Indian
artist, Danny Coon; photographs by Bob and Jean Glass. (Campbell River,
1971) (25 Pp.) illus. $2*00
COON, Danny & Gary Ratushniak, comp, Ba-Kwum heritage. Courtenay, Printed
by E.W, Bickle Ltd., 1.975. 24 pp., illus. $8.00.
DEULING, Rosemary Beyond Shuswap Falls. (Lumby) 1973. 117 PP. illus.$2,50.
BARKER, Douglas E. The Duljes; the story of the men who have served in peace
and war with the B.C Regiment (DCO) 1.883-1973. (Vancouver, B.C. Regiment)
1.974. 438 pp., illus. $1.0.50.  (To be reviewed in next issiie)
HEALEY, Elizabeth. History of Alert Bay and District. 3d ed. (Courtenay,
' E.W. Bickle Ltd., 1971) 101 pp., illus, $2,00„
HWU LOCAL 500 PENSIONERS. "Man along the shore!" the story of the Vancouver
waterfront as told by longshoremen themselves 1.860's-1975. Van ouver,
1.975. 1.60 pp., illus. $3.00.'
JUNIOR LEAGUE OF VANCOUVER. A guide to Vancouver for- the handicapped: a
description of physical facilities to be found in churches,.,. and many
other places of interest; compiled and published by ........"t.he Panel
for Guidance of the Handicapped of SPARC of B.C (Vancouver) 1.973= 76  pp,
C R   9« This is easier than sorting dusty manuscripts.
A I  10. Just be patient, the lady only wants to know if the Captain has a driver's
M V     licence.
P E  1.1. Nothing beats a brisk morning walk with the little woman,
BR  1.2. Hold it fellas, everything is going to be O.K. now we're here.
E   13. Do you want me to scratch a little higher.
L    14. Do you believe' in E.S.P. too?
L    15. Who knows, we might get marooned on one of those west coast islands.
16. How about you getting the refills this time.
17. We both learned our dancing from the Arthur Murray Dance School.
1.8. It's a pity one can't have one's picture taken out here in the woods
without a hold-up in the background.
■19. Take a quick look; this crab's pinch is much harder than I thought. 1.8
KNIGHT, Rolf. A very ordinary life (autobiography of Phyllis Golm)
Toronto, New Star Books, 1.973. 317 pp., illus, $5.00.
LEESON, Everett Frank. The family history of James and Anna Leeson. Port
Alberni, 1.972. 52 pp., illus-, $4.00,
•LINDO, Millicent A. comp. Making history; an anthology of British Columbia,
Victoria, 1.975. 235 PP., illus. $1.0.00,
MORLEY, Alan. Vancouver from milltown to metropolis, (3d ed.) Vancouver,
. Mitchell Press (1974) 302 pp., illus. $8,50.
OLDS. Charles, Sr. Looking back down time and -rack. (Prince George?)
Spee-dee Print (1.975) unpaged, illus, $1,75.
STUBBS, Dorothy I. Courtenay "all about us" (a history of the city of
Courtenay 1.915-1975) Courtenay, 1975 127 pp.,. illus. $5.00.
VANCOUVER, George, A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and
round the world..„ (selections) Campbell River (Campbell River and
District Historical Society) 1.970. (20 pp.) $.95
VANCOUVER. City of Vancouver Archives, Preliminary inventory: additional
manuscripts 2; edited by Sheelagh Draper. (Vancouver, 1.975) 36 pp.
VANCOUVER. Planning Dept, Fairview slopes building heritage; a story of
those buildings deserving preservation. Vancouver (1.974?) 6l pp., illus.
    Fairview slopes the feasibility of preservation, (prepared by the
Sussex Group) Vancouver, 1.974. 38 pp.
    Vancouver's heritage; twenty-two buildings and two historic areas,
# 1 December 1.974, prepared by the City Planning Department for the
Vancouver Heritage Advisory Committee. (Vancouver) 1.974. 51 pp., illus.
VANCOUVER YUKONERS ASSOCIATION. History of the Vancouver Yukoners Association. (Vancouver, 1974) 1.1.6 pp., illus,,
*sle- tk_!i_9!(__!ti
nr*   nr*   "if"   V   ^rr   *T*   *lf*   *P   *P
assisted by Jay H. Siegel. Vancouver, University of British Columbia Press,
1975. 446 pp., $1.7.95.
Indians are leaving the reserves in virtually every province of
Canada in ever increasing numbers. Little is known of their circumstances
as they attempt to integrate into Canadian society. The Department of
Indian Affairs concerns itself with Indians on reserves, hence its
. knowledge of the determinants of successful adjustment by Indians to urban
life is modest. Our best anthropological/sociological studies have been
concerned with the reservation populations. There have been lots of popular
books by Indians and non-Indians on life in the towns, but these have
tended to be subjective.
The need fulfilled by this excellent work is provision of hard data
on salient aspects of experience of off-reserve Indians as compared with
that of the Indians on reservations, non-status Indians, and the non-Indian
community in British Columbia. Off-reservation Indians in B.C numbered
1.6,251 in 1.973. That is over 1./3 of the status Indians in -phe province!
The 1.971 Census estimates there were 3,000 Indians in Vancouver, and
1,780 in Prince Rupert. The high numbers take us by surprise, only partly
because so much past research focussed on reservation life. The increasing
.stream of Indians entering the general society was barely perceptible in
the general population of the province, and since the absolute numbers on 19
the over-crowded reserves has remained static since I.962, the phenomenon
Staribury and his team investigated was unrecognized by most of us. With
the help Of a grant from the Donner Canadian Foundation a survey was conducted in 1.971 which provided the raw material to look into this developing
How are these people faring? Why did they leave the reserve? What
proportion of their lives were spent on reserves and do they intend
returning? Are they meeting with perceived discrimination? Have they
been able to get and keep jobs; make friends, find housing? Can they
maintain their cultural identity and is this important to them? These are
the kinds of questions that were asked of 1,095 Indians, aged sixteen to sixty-
four (a one-in-six representative sample) by over a dozen interviewers
in. over fifty urban centers throughbout the province iri the summer of 1.971.
The results when tabulated and interpreted rake exciting reading,
ffhis is particularly so when they are broken down by cultural/Unguis tic
group: Interior Salish, Coast Salish, Nootka/Kwakiutl/Bella Coola,
Carrier (Athapaskan), Kootenay, Tsimshian/Haida, Chilcotin and Far Northern,
For example, the growth of .the off-reserve B.C. Indian population by
culturaiyiiriguistic group has not been -uniform. In 1.962 only 9$ of Coast
S^llsh^eople"lived off reserves. By 1967 that proportion had increased
to 1.6.8%, and by 1.973 it was just over 30$ Interior Salish people exhibit
a similar pattern; 11„9S& lived off reserve in 1.962, 25.4$ in I.967 and 32.8$
in 1973* By contrast, a much higher proportion of Tsimshian/Haida people
lived off reserve in 1962T~2rj*r4^—This proportion increased to 33.0$ in 1.973■
The most rapid increase in the proportion living off reserve was experienced
by the Wakashan/Bella Coola Bands, which grew from 1.1.0$ off reserves in
1962 to 28.7$ in 1.967, to 38.0$ in 1.973. The proportion of Athapaskan
Bands (mainly Carrier speaking) living off reserves also Increased sharply.
ifhen you get this kind of data for the various economic and sociological
information, derived from the- survey a broad picture begins to emerge of
the experiences of the different Indian peoples of this province in
'relation to the dominant society. The map on page 8 defining the major
linguistic areas of the province attempts to show the linked cultural groups
(e.g. Wakashan/Bella Coola) on the same map, so that the result ±r,
In 1.968 I myself attempted to carry out a statistical survey of over
a thousand Sikh persons residing in Jamshedpur, India, using a preplanned
questionnaire designed'for computer analysis. The experience has left me
with a permanent uneasiness about the composition of any sample used, and
the methods of administering the" questionnaire. Multiple sources were used
in contacting respondents for Success and Failure, but I would question the
wisdom of including sixty-one people In prison who did not.leave, the
reserves^.of their own Volition. These people do meet the strictest criteria
for inclusion^in the Sample: registered:status, correct age-category, off
the reserve for at-least one month before interview, and resident in an
urban oeritrei It is hard to see, however, hoW data from this Source can be
used to further the general objectives of the study which are "to understand
the process of change and adjustment as it affects Indians who move from
largely-isolated'rural enclaves into the midst of the dominant society's
urban environment*.   This understanding is in order to provide knowledge
that will enable all Canadians to have an informed choice about their
future together," 20
Some interviewers tended to concentrate on beer parlours as an
important source of contacts, and these provided 1.2.?% of all contacts.
Although, as the author remarks, noise, drinking, and attention of friends
made interviewing somewhat difficult in the beer parlour, still interviews
of those contacted in beer parlours took place in this milieu about two-
thirds of the time. Various stages of inebriation of interviewers and
interviewees does not seem to have worried the researchers too much.
I should add that since mine was a research effort that failed to
produce, I have unbounded admiration for the author, W.T. Staribury, his
assistant Jay Siegel, and all those associated with them who worked through
this formidable research task and brought out at the other end of a book
so well organized, unambiguous and precisely documented. That it is
fascinating reading too, and will help you to understand the growing
numbers of your Indian neighbours is reason enough to add it to your library,
The organization of the book makes it possible to read the textual
material in Chapters II to ,X, plus tlie summary statement in Chapter XI,
without going deeper into the accompanying notes, over 1.00 tables, glossary
and bibliography. It is all there, however, for students seeking documentation and confirmation for the conclusions drawn in the text. Chapter I
reviews the methodology and characteristics of the sample.
Status and non-status Indians together represent almost 5$ of the
total pupulation of the province. Indians are a young and rapidly growing
population, with a rising number residing off the reserves. The single
jriost_i.mportant reason for leaving the reserves is to gain employment.
Friends and relatives are the greatest source of~help to those arriving in
urban centers. Some discrimination was experienced, chiefly by the young,
but in general it was not found that discrimination was pervasive. Most
persons In the sample didn't think Indian Affairs could help much in
relocation, but a number felt that financial assistance with housing, help
with funding education and job training should be given, and that people on
reserves could benefit from briefing on the difficulties and opportunities
likely to be encountered in the larger community.
Perhaps the most outstanding evidence of the progress of the Indian
people in the province is the rise in their level of educational attainment
"over the past three decades. The education gap is dosing but it is by no
means closed, e.g. in the sample tested 37.5$ (1971) had not completed
even an elementary school education, compared with 1.8$ of all ■ Canadians
in 1.967. Nonetheless the aspirations of the Indian people questioned remains
■high and other figures shown are encouraging.
Success and Failure is published just at a time when Indian people
are aroused to take action under their own leadership. Like The Indians
of British Columbia by Hawthorn, Belshaw and Jamieson, published in I960,
it is a landmark book providing the information Indians and non-Indians
will need in understanding a complex situation, and responding, to it in an
enlightened way.
Joy inglis
Mrs Inglis is a member of the Campbell River Historical Society. 21
HAZLITT, William Carew.
THE GREAT GOLD FIELDS OF CARIBOO. (London. '1.862) With a foreword by Barry
M. Gough. Vancouver, Klanak Press, 1.974. 1.34 pp., illus. $1.7.50.
In November 1.861 the Governor of British Columbia, James Douglas,
initiated an essay contest, offering L50 sterling for "the clearest and
most comprehensive" essay setting forth "the capabilities, resources and
advantages of British Columbia as a colony for settlement". The judges of
the Prize Essay Board were told privately that the Government's object in
calling for the contest was "to publish and diffuse such information respecting this colony as may attract notice to it from abroad, and as may induce
Emigrajtio»-aRd--promote settlement and general advancement of the Colony".
This was also the object of a number of writers who started publishing
works on British Columbia and Vancouver Island, among them Alfred Waddington's
Fraser River Mines Vindi.cated, Kinahan Cornwallis' The New El Dorado and
William Carew Hazlitt's first book on British Columbia entitled British
Columbia and Vancouver Island.,.. all printed in 1.858. J.D. Pemberton's
Facts and Figures relating to Vancouver Island and British Columbia
appeared two years later. Then, in 1.862, the year of the colony's essay
contest, a rash of works on the two young colonies was published, including
Rattray's Vancouver Island and British Columbia, R.C Mayne's Four Years
in British Columbia and Vancouver Island, Barrett-Lerinard's Travels in
British Columbia and Hazlitt's The Great Gold Fields of Cariboo.
The works of Rattray,'Mayne, Barrett-Lennard and Matthew Macfie's
Vancouver Island and British Columbia (1.865), together with Hazlitt's
1.858 book, have all been reprinted in facsimile editions. Regrettably,
Klanak Press has decided to produce a completely new edition of The Great
Gold Fields, setting the work in new type and placing all the footnotes at
the end of the narrative. The colourful foldout map in the original has
beeri relegated in stark black and white to the lining paper, and the flashy
title page of this new edition bears no resemblance to the classic taste
of the old. The one redeeming feature of this new edition is its impressive
Hazlitt's second work, like his first, is a compilation of other
accounts of the region. Unlike the other writers mentioned above, some of
them residents in the colony,'Hazlitt came neither to Vancouver Island nor
British. Columbia and as a result, his editorial work leaves something to
be desired. For example, on p.20 we find Fort Langley 35 miles from the
mouth of the Fraser; on p.29 it has apparently moved 25 miles upstream,
situated 60 miles from the mouth of the. Fraser. Appendix IV which contains 4 vocabulary of Chinook taken from,the San Francisco.Bulletin was
lifted in toto from the Appendix in his first book (published in I858),
making the date "4th of June last" an incorrect citation for readers of
his second work.
Moreover,.chapters 1 and 2 of The Great Gold Fields, 'providing a
history of early discovery of the northwest coast, are a condensation using
the wording of the first 1.3 chapters of Hazlitt's first book. Chapter 3,
describing the coast and interior of Vancouver Island, relies heavily on a
paper prepared by Colonel Grant and read before the Royal Geographical
Society in 1.857, again taken in condensed form from chapter 1.6 of Hazlitt's
earlier work. New material in Hazlitt's "virtually new book" finally
appears extensively in chapter 4, which quotes the experiences of "A.Returned
Digger" who in 1.862 published his own book (Cariboo, the Newly Discovered
Gold Fields of British Columbia fully described by a Returned Digger), 22
which ran to no less than six editions. In sum, Hazlitt's Great Gold
Fields of Cariboo is an edited summary of his first volume on British
Columbia and Vancouver Island updated with new first hand accounts, despatches
from Governor Douglas and fresh newspaper reports.
If the work had been reprinted exactly as published in 1.862, the book
could stand for what it was, "a carefully digested selection of all the
reliable intelligence that has hitherto reached us" relative to the colonies
in 1.862. In its revised form, it is indeed "of little practical value in
our times" as Professor Gough admits in his Foreword. The reader, therefore has the right to expect more extensive editorial work given its adaptation from the original, if only to justify the exorbitant selling price.
In sum, the criticisms of An Essayist, anxious to learn the results
of Governor Douglas' essay contest in 1.862, are remarkably appropriate to
this new 1974 edition of The Great Gold Fields of Cariboo:
"In a country like this whose resources are being duly more developed,
and whose social aspects are continually shifting, what is true today
may be seen to be only partially true tomorrow, and a pamphlet which
if published now would be seen to contain a tolerably accurate
description, would in months hence be justly judged to be lamentably
faulty and incomplete."
Kent Haworth.
Mr Haworth, a member of the Victoria Branch, is on the staff of the
Provincial Archives.
**** jflp Haworth invites members to submit to him the name of the first
prizewinner of Governor Douglas' essay contest. The writer of the first
letter with the correct answer will receive as a prize Mr Haworth's review
copy of The Great Gold Fields of Cariboo.
by Doreen Imredy
In early December 1.974, the Vancouver City Council,declared twenty-
one city buildings worthy of the designation Historic Buildings. Four
of these buildings contain work by Charles Marega, a sculptor who lived
in Vancouver from 1.909 until his .death in 1939. After years of neglect,
not only by the general public, but also lack of recognition from local
artists, Marega's skill as a eculptor has vindicated his sponsors'
Immediately after his death his name appears to have been erased from
his contemporaries' memories. A book published a few years after his death
Canadiatn Art, 1.820-1.940, by William Colgate, makes no mention of Marega.
The bust, Marega sculpted of Tom Fripp and presented to the Vancouver Art
Gallery by a group of Fripp's friends, was noted in the book. But the
artist who had done the work was not mentioned. Also included in the book
was a review of public sculpture in other Canadian cities, but nothing was
written about Vancouver's public sculpture. At that time the work around 23
town was largely Charles Marega's public '<_-rmmissions.
Who was this unknown sculptor, Charles Marega? And why did I, 30 years
after his death, become interested? I'll answer the second question first.
My husband is a sculptor, most of his friends are artists. We spend a lot of
time driving around the city looking at' the art on buildings, in buildings
and outside buildings, and discussing the work. Too many times when I would
ask, 'who did that?* the answer would be, Charles Marega. Elek, who came
here iri 1.957, didn't know the answer to my next question, 'who was he? '
I asked his friends and their answer was 'oh! ' a local person, taught at
the Art School, and died broke!'.
As I'm more curious when I'm given vague answers, I set out to find
the answer to 'who was Charles Marega?'. I don't feel I have all the facts,
and I'm still searching; this is an interim report.
Carlo Marega, pronounced MarEEga, was born near Trieste in Italy,
September 2k, 1871, the second child in a family of eleven children.
Trieste, then, was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This, and the
fact that his wife was a German-Swiss, accounted for the idea that he was
an Austrian. He trained in both the practical trade of artistic plaster
design and in sculpture. Trade schools, art schools, and artists' Studios
were used to further his education. They were located in Italy, Austria
and Switzerland. In the latter he met and in 1.899 married Berta Panitz,
a widow.
Soon after their marriage they moved to South Africa. There he was
associated with Anton van Wouw - a noted European style sculptor - who was
about ten years older than Marega and who died in 1.9-+5-
The Maregas' heard glowing reports from a friend in California and '
decided to emigrate; they came by way of Vancouver. Like thousands before
and since then, thejr came under Vancouver's spell - also the mountains
reminded Mrs Marega of her native Switzerland - and decided to stay.
For a sculptor, the fall of 1.909 in Vancouver couldn't have been a
more opportune time to arrive. The newspapers told of a- committee being
formed to build a memorial to David Oppenheimer, The newspapers stated
the committee was going to hire Augustus St. Gaudens and pay him $50,000
for a memorial gate to be erected over a causeway to be built to connect
Stanley Park to the city. The committee met two wweks later and it was
reported that they had found out St. Gaudens was dead (he had been dead for
two years) but they would still spend $40,000. By the time they got around
to commissioning Marega in early 1910, the hard headed Vancouver business
men had cut. their grandiose plan to a bronze bust and paid Marega- $4,000.
The Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire commissioned a
drinking fountain to honour King Edward, who had died in 1910. The Library
wing was added to the Parliament Buildings in Victoria and Marega was
commissioned to model twenty separate pieces of work. Sixteen Were full
length figures of famous early British Columbians, six were medallions of
great literary individuals. They were first modelled in clay, then cast in
plaster of paris; I should guess from photographs the figures were quarter
size. The models were sent to Victoria to be enlarged in their final choice
of material and fitted into the niches around the Library. The medallions
were probably modelled in full size, carved by stone cutters and fitted
into place. 24
In 1.911 the Maregas1 bought a house at 1.0th and Hemlock (torn down-
many years ago for an apartment), where he was able to have a studio in
his back garden; they stayed there for ten years.
Marega joined all the art organizations after he arrived. The Art,
Historical aid Scientific Society, the British Columbia Fine Arts Society
and the Studio Club, His first exhibition was with the Studio Club in
October 1909. He showed a small group in. wax called 'The Fortune Toller'.
Felix Penne (Francis Bursill), the art critic for the Vancouver World
"......These have the right feeling and directness of life and there
is every indication the sculptor is capable of broader and more
ambitious work - which I shall be glad to see. Soon Vancouver will
not have to propose dead sculptors to design memorials - there are
and will be living and capable sculptors nearer home than on the other
bank of the Styx "
Marega was not the first to exhibit, sculpture in Vancouver; that honour
goes to Noel Bursill, who exhibited in the spring of 1.909.
During the'war years, of course, there were no large commissions.
Marega was busy with many small pieces which were exhibited then and in
later years. He designed memorials which were never commissioned, he taught
at night schools and he managed to make a living doing the work he had
learned in the decorative plastering schools he had attended. Elaborately
decorated plaster ceilings and walls were one of the status symbols in
Vancouver during the early years of this century. Many of the homes in
Shaughnessy were enhanced by his art. Banks and theatres used his custom
•plaster work.
After the war, artists and business people of Vancouver joined together
to form a group called the British Columbia Art League, It was formed for
the specific purpose of starting an art school and art gallery. When both
these objectives were realized by the early 1.930vs, they disbanded,, During
the intervening years they were an active and vocal force in Vancouver's
artistic Zife. I don't think, since then, Vancouver has had such a vital and
united artistic force on behalf of the arts. The artists worked fck.rd for
their objectives, Marega among them. He was on the executive, first to
start the art school and later for the art gallery. During his last years,
for his work in assisting the start of the Vancouver Art Gallery, he was
made an honorary member.. - •
In the summer of 1.921, Mr and Mrs Marega left for Europe and stayed-
nearly two years. He sold his house, his plaster business, and it appeared
for a while that they had moved permanently. But they were back in Vancouver
•in 1..923» Immediately he was back in the art affairs in town. He rented the
building at 822 Hornby Street, which he converted into a studio. The building
eventually became the liquor store and was the last store to be torn down to
make way for the Block 6l provincial buildings.
He was still the only professional sculptor in Vancouver. When the art
school - then known as the Vancouver School for Applied and Decorative Arts -
opened in October 1.925, he was the sculptor teacher. He continued teaching,
always on a part time basis, until he died. He taught both modelling, which
was decorative plaster work, and sculpting. In his studio he taught a few
private pupils. 25
He was not only busy with committees and teaching; he had several
commissions as well. The Harding Memorial in Stanley Park was erected in
Ipril 1.925. This was his largest in monetary terms. Harding, the
President of the United States had visited Vancouver in 1.923, and two
days later, while continuing his tour to California, he died. Harding
had been a Kiwanis and the club decided to erect a memorial to commemorate
the visit to Canada of an American President. The Kiwanis assessed 50^
from each member of their continent wide club and announced an International
competition, and Charles Marega won. The Maple Tree Square plaque,
removed when they remodelled Gastown, was in place in June 1.925.
In 1926, Carlo Marega became a Canadian citizen and he then
officially changed his name to Charles Marega.
The Joe Fortes fountain was erected in 1.927 near English Bay, where
the popular lifeguard and instructor had been on duty, first as a •
volunteer, then as a city employee.
With the opening of the Art Gallery in 1931. the peak years of
Marega came to an end. The depression had arrived, he was in his 60's,
and he had to press to receive a commission.
Through all the years he had a'dream of a suitable monument in
Stanley Park to honour the explorer Captain Vancouver. This dream brought
him and his wife to the brink of poverty. •■ He borrowed money from his
'stepson in Switzerland and his brother in Argentina, The Burrard Bridge
was fcommissidhed during these years, and the Seaforth Armouries coat of
In JanUary 1.935. Mrs Marega died, and all his vitality left him.
People who knew him in the last years of his life have a different view
of him. They see him as a shrunken and poverty stricken artist. One
person I contacted told me Marega had done nothing for the art life of
Vancouver and was a nobody. Another remark, attributed to the architect
of the Hotel Vancouver, when asked if Marega would be doing any work on
the hotel said "he didn't want that old man working on his hotel! ",
He finally made a statue of Captain Vancouver for the new City Hall,
but he still dreamed of a larger and more impressive monument - I have
a copy of the last letter he wrote back to Switzerland, and he mentions
the possibility of the memorial being erected.
The Lion's Gate Bridge lions were his last commission, and I quote
from a letter dated August 1.938:
"Thank God I have work now. I am modelling a Lion for Vancouver's
suspension bridge. I had much trouble to get the work. The engineer
is from Montreal, and wanted the Lion to be modelled in Montreal.
But the president of the bridge committee, who is a long standing
friend of mine, and his wife a good friend of mamas, finally assigned
the work to me. I would have preferred the Lions to be in bronze or
stone - but it has to be cheap - so they will be done in concrete
which annoys me, as I could otherwise have made both Lions from one
model. However I have to content myself to get work at all."
In January 1.939 the lions were put into place, 26
After Marega had finished teaching his class on March 24th, 1.939,
he collapsed with a heart attack and died at the school.
Among his effects was a specially designed bronze box which held
his wife's ashes. They were to have been sent back to Switzerland for
burial, but he wouldn't part with them. Someone has the box and I'm
sure doesn't know what it was made for.
His moulds and models were offered to the Vancouver Art Gallery but
they were refused. An auction was held by the public trustee and everything was scattered, Some small pieces have surfaced in second-hand shops.
There is no grave for the Maregas.  I was told, a year after Marega
died, a friend still had the ashes, but with the war on didn't know what
to do with them.
All we have of Charles Marega now is the monuments he erected to
other people and historical events. I would like to see a memorial to
him ... I would like the Provincial Government to name all or part of
Block 6l for.Charles Marega. He had his studio there from 1.923 until
shortly before he died. 822 Hornby Street, (the liquor store), was the
last building on Block 6l to be tarn down. There still has not been
another sculptor who has so much work on display in the city. People
should know his name and what he did; they should get away from the
dreadful idea of having to cut the national mustard first. If we don't
honour our own artists why should anyone-else bother. Marega came here
and lived nearly half his lifetime here, making monuments for past events,
so we would never forget our history. Now that he is part of our past,
our history, let us have the square, BLOCK 6l, named for him, so in
future no one will say WHO WAS CHARLES MAREGA?
Mrs Imredy is a member of the Vancouver Historical Society.


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