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British Columbia Historical News 1984

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 Published by the British Columbia Historical Federation
$3.50
VOLUME 18, No. 2
1984
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL NEWS
Ashdown Henry Green
Boats and Boaters on Kootenay Lake
1910-1946
Recollections of Mabel McLarty
Peterson, Prince George, and
Marie Houghton Brent, Okanagan On the cover...
Ashdown H. Green on the Nass River on survey, 1906.
Story starts on page 5.
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the treasurer and the editor whose addresses are at the bottom of the next page. The Annual
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societies:
Alberni District Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M7
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BCHA — Victoria Branch, c/o Margaret Bell, 1187 Hampshire, Victoria. B.C. V8S 4T1
Burnaby Historical Society, c/o 5406 Manor St., Burnaby, B.C. V5G 1B7
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Cowichan Historical Society, P.O. Box 1014, Duncan, B.C. V9L 3Y2
Creston & District Historical & Museum Society, P.O. Box 1123. Creston, B.C. VOB 1G0
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Cranbrook, B.C. V1C 2H6
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North Shore Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Elizabeth L. Grubbe, 623 East 10th Street,
North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 2E9
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum and Archives, Box 21, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
Qualicum Beach Historical & Museum Society, c/o A.C. Killip, R.R. #1, Site 142, C-19,
Qualicum Beach, B.C. VOR 2T0
Saltspring Island Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Olive Clayton, R.R. #3, Comp. 4, Scott Pt. #1,
Ganges, B.C. VOS 1E0
Sidney & North Saanich Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Ray Joy, 10719 Bayfield Road, R.R. #3,
Sidney, B.C. V8L 3P6
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Affiliated Groups
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The Hallmark Society, 207 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 2K8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL NEWS vou*™^
Features
Ashdown Henry Green      5
by J.W. Ashdown Green
"The Father of Confederation" in Ross Bay Cemetery—John Hamilton Grey
(1814-1889)       9
by Patricia Roy
Boats and Boaters on Kootenay Lake 1910-1946      11
by Naomi Miller
She Came Before the Railway     16
by George David Birch
Recollections of Marie Houghton Brent     21
by Elsie G. Turnbull
Writing Competition      20
News and Notes
News from the Branches     23
Dorothy Blakey Smith Memorial  25
Islands '86 Symposia     26
Heritage Trust 1985 Student Employment Program   26
Museums and Archives  27
BCHF Annual Convention     29
Contest   30
Bookshelf
False Creek: History, Images, and Research Stories by Robert K. Burkinshaw;
review by Bill McKee      31
Cutting Up the North: The History of the Forest Industry in the Northern Interior
by Ken Bernsohn; review by Gordon Hak     32
Mission on the Inlet: St. Paul's Indian Catholic Church, North Vancouver, B.C. 1863-1984,
by T.A. Lascelles O.M.I.; review by Jacqueline Gresko      33
Mayne Island and the Outer Gulf Islands: A History by Marie Elliott;
review by Robert McDonald    33
Publications of Interest    34
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E,
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5. Our Charitable Donations number is 0404681-52-27. Printed by Prestige Printers, Victoria,
B.C.
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other correspondence, including changes of address, to the Vancouver address given above.
Subscriptions: Institutional $16.00 per year; Individual (non-members) $8.00 per year.
The B.C. Historical Federation gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance of the British Columbia Heritage
Trust. Letters to the Editor
Cowichan Knitting Exhibit
I am currently doing research for an exhibit on
Cowichan Knitting to be shown at the UBC
Museum of Anthropology during Expo 86. I am
looking for old, hopefully dated photographs of
people wearing Cowichan sweaters or related
photographs from the Cowichan Valley area for
the exhibit and the accompanying monograph. If
there is information on where the sweaters were
purchased and who knit them, even better.
Photographs will be returned.
Margaret Meikle
Curator, Cowichan Knitting Exhibit,
Museum of Anthropology
The University of British Columbia
6393 N.W. Marine Drive
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5
Kerrisdale Historical Society
The Society is interested in hearing from people
who lived in the Kerrisdale area of Vancouver and
can contribute information for a forthcoming
book, The Trail to Point Grey. Contact the
Society's office at 5670 Yew Street, Vancouver,
B.C V6M 3Y3.
The Black Cultural Centre
The Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia is
making a national search for artifacts to furnish
their Museum, which would "depict and interpret" their history and background in Nova
Scotia. Interested contributors are asked to
contact Henry V. Bishop, Curator, P.O. Box 2128
East, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2W 3Y2.
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Page 4
British Columbia Historical News J.W. Ashdown Green
Ashdown Henry Green
Civil Engineer, Land Surveyor and Amateur Ichthyologist
Little has been written of Ashdown Henry Green,
a Land Surveyor who was active in British
Columbia from 1862 to 1918. He participated in
early explorations and was one of the many
immigrants who contributed to the orderly
settlement of the province.
Green was born on Mount Street, Grosvenor
Square, London on August 12th, 1840. He was
educated at Charterhouse School and the
Neuweid in Germany. He passed his Civil
Engineering examinations in England and was
proceeding to India in that capacity when
doctor's orders suggested a cooler climate, so he
decided to emigrate to British Columbia.
He arrived in Victoria on August 23rd, 1862 after
passage on the steamships Atrato and Pelican. He
never returned to England. In Victoria he became
a partner of F.W. Green (no relation), the city
surveyor or city engineer as he would now be
called.
In 1865 he explored the Selkirk Mountain
Range to locate a route for a government road to
Canada, this being prior to Confederation. The
diaries of his Columbia River explorations are on
file at the Provincial Archives in Victoria. On
August 28th he wrote of his problems with Indian
packers who complained ot their loads, and
pleaded sickness, so that a whole day was taken
up in persuading them to work. On August 30th
he found that in filling his order for supplies the
Hudson's Bay Company had substituted coffee
beans for beans, so that his small party was
carrying two hundred pounds of coffee. On
October 19th, when he received additional
supplies from Kamloops, he was given orders by
Joseph Trutch to report to Mr. Dewdney on
completion of the current project. His return to
Victoria, as described in his diary, gives some idea
of the problems of travel at that time.
Dec. 9Started from Savona's ferry at 8:00 a.m.
Stopped to wait at Boston's. Rode on
afterwards to Cornwallis.
11 Reached Cook's ferry (Spence's Bridge).
12 Walked to Lytton.
14 Reached Salter's 42 Mile House.
15 Rode on a wagon to Boston Bar.
16 Reached Chapman's Bar.
17 Arrived at Yale.
18 In Yale expecting steamer but as I was
afraid that it might not arrive made
arrangements to go down in a canoe.
79 Started in a canoe with eight other men
who were going down. Stopped at Hope
for half an hour. Reached Hicks' Ranch.
20 Made a portage over the ice in the
orchard. Reached Harrison mouth.
21 Found the river blocked up about four
miles from the mission. Nearly shipwrecked. Walked down to the mission.
22 Crossed the river on the ice. Some of us
went through and were saved with
difficulty. Reached the Indian Ranch
where we camped.
23 Went on telegraph trail to Langley.
24 Arrived at New Westminster at 6:00 p.m.
This was a real change in lifestyle for a young
man who had come out from England only three
years before at the age of twenty-two.
Green must have settled in the Cowichan
Valley in the late 1860s, because in 1870 the
Cowichan Agricultural Exhibition was held at his
farm near Somenos Lake. In March of 1871 a
meeting of residents of Cowichan was held at the
mission school house for the purpose of forming
a lending library. Green was one of the eleven
men present, and a motion was passed that the
meeting enrol themselves in a society to be called
the "Cowichan Lending Library and Literary
Institute".
CPR Survey
In 1871 Green was appointed Divisional
Engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways
working on the location of the CPR line across
British Columbia, and held this position until
1880. He surveyed the Howse Pass to Yellowhead
area in 1871-1873, and his diary outlines some
aspects of survey life in those days.
British Columbia Historical News
Page5 July 4, 1871 Met Mr. Moberly.
24 Crossed the divide betweeen the
McLeod and Pembina Rivers.
Camped on a small stream that flows
in to the latter.
31 Reached Lobstick.
Aug. 1 Reached Thickwood.
May 5,1873 At about ten o'clock came in sight of
a large cinnamon bear feeding in the
open valley.  The Indian Alec shot
him and after taking as much of the
meat as we could carry conveniently
we resumed our route.
7Johnny caught a pike.
11 Alec shot two geese.
Aug. 4 Got rid of the old Indian at last. This
will reduce our consumption of grub
as he was three man-power with his
knife and fingers.
9 Got Johnny out of bed and put him
under a tree. He is very weak and I
am sorry that I have nothing to give
him to keep up his strength.
14 Started in company with Mr. Hall's
train for the McLeod. Put Johnny on
horseback but on a tree striking his
leg he fainted and we had to take
him off. Packed him on a hand
barrow as far as Mire Creek
intending to take him to the McLeod
on which I hear I shall find a canoe.
21 Johnny's leg very much swollen in
the evening so had to poultice it.
26 Johnny's leg very much swollen, lam
afraid that I shall have to lance it to
relieve it.
27Opened Johnny's leg under the
knee and reduced the swelling.
Sep. 6 Johnny very feverish.
There is no further word of Johnny so we must
hope that he survived. With no antibiotics or sulfa
drugs known, medicine was largely a matter of
cleanliness, rest, poultices and hope.
"In 1874 Green was appointed a delegate from
St. Peter's Church, Quamichan, to attend a
convention held in Victoria for the formation of
an Anglican Synod. Other delegates from the area
were Edward Marriner, A.S. Morley, R. Woods,
and Mr. Crease of Victoria. Also in 1874, Green
was elected to the North Cowichan Municipal
Council from the Quamichan ward. The
Municipality had been incorporated the previous
year. On January 19th the Council met and
appointed Mr. Green as Warden, or reeve to use a
term that came in to use six years later.
Ashdown H. Green
Green carried out a survey of Saltspring
Island—the South end in 1874 and the North end
in 1875. Records show that his monthly salary was
one hundred and fifty dollars at this time. The
survey seems to have been routine—the
following are some excerpts from his diary:
Jun. 8,  1874 Received instructions to survey
Saltspring Island.
9 Landed at Maple Bay.
10 Went to Burgoyne Bay. Camped
half-way between Burgoyne Bay and
Fulford.
11 Went with Ackerman to look for
posts of old survey and found two.
Went to Ford's and looked around
generally.
14 Killed a big buck. Very fat.
22 Found Gyves had trespassed about
seven chains on Welsh for a distance
of ten chains.
July 10 Discharged Hozier (chainman) for
laziness.
Page 6
British Columbia Historical News 30Johnson got lost,  this man is the
biggest fool that I have seen in a long
time.
31 Had a fall and damaged the sights of
my circumferentor.
In the 1875 Cowichan Voters' List No. 51 Green
was listed as: Green, Ashdown H., Civil Engineer,
Somenos. In 1878 he surveyed Bare Hill and the
Cowichan Indian Reserves.
In 1879 Green married Miss Caroline Guillod of
Comox. Miss Guillod had come out from England
to keep house for her brother Harry Guillod, an
Anglican Catechist. Harry Guillod had in 1863
.owned a one-third share in a sawmill at
Chemainus but became a Catechist serving at
Victoria, Alberni and Comox. Mr. and Mrs. Green
moved to Victoria and had two children, Caroline
born 1880 and Ashdown Thomas born 1882. Mrs.
Green died in 1883 and the two children were
sent to England to be raised by Green's brothers.
Indian Department Surveyor
Green joined the Indian Department in 1880 as
a surveyor. Early surveyors of Indian Reserves
were called on to serve in many roles. They acted
as negotiators, interpreters, mediators and census
takers. They advised the Indians on such matters
as soil comparisons, land values, and the ultimate
precise location of reserves, in order that the
maximum advantage would rebound to Indian
occupants from actual surveys.
Peter O'Reilly, as Indian Reserve Commissioner, in 1886 allotted ten reserves to the Laich-
Kwil-Tach Tribe, but left the boundaries
indefinite because at the time of his visit to the
area all the Indians were away. When Green
arrived only the local Chief, Quacksister (also
known as Captain John, Quack-sus-tut-la, and
Quocksister) was present with six young men and
wanted an immediate decision. Green reports:
/ informed them that before I came to any
conclusion I intended to examine the land
and make a survey of it, and when I had done
so I would ask the white settlers with whom
they were at variance to attend and I would
render my decision ...lam pleased to report
that my decision gave satisfaction to all
concerned, and I think rightly so, for while
the Indians are awarded the site of their
houses which had been omitted by Mr.
Sproat, the whites obtain access to the sea,
the head of steamboat navigation on the
river being now within Messrs. Nunns' claim
... the chief claimed compensation for a
small potato patch of about two rods which
is not included in the Reserve, and also some
clearing done by the Indians and valued by
me at five dollars.
The diary of Fred Nunns, who with his brother
Jack were the first European settlers in Campbell
River, tells of the activities of Green in dealing
with a boundary dispute. The Nunns had spent
several weeks in Victoria trying to get action to
settle the boundary between their property and
adjoining Indian lands. Jack Nunns writes that on
April 29th, 1888, Green arrived with a chainman
and a cook, and had full power to deal with the
case. There was also an application from a
syndicate for a 30,000 acre property. Green would
not deal with Quacksister, the local Chief, to that
chief's annoyance, but sent to Qualicum for
Wamich, the real Chief. At a meeting on May 4th,
Green, the Nunns brothers, and the Indian
representatives fixed a boundary line under
which the Nunns brothers lost five chains of land,
would do some ploughing for Quacksister, and
would pay him five dollars. At this time the land
was valued at one dollar per acre. Quacksister was
pleased with the outcome and after the Nunns
had completed the ploughing they became
friends. Quacksister planted potatoes, turnip and
carrot seed distributed by Green.
In 1888 Green married Constance Clara
Aunuata Dumbleton, a daughter of Henry M.
Dumbleton (1821-1909) of Rocklands, Regent's
Park, Rockland Avenue, Victoria. Three sons were
born to them: Rupert, born 1890, who died in
infancy; Arthur Ashdown, born 1891; Geoffrey
Walter Ashdown, born 1894, killed in Royal Flying
Corps 1918.
Ichthyologist
Green was a keen sportsman. He published the
following articles on the fishes of British
Columbia:
1891 Journal of Natural History Vol. 1, No. 1., "The
Salmonidae of British Columbia" and "The
Economic Fishes of British Columbia"
1893 Journal of Natural History, "Notes on the
Occurrence of a New and Rare Fish in British
Columbia".
He identified nine types of fish not previously
seen in British Columbia waters, and caught two
types of fish, previously unknown, which were
later named after him:
1893 Lake Chub (Couesius Plumbeus Greenii)
1895 Lobefin Snailfish (Polypera Greenii)
British Columbia Historical News
Page 7 He designed a streamer fishing fly, the
"Ashdown Green" which was a recognized
pattern.
His collection of preserved fish was the nucleus
of the fish exhibits in the British Columbia
Provincial Museum (Bulletin No. 68, Second
Edition, 1961, Fisheries Board of Canada).
At some time prior to 1894 Mr. and Mrs. Green
returned to Duncan where Mrs. Green resided
until 1910. Green was travelling in B.C. most of this
time because of the nature of his employment.
They occupied a house in Duncan which was later
to become the Silver Bridge Inn. This house had a
tennis court by the river until one night, with the
Cowichan River in flood, the tennis court swept
away. They also had a cottage at the end of
McKinstry Street which Green gave to his son
Ashdown Thomas in 1914, on the occasion of his
marriage to Gladys Dumbleton, of Victoria.
Mr. and Mrs. Green participated in community
functions. Newspapers and diaries tell of Mrs.
Green presiding at numerous Tennis Teas and
picnics. In 1894 she hosted a party at her home at
which fifty people were in attendance for dancing
to piano and violin. A month later an even larger
affair was held. At the Cowichan Horticultural,
Dog and Poultry Show held in Duncan July 2nd,
1900 Mrs. Green took prizes for her roses,
geraniums, and potted plants. Green's smooth-
haired fox terrier took first prize in its class. Mrs.
Green was active as an organist at St. Peter's
Church, Quamichan, and assisted with the choir,
also participating in local concerts.
Nass River Survey
In 1906 Green surveyed in the Nass River area of
the province. A photograph at that time shows
him, very correctly dressed, being transported on
the river by two Indians in one of the old-style,
high-prowed canoes. His interest in the unusual
caused tension while he was working on the
Queen Charlotte Islands. Seeing a woman with
the elongated skull produced by binding the
head when she was young, as was practised by
some tribes, he unthinkingly exclaimed, "I would
give anything to get that skull". For the remainder
of his stay there were guards close to the woman
at all times.
Mr. and Mrs. Green left Duncan for Victoria,
apparently in 1913. On the death of her mother in
1915, Mrs. Green inherited the Dumbleton family
home at 1750 Rockland Avenue, which had been
built by her father in 1892. Green retired from
practice as a land surveyor in 1918 and died in
Victoria in 1927 at the age of eighty-seven.
His son and daughter, sent to England in 1883,
returned to Duncan. Caroline married John Norie
of Duncan in 1903. They farmed in Somenos but
sold the farm in 1913 and emigrated to England. A
son Geoffrey Green is in France, and a daughter
Mary Myneer in Australia. Ashdown T. Green
died in Duncan in 1921, but his widow, Mrs.
Gladys Stone, is now (1984) living in Victoria.
Arthur Green is no longer living.
Green stated at one time that he had been
everywhere in British Columbia except
Barkerville. Since he was active from 1862 to
1918—he was still doing surveys in 1918 at the age
of seventy-eight—he was probably right.
Sources of Information.
(1)One Hundred Years at St. Peters, David R. Williams,
1977 Edition.
(2) Cowichan My Valley, R.I. Dougan, 1973, Third Edition.
(3) Recollections of Mrs. Gladys Stone, Daughter-in-law of
Ashdown H. Green.
(4) Files of the Cowichan Leader.
(5) Files of the Duncan Enterprise.
(6) Diaries of Ashdown H. Green in the British Columbia
Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C. covering the
Saltspring Survey 1874-1875, the 1871-1873 Howse Pass
Exploration, and the 1865 Exploration of the Selkirk
Range.
(7) Bulletin No. 68 (2nd Edition) 1961 Fisheries Research
Board of Canada.
(8) The Diaries of Mary Marriner, Cowichan Bay, B.C.
covering the period November 1894 to February 1925.
(9) Biography of Henry Ashdown Green from the Journal
of the Corporation of Land Surveyors of British
Columbia.
J.W. Ashdown Green is the grandson of Ashdown Henry
Green, and a member of the Cowichan Historical Society.
Page 8
British Columbia Historical News Patricia Roy
"The Father of Confederation" in Ross Bay
Cemetery
John Hamilton Gray (1814-1889)
Among the "Fathers of Confederation" who
attended the Charlottetown and Quebec
Conferences in 1864 were two John Hamilton
Grays. One spent most of his life in Prince Edward
Island; the other, after a long career in New
Brunswick politics, spent some seventeen years
in British Columbia and is buried in Victoria's
Ross Bay Cemetery. The latter John Hamilton
Gray would have undoubtedly been pleased by
the decision of the Historic Sites and Monuments
Board of Canada to commemorate his final
resting place with a plaque, on November 30,
1980. Gray had once complained to Prime
Minister John A. Macdonald, "I helped to work
out Confederation but others got the honors."1
Despite his birth in Bermuda (1814) where his
father was serving in the Royal Navy, Gray had
strong British North American connections. His
grandfather had been a Loyalist settler of Nova
Scotia. Gray himself was educated at King's
College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, and was called to
the New Brunswick bar in 1837. By 1850 he had
been elected to the New Brunswick Legislature,
and at various times sat as a member of the
Executive Council and served for a time as
Attorney-General.
As a prominent member of the New Brunswick
Legislature, Gray attended the Charlottetown
and Quebec Conferences. He had already
indicated his support for Maritime Union as a
forerunner of a union of all the British North
American colonies, and had long favored the
construction of a railway to link them. On his
return to New Brunswick, Gray, who had
"pretensions" of being an orator with "a rich
redundance of expression which made him
effective at one time, boring at another,"2 joined
Samuel Leonard Tilley in trying to win popular
support for Confederation. Despite their
arguments that Confederation would mean
lower taxes, Gray and Tilley would not allay New
Brunswickers' suspicions of Confederation and
Canada. In the general election of 1865, the Tilley
government was defeated along with all the
MLAs, including Gray, who had been at the
Quebec Conference.
Gray was disappointed by the absurdity "that
the petty jealousness of small Communities"
could defeat imperial policies and imperil the
future of British North America3 but he was not
downcast; he realized the defeat was temporary,
that the new government was weak and divided.
Indeed, little more than a year later, thanks in
part to the political maneuvering of Lieutenant-
Governor Arthur Gordon and the fear of an
invasion by the Irish-American Fenian
Brotherhood, the supporters of Confederation
were again in power. Gray's faith in Confederation had been fulfilled. In 1867 he was elected by
acclamation as a Conservative M.P. for St. John.
When he was passed over for the Speakership
of the House of Commons, Gray looked for
another government appointment, possibly to
provide him with greater financial security than a
political career offered.4 To John A. Macdonald,
Gray seemed an ideal person to become a Puisne
Judge of the Supreme Court of British Columbia.
Although Chief Justice Begbie thought, "a third
judge is unnecessary as twenty-one wheels to a
coach,"5 and George Walkem referred to Gray as
an "empty-headed favourite,"6 Macdonald went
ahead with the appointment. The prime minister
believed a third judge could resolve differences
of opinion on the bench.7 Moreover, Gray was
familiar with the civil and criminal law of the
original four provinces and could discuss with
Judges Begbie and Crease "the points of
difference between the laws of the Dominion
British Columbia Historical News
Page 9 and those which now obtain in British
Columbia."8 As well, no British Columbia lawyer
would accept the "starvation salary" which the
Dominion government paid the appointee.9
Although Gray accepted the post, both he and
his wife always felt aggrieved by his inadequate
salary and he consistently hoped for a better
position, specifically that of lieutenant-
governor.10
Gray arrived in Victoria late in October 1872.
The Colonist observed that "in appearance the
new judge is as gray as his name, wears side
whiskers and moustache, and is exceedingly
affable and gentlemanly in his manner."11 Within
weeks, Gray was "everywhere popular" and "his
style and manner on the bench as compared
with his colleagues" had excited such "marked
and universal expression of approbation that he
had had "to suppress an outburst of applause"
following his remarks on the administraton of
justice in the Dominion.12 Even Premier George
Walkem admitted that Gray did "his duty to the
best of his ability" and that "the bar prefer Gray
with his faults" to Begbie and Crease "with their
crass ignorance of their profession" and their
opposition to reform in the administration of
justice.13
Gray's chief fault was his inability to keep his
family expenses (he had seven children) within
his means. When he sought nine months' leave
in 1880 to attend to his own and family health
needs, his creditors wanted to stop him for he
owed "everyone right and left".14 When a
tradesman with a judgment against Gray sought
to have Gray arrested, Judge Begbie used several
legal technicalities to delay the judgment until
after Gray's steamer left for California.15
Gray did improve his health. During his final
eight and a half years he led an active life. In
addition to his judicial duties he served as a
member of the Royal Commission on Chinese
Immigration and on a Commission that went to
Washington in an effort to arbitrate the Behring
Sea dispute. He also helped organize a Victoria
branch of the Imperial Federation League. On
June 5, 1889, however, after an apoplectic
seizure, Mr. Justice Gray died in his seventy-sixth
year. Among the pall bearers were Judges
Begbie and Crease. That fact and the legacy
Begbie left a few years' later to Gray's near
destitute widow16 are indicative of the respect
and friendship he earned in British Columbia.
The marker in Ross Bay Cemetery gives him
some of the national honor and recognition that
eluded him in life.
[fd. note: This is adapted from a talk given at the
unveiling of the Historic Sites and Monuments
Board Marker, 30 November 1980.]
Footnotes:
I.J.H. Gray to John A. Macdonald, 1 September 1886,
Public Archives of Canada, John A. MacDonald Papers,
#209872-7.
2. Peter B. Waite, The Life and Times of Confederation
(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962), p. 235.
3. Gray to AT. Gait, 9 April 1865 quoted in William M.
Baker, Timothy Warren Anglin, 1822-96: Irish Catholic
Canadian (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977),
p. 79.
4.S.L. Tilley to John A. Macdonald, 16 March 1872,
Macdonald Papers, #126175-6.
5. M.B. Begbie to H.P. Crease, 7 September 1872 quoted
in Alfred Watt, "The Hon. Mr. Justice John Hamilton
Gray," The Advocate, vol. 25 (March-April 1967), p. 59.
6.Quoted in CM. Wallace, "John Hamilton Gray",
Dictionary of Canadian Biography, (Toronto:
University of Toronto Press, 1982), vol. XI, p. 374.
7. Colonist, 29 June 1872.
8. John A. Macdonald to H.P. Crease, 30 November 1872,
Macdonald Papers, Letter Book 19, p. 212.
9.John A. Macdonald to J.W. Trutch, 3 July 1872,
Macdonald Papers, Letter Book 18, p. 111.
10. J.H. Gray to J.A. Macdonald, 29 April 1881, Macdonald
Papers, #174948-57 and Gray to Macdonald, 1
September 1886, Macdonald Papers, #2099872-7.
11. Co/on;'st, 27 October 1872.
12. Robert Wallace to J.A. Macdonald, 29 October 1880,
Macdonald Papers, #158002-3.
13. G.A. Walkem to J.A. Macdonald, 29 October 1880,
Macdonald Papers, #134491ff.
14. Loc. cit.
15. David R. Williams, "...The Man for a New Country":
Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie (Sidney: Gray's Publishing,
1977), p. 164.
16. E.G. Prior to J.A. Macdonald, 30 March 1890,
Macdonald Papers, #242200.
Patricia Roy teaches Canadian history at the University of
Victoria.
Page 10
British Columbia Historical News Naomi Miller
Boats and Boaters on Kootenay Lake 1910-1946
The history of exploration and development in
the Kootenays is closely tied to canoes,
sternwheelers and freight boats. Paddlewheelers
were supplemented with dozens of small craft —
rowboats, outboard boats, dories, "crocodiles'",
launches with inboard engines, rafts, and the
occasional sailboat. These served as personal
transportation for homesteaders, trappers,
prospectors, hunters, ranchers, firefighters, police
and missionaries as well as those out for a picnic, a
joy ride, or a fishing trip. Those of us who lived
along the shoreline of Kootenay Lake knew the
sight and sound of all the regular users of the
waterway north of Kaslo. Each boat owner knew
emergency landing places, and which homes
welcomed a traveller waiting out a squall.
Most small boats were given tender, loving care
by their owners. They were, in most cases, the
lifeline between home and town. Each boat was
cleaned and painted every spring (or every other
spring). The better boats rated spar varnish. The
others were treated with caulking (a smelly
seaweed stuff) and then painted with marine
paint. The main colours were white, battleship
grey, and a dark green. Reds and a cobalt blue
came in in the '40s, either more expensive or less
reliable than the old standbys.
There was a friendly rivalry between owners of
Elto and Johnson outboard motors. Dad always
insisted that Eltos were more reliable. We knew
they sounded smoother than the rough sounding
Johnson. Both, however, were easy to maintain
with trouble arising from water in the gastank, or a
wave splashing the engine, cutting off power from
the battery, or a shearpin breaking on a piece of
driftwood. The boat owner carried a simple tool
kit (pliers, screwdriver, and shearpins), a spare can
of gas mixed with the prescribed amount of oil, a
funnel and a bailing can. The bailing can might be
one carefully shaped with tinsnips, but usually was
a tobacco or pork 'n beans can. Boat cushions,
preferably with firmly sewn handles, were filled
with kapok which allowed them to double as life
preservers. Deep, tub-shaped lifeboats were a
trifle awkward to manoeuvre, not meant for
speed, but bobbed like a cork in even the most
severe storm. Lapstreak runabouts or double
pointed rowboats were easy to handle in swells or
calm water. The broader, flatter runabouts with V-
shaped prow gained their greatest speed when
calm waters permitted them to plane along the
surface. The flat bottomed river scow or
"crocodile" was utterly helpless and hopeless on
a rough lake. Each boat had its own character.
Each boat had its own story.
There were three boats that were run in the line
of duty or on errands of mercy. They belonged to
the B.C Forest Service, the Provincial Police, and
to an Anglican rector. The Amabillis was a sturdy
38-foot launch, painted battleship grey, that
belonged to the B.C. Forest Service. It took the
resident forester from Kaslo to do log scaling at
timber limits up and down the lake, to check on
booms formed and towed down to one of the
sawmills, or to direct the fighting of forest fires.
She could easily carry a dozen or so men, with
rudimentary tools and pumps needed to create
fireguards, to the beach nearest to the fire. My
father was frequently employed to freight
groceries up to the forestry crew, to supplement
the trips made by the Amabillis. There were times
when a wind reversed the direction of a fire and
the Amabillis had to hastily evacuate the crew,
perhaps to another beach, sometimes to withdraw
across the lake to home or to Kaslo.
The police launch was not quite as big as the
"fire boat". It was used for emergency work or to
patrol for hunting and fishing licenses. One
rescue mission I recall involved a careless
fisherman who nosed his rented boat ashore at
Campbell Creek, walked up the creek to the
canyon, and returned to find his boat had drifted
away. He tried in vain to hail passing trollers. He
was stranded. He did have the sense to collect
driftwood and build three bonfires (the
emergency signal for outdoorsmen in trouble).
British Columbia Historical News
Page 11 These fires became evident as dusk fell. Mother
used the old crank telephone to notify police of
the three fires clearly visible to us but probably not
clearly defined from Kaslo. We watched the lights
of the police launch reflected in the calm water.
The bonfires went out. The police boat cruised
north and disappeared into a cove. When it
reappeared, the launch came directly across the
lake, towing a small rowboat — our rental boat.
Dad brought a pair of coal oil lanterns to our boat
dock to guide the pilot. The policeman cheerfully
lined the truant boat to me, while the sheepish
tourist mumbled thanks and retreated to his
cabin.
The third mercy boat was operated by Rev
Raven while he was rector of St. Marks Anglican
Church, Kaslo. This gentleman had been an
Inspector in the Northwest Mounted Police
before studying theology. I remember viewing his
boat on the grey choppy lake with a lone figure
grimly gripping the tiller. We later learned that he
had gone to comfort the widow of a suicide victim
at Johnson's landing.
There was a mission boat which plied the lake
from time to time. Dr. James Calvery, a Methodist
minister in Kaslo, ran the boat early in the century.
He organized the Navy League, taking the boys for
many trips on the lake and for camping holidays.1
Dr. George R. Kinney, United Church minister
and famed Canadian Alpine Club member, ran
the mission boat in later years. He presented
programs in rural schools combining a bit of Bible
study with the showing of early silent films.
Many young people used a boat or a canoe
while courting or honeymooning. I know of
several couples who opted for a camping
honeymoon on a remote beach. My own parents
were one of those couples. They travelled down
the lake in the summer of 1925. On my last boat
trip to Fry Creek (1946) I came upon my silver-
haired U.B.C. Zoology professor and his bride. Dr.
B. had been a widower for years. He found
happiness that summer supervising some student
ichthyologists on Kootenay Lake, and honeymooning with the charming new Mrs. B. Then
there was the old artist who lured a lovely lass to
accompany him in his battered old launch for a
camping trip. His sketchbook revealed that he had
spent many happy hours with her posed in the
nude on distant beaches. They did get married
eventually because an infant arrived exactly nine
months after the camping trip.
One groom rowed eighteen miles to meet his
bride. Augustus Thomas Taylor was a sturdy
Lancashire farm lad who came to the Kootenays
about 1920. After he had built a log cabin and
prepared a garden, he was able to send home for
his intended Catherine "Lill" Wells. He was to
travel aboard the S.S. Moyie to meet her at
Proctor. For some reason he missed the Moyie at
Kaslo, so grabbed the nearest rowboat and plied
the oars furiously. He said, "I was only a little bit
late, and Lill forgave me when me when she saw
my bloody hands. I'd never rowed more than a
mile, at most, before in my life".
One unusual vessel that sailed once a month for
several years was a coffin. Mr. Barrow of Johnson's
Landing built his own coffin six or seven years
before his demise. He declared that he did not
want it to leak when the time came for him to be
"Six feet under". To ensure this he regularly put it
in the lake, and sat in it, and paddled it around the
bay. In his declining years Mr. Barrow hired a
pretty girl as housekeeper. She accompanied hin
during his annual summer migration up and down
the lake. She packed the big canvas tent and all the
camping pots and pans into a miraculously small
bundle, loaded them in the centre of his 18-foot
boat, neatly tucked the old man on the front seat,
and daintily stepped to the rear seat where she
competently handled the big outboard. The
coffin was watertight, and the boat was, too. It was
kept a gleaming white with green gunwale and
interior finish.
Kaslo had several boatbuilders over the years,
but Roy Green was the official boat builder from
the time he arrived in 1927 'til he retired. Roy
learned the art of canoe construction as a youth in
Peterborough, Ontario. He practised several
trades besides canoe building, including house
construction, heavy construction, plumbing and
steelworking. But boat building is what he
enjoyed most. This he did in a brick building
across from where the S.S. Moyie is berthed today.
He, with his half brother W.J. Bill Hendren, built
many small power boats, rowboats, and river
boats.2 He built his own boatSnoogy with sufficient
space for two bunks under the high prow. Snoogy
was IB ft. 6 inches long, with 5 ft. beam and 4 ft.
freeboard, powered by an 18 H.P. Johnson
outboard. Though she was a shade bigger than
many of the boats, Snoogy was light enough to
pull up on the beach instead of being moored
offshore with inboard boats. The honorable boat
builder sat on Town Council for thirteen years,
seven of those as Mayor. He was also curator of
the museum aboard the S.E. Moyie for twelve
years.3
Page 12
British Columbia Historical News DUNCAN DAM
ARGENT*
British Columbia Historical News
Page 13 Andy Jardine's Princess Margaret was one of the
good weather flotilla. No sign displayed the
unofficial name of this craft which was a small
cabin on a large raft. Andy had it rigged up with
sail and rudder so that he could float to the north
end of the lake before spring runoff started. At the
mouth of the Duncan River he harvested the best
logs which came down the river at high water. He
boomed some logs to be sold to sawmills, and he
loaded his raft with five cords of wood.
Occasionally, his entire load was cedar, which he
sold at a good price for making shakes and
shingles. Sometimes it would be cordwood for
sale or use at home. In good years he would make
about four trips up and down the lake, leisurely
camping in sheltered bays for his overnight stops.
A migrant piano tuner camped up and down
the lake, stopping at various homes to earn
grocery money. Hector Angus and his native bride
lived mainly on a fish, bannock, and berries diet.
They travelled by canoe, camping at sheltered
beaches like the ones at Deer Creek, Fry Creek,
and Lost Ledge. He went to remote homes that
boasted a piano and offered to tune the precious
instrument. His pay was often in fresh baking,
fruit, vegetables or eggs - a welcome supplement
to his camper's diet. Two of the three homes at
Birchdale had a piano. There were some at
Johnson's Landing, Argenta, and Shutty Bench.
He might find enough work at Kaslo, Ainsworth,
Deans Haven, Balfour or Queens Bay to enable
him to stay out all summer, or he might have to
return to Nelson before he was able to afford the
luxury of tea, sugar, flour, and lard. The piano
owners were pleased to have their pianos tuned,
but found their nostrils offended by the odors of
unwashed garments worn by the eccentric genius.
One settler augmented his income by growing
bedding plants in his greenhouse at the site of the
present Ashram near Kootenay Bay. Mr. Graham-
Brown took orders from customers then delivered
them in his old grey launch. This little Englishman
also arranged for his older daughter Joan to
belong to the Kaslo-Shutty Bench company of Girl
Guides. Joan was ferried across to Ainsworth in
the launch every Tuesday morning. The mail bus
driver took Joan, and her bicycle (in season) on
board the bus. Her patrol leader met her at the bus
in Kaslo. The two of them cycled to Shutty Bench
where they spent the rest of the day working on
tests or badgework. This time was available
because Joan and Naomi were both taking school
by correspondence. They attended the late
afternoon meeting at the home of Mrs. Wallace,
the Guider, or walked to the Masonic Hall in Kaslo
Lucy and Alan Allsebrook and "Rip", 1926
for an evening meeting. Next morning Joan was
returned to the Kaslo bus depot for her ride to
Ainsworth, where Mr. Graham-Brown would be
waiting with rowboat or launch to take Joan the
two miles across the lake for a late lunch. There
was no road on the east side of the lake at that
time.4
Our family went fishing when time and
opportunity permitted. The happiest fishing
season came when my brother was six years old.
Dad gave Eric a fishing rod for his birthday, and
took him out to try his luck. An hour later they
were back thrilled with a twelve pound Kokanee
salmon. A week later Dad figured that his birthday
might be lucky, too. He fixed his old bamboo rod
in a simple clamp and rowed across the lake. Then
it hit! A twenty-four pounder dragged Dad for
almost half a mile near the Campbell Creek bluffs.
Finally he played it, tired it, and netted it. He let
out a war whoop of joy which we heard three
miles away. I was lucky, too, using the same
bamboo rod, and rowing the same twelve foot
Peterboro boat with a Lethbridge tourist as my
companion. I hooked and landed a thirteen-
pound salmon.
Later it became routine for my brother or myself
to accompany any tourist who requested a
guide/companion. We enjoyed most of our
outings and sent home satisfied customers eager
to return to our parents' tourist camp. I had one
Page 14
British Columbia Historical News frightening experience, however, when I was
fourteen. Mr. R. normally went fishing with his
son in a boat powered with a 3V2 horsepower
outboard. This time he brought neither his son
nor his own boat, and he was fresh out of hospital
recovered from a heart attack. I was given the task
of rowing him for a few hours fishing. We were
not lucky close to home, so Mr. R. requested that
we go across to the bluffs. There he had one strike
— but did not land the fish. He reluctantly agreed
it was time to head for home. A wind built. I pulled
the oars till I was near exhaustion. He insisted on
taking a turn at the oars. The few minutes he
rowed gave me sufficient rest to take over again.
But Mr. R. had already turned grey. He remained a
poor color while I stroked and prayed, "God let
me get this man home safely without another
heart attack". I was truly thankful to reach a firm,
familiar beach.
Kootenay Lake has, or had, an Ogopogo. I saw
that legendary creature one July day when our
neighbour, Tom Williams Sr., used our "Muscrat"
to go to town on some special errand. My brother
and I accompanied him to handle mother's
errands. We had just rounded the Big Point when
the engine stalled. While Mr. Williams was
looking for the cause of engine failure, we were
drifting on a calm, calm lake. It swam noiselessly
between us and Chicken Beach. Then with a slight
raise of its head, and a gentle "splosh" it was gone.
Mr. Williams crossed himself, pulled the starting
cord, and pointed the Muscrat towards home.
Other boating memories include chilly trips to
church at Christmas, watching Dad deliver a
boatload of apple boxes to the Kaslo wharf for
shipment to the Prairies, and hauling sacks of
chicken feed from the Farmer's Institute home for
Mother. Sometimes we patrolled the crude
telephone line from Shutty Bench to Kaslo. The
phone line was so rudimentary that an outage
might be corrected by lifting the wire out of the
water where it sagged or had been knocked by a
falling tree limb. Last but not least, I recall
travelling to high school by myself in a twelve foot
Peterboro rowboat. And I remember the
excitement of the Kaslo Regattas.
The Kaslo Boat Club was founded in 1900. In
early years they conducted races for sailing boats.
Later a full fledged Regatta was organizd for
power boats.5 This two-day event featured boat
races, displays of aquaplaning (the forerunner of
water skiing), relay races, and a day of competition
for swimmers and divers. Its existence was
threatened by the Depression but it was World
War II which terminated this wonderful gathering
of boat owners. The final Regatta was held in 1939.
Dad entered two or three categories with his little
Muscrat and the bigger Otter. We had one shield
at home which was earned a few years earlier
when a teenaged neighbour navigated the Otter
to win in the ladies runabout class. The smaller
boats entered were mostly local — their class
defined by the horsepower that they used. Each
successive race was speedier than its predecessor.
The little racing shells were truly exciting. Almost
always, one or more contestants spilled at the
outer turn. The driver would be picked out of the
water by staff in the big white judges' boat, and a
safety crew would tow away the race boat. The
final race was for the biggest and best inboard
cruisers. Their crews were nattily attired in
gleaming white, with navy blazers and caps
decorated with gold braid. Cruiser class
participants included Dr. Moline from Spokane,
Jack Godfrey, a haberdasher from Nelson; Dr.
Shaw, a dentist in the Baby Molar; lack Gilbert, a
barber, in his world class hydroplane,6 and others.
Regatta Days were exciting days—the highlight of
the summer for competitor and spectator alike.
In the early 1950s a road was built to the Duncan
Dam site with extensions north to Trout Lake and
thence to Revelstoke, and south to Argenta and
Johnson's Landing. With the coming of roads,
boats became an option, not a necessity. Kaslo
now boasts the world's largest inland marina run
by the Jones Boys. The beautiful boats they sell,
service or rent are a far cry from the little boats
which the early settlers had to depend upon for
personal transportation.
Footnotes
1. Kaslo Diamond Jubilee 1953 by Mrs. M. Ringheim, p.
45
2. Pioneer Families of Kaslo, Kootenay Lake Historical
Society, p. 84
3. Ibid p. 85
4. Like Measles - It's Catching, Anne Gloin, Girl Guides
of Canada 1974, p. 67
5. Historical Kaslo 1966, Kootenay Lake Historical
Society, p. 46
6. Gilbert's world championship boat is on display in the
museum in Nelson, B.C.
Naomi Miller is a long-time member of the BCHF, and
currently 1st Vice President. She believes that we should be
actively collecting the history of our parents' era.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 15 George David Birch
She Came Before The Railway
Mabel McLarty Peterson, A Pioneer of Prince George
Mabel McLarty Peterson, now eighty-nine years
old, is one of the tiny, dwindling number of
pioneers who came to Fort George, now Prince
George, before the arrival of steel. Sixteen year-
old Mabel and her brother, Ivan, fourteen, came
to join their homesteading father, David McLarty,
in the winter of 1911. It was not until more than
two years later that the Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway, later absorbed by Canadian National
Railways1, reached the little pioneer settlement in
north central British Columbia.
Mabel Peterson still lives in the simple one-and-
a-half storey log home built by her late husband,
Ernest, in 1940. They moved to the small acreage
on the shore of Ruby Lake, some twenty miles
from Prince George, back in 1928. Winters now
she spends with friends at a senior citizens'
residence in town.
A visit with Mabel Peterson is wonderfully
rewarding. Her memory of everyday events and
pioneer conditions of seventy or more years ago is
remarkably clear and sheds valuable light on our
knowledge of those early days of white settlement
in the north.
Seventy years ago last January, the Grand Trunk
Pacific Railway reached Fort George from Edmonton. The company had completed the extremely
difficult section along the Skeena River and
through the Coast range from Prince Rupert to
Smithers, by October 1913. On April 7,1914, Edson
J. Camberlin, president of the railway, drove the
last spike, one mile east of Fort Fraser. Within
weeks, the first through train bringing passengers
from the east steamed into Fort George.2
Before the railway era, travel to and from Fort
George was primitive. It was possible to journey
from Edmonton to Fort George via Jasper and the
Yellowhead Pass. But this involved the traveller in
an extremely dangerous trip by raft or canoe
through the foaming white waters of the Grand
Canyon of the Upper Fraser near Tete Jaune
Cache.3 Drownings here were common, and this
route was seldom taken by other than the most
daring adventurers.
Mabel McLarty Peterson
Quesnel, an important community on the old
Telegraph Trail since the 1860s, received regular
stage and wagon service from the south. During
the summer season, around the turn of the
century, passengers could take a steamboat from
Soda Creek or Quesnel, up the Fraser to Fort
George.
In 1909 construction of a wagon road was begun
between Blackwater Crossing, on the Telegraph
Trail, and Fort George, a distance of some sixty
miles. There was no road house between these
points, so until one was built travelers had to camp
out under the stars at night.
The eighth issue of the Fort George Tribune,
dated Saturday, December 25, 19094, carried the
following illuminating story:
MADE THE TRIP IN 3Vi DAYS
Ed Harrison of Quesnel made the trip from
that place to Fort George in 3V2 days with a
sleigh load of passengers. He left Quesnel on
Page 16
British Columbia Historical News Friday at noon and reached Fort George on
Monday evening He started on the
return trip at 2 o'clock on Thursday and
intended to be in Quesnel on Saturday
evening. He says he could make the trip in
two days. The distance is 100 miles.
The paper, in another article, informed its
readers, most of whom were in the outside world,
that the normal time for the journey was four days.
In 1984 travelers make the one hundred and
twenty-five kilometre trip (75 miles), along the
more direct and modern Highway 97, in an hour
and a half by car.
In 1909 the Prairie papers Were beginning to
carry stories of hardy men who were hacking out
farms and laying claim to tracts of forest land, in a
small settlement at the confluence of the Fraser
and Nechako rivers, in the hinterland of British
Columbia. The name of the fledgling community?
Fort George.
Mabel Gertrude McLarty had been born
fourteen years earlier, November 15, 1895, into
the farm family of David and Mary Watson
McLarty, near Riding Mountain, Manitoba.
Mabel's mother was practical and diligent while
her father, Mabel recalls, was always a bit of a
dreamer and adventurer, ever in search of a new
frontier to overcome.
While mother faithfully and lovingly reared her
family of six active and intelligent children, father
worked variously at farming or house building. A
fully qualified carpenter, and not a lazy man,
father never failed to provide for his family. But he
constantly dreamed of carving a home for them
out of the western forest.
You had to be willing to rough it, the newspaper
stories said. In winter, the temperature at Fort
George might fall to forty below. Summer
brought mosquitoes and blackflies. Work was
hard and money not always plentiful. You had to
be prepared to fish and hunt, and to grow your
own vegetables. Imported food was almost
unaffordable. At a time when one hundred
pounds of flour sold for $3.20 in Winnipeg, the
same sack brought $18 in Fort George.5
But look at the opportunity! A hundred and
sixty acres of good land near the Nechako River.
All you had to do was make a good-sized clearing,
build a simple dwelling, and live on the property.
And it was yours — clear title!
So it was decided. Father and Uncle John, his
younger brother, a lay preacher, set out by train
on the CPR, in the summer of 1910, for British
Columbia. The plan was to go on ahead and
prepare a home for the family before bringing
mother and the children out to join them.
Leaving the CPR at Ashcroft, the frugal pioneers
spurned the convenience of the British Columbia
Express Company's horse-drawn stage, and set
out on foot for Fort George, close to three
hundred miles north by a narrow, winding wagon
road, the famed Cariboo Trail. It was tough going,
but they were strong men responding to a
challenge in true pioneer spirit. And it was great
adventure — hiking along together by day,
camping by a cozy fire at night, sometimes on a
river bank or by the shore of a lake. Within a few
weeks, the brothers trudged wearily into Quesnel,
in those days a much larger and more important
community than Fort George.
From Quesnel the McLarty brothers took
passage up the Fraser on the express company's
stern paddle wheeler which ran biweekly up to
Fort George. After the arduous foot journey from
Ashcroft, the trip upriver on the "BX" steamer
must have seemed like the epitome of luxury in
spite of the fact that passengers had to get off the
vessel and walk while the ship was guided through
the dangerous Fort George Canyon.
Once in Fort George, the brothers joined the
small but growing group of thirty-five or forty men
who had already obtained pre-emptions
(homesteads) from the Crown. They were soon at
work cutting down trees for their cabins. Land had
to be cleared by hand, logs cut and peeled and put
into place manually, and a clearing prepared
without benefit of horse power. That first winter,
even if they could have afforded a horse, the cost
of hay was simply prohibitive — $100 a load.6 (1984
price: approximately $70)7
In spite of these obstacles, David moved into his
cabin about the time the first snow flurries began
to fill the cool October air. John chose to live in
town that winter and occupied a tent. The
brothers completed John's cabin and clearing by
the following summer.
By this time, David, who was getting tired of
batching, sent for two of his children, Mabel, who
would soon be sixteen, and fourteen-year-old
Ivan. He needed the comforts that Mabel's
feminine touch would provide, and the sturdy
assistance that Ivan could render. To bring mother
and the other four members of the family out to a
tiny, three-room cabin in the wilderness just
wouldn't have been practical.
Mabel and Ivan readily responded to father's
call. Leaving the CPR at Ashcroft, the two
youngsters took the express company's sleigh
north to Fort Cieorge. I hey were seven days and
British Columbia Historical News
Page 17 Prince George artist Dennis Nadeau has sketched the Peterson home as it appeared in 1940 when built by Ernest Peterson.
nights on the way. What an adventure for two
spirited, intelligent teenagers in that long-ago
winter of 1911! The memory of their wonderful,
seven-day sleigh ride through the wintry Cariboo
is almost as fresh in Mabel's mind today as if she
had taken the trip last year.
All day long, and well into the evening, they
glided down the narrow, snow-covered trail in the
great passenger sleigh drawn by six big draft
horses. A second large sleigh, loaded with freight,
was hitched to the first and pulled behind. Every
twelve miles or so they stopped briefly at a road
house for refreshment or to change horses or
drivers.
In the more important centres, such as Clinton
and Quesnel, the driver supervised the loading
and unloading of freight. At night, driver and
passengers bedded down in primitive accommodations for a few hours' sleep. Mabel recalls that in
Quesnel they all slept in one large room where
the freight was stored. Mabel at this point was the
only female passenger. So the driver thoughtfully
curtained off a corner of the room for her with
blankets. "You'll be all right", he encouraged the
girl. "Your brother is right close by on the other
side of the curtain". At four in the morning he
would arouse the sleepy younsters for another
marvelous day on the snowy Cariboo Trail.
Finally, arriving in Fort George at noon on
Saturday, December 11,1911, two weeks to the day
before Christmas, Mabel and Ivan received a
heartfelt welcome from father and Uncle John.
Mabel remembers that Christmas dinner that
year was simple and typically pioneer. Turkeys,
Page 18
British Columbia Historical News shipped from Vancouver, stayed fresh only if the
weather remained below freezing. But the price
of fowl was outrageous. Eggs were twenty-five
cents apiece! So Mabel roasted grouse shot by
father and Uncle John, substituted baked beans
for potatoes, which were also far too dear, and
brightened the festive board with dried peaches
which Father has providentially managed to
obtain for the occasion.
During the long winter months, Mabel kept
house while the men worked at clearing and
peeling logs. And she did her share of this too.
During the evenings she would read stories to
father and Ivan, often leaving the door of the stove
open to allow the fire to cast its flickering yellow
light on the page. Father's favorite tales were
about pioneering and the gold rush. Sometimes
they used candles, but never kerosene. They
didn't want to waste money on new lamps which
would only be superfluous when mother arrived
in the spring with all their household effects.
Mabel tells many stories about that first year on
the frontier: how they lived on beans and bacon
for breakfast, dinner and supper for a full three
months, then discovered they could buy turnips
quite reasonably from George Ovasko who grew
vegetables at Otway; how they used to cross the
Nechako River in a crude wooden cage or cable
car boarded by rope ladder during the winter
months when the river was frozen; how they
celebrated when Father shot a deer, and how they
kept the venison from spoiling by hanging it in a
well father had dug. (First they fried the meat, and
then covered it, in a bucket, layer by layer, with
lard.)
These and many other tales graphically depict
the plucky life on the frontier that Mabel lived
with her father and brother so long ago.
Another two years would pass before the
railway would come to Fort George. Communications were still crude. Local telephone service
was about to be inaugurated. Fort George was
connecting into the "Telegraph Trail". And the
mail came in only twice a month — by stage and
steamer in the summer, and by sleigh during the
winter months.
In May of 1912, mother and the rest of the family
came out from the Prairie to join the pioneers, and
they were all happily reunited. Father had built a
big addition to the cabin. What excitement!
Mother and the children began to plant a
vegetable garden in the clearing. Father shot big
game. And never again would Mabel and Ivan
have to subsist on beans and bacon.
That summer Mabel's mother and the children
picked many quarts of blueberries, raspberries
and strawberries which, even then, grew
profusely in the wild along the roadsides or in
clearings in the bush. But supplies for canning
were either not available or were too expensive
for thrifty Mary McLarty. Her pioneer initiative
took over, along with some help from her
hushand and the children. The children were sent
out to gather empty beer bottles from the
townsite. These were of the old, long-necked
variety then in vogue. Father then tied a piece of
wool, soaked in kerosene, around the shoulder of
the bottle. Lighting the wool produced a narrow
ring of weakness around the bottle. Father
knocked it on the table, the neck broke off
cleanly, and presto, mother had her canning jar.
To seal the jars, full of wild berry jam, Mother
melted down the hard casein used to cover the
slabs of bacon, then a staple food in the north. A
thin coating of this glue, poured on the surface of
the blueberry jam, for example, and allowed to
harden, provided an inexpensive and effective
seal.
Not long after her mother's arrival, Mabel went
to work on the first telephone switchboard in Fort
George.8 She recalls that there were thirty
telephones in town, and it was possible to have
five conversations going simultaneously. She then
lived in the house where the exchange was
located. The switchboard was kept open from 8
a.m. until 10 p.m. During meals, or when she was
doing housework, a buzzer signalled that
someone was calling the operator. Mabel would
come running.
By January of 1914, when the Grand Trunk
Pacific Railway line reached town, Mabel, who
had taught herself shorthand, typing, and
bookkeeping when the switchboard was quiet,
was working in the office of the weekly
newspaper, the Fort George Tribune.
Sad to say, Mabel had to be at work the day the
first train came in from Edmonton. She regrets to
this day that she missed that historic event.
However Mabel was not one to let little things
like that get her down for long. And she did make
use of the railway. She fondly remembers one
outing in particular. The Laird boy, Harold, invited
Mabel and her sister to go canoeing with him. The
three young people took the train to Miworth,
eleven miles west of town, in the evening. Harold
Laird had loaded his canoe and paddles on the
baggage car before they set out. Disembarking
from the train out in the country, he and the
McLarty girls leisurely paddled all the way back
along the winding Nechako River to Fort George
in the soft light of the Cariboo moon on that warm
summer night back in 1915.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 19 Seventy-three years have come and gone since
Mabel McLarty Peterson came to Fort Goerge by
horse-drawn sleigh in that far-off winter of 1911.
The first automobile did not arrive until 1912. She
worked in the first telephone and telegraph
office, in the first newspaper office, and later in
the first law office. She saw the narrow wagon
trails converted into wide, paved modern
highways. She witnessed the advent of two great
railways and a major airport. The population of
some two hundred or so has swelled to sixty-eight
thousand. There are schools, hospitals and
shopping centres. The little ferries, and quaint
cable cars are gone, and bridges span the Fraser
and the Nechako.
Prince George has grown to become the
important centre of an immense logging industry.
Enormous pulp mills manufacture vast quantities
of paper. Mile-long trains, running on continuous-
weld track, haul thousands of tonnes of coal
through the city daily to the Pacific, for shipment to
the ends of the earth.
But not much seems to have changed in Mabel's
little log house on the shore of Ruby Lake, thirty
kilometres northwest of town. Apart from
the electric lights and telephone, the visitor might
easily fancy himself to be in an earlier world. A
simpler, less complicated, friendlier world. The
kettle sings on the woodstove, and Mabel
Peterson, in her sweet, kindly way, is there, just as
she has always been, to offer a welcome cup of
piping hot tea to the traveler — along with a
generous helping of wonderful pioneer
memories.
1 F.E. Runnalls, A History of Prince George, Second
Edition (Prince George, 1983), p. 81
2 Runnalls, p. 132
3 op. cit. p. 50
4 Interestingly, John Houston actually published the
paper on Saturday, Christmas Day, 1909, though no
mention of Christmas was made in it.
5 Mrs. Peterson recalls this price. But prices seem to have
varied considerably. Runnalls gives the price of flour as
"$12 to $16 per hundred." op. cit. p. 113
6 Runnalls, p. 113.
7.   Prince George Experimental Station. Agriculture
Canada, June 28,1984
8    Guy Lawrence, 40 Years On The Yukon Telegraph
(Vancouver, 1965), pp. 99,100
David Birch is a freelance writer, Uving in Prince George.
Writing Competition
The British Columbia Historical Federation
invites submissions of books or articles for the
second annual competition for writers of British
Columbia history.
Any book with historical content published
in 1984 is eligible. Whether the work was
prepared as a thesis, or a community project, for
an industry, or an organization, or just for the
pleasure of sharing a pioneer's reminiscences, it
is considered history as long as names, locations,
and dates are included. Stories told in the
vernacular are acceptable when indicated as
quotations of a story teller. Please include the
selling price of the book, and an address from
where it may be purchased.
Submit your book with your name, address,
and telephone number to:
British Columbia Historical Federation
c/o Mrs. Naomi Miller
Box 105,
Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Book contest deadline is January 31,1985.
There will also be a prize for the writer
submitting the best historical article published in
the British Columbia Historical News quarterly
magazine. Articles are to be submitted directly
to:
The Editor,
British Columbia Historical News,
1745 Taylor Street,
Victoria, B.C. V8R 3E8
Written length should be no more than 2,000 to
3,000 words, substantiated with footnotes if
possible, and accompanied by photographs if
available. Deadlines for the quarterly issues are
September 1, December 1, March 1, and June 1.
Page 20
British Columbia Historical News Elsie G. Turnbull
Recollections of Marie Houghton Brent
It was my friend Goldie Putnam who told me
about Marie Houghton Brent. Living as she did, at
Inchelium, Washington, on land that had been
part of the Colville Indian Reservation, Goldie
was well acquainted with Marie, a woman
through whose veins flowed the blood of both
white and Indian. She was the daughter of
Captain (later Colonel) Charles Frederick Houghton and Sophie N'Kwala, daughter of Chief
N'Kwala of the Okanagan Indians. In her were
mingled attributes of both races, a source of great
pride throughout her long life. So it was that on a
June day in 1958 we drove over the Sherman Pass
to the valley of the San Poil River, where Mrs.
Brent was spending her last days in a nursing
home in Ferry County. Although living now in the
United States, six miles below Republic, a leftover
mining town of the 1890s, she had been born on
British territory. A tiny gray-haired woman of 86
with a crippled hand, her eyes still bright yet
dimming with age, she greeted us with courtesy
and quiet pride.
"I was born when British Columbia history was
being made," she stated simply. "The cream of
the earth moved west and found kindred spirits
here. My mother's people had been the real
rulers of the country for generations and her
forefathers went back to Pelk-a-mu-lox who was
recognized in the Book of Ethnology published
by the Smithsonian Institution as chief of all the
Indians from Spokane north to the head of
Okanagan Lake. He was a friend of the white man,
bringing the first ones he met to Colville and
begging them to stay with him always—"You and
I, your children, my children and their children, as
long as the water runs and yonder hill is no more.
You shall not want, your children shall not want.
We have furs to keep us warm in the cold!" For
this suggestion Pelk-a-mu-lox was killed by a chief
of the back mountains of Lillooet, afraid of losing
his grip on his people. He was succeeded by his
son N'Kwala (called Nicola by Hudson's Bay
traders), a man noted for sagacity, prudence and
fair dealing. His name has been given to
succeeding chiefs and to a lake, mountain,
plateau and a river.
Marie's father was Charles Frederick Houghton, born in 1829 at Glasshare Castle, Kilkenny,
Ireland, the son of a barrister. At the age of 17 he
joined Her Majesty's 57th Foot, taking an inactive
part in the last days of the Crimean War. On his
return to Ireland he joined the regiment at
Clonmel, serving at several stations in Ireland and
England. In 1863 he took his discharge with the
rank of captain and set out for British Columbia
with his Irish friends, Forbes and Charles Vernon.
Intrigued by the rolling hills covered by bunch
grass which promised fine rangeland, Houghton
and the Vernons pre-empted acreage between
Okanagan Landing and Priests' Valley, the site of
the present city of Vernon. Houghton had
difficulty in his pre-emption but finally acquired
his full military grant of 1450 acres in the
Coldstream valley. He thus became the first
owner of the famous Coldstream Ranch, purchased later by the Governor General Lord
Aberdeen. Houghton and the Vernons had come
to an arrangement whereby they purchased the
ranch and Houghton acquired property at the
Landing.
Settling down to raise cattle and horses, the 24-
year-old young captain fell in love with Sophie
N'Kwala, granddaughter of famous old Chief
N'Kwala who officiated at their wedding. Marie
was born on December 5,1870 and baptized at
Okanagan Mission June 1, 1871. Her brother
Edward was born in 1872.
Involved in frontier affairs, Houghton spent
some time looking for better trails through the
mountains, especially a route from the Cherry
Creek mines to the Arrow Lakes. He has been
credited with finding the trail through Fire Valley,
which is now the Monashee Highway. In 1871 he
was elected to represent Yale riding in the House
of Commons in the first election after British
Columbia entered Confederation. According to
the story, only two persons turned up at the
nomination meeting, a blacksmith and a barroom
roustabout. The blacksmith offered the name of
gentleman-farmer, Captain CF. Houghton, who
had paid well for services to his horse. The other
man seconded this nomination and Houghton
British Columbia Historical News
Page 21 thus became the member by acclamation for Yale
and Kootenay, a vast, sparsely settled area. He sat
for just one session and did not contest the
election in 1872.
Suddenly Houghton's rustic interlude in the
Okanagan ended. His young wife died and the
two children were left with their grandmother.
Writing about this Marie states that her mother's
two younger brothers and a sister died of
tuberculosis. Then she adds: "My mother Sophie
N'Kwala died of a broken heart soon afterwards."
Edward Houghton was put with a friend of his
father, Mr. Tronson, to go to school with his boys.
Marie was raised by her great-aunt, Teresa
N'Kwala who was married to a Frenchman,
Cyprienne Laurent. Teresa taught the sober child
the traditions and ancestry of the tribe which in
turn she had learned from her father, the old
Chief N'Kwala. Of her own father Marie states
simply: "My father was a Lieutenant-Colonel in
the Canadian Army at this time."
Houghton had returned to the military career
abandoned when he left Ireland and came to the
Okanagan, but which he would pursue for the
rest of his life. After attending Gunnery School in
Quebec for four months in 1873, he was appointed Deputy Adjutant-General for Military District
#11, British Columbia, with the rank of
Lieutenant-Colonel. He organized the militia and
suppressed a riot at the Wellington coal mines
during his command. In the spring of 1879 he
married Marion Dunsmuir, the third daughter of
Robert Dunsmuir, owner of Wellington Colliery.
In the early 1880s, Col. Houghton assumed the
office of Adjutant-General for Military District
#10, Manitoba, taking an active part in putting
down the Riel Rebellion. Then he was transferred
in 1888 to Montreal, to be in command of Military
District #5, Quebec. In 1892 Mrs. Marion
Dunsmuir Houghton died at the age of 36, leaving
no children.
Col. Houghton then sent for his daughter
Marie to join him in Montreal, a broadening
experience for the girl. She attended grand balls
and unofficial functions, and accompanied her
father on inspection duties to Quebec and Three
Rivers. Everywhere she was "so nicely treated,"
but as she remarked, "The little mountain girl was
a convent girl all the same." Proud of her father,
she wrote: "I got my father's memoirs, all his
military life of forty years, twenty-one as
Adjutant-General—what a stretch of toil and
responsibility! No one but a soldier could have
endured that, but he loved his men and boys. No
matter what they did he always just smiled at
them."
In 1897 her father returned to Victoria, where
he died the following year and was buried in Ross
Bay cemetery. Marie went back to her beloved
Okanagan. She married William Brent, son of an
early settler, and they farmed an acreage near
Vernon which had been part of the reserve of her
great-great-grandfather. During those years she
wrote stories of her mother's people for Reports
of the Okanagan Historical Society. Looking back
into the past she recalled long winter afternoons
when Indian children listened to magic stories of
righteousness and heard lessons from dark
unknown depths of tribal history.
That day^ when Goldie and I chatted with her at
the nursing home in Ferry County, William Brent
was dead. She was alone, treasuring her
mementoes from two differing cultures. She
considered the land of her forefathers, now
shared with white men, the most beautiful and
colorful in the world. But she said: "Canada
needs her Indians. When all the different races
that now dwell in the confines of Canada are
finally fused into one—the future Canadian race
will be better for the infusion of the blood of this
virile and individualist race." Despite her crippled
hand and fading sight she was still striving to tell
the story of the Indians and the white men in
earlier times, and to instill in children of today
values taught by her forefathers.
References: Sixth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society
Thirtieth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society
Letters from Marie Houghton Brent to Elsie Turnbull,
written in 1959.
Elsie G. Turnbull has written several books on the history of
Trail, and numerous articles on the Kootenay/'Okanagan
regions.
Page 22
British Columbia Historical News News and Notes
News .from the
Branches
Gulf Islands
A Field Expedition
For several decades there has been a Gulf Islands
Branch of the BC Historical Federation. Many of
its members are descendants of pioneers, and all
members appreciate the beautiful setting that
has permitted many fine archeological sites to
remain relatively undisturbed. Unfortunately, a
University of British Columbia survey completed
some years ago reported that wave erosion was
beginning to destroy some valuable archeological evidence.
Local branch members were delighted at the
announcement that Simon Fraser University
archeological team planned to work three
summers on the canal between North and South
Pender Islands, and that the work would be
directed by Dr. Roy F. Carlson who had supervised the Helen Point dig on Mayne Island.
It was therefore decided to combine the annual
meeting with a visit to the Pender site. Almost
forty branch members from Galiano, Mayne,
Pender and Saturna met at the canal on August
24th and were escorted round the site by Dr. and
Mrs. Carlson and three graduate students Lou
Beram, Heather Moon and Richard Gain. Since
the canal was dredged in 1903 it is estimated that
60% of the original midden has been swept away
by wave action. The SFU team have driven a large
number of vertical shafts into a sloping bank to
try to reach a sterile level (i.e., with no signs of
human habitation).
British Columbia Historical News
Page 23 Visitors examine the erosion and strata of the midden at
high tide level. Scaffolding for excavations at a higher level
are visible at the top of the bank.
Tentative suggestions are that the site was
occupied for seasons of three to four months as
long as 3700 years ago. Shellfish such as still grow
around the bay were an important food item.
Core samples from probes have been riddled
through Va inch mesh screens to isolate plant
seeds and pollens from which a botanist may
deduce temperature and rainfall ranges. The
visitors were fortunate to examine a cache of
twelve projectile points that had been
discovered, and were shown a display case of
artifacts made of quartz, basalt, serpentine and
obsidian. Particularly interesting were adze
blades, a larger than usual labret made from an
antler, and a spool designed to fit inside the ear-
lobe. The findings will be analyzed all winter at
SFU.
As many as 5000 visitors visited the Pender
Canal site last summer, indicating the need for
the services of a guide for the next two years, so
that the archeological team may continue their
work uninterrupted. With this thought in mind
the Gulf Islands Branch voted to contribute $100
to Dr. Carlson, and also to write to the Heritage
Conservation Branch of the provincial
government, suggesting the need for additional
funding to pay for the services of a project guide.
—Kathlyn Benger
Creston Historical Society
The Society hosted a group of visitors on August
12, 1984, to retrace a section of the Dewdney
Trail, which runs north from the Creston Valley
Wildlife Management Picnic Area. The hike
provides a thought-provoking contrast between
the very devious route forced upon footsloggers
and pack trains, and the modern, direct crossing
of the marshy flats. Twenty-five visiting members
from Cranbrook, Marysville, Kimberley, Fernie,
and Wasa, plus a dozen Creston families, did the
short walk (two miles) to Williams Falls and the
site of the Hudson's Bay Company's Little Fort
Shepherd. A hardy few went the full six miles to
Midgley's Landing with veteran hiker Ray
Massie.
The Dewdney Trail was built in 1865 and used
until the railway pushed through to Kootenay
Landing. Points of interest include Chinese rock
work close to the footbridge across Summit
Creek, glimpses of the nearby wetlands, then
view points high on a rocky ridge from where the
hiker can see great expanses of the flats and
Wynndel nestled in a hollow at the foot of the
Purcell Mountains. The Williams property
yielded some green apples, a few bent cooking
pots, and four boots which showed that the
owner had very small feet. Beyond Williams
Creek the trail was a cut near the foot of a steep
hillside. A turn led us into a cedar glade where we
viewed the walls of a tiny cabin once occupied by
Shorty Boulton. Further up the draw was a larger
cabin—Cummings cabin—reputedly won, with
300 acres surrounding it, in a poker game. We
then padded over moss covered rocks, out
toward the Kootenay River, back through the
trees, and finally down to a rounded rocky
promontory where our guide indicated the
anchor points for the McLoughlin Ferry. This
cable ferry took man and beast across to Lewis
Island. The Dewdney Trail is still visible across this
island. Trekkers forded the shallows on the far
side of the island to regain firm land and the
meandering trail which led to Fort Steele and the
Wild Horse goldfields.
A few minutes further down the Kootenay
River is Midgley's Landing. The first building we
sighted was the barn and blacksmith shop. About
100 yards away, tucked between amazingly big
boulders, is the framework of the house where
Tom Midgley was murdered in April 1929. Tom
Midgley lived in Nelson during the winter and on
Page 24
British Columbia Historical News this farm during the summer. He had just
returned to prepare the home for summer when
he was shot in his bed and dumped in the river.
The body was found by Provincial Police, and
taken to Nelson for burial.
The Creston Historical Society has marked
some of the sites, and some forks in the trail.
More signs are planned for those hikers who
explore without a tour guide. The trail is clearly
defined for the most part, and the few vague
parts are marked with surveyors' tape.
Crestonites claim there is an alternate route on a
bench above the lower trail. This bench is so
fouled with logging debris that it is presently
rough bushwacking along this route. Should,
however, a trail crew be put to work there, a loop
trail would provide further enticement for the
hiker. The lower route, preserved in a corridor
which loggers were persuaded to leave, has the
physical, natural, and historical attractions to be
truly worthly of preservation.
For further details contact Frank Merriam, Box
2995, Creston, B.C. VOB 1G0. Phone 428-7456.
Horseshoe Bay Inn. We quickly accepted his kind
offer and it seems fitting that the Historical
Society should meet in this historic building.
Chemainus Valley Historical
Society
The Society now has 36 members and we hold
four regular meetings a year on the last Monday
in March, June, September and November.
Our interesting speakers have included Osric
Murrell of Chemainus who lived on Thetis Island
in the early 1940s in pre-ferry days. He delivered
the mail, ran a taxi boat service to various islands
and also ran shopping trips between Thetis Island
and Chemainus.
At our September meeting we had as our
speaker, Gerry Smith of Chemainus, who runs
the Horseshoe Bay Inn located in Chemainus.
This Inn was opened in 1892 and is one of the real
historic buildings in the town. Mr. Smith told us
the history of the Inn and about former owners
and distinguished guests who had stayed there.
The old guest registers have been kept and two
of the well-known guests from the past were
Dale Carnegie and Robert Baden-Powell. The
building where we had been holding our
meetings had just been sold and we were looking
for another meeting place. Mr. Smith invited us
to hold future meetings in the dining room of the
DOROTHY BLAKEY SMITH MEMORIAL
A fund has been set up in honour of Dorothy
Blakey Smith, B.A., 1921, M.A. 1922 (U.B.C), M.A.
1926 (Toronto), Ph.D. 1933 (London), D.Litt. 1978
(U.B.C), who died on December 10, 1983. The
money collected will be used to endow a prize to
be awarded to an archives student at the
University of British Columbia. Friends who wish
to send donations may send them to the
University of British Columbia, care of Byron
Hender, Awards Office, University of British
Columbia, GSAB Room 50, Vancouver, B.C. V6T
1W5. Please add a note that the donation is
towards the Dorothy Blakey Smith Fund.
The Jewish Historical Society of British
Columbia
Three members of the Society recently received
appointments to the Canadian Jewish Society:
Cyril Leonoff is now vice-president, and Irene
Dodek and Allan Klenman will serve as directors
for two-year terms.
Membership in the JHSBC is available by
writing the Society Office, 950 West 41st Avenue,
Vancouver, V5Z 2N7. Annual dues of $7.50 single
and $10.00 family include a subscription to The
Scribe and supplementary publications.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 25 Islands '86
The Centre for Pacific and Oriental Studies, in
co-operation with Islands '86, are presenting a
series of symposia. These symposia are intended
to increase awareness of island issues in preparation for a major conference to be held at the
University of Victoria on May 8-10,1986. Two of
these symposia are scheduled for the 1985 spring
term:
ISLANDS (18)86: A CENTURY AGO IN THE
PACIFIC
The Frontier in Fiji, Hawaii, and Vancouver Island
in the 1880s
This lecture examines the nature of frontier
society, the relationship between the settler
communities and local peoples, and the developed of early commerce in the three islands.
Speaker: Dr. James Boutilier, Head of the
Department of History and Political Economy at
Royal Roads Military College and an Adjunct
Professor of Pacific Studies at the Centre for
Pacific and Oriental Studies, University of Victoria. Dr. Boutilier has researched and written
widely on topics concerning the history of the
Pacific islands.
Tuesday, January 29,1985
7:30-9:30 p.m.
University of Victoria, Begbie Building, Room 157
Fee: $5.00
DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS FOR VANCOUVER
ISLAND
Four prominent Vancouver Island residents will
present their views of the direction open for
Vancouver Island in the future.
Speakers: Dr. Peter Baskerville, Department of
History, University of Victoria will open with an
historical overview of development planning on
the island. Then Victoria Mayor Peter Pollen,
James Bay Community Project Director Robert
Dill, and Dr. Bruce Fraser, President of Malaspina
College, Nanaimo, will present and discuss the
options for our island's future.
Tuesday, March 12,1985
7:30-9:30 p.m.
University of Victoria, Begbie Building, Room 157
Fee: $5.00
Please register with University Extension, P.O. Box
1700, Victoria, B.C. V8W 2Y2 Phone 721-8451.
Heritage Trust
1985 Student Employment Program
All applications from local organizations must
be received by the Heritage Trust office by
Friday, March 1,1985. These applications will be
reviewed by the Board of Directors in late March.
You will be advised of the decision regarding
your application by April 15. At that time, if you
do not have a student available from your
community who meets the basic criteria, we will
assist you. Students must have completed third
year or above at a British Columbia university
studying in one of the following disciplines:
community and regional planning, archival
studies, history, archaeology, anthropology,
architecture, cultural geography, and fine arts.
If you have any questions regarding the
application, please contact Pauline Rafferty,
Program Manager, at Victoria 387-1011 local 300.
Museums and Archives
HISTORY CAPTURED AT DELTA MUSEUM
The mere fact that Delta had a Post Office in
1867, seven years before the metropolitan city of
Vancouver, is a good indication of the amount of
history that oozes from this community. The first
recorded land holding in Delta was in April of
1857, and the area was incorporated on November 10, 1879. Much of this information is put
before your eyes at the Museum, which is
located in the old municipal hall at 5848 Delta
Street. The museum features a parlor, kitchen
and bedrooms, furnished and decorated in the
style of the old Delta homes. Indian basketry and
pioneer artifacts related to the area are displayed,
gether with numerous other interesting items. A
together with numerous other interesting items. A
new maritime section focuses on the commercial
fishing industry of the area
—Rhea H. Juvik
Page 26
British Columbia Historical News Vancouver Maritime Museum
THE HISTORY OF CANADA'S NORTHWEST
PASSAGE: An Exhibition of Paintings
The Vancouver Maritime Museum is pleased to
announce the opening of an exhibition of
paintings by the renowned Canadian marine
artist, Peter E. Robinson, in honour of the 40th
anniversary of the voyage of the R.C.M.P. vessel,
the St. Roch through the Northwest Passage in
1944.
Born in Montreal, Mr. Robinson studied under
the guidance of Group of Seven artist Arthur
Lismer while attanding McGill University. His
interest in the sea and its ships is rooted deep in
the experience of his own life. At the age of 24 he
foresook a promising engineering career to join
the Royal Canadian Navy. During an eight year
span, he toured the globe and spent considerable time in the Canadian Arctic.
His shipboard experiences fostered tremendous interest in the historical role and
significance of ships in Canadian waters. He
carries his respect for the sea, its ships, and its
men into each painting where he imparts
exacting detail into a historically accurate, albeit
impressionistic, setting.
The series of 16 paintings in the Northwest
Passage exhibition trace the history of
exploration from Cabot in 1508, to Frobisher
(1576-1578), Davis (1585-1587), Henry Hudson
(1610), Baffin (1616), Cook (1778), Parry (1819),
Franklin (1845-48), Amundsen (1905), the St.
Roch (1942) and the Manhattan in 1969. The
exhibition will be open daily until the Spring of
1985.
The Vancouver Museum
IN GEAR: Classic Cars/Classic Clothes 1905-
1985
Eighty years of automobile history comes to life
as The Vancouver Museum presents IN GEAR, a
unique exhibition of fashionable automobiles
and fashionable clothing from 1905 to 1985. The
exhibition is presented with the assistance of the
British Columbia Transportation Museum and
the Vintage Car Club of Canada. IN GEAR is the
largest exhibition mounted by the Museum
during its 90th anniversary year.
Each car is displayed in an innovative and
historically evocative setting with mannequins
wearing authentic clothing of each era in the
city's history. Vancouver's oldest automobile, a
1905 Oldsmobile originally purchased by lumber
baron John Hendry, is displayed in front of the
famous Hollow Tree in Stanley Park. A 1911
Stanley Steamer 10 h.p. Roadster gets a fill-up at
Canada's first gasoline station owned by Imperial
Oil in Vancouver in 1907. A 1912 Detroit Electric
owned by an elderly resident of Victoria's famed
Empress Hotel sits in the hotel driveway.
Later model cars include an elegant 1929
Packard Rumbleseat Roadster dropping off
golfers to the Quilchena Golf and Country Club.
A rare 1936 Cord Model 810 Sedan waits for
smartly-dressed partygoers at the Commodore
Ballroom. And teenagers sit on the running
board of a 1927 Ford Model T "jalopy" parked in
front of the original White Spot Restaurant on
Granville. Even the futuristic three-wheel Rascal
is on display.
Archives, Automation and Access
March 1 & 2, 1985
University of Victoria
Victoria, British Columbia
This interdisciplinary conference explores current theory and practice concerning computer
applications and user access in archives. It will be
of interest to researchers in the Humanities and
Social Sciences as well as archivists, information
scientists, librarians and record managers.
Confirmed speakers include David Bearman,
Terry Eastwood, Theodore Durr, David Mattison,
Susan Rosenfeld Falb, Tony Rees, Richard Janke
and other distinguished scholars from North
America.
Further information and registration forms can
be obtained by writing to:
Catherine Panter
Research Coordinator
Vancouver Island Project
Room 404, McPherson Library
University of Victoria
Victoria, British Columbia
V8W 2Y2
British Columbia Historical News
Page 27 Peggy Yeatman and Stan Beech helped Quadra residents
trace the history of their island homes.
Campbell River Museum
Campbell River Museum and Archives Society
provided a novel Archival information booth at a
recent fall fair on Quadra Island. The booth acted
as a mini archives of reproduced photographs,
maps, letters and articles set out to assist residents
to research the history of their homes and
property. Old time residents working in pairs
provided the most exciting aspect of the booth,
swapping stories to bring long forgotten people
and places to life for a constant flow of interested
people.
For many people the Museum's Archives
booth was a first adventure into the labyrinth of
archival research. The booth acted as an
introductory sampling to the rich and varied
historical sources available within the
community.
Jeanette Taylor
Campbell  River and  District Museum and
Archives
Page 28
British Columbia Historical News British Columbia Historical Federation's Annual
Convention, Galiano Island, May 2-4,1985
THEME: Islands 1774-1985
First, the program: Tentatively it includes a prehistory paper to be delivered by an archaeologist
from the Museum of Man (field trips will likely be
part of the seminar program mentioned later);
"Canoes" by Philip Shackleton; "The Spanish on
the Pacific Northwest Coast" by Jack Kendrick;
Local History by Mary Harding, and more.
The ceremony to mark the official beginning
of the building of the replica Sut/7 is scheduled
for May 4. Our banquet will be a really big
historical show under the direction of James
Barber (Mushrooms are Marvelous); John
Edwards (The Roman Cookery of Apicius); and
Rosemary Walker. Tomas Bartroli is our guest
speaker.
All accommodations have been arranged to
include breakfast. Those staying at Galiano
Lodge, bed and breakfasts, or on boats will have
breakfast cooked for them; and for those staying
in chalets, cottages, etc., the fixings will be in the
fridge. Average costs, based on double
occupancy for land accommodation will be $25
per night. Campsites at Montague Harbour
Provincial Marine Park will be reserved for those
making early arrangements.
For those who wish to come to Galiano by
charter boat and live aboard at Montague
Harbour Marina for the duration of the
conference, we have several options. Ships have
top-notch accommodation, including showers,
TV, etc. The vessel Argonaut II, is the former
United Church Mission Boat The Thomas
Crosby. This classic will sail from Sidney or False
Creek, depending on arrangements, and will
cost $82.50 per day (Sidney departure) or $86.25
per day (False Creek departure). Another
alternative is a non-classic charter which will sail
from Sidney at a cost of $51.50 per day.
Reservations for charters are required before
February 15.
Seminars by the B.C. Museums Association are
being arranged for May 1 and 2 and other
seminars will follow the conference. More on
these later.
Cultural and Arts Exhibits will be mounted to
coincide with the conference.
The Budget Committee has not set registration
fees yet but they probably will not vary from the
Vernon schedule with the exception that all
lunches will be included in the cost.
For more information or to make reservations
write to us at Box 10, Galiano, B.C. VON IPO, or
telephone our Accommodations Convenor, Bill
Callaway at 539-5457.
Galiano's best to you!
The Galiano Historical and Cultural Society
Don't Forget!
Subscribe now if you're not
receiving the News regularly.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 29 £onte±t
One of the ladies in the picture is well prepared for the British Columbia coast because she has her umbrella
at hand. Who is she?
If you can identify the lady you may win a copy of Winners & Losers, Gamblers All: Memories of Historic
British Columbia (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1984). The book contains handsome colour
photographs by Michael Breuer, with a lively text by Rosemary Neering.
Send your answer to the Editor, British Columbia Historical News, 1745 Taylor Street, Victoria, B.C. V8R 3E8,
before March 1,1985.
Page 30
British Columbia Historical News Bookshelf
False Creek: History, Images, and Research Sources.
Robert K. Burkinshaw. Vancouver: City of Vancouver
Archives, 1984. Pp iv, 81, illus., maps.
As work proceeds on the site of Vancouver's Expo
86, along the north shore of False Creek, those
interested in the history of Vancouver should applaud
the timely publication of the City of Vancouver
Archives' False Creek: History, Images, and Research
Sources. This book will provide many residents and
visitors with a much needed overview of the history of
one of the city's more distinctive districts.
Furthermore, because so many of the features of the
False Creek landscape—such as the mudflats of upper
False Creek, the shipyards and sawmills—which
played vital roles in its early story, no longer survive
due to neglect, fire or the pressures of redevelopment, this book will help us to recall what False Creek
was like before its recent transformation. -
Produced as an occasional paper for the Archives,
the book is meant simply to introduce the reader to a
feature of Vancouver's history. Author Robert K.
Burkinshaw cautions in his introduction, "It is not
intended that this history tell the whole of the
complex story of False Creek." Instead, he focuses
"on what are considered to be the major developments in and around the waterway and on the
changing ideas of Vancouver's citizens and officials
concerning the role of False Creek in the city's life."
Burkinshaw accomplished his goals very competently. Acknowledging the summary nature of the book,
and its value as an aid to research, Burkinshaw states,
"Researchers wishing to explore aspects of False
Creek's history in greater depth will find guidance in
the footnotes and in the bibliography."
Beginning in the 1790s, when Spanish explorers
Don Jose Maria Narvaez and Don Dionoso Galiano as
well as Captain George Vancouver of the Royal Navy
apparently skirted False Creek, Burkinshaw quickly
describes the discovery of the inlet by Captain
George H. Richards of H.M.S. Plumper in 1859. He
notes its long-term use by local Indians, who placed
fish traps on a sandbar which later became Granville
Island. He traces the appearance of the first logging
operations around the waterway, the first bridge
across the inlet in 1872, and the first industrial
enterprise, a slaughterhouse opened at the
Westminster Avenue Bridge (today's Main Street) in
1879.
In successive chapters, Burkinshaw describes the
key elements which shaped the development of the
area since 1886. His second chapter, covering the
period up to 1914, illustrates the rapid transformation
of False Creek trom quiet backwater to a bustling
industrial district and secondary harbour for the city.
For this reader, the most interesting section of the
chapter was that reserved for the story of the
prolonged civic struggle against the fixed span trestle
erected across the entrance of False Creek by the
Canadian Pacific Railway in late 1887. This battle,
which lasted many years, enabled the CPR to gain
new land and tax concessions from the city. It did not,
however, remove the offending span until the turn of
the century. The story brings home the dominant role
the CPR has assumed in shaping not only False Creek
and Vancouver, but the Canadian West in general.
Subsequent chapters, covering the years after 1914,
review such key changes as the reclamation of
mudflats of upper False Creek for railway stations and
yards, the creation of Granville Island as an industrial
area, and the rise and fall of shipbuilding, sawmiUing,
and other industries.
The sections dealing with several massive
redevelopment proposals for the area, which failed to
get beyond the conceptual stage, were of immense
interest. A 1905 recommendation called for a major
dock basin to be created in the upper inlet—east of
today's Main Street. A 1912 report suggested the
conversion of Kitsilano Point into a giant new harbour
and warehouse district. In 1950, two candidates for
mayor—including the successful F.J. Hume—
supported the concept of filling the basin and
covering it with arterial highways. One starts asking,
"What if...?"
The concluding section focuses on the dramatic
rebirth of the entire waterway and surrounding lands,
which has been proceeding since a 1968 vote by City
Council to lift the industrial designation of False
Creek. It has, of course, been re-emerging as one of
the city's primary residential, recreational and
cultural areas.
Burkinshaw is to be commended for producing a
readable, concise description of one of Vancouver's
most rapidly changing districts. His text is
supplemented by an excellent selection of maps and
photographs, which help the reader to visualize the
rich history of the area. Myt>nly suggestion is that the
book might have been more appealing to a wider
readership had the author incorporated more
descriptive and anecdotal passages. The voluminous
reminiscences about the history of Vancouver in the
J.S. Matthews Collection and newsclipping files at the
City Archives, no doubt include much rich material of
this nature. One excellent example of a descriptive
passage, which was included in the text, was the
British Columbia Historical News
Page 31 statement that, "as late as the winter of 1901,
waterfowl were so plentiful on the marshy mudflats
that the constant shooting by hunters raised
complaints from nearby residents [information
derived from the City Council minutes]." It also
brought home the radical and rapid change long-
term residents have witnessed. However, since False
Creek is intended as an overview, the incorporation
of far more descriptive or anecdotal details was
perhaps considered unnecessary.
The City Archives and the British Columbia
Heritage Trust are to be applauded for supporting the
publication of this book. For the Archives, it is an
appropriate means of reaching many members of the
public, who may never visit the Archives itself. It also
illustrates that archives play a key part in the
preservation of our heritage. In the case of False
Creek, where so much of the earlier built
environment is gone or altered beyond recognition,
Vancouver's archival legacy has permitted Mr.
Burkinshaw to reconstruct the history of the district.
Bill McKee, the archivist of the Glenbow Museum in
Calgary, is author of Trails of Iron (1983) and has
written several articles on park development in
Vancouver.
Cutting Up The North: The History of The Forest
Industry in the Northern Interior. Ken Bernsohn.
North Vancouver: Hancock House, 1981. Pp. 192,
illus., p. $19.95.
In Cutting Up The North, Ken Bernsohn has
produced the first book on the forest industry of the
Northern Interior of British Columbia, the area
surrounding Prince George. Bernsohn, a journalist
familiar with the Interior forest industry, is a frequent
contributor to forest industry trade magazines and
has produced a chapbook on the history of the IWA
in Prince George. To prepare Cutting Up The North,
Bernsohn spoke with some 300 people involved in
the industry, consulted local newspapers, and
investigated a variety of other sources. Reflecting
Bernsohn's journalistic experience, the book consists
of 28 short chapters, each about the length of a
magazine or newspaper contribution.
The main theme of the book is explaining
government policy and the interaction between the
industry executives and government people. The
Forest Commissions and Acts since 1910 are covered
in some depth, outlining their implications for
northern lumbermen. Especially satisfying are the
chapters that deal with two important issues of the
period after 1945: the implementation of sustained-
yield practices in forest management and the
utilization of "third band" timber to produce wood
chips. By encouraging sawmills to process "third
band" timber, which was being left in the bush, the
government helped spawn the pulp industry in the
Northern Interior. Interviews with Ray Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests from 1956 to 1972 and
the architect of the capital-intensive industry which
developed in the 1960s; Bob Williams, the "radical"
NDP Minister of Forests; and Tom Waterland,
Williams' Social Credit successor, provide candid
insights into the creation of provincial forest policy.
The chapters on government initiatives (and lack of
initiatives), however, only make up a small portion of
the book. Interspersed between these chapters is the
history of the forest industry in the Northern I nterior.
While the history is of the "scissors and paste" variety
and subject to minor errors of fact, Bernsohn does
outline the basic features of the industry's
development: the fledgling sawmill industry which
barely managed to survive the years 1910 to 1939, the
rapid expansion in the number of small sawmills
during World War II, and the creation of a
consolidated, heavily-capitalized industry based on
pulp production during the 1960s. Other chapters
contain a discussion of problems faced by the Forest
Service in administering government policy, thumbnail sketches of active forest executives and the
corporate style of their firms, casual sociological
observations on the working class, colourful
descriptions of union struggles, comments on the
growth of the conservation movement in the 1970s,
and explanations of technological innovations.
The history of the forest industry in the Northern
Interior is a vast topic, and Bernsohn has cast his net
wide to include as much as possible. Unfortunately,
this scattershot approach leaves little room for
systematic analysis or the cultivation of a cogent
thesis. Like the organization of the book, Bernsohn's
writing style is eclectic, informal, and at times
flippant, but the work is worth reading. It is the only
book on the Northern Interior lumber industry, and
of much interest to those who live under the
umbrella of this giant economic enterprise. For those
interested in the history of the province or the
development of forest policy, the book illustrates
that there is a story to be told which exists beyond the
pale of the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island.
Cordon Hak, a resident of Mackenzie, is writing a
thesis on the forest industry in British Columbia.
Patricia Roy is the Book Review Editor. Copies of
books for review should be sent to her at 602-139
Clarence St., Victoria V8V2J1
Page 32
British Columbia Historical News Mission on the Inlet: St. Paul's Indian Catholic
Church, North Vancouver, B.C. 1863-1984. Lascelles,
T.A. O.M.I. 63 pp. illus. Available from St. Paul's or
from the Oblate Provincial House, 1311 The Crescent,
Vancouver, B.C.at $4.50 per copy.
Those interested in the history of missions to the
Indians of British Columbia or in the heritage of the
Squamish of North Vancouver will welcome Father
Lascelles Mission on the Inlet. He produced it for the
centennial of St. Paul's Indian Church, North
Vancouver and as "tribute to the Squamish people,"
and the Oblate missionaries who served them. Father
Lascelles, a recent Oblate pastor of the parish, draws
on original French mission reports to chronicle the
birth of the mission, the construction of the church
and school. He uses photographs and oral history to
enhance accounts of the work of Bishop Paul Durieu
and parishioners Andy Paull and Dan George.
Lascelles also notes the labours of catechists, bell
ringers, and bazaar convenors. The Appendix
explains the work of the Save St. Paul's Indian Church
Society. Since 1978 its members have restored the
church with the assistance of the Squamish band, the
Catholic Archdiocese, the Oblates, local governments and the British Columbia Heritage Trust.
Father Lascelles is to be commended for his clear
explanations of traditional Catholic practices. Also
welcome is his frank acknowledgement that
although early missionaries respected Native
languages and leaders, they condemned other
aspects of Native culture such as winter dancing.
Today, Oblates like Father Lascelles see things
differently. Yet readers of B.C. Historical News, who
remember the old days and earlier Oblate historians
like A.G. Morice, may still be startled to find Lascelles
quoting a 1966 pastor's announcement that the
Church had been repaired thanks to the proceeds of
three potlatches as well as church and band grants!
I hope Father Lascelles goes on to do more work on
Squamish history from missionary and from local
sources, particularly regarding such twentieth
century developments as this rapprochement
between the potlatch and the pulpit. He might well
begin by looking at the economic context for both in
"Man Along the Shore!" The Story of the Vancouver
Waterfront. As Told by the Longshoremen
Themselves (1975). Its references to St. Paul's
parishioners Andy Paull, Dan George, Louis Miranda
as members of the "Bows and Arrows" longshoring
gang provide intriguing leads to follow.
Jacqueline Gresko teaches history at Douglas
College, New Westminster.
Mayne Island and the Outer Gulf Islands: A History
Marie Elliott. Mayne Island: Gulf Islands Press, 1984.
pp x, 152, illus.
In Mayne Island, Marie Elliott tells the story of the
most important of several Gulf Islands, other than
Saltspring, at the southern end of Georgia Strait. Cut
off from the central flow of British Columbia's
history, the islands of Mayne, North and South
Pender, Saturna, and Galiano evolved at their own
speed and in their own unique ways. While historians
have generally ignored this corner of the British
Columbia coastline, focussing instead on the nearly
metropolitan centres of Victoria and Vancouver,
Elliott's book confirms the observation that British
Columbia is a region of separate communities, each
deserving historical examination in its own right.
Mayne IslandwiW befollowed by a second volume on
the history of the remaining outer Gulf Islands.
Above all, Mayne Island's history is about water
transportation. Marine vessels created the economic
and social lifelines that sustained European
settlement. At the same time, ships like the Hudson's
Bay Company's sidewheelers Enterprise and Princess
Louise in the early 1880s, the S.S. Iroquois of the early
1900s, the C.P.R.'s Princess Mary from the 1920s to
1951, Sparkie New's Lady Rose in the 1950s, and>the
British Columbia Ferry Corporation's Queen of the
Islands in the 1960s defined the boundaries of island
development, establishing limits to economic and
population growth and, by maintaining economic
distance between Mayne and the outside world,
moulding the distinctive outlook and identity of
islanders. Particularly instructive is Elliott's discussion
of the transportation crisis of the 1950s. Rising costs
generated higher freight rates, disrupting the
agricultural economy based on exports of fruit,
vegetables, and especially hothouse tomatoes to
Victoria and Vancouver. The population of Mayne,
the two Penders, and Saturna fell 20 per cent from
1951 to 1956, exposing the islands' vulnerability to
fluctuations in transportation service and cost.
Similarly, the provincial government's takeover of
Gulf Islands ferry service after 1959 opened a new era
of growth and prosperity for Mayne, making it today
a popular middle class vacation centre.
The book's second theme, the character of Mayne
Island society, includes a discussion of community
institutions, ethnic composition, and social practices.
As the descendant of two pioneer Mayne Island
families, Elliott offers a social perspective that is at
once intimate and well informed. In addition to
uncovering substantial documentary evidence, the
author employed her personal contacts with local
pioneers to good advantage through informative
interviews. The resulting portrait of island society is,
understandably, a sympathetic one of social
harmony, hard work, and achievement. According to
Elliott, an essentially egalitarian social structure
British Columbia Historical News
Page 33 denied class tensions and racial prejudices their
corrosive influence. Certainly, the small population
of the outer Gulf Islands, numbering only about 1100
in 1956, makes difficult the development of social
generalizations that have provincial significance.
Furthermore, statistical evidence about economic,
demographic, and voting patterns would have
sharpened the volume's social analysis. Yet, Elliott's
comments about relations between Japanese and
white residents substantially contribute to our
understanding of racism in British Columbia. The
Japanese, comprising one-third of the island's
population, had been enormously successful in
agriculture and fishing, conducting one-half of
Mayne's commerce in 1940. Japanese residents had
also been accepted socially by their white
neighbours. This observation challenges the
conventional interpretation that anti-Japanese
feeling was pervasive throughout.coastal British
Columbia at the time of the Japanese evacuation in
1942.
Despite their limitations, Elliott's generalizations
about Mayne Island society place her study apart
from most community histories, which too often
merely recite information about local notables.
Mayne Island will also raise public awareness of the
unique Gulf Island heritage that must in the future be
protected from disruptive and unsympathetic
economic development.
Robert McDonald, who teaches history at the
Universitv of British Columbia, is professionally
interested in the history of recreational land and
privately enjoys holidays on the Gulf Islands.
PUBLICATIONS OF INTEREST
Historians and heritage conservationists were
saddened to learn that Heritage West has ceased
publication. The magazine was supported by the
British Columbia Heritage Trust with assistance
from the Heritage Canada Foundation, and
provided readers with a broad spectrum of
articles on historical preservation.
The Vancouver Centennial Commission History
Resource Committee has prepared a resource
guide to help groups and individuals research
their history for the upcoming Centennial.
Entitled Exploring Vancouver's Past: An Informal
Guide to Researching Local and Family History in
Vancouver, this 32-page guide includes all the
basic information you need to get started and
keep on going. It may be ordered from Vancouver Centennial Commission, P.O. Box 49386,
#3374 Bentall 4,1055 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver,
B.C. V7X 1L5.
The October 1984 issue of Journal of the West
(Vol. XXIII, No. 4) is devoted to the history of
Western Canada, and edited by Dr. Ian MacPherson, University of Victoria. A number of articles
concern the history of British Columbia.
Researchers interested in the Genealogy of
Ontario will be pleased to learn that the
Genealogical Research Library has published
People of Ontario, 1600-1900, in three volumes.
The Bicentennial First Edition is available from the
Research Library, 520 Wellington Street North,
London, Ontario N6A 3P6, at $195 for the three
volume set.
Page 34
British Columbia Historical News THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL FEDERATION
Honorary Patron:
His Honour, the Honourable Robert G. Rogers,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia
Honorary President:
Col. G.S. Andrews, 116 Wellington, Victoria V8V 4H7
382-7202 (res.)
Officers
President:
Leonard G. McCann, #2-1430 Maple St., Vancouver V6J 3R9
736-4431 (bus.)
1st Vice President:
Naomi Miller, Box 105, Wasa VOB 2K0
422-3594 (res.)
2nd Vice President:
John D. Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Rd., North Vancouver V7R 1R9
988-4565 (res.)
Secretary:
T. Don Sale, 262 Juniper St., Nanaimo V9S 1X4
753-2067 (res.)
Recording Secretary:
Margaret Stoneberg, P.O. Box 687, Princeton VOX 1W0
295-3362 (res.)
Treasurer:
J. Rhys Richardson, 2875 W. 29th, Vancouver V6L 1Y2
733-1897 (res.)
Members-at-Large:
Myrtle Haslam, 1875 Wessex Road, Cowichan Bay VOR 1N0
748-8397 (res.)
Mary G. Orr, R.R. #1, Butler St., Summerland V0H 1Z0
Past-President:
Barbara Stannard, #211-450 Stewart Ave., Nanaimo V9S 5E9
754-6195 (res.)
Marie Elliott, Editor, B.C Historical News, 1745 Taylor St., Victoria V8R 3E8
Chairmen of Committees:
Seminars:
Leonard G. McCann
Historic Trails:
John D. Spittle
B.C. Historical News
Policy Committee:
Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River V9W 3P3
287-8097 (res.)
Lieutenant-Governor'
Award Committee:
s
Naomi Miller
Publications Assistance Helen Akrigg, 4633 W. 8th Ave., Vancouver V6R 2A6
Committee (not
involved                          228-8606 (res.)
with B.C. Historical
News):                           Loans are available for publication.
Please submit manuscripts to Helen Akrigg. JOIN
Why not join the British Columbia Historical
Federation and receive the British Columbia
Historical News regularly?
The BCHF is composed of member societies
in all parts of the province. By joining your local
society you receive not only a subscription to
British Columbia Historical News, but the
opportunity to participate in a program of talks
and field trips, and to meet others interested in
British Columbia's history and the BCHF's
annual convention.
For information, contact your local society
(address on the inside front cover).... No local
society in your area? Perhaps you might think
of forming one. For information contact the
secretary of the BCHF (address inside back
cover).

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