British Columbia History

BC Historical News Apr 30, 1971

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APRIL 1971
Vol. 4 No. 3
April, 1971
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their
respective societies. Subscription rare to non members: $3.50 per
year, including postage, directly from the editor, P. A. Yandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver 8, B.C.
: .Executive
Hon. Patron:             Lieut.Gov. J.R. Nicholson
Hon. President:           Dr Margaret Ormsby
President:               Mr H.R. Brammall
Past President:           Mrs Mebel E. Jordon
1st Vice-President:        Mr D. Schon
2nd Vice-President:        Mr.G.T. German
Sec. & Editor: .          Mr P. A. Yandle
Treasurer:               Mrs H. R, Brammall
Executive                Mr D. New
Committee:              Mr H. B. Nash
Editorial                               2
Society Notes & Comments                    2
Jottings                               4
Convention                              5
Trutch - An Immigrant Journeys to a New
Life. Letters, ed. by CF. Forbes          6
Convention Registration Form           Inside back
FRONT COVER The Fisgard Light near Victoria, drawn by Vancouver
member Robert Genn. 2
It has been the policy of the British Columbia Historical
Association, over the past few years to have a theme for its Annual
Convention, but in this Centennial year no particular theme has been
followed. It seemed enough to consider what progress had been madec
and in particular what leadership this province has received within
' Confederation.
Webster states that leadership is "the ability to lead". So it
is apparent that to be a successful leader there must first be a pause
and a purpose. When a leader is so strong that he can, by sheer strength
of personality, get complete loyalty from his adherents, he is immediately labelled a dictator. On the other hand, should he attempt to
fulfill his purpose by democratic means, rarely does he last very long,
as he must inevitably realise that it is impossible to please everyone,
and his success as a leader depends on his accomplishments. Under
these circumstances agreement or progress is made by the wishes cf a
very small minority, and out of our democratic processes has been born
what has been named in recent years "the silent majority".
It is not in the best interests of any organization to carry on
year after year accepting the efforts of a small minority when the
large silent majority has shown neither acceptance nor rejection, but
continues on in a state of tolerant apathy.
This is every members' organization and this is a plea to the
members attending the Convention In particular, but also to our
distant unseen members, to promote a more active participation,
Criticism is good especially if it is constructive, for it is not
enough to tear down unless there is a positive answer to rebuild.
The Annual General Meeting should be prepared to give the New
Council something tangible to work on, to recommend and suggest what
the future role of this association should be in the best interests
of the affiliated societies.
WEST KOOTENAY In February an enthusiastic turnout greeted Mr R. L*
McAllister, retired Cominco Development Engineer, who gave a talk on
astronomy, entitled "Atoms to Stars". The guest speaker at the annual
meeting in March was Mr George Murray, a member of the staff of Canadian
Exploration Ltd. who spoke on the history of the little town of Ymir
where he has resided for 40 years. Ymir nestles in a quiet valley about
40 miles east of Trail and the name comes from Norse mythology, Ymir
being the god of ice and snow, but the discovery of gold in 1885 was
a god of another colour. The population of Ymir reached 2,000 by 1897,
and the town had all the necessary buildings includingline hotels!  In
that year the community was serviced with water in the same cast-iron
pipes that serve the town today. Mining activity declined by 1905 but
the mine Yankee Girl returned to production in the early 1920's.
Finally, in 1942, mine activity ended completely and only about 100
people remained in the area, turning to logging for a living. As the highway is being relocated above the townsite, it was suggested that
Ymir be restored as an historical site. The Ymir Historical Society,
formed recently, has received assistance from Nelson and Salmo Chambers
of Commerce, and plans are being made to renovate some buildings,
adding informative plaques where necessary.
The following officers were elected for the coming year: Mr M.F.
Edwards. President; Mr Velen V,. Fanderlik, Vice.President; Mrs Helen
Peachey, Mr C.H. Simpkinson, Mr D.B. Merry, Mrs Ethel Mcintosh and
Mr J.H. Weiton, Directors; Miss Jane Tyson, Secretary Treasurer.
NANAIMO Throughout 1971 most of the programmes of the Nanaimo Society
will be related to the Centennial. At their February meeting Miss
Patricia Johnson spoke on John Foster McCreight, first premier of
British Columbia. Miss Johnson found her information in odd places -
apart from the Provincial Archives she found some in a bank deposit
box, its contents about to be thrown away after a lapse of 50 years,
at McCreight's school in Winchester, England, from a goddaughter, and
so on. Miss Johnson felt there were three reasons why McCreight is
practically an unknown name; he was too retiring a personality to sknd
out in that pioneer period; he returned to England immediately on
retirement, and he left few records, and those almost illegible. The
B.C. Centennial Committee considers him of so little importance that
though it served for lip- Bennett -to;tfiave a picture taken below McCreight's
portrait (the first and the latest) there were no funds to bring out
a small brochure on .his life.
• At the March meeting Mr John Parker presented many interesting facts
related to the Nanaimo of 1871 and the years immediately preceding.
At this meeting the following officers were elected: Mr R.C. Edwards,
President; Mrs J.N, Kneen, Vice-President; Miss Elizabeth Norcross,
Secretary, and Miss Helen Brown, Treasurer.
VANCOUVER Professor Edward Gibson, >of Simon Fraser University, the
speaker at the February meeting, spoke as a geographer looking at the
history of Vancouver and traced from the beginning the urban growth
of the city and the reasons why itdeveloped as it did. In March, Mr
Nelson Riis of Cariboo College spoke on the rise and fall of Wallachin,
outlining the contributing factors in Wallachin's decline, and dispelling some personal theories which many members of the audience had
previously held.
Seventy-six members and guests attended the Incorporation Day
Dinner which was held at the Holiday Inn on April 6th, to celebrate
Vancouver's 85th birthday. Mrs Roff prepared displays of century old
articles and pictures, and in a panoramic wall view took visitors from
Victoria up to Nanaimo and across to Vancouver a hundred years ago.
The President, Mr Gordon Elliott, deputized for the speaker of the
evening; Mr James Nesbitt, who was ill, and gave an address on the
Crease family,.. JOTTINGS
From the Vancouver Sun, February 14th, is a little gem on page 16
entitled "King Wisukitsak Objects". It seems that everyone is getting
into the lake naming act these days, and the East Kootenays is the latest
cictim. The water behind the Libby Dam in Montana will create a lake
backing up into Canada, and the U.S. Congress has decided, apparently
with Canadian agreement, to name this lake Lake Koocanusa - "Koo" for
Kootenay, "can" for Canada and "usa" for the U.S.A. How does the East
Kootenay Society feel about this? Surely King Wisukitsak can't be the
only objector? Is the "Half Inch Medicine Line" claimed as part of his
realm really the Canada - U.S. border?
From Victoria member, Miss Nolle K. Wyles comes this item.
MEMORIAL - Frank Cyril Swannell, D.L.S., B.C.L.S. 1880-1969
Frank Cyril Swannell was a Canadian and British Columbian in whom
we can take great pride. He was born in Hamilton, Ontario, May l6th
1880, and when his family moved to Toronto received his education in the
Public and High Schools of that city. Later, he attended the School of
Practical Science, University of Toronto, taking a course in mining and,
The holidays of 1897 and 1898 found young Mr Swannell in Manitoba
and British Columbia and in 1899 he struck out West again, thio time
landing in Victoria. He had hoped to get to the Klondike, but instead
took a job with the firm -of "Gore, Burnet & Co.," which later became the
very well known firm of "Gore and McGregor". He was articled to Mr
T.S. Gore and thus commenced his long and renowned connection with the
Province of British Columbia. He participated in the First World War and
did duty in France, Britain and Russia from which country he received the
Cross of St. Anne in recognition of his services. Mr Swannell also
served in the Second World War, being attached to the R.C.A.F. as Senior
Assistant Engineer, making detailed surveys at several of the airports on
the Pacific Coast. • In due course followed periods of exploratory surveying for the Province, service as geographer to the Bedeaux expedition,
and then back to tho Province for a further period.,
Mr Swannell received many honours during his career, and he was a
noted traveller and kept making extensive journeys to foreign lands until
close to the end of his life. He also wrote many articles of importance
and it is said that his journals and fieldbooks are a joy to behold as
they are written in such a fine hand.. Furthermore, they contain many of
his own illustrations. A number of landmarks^ in British Columbia honour
Mr Swannell in bearing his name, such as the Swannell Ranges extending
between the Finlay and Upper Skeena River. After his death in Victoria
on 6th December 1969, his ashes were preserved, and in the month of August
1970 they were scattered from a helicopter by members of a B.C. Topographic Survey party then in the area under the leadership of Mr Kenneth
M. Bridge. On the 18th of that month Mr Swannell's ashes floated down to
the Northern end of the Ranges bearing his name. His wife had predeceased
him, but one daughter and three well known sons survive. 5
In the February issue of the News, listed with the Book Reviews
was "History of Port Edward 1907 - 1970 by Mrs Gladys Blyth, priced at
$4.75. This was an error and should have read $3.75 plus 5$ tax. This
book may be purchased directly from Mrs Blyth, Port Edward, B.C.
A new historical society has been formed, in Vancouver to be
known as the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia. Mr Cyril
Leonoff, 6926 Tisdall Street, Vancouver 14, is tho President, We wish
them every success.
Another newcomer, also in Vancouver, is the Pacific Coast Branch
of the Canadian Railroad Historical Association. Anyone interested
may find more information by writing to P.O. Box 1006, Station A,
From the Newsletter of the Federation of British Columbia
Naturalists we noted the following: "Among new parks recently established
are two Class C historic parks of 5 and 7 acres at Fort St. John and
McLeod Lake, The latter preserves the site of Fort McLeod which was
founded in 1805 for the Northwest Co. by Simon Fraser and John Stuart.
The land was bought from the HBC and some of the log buildings still stand.
Also established is a 5-acre marine park at Echo Bay on Gilford
Island, east of Alert Bay. To round out the system of marine parks a
number of other small areas around the coast are being examined including
a couple on the mainland side of the upper Gulf. At Horne Lake a 71-acre
park will protect the Horne Lake caves and the magnificent Euclataws
cave though how a park a ninth of a square mile in area can do all this
is hard to see. The sticker is that all the adjacent land is either
private timber land or part of an M. &  B. Tree Farm Licence. These
parks total 88 acres - we hope losing this much timber won't draw new
howls from industry."
The West Kootenay Society offers these points of interest for
summer travellers in their area of the Kootenays.
Rossland Museumr highly recommended - on western outskirts of Rossland
near junction Highway 38 coming from Nancy Greene Lake.
Castlegar-Brilliant Doukhobor Community Village - Committee working hard
to have something to show summer visitors; land has only just been
allocated to Kootenay Doukhobor Historical Society; ask for Harold
Webber, Kinnaird.
Ymir On Highway 3A, between Salmo and Nelson. Signs at Ymir will direct
you to old townsite nearby.
******************* READ - MARK - LEARN - AND INWARDLY DIGEST *********************
******************* *********************
**  The Annual Convention is being held in Victoria May 27th, 28th and 29th. **
** **
**  On the back of this issue is the Registration Form. **
**  Don't delay. Fill it out now. Rush it to the nearest mail -box.       **
** *******************************   **************************** ** TRUTCH: AN IMMIGRANT JOURNEYS TO A NEW LIFE
Four letters, edited by CF. Forbes
The British brig "Favourite" slipped its anchor in the Thames on
July 18, 1849 and commenced a voyage around Cape Horn to Valparaiso, Chile,
Aboard this vessel was a young man, who embarked with a heart heavy at
leaving his family and friends, but hopeful of success to come in America.
The young man was Joseph William Trutch, eventually to become a successful engineer., politician, landowner and government official in British
Columbia. Trutch was seeking a fresh start in a new land; breaking with
all he was familiar with in order to obtain money and recognition, the
former for his parents and family, the latter for himself in his profession.
The eldest surviving son of Hannah and William Trutch, Joseph was
born in Somerset January 18, 1826, and spent his early boyhood in Jamaica,
ard later returned with his family to Somerset and Devon, The Trutch
family had been settled in the Spaxton district of Somerset since the
middle of the sixteenth century, but Joseph's father, William, (devast~
atingly handsome ,,., /with? crisp curly red gold hair and piercing blue
eyes)l, a solicitor of Ashcot, subsequently moved to St. Thomas, Jamaica,
where he became Clerk of the Peace. While in St. Thomas he met Charlotte
Hannah, the daughter of Hon. Joseph Barnes, Assistant Judge of the Supreme
Court of Jamaica, and a former Mayor of the City of Kingston, The hind-
some and accomplished William (who, in addition to his curly hair and
blue eyes., possessed "unmatched strength ...... bending long steel
pokers and /performing/ other comparable feats")2 quickly won Charlotte
Hannah and the two were married on July 11, 1822.
The couple made frequent visits to England and it was on one of
these trips that Joseph was born. Just when the family had returned to
England is xmknown - but about 1837 the young Joe was sent to Mount
Radford School at Exeter, under the stern, but kindly principal, Rev.
Charles Rodwsll Roper.
We know little of the young man's school life, and thus can only
offer conjecture as to why Joseph chose to enter the civil engineering
profession,, It is certain that the family prospects had begun to worsen
about the time of Joseph's graduation from Mount Radford (his yoiuiger
brother John's education there was cut to only two years - and that free,
courtesy of Roper -"because of "home fortunes".-') To a young man with
diminishing professional chances, resulting from straitened family circumstances, the opportunities in engineering and surveying probably
looked promising. The Bristol and Exeter Railway, completed in 1844,
was under construction during Joseph's stay at Mt. Radford School. The
"railroad mania" was sweeping the West of England, and with medicine and
the law now beyond his reach Joseph probably turned quite naturally to
the engineering field. __
1. See "Reminiscences of Mrs Charlotte E.C. Kelly in Trutch Papers,
Special Collections Division, University of B.C. Library.
2. ibid.
3. ibid. The eighteen forties had ushered in the transportation boom in
England and many "name" engineers were occupied in the construction of
railroads, bridges and tunnels. Among these men was Sir John Rennie,
builder of the old London Bridge (for which he received his knighthood
in 1831), which incidentally was dismantled and shipped to the United
States in the late 1960's. Rennie had not been prominent in railway construction, but during the great expansion period of the early forties he
was engaged in work on the Great Northern Line. It was to Sir John that
the seventeen year old Joseph was articled as a pupil in 1843.
Very little is known of Trutch's apprenticeship to the civil engineering profession but he was apparently an apt pupil and performed his work
diligently and in a trustworthy manner. He was at St. Albans, Hertfordshire for a time at least, as his brother John, lacking money for a fare,
walked there from London to visit himi
With Rennie as his mentor, he -undoubtedly received invaluable experience in bridge construction - experience that would serve him faithfully
in his'later career in British Columbia. He also likely engaged in other
than railway work for Rennie.
Upon the completion of his articles, he commenced work as a fully
fledged professional cOnsdtruction engineer on the Great Western Railway,
and during the years 1848-49 he must have slowly formed plans in his mind
for emigration.
England, during this time was experiencing a cautious period of entrenchment after the financial depression of 184.7. A picture of what
, Trutch and other young engineers faced- is described by J.H. Clapham.
"After the long orgy of the railway mania the business of the country
had plenty of weak, even rotten patches. Railway companies whose
works were still .unfinished, and there were many of these, finding
that shareholders could not pay their calls, borrowed at whatever rates
they must to avoid a stoppage. Some were unable to borrow and left
their new cuttings and embankments to grow green unused, or to be
bought from them later at bankrupt prices."-*
More significantly, "the speculative promotion of railways stopped.
Comparatively few railway bills were submitted, in 1848, and most of them
were for obviously useful links or extensions in the existing system".
The bloody rebellions which took place in 1848 in most European
countries did not materialize in England, but a nervousness was felt by all
as, a result of the Chartist agitations. Many even felt that it was only a
matter of time before England experienced the unleashed fury of the mob, By
the beginning of 1849 commercial and manufacturing interests were rallying,
but as the Annual Register has described conditions, the economy had
"not as yet effectually revived from the prostration occasioned by the
commercial crisis of 1847, and the shock of foreign revolutions in 1848.
-4. ibid,
5. J.H. Clapham, "Work and Wages" in Early Victorian England 1830-1865,
ed, by G.M. Young. (London, 1951) p.70.
6. ibid. p.71. 8
The drain of railway investments, to which the capital of the country
was so largely pledged, continued to exercise a depressing effect, which
was aggravated by a general want "of confidence in the 'management of those
vast undertakings, and the landed interest was in a dissatisfied and
uneasy state, from anticipations of the great change in the commercial
policy of the country".'
An influx of Irish which had increased in 1848 put a strain on housing
in 1849 and the dreaded cholera increased its activity, attacking not only
the poor but also the middle and upper classes. With solid family security,
Trutch might have weathered these two crucial years, but his situation, if
not actually desparate, was at best a bleak one lacking any real hope for
Toward the middle of 1849, the family morale and prospects were very
low. Money was, needed for a number of reasons. Charlotte, the eldest
daughter (married to William Davey, Assistant Surgeon, Honorable East India
Company), had two infant daughters to keep, her husband being in India;
John was engaged in a lawsuit over some money owing him by a man described,
in family letters as "old Jones"; Emily, the second daughter, was to be
married, at Aden; and Joseph's mother, father and youngest sister Caroline
remained to be provided for.
Lack of financial resources seriously concerned Trutch but additional
frustration and disharmony were created also by other problems in the family.
The wayward character of William Trutch, Joseph's father, was distressing
to all. He was beginning to show, more often, his loss estimable qualities
and was creating a great strain, both on family funds and patience. Report,
ed to be a "rake ... Dickens style - his story /voiced^ in hushed whispors
led through debtors' prisons, /and resulted/ in torment to his belongings;
a sucker of /his sons*_7 early earnings".8 At this time, he certainly
always needed money and could be quite a trial when it was withheld from
him. A letter written by John to his sister Charlotte) shortly after
Joseph's departure for America) describes what must have been a trying
every-day occurrence. Speaking of the difficulties encountered in his
court case, John goes on:
"I am sorry to say it is, as I always was afraid it would be, a source of
great unhappiness and trial to me, not a day passes, but what there is
some quarrel about it. Oh, how I wish that it was all settled and over,
tho way in which father behaves is almost unbearable; all sorts of names,
selfish brute being always one of the chief ones, he says I want to get
all the money and run away with it,"°
In a letter five days later, he reports that "/father7 ... talks about
our selfishness and the sacrifices he.has made for us and our ungrateful
returns ... then he spurns me and my money and curses me - ohl that I should
write it "1°
7. Annual Register, 1849.
8. "Reminiscences", see note 1.	
9. Letter, John Trutch to Charlotte Davey, Sept. 24, 1849. Trutch Papers.
10. Letter, John Trutch to Charlotte Davey, Sept. 19, 1849. Trutch Papers. 9
Charlotte answers " .... let me beg of you in all sisterly affection
to control your irritated feelings reflecting on the distressing position
of our unhappy parent".^ The actions of William Trutch had indeed become
a burden by the late summer and early fall of 1849.
Joseph, it appears, determined to make a break which would free him
from the embarrassment - at least temporarily - and, at the same time, give
himself some chance to repair the sagging family fortunes and self-respect.
He must have thought long and seriously about his alternatives -- but one
thing seemed clear - he could not, given the existing economic, social and
family conditions, rely on prospering in England. Emigration seemed his
only solution,
Reports of the gold discoveries in California had been filtering back
to England during the first six months of 1849. These reports probably
provided the catalyst which sparked Trutch to action. He felt none of the
rabid excitement possessed of other men who left to seek their fortunes,
hunting The elusive yellow metal. He never entertained any idea of actually
joining the thousands in the gold fields, but recognized the possibilities
for an engineer in a new country such as California. Cities would be built,
grow, and be eventually linked by railroads. Trutch felt 'sanguine about
his chances for advancement in this new land. He entered into an agreement
with the firm iof Cross, Hobson & Co. to erect iron warehouses in the active
and thriving town of San Francisco. He therefore took leave of England's
shores on July 18, 1849 and arrived at the first stop on his journey,
Valparaiso., on or shortly before, October 20, 1849.
His first letters home after his separation show pangs of remorse at
his leaving family and friends, and reveal a terrible homesickness. Far
from home, in strange surroundings, he found that to see his parents' handwriting again "was a troat" (ho had received a letter upon arrival at
Valparaiso). although he cherished tho hope that "more cheering accounts
might be written in the future". Clearly the Trutch fortunes were not
improving!!  He swallows his disappointment with his new life, however, and
determined to see things out as the only possible way to help his family
and himself.
In these early letters there are frequent allusions to the "unhappy
circumstances" and the financial problems which still existed at the Trutch
home, Matters did not get better and a letter written in 1853,  after John
had conu out to join Joseph in Oregon Territory shows to what extremity
the family was finally reduced, Mrs Trutch writes to Joseph in great
anguish of mind, telling of her distress over the father's imprisonment
for debt, and her anxiety about Caroline's future.
"It is four weeks today since he /William TrutchJ was arrested and placed
in White Cross St. prison where he is still; during the whole of this
time he has written mo almost daily the most harrowing letters with
accounts of his varied miseries blended with condemnations of Caroline ...
appealing to me to urge them to have him removed from the place he was."12
11. Letter, Charlotte Trutch to John Trutch, Sept. 26, 1849. Trutch Papers.
12. Letter, Mrs William Trutch to Joseph Trutch, Aug.26, 1853. Trutch"Papers. 10
If Trutch ever needed any incentive to remain in North America and
search for the success and wealth that had- so far eluded him (this letter
was written, remember, in 1853), these letters from home provided it,
Homesick then, depressed, with possibly a touch of guilt for chancing
so much in emigrating, he shows, however, in early 1850, a healthy (if somewhat restrained) optimism in the anticipation of favourable circumstances
which he can turn to advantage. This was to be a basic trait of Trutch's
character. In his rather lonely existence on the "Independence" bound from
Valparaiso to San Francisco, he indulges in a long description of Valparaiso
as seen by a rather stiff Englishman of twenty-three. The lengthy description can be ascribed partly to his boredom on board ship, partly for John's
information - as he thinks John is to take up residence there with a branch
of Cross, Hobson and Co. He bemoans the "great want of punctuality and
order" on the ship and his fellow travelling companion he puts down as a
Staffordshire bumpkin - "not deserving of much description".
Trutch, then, is a typical middle-class Englishman,come down rather
in his expectations, who honours wealth, respectability and comfort. He
means to have all these and to return to England to repair the family
fortunes. He has never thought in terms of a complete severance from the
old country ties - he always remains (and. will, throughout his North
American career) an Englishman in exile.
He has other qualities, however, which will serve him well - honosty
and perseverance. He is to give San Francisco a chance, although he is
somewhat dubious of ultimately prospering there. At the close of these
early letters we leave him trusting to Providence saying "if I keep my
health I shall be satisfied to rough it on for a short time until I can
look about me and see how matters-are likely to turn out".
The letters which follow aro written by Joseph to his parents,
Hannah and William Trutch and give his .impressions of his voyage to
America, his first landing (Valparaiso) and his prospects upon arrival at
San Francisco. The idiosyncrasies of punctuation and spelling are
Trutch's own, except in one or two instances where his hasty construction
has made the meaning particularly difficult. Square brackets indicate an
interpolation by the editor and were necessitated by either physical
deterioration of the letter paper or illegibility caused by age and/or
the nineteenth century habit of •writing both horizontally and vertically
on the same page, to save paper. Thanks are due to the Special Collections
Division of the University of British Columbia Library for their usual
kind and knowledgeable help and to the University Librarian for permission
to publish these letters. I would also like to express my appreciation
to the librarians and staff of the Provincial Archives in Victoria for
their courtesy and help, given during several visits. 11
Valparaiso. Octr. 20th. 1849.
My beloved Parents,
I have just finished a long letter to Charlotte* containing some
account of my proceedings since my arrival here, which you will of course
read. I owe you many thanks for the long letters which you sent me and
which as I have mentioned were just in time to meet me on my arrival here.
I need not toll you how distressed. I was to hear of your embarrassments.
I trust that ere now that old rascal Jones has given John the money as
I am quite at a loss to conceive what you will do failing that resource.
OhS it was indeed, a treat to 10 even to see your handwriting once again,
but I would that you might have sent me more cheering accounts of yourselves and I sincerely trust that your next letters may be written under
more auepi circumstances [sic].    I shall receive my next news from you in
San Francisco where I expect to arrive about the beginning of next year
as they tell me that it is a passsatgo of 8 weeks from hence. I am getting anxious to know by what vessel I am to be forwarded as some of the
schooners that go up the coast are miserable little things and I should
be most uncomfortable, but I am in great hopes that they will send me in
a Dutch ship which is about to sail for San Francisco. As I said before
however I have not been able to hear anything decided from Mr Thomas-5
as he has been so busy; tomorrow I expect he will be able to attend more
to me, I am very glad that I obtained those introductions from General
Fox^ for if they do not avail me any further ifehey will at least give a
footing of respectability to John and myself in the Town for I made a
point of letting MivThomas know that I had such letters and the nature
of my reception &c„ ' Indeed I think Mr Thomas has on the whole been very
polite though as he told rae he is too busy to pay me much attention.
Tomorrow I leave tho Brig and take up my quarters at Cross house with a.
room at tho Hotel as they have none to spare in the house. The Favorite
is I believe going to load wheat for Liverpool but she will not leave
until after me so that I kept all my heavy boxes on board until I get
another ship. Certainly the accounts of California are by no means encouraging, yet I believe that the reports of disorder and robbery are
1. Chariot te Barnes Trutch (1823-1882) was the elder sister of Joseph.
She married, in 1846, William Davey, Asst. surgeon of the Honorable
East India iCompany. These letters are to his parents, William and
Hannah Trutch and his brother John. Mention of letters to sisters
Emily and Charlotte indicate that others were written but to date
they have not been located.
2. Information on  Jones is difficult to obtain. Other family letters
indicate that he was involved in a law suit over money owing to
Joseph's brother John Trutch (1828-1907).
3. An official with Cross, Hobson & Co.'s Valparaiso office. Joseph was
continuing to San Francisco to supervise the construction of an iron
warehouse for them. Since he wishes to present testimonials to Thomas,
it seems likely that Thomas manages the Valparaiso operation :of the house,
4. Joseph believes that John is to embark shortly for Valparaiso to work
as a clerk for Cross, Hobson & Co., commission merchants,
5. Major-general Charles Richard Fox, Surveyor-general of ordinance in the
British Arny.
6. The brig referred tb, on which Trutch has journeyed from London to
Valparaiso. 12
by no means encouraging, yet I believe that the reports of disorder and
robbery are greatly exaggerated, and I do not entertain any great apprehensions as to personal safety particularly as I have a home to go to
when I get there.' I am only apprehensive whether I shall be ultimately
repaid for my putting myself to the inconvenience and privations which
are certain to anyone going to. such a place. I am afraid that the country
is too much in a state of barbarous misrule to allow of any attention
being paid to improvement or anything further that [§±cj  is absolutely
necessary to keep them frost the inclemency of the weather & it appears
to me that it will always be a poor place for all the gold that is
feathered together is immediately shipped off to Valparaiso and ultimately
to England & America. I imagine that John will have just left England
and I trust he may have -a pleasant passage out. I am at a loss to
imagine what he will have done if he did not get any money from old Jones.
From what I see of this place now I think he will be very agreeably
situated, though I must tell you that Cross, Hobson & Co. is not one of
the best houses in fact they are not ee long established and have made
their fortunes by the California trade. Some say they have cleared more
than a million of dollars since the gold was discovered - as they took
the first cargoes up there and realized immense profits. The consul here
told me that they were very respectable people, but I fancy they expect
you to work hard. The office hours are from 10 to 5 but when the Steamer
comes in they write almost night and day - this however is only once a
month. I reckon you will get this about the same time as I. get to
California so that it will arrive just in time to convoy my sincere wishes
that you may have a happier new year than this has proved. I am all
anxiety to hear of Emily's marriage" which I trust has taken place ere
now, and this news also I hope to get on my arrival at San Francisco.
I have now my beloved parents in conclusion to thank you most
sincerely for all your expressions of affection in the kind letters you
sent me. God grant that I may bo ever deserving of a continuance of your
love & esteem which I have ever prized most highly and may we all be
spared to meet again in old England and under circumstances which may
afford a happy contrast to the present.
In the meantime you may rest assured that I shall certainly think of
how large a debt of gratitude I owe to you and that my heart is ever
with you all at home.
God grant that this may find you in health
I am
Your dutiful & affect. Son
J. W. Trutch
I had much more to say but I am obliged to clos© this or I shall be
late to go to dinner.
7. He has apparently been promised living quarters in San Frart=isco
8. Emily Trutch (1829-?). She was married, at Aden, on August 20, 1849
to George Ridout Pinder, Lieutenant in the Army of the Honorable
East India Company. Trutch would not have received word of the
marriage, as he had left England on July 18th. 13
Valparaiso. Nov. 10th. 1849
My dear Parents,
I take up my pen to send you some further account of myself since I
last wrote and. I shall leave this letter here to be forwarded by tho
Steamer of the 25th inst. as I am to sail for San Francisco on Wednesday
next in the ship "Independence" of Hamburg. I am thankful to be able to
say that I enjoy excellent health, indeed I have become so stout that my
clothes are all too tight for me and my face is now so brown and red t hat
you would hardly recognize the pale face that parted from you at Gravesend;
and this has arisen chiefly from my wearing that Scotch cap on my passage
out so that my face was constantly exposed.
Sineo I arrived here I have been trying to see all the sights and have
succeeded in amusing myself pretty well thanks to Mr Williams one of the
clerks J,n Cross Hobson's house, who has shewn me much kindness and is
altogether a very nice fellow and will I trust bo an agreeable companion
for my dear brother when he comes .out. This place improves very much on
acquaintance and I am sure'-could be very comfortable here after I had
become habituated to the immense change in manners & customs - indeed it
would not do to stay here much longer as I should then feel the more painfully my departure for the uncivilised regions of California, of which I
have en ell sides the most discouraging accounts.
I dined with the Admiral-' on the evening before the stoamer left., and
was very much pleased by his kindness and polite attention- it was a
large party consisting of the chief naval officers of the three ships in
the Harbour, with his daughters &  other ladies. I am very sorry that they
should have been going on their course so soon as I am sure I might have
got introductions to the best people here through them.
On the 1st inst., there was a general holiday here as it was one of the
great Saint's days10f and I had a capital game of cricket with the English
Club which was quite a treat to me although I was not a little knocked up
by ty exertions. On the following day I borrowed a horse and in company
with Mr Williams started off to ride to a place called "Casa Blanca"
distant from hence about 45 miles. We left this at 5 o'C: after the office
was closed and reached our destination at 10 o'C: both thoroughly tired as
you may suppose. About ■§• past 7 it fell dark just as wo were entering
upon an open plain which is 12 miles across and without hedge or ditch to
guide us and the best of it was that Mr Williams who undertook to be the
guide had never been over the road, so we had to trust to Providence and
our horses eyes for we could not see the length of the horse before us and
as it was what they call a good road here we galloped across without drawing rein, I could (not]  help feeling some slight amount of nervousness on
this ny first ride by night for highwaymen are by no means a rarity in
these parts and we were as a matter of course provided with pistols, however we met with no adventure or accident, but three you ng Englishmen who
came about an hour after us lost their way on the plains and one of them
rode into a bog or "pantana" as they are called here and they had some
9~,    Rear-Admiral Phipps Hornby (1785-1867), the flag officer commanding
the Pacific Station of the Royal Navy.
10. Feast of All Saints' Day. 14
difficulty in extricating him again with the loss of one  of his stirrups
for which he received in exchange a complete covering from head to foot
of black slimy mud - after this they lost their way and would have passed
the night in wandering about but that they had the Extreme good fortune to
meet with a peasant who put them once more on  the right road. There is an
excellent inn at Casa Blanca kept by an English man & his wife also an
English woman and born and bred in Devonshire, and whom it was quite a
treat to meet with. They made us very comfortable and we had excellent
living & altogether enjoyed ourselves exceedingly. This Inn is a great
attraction to tho young Englishmen in Valparaiso and they are such riders
that they think   nothing of starting off one evening and back the next
morning just as we should ride 10 miles in England -• we returned on Sunday
evening in exactly 4 hours riding very fast the whole way. Since then I
have been on horse back several times and am more and more pleased
the horses here - they are capable of enduring far more work than would
kill an English horse and at the same time are very fleet. It is quite an
everyday occurrence for a man to ride on the same day to Saint Iago^-1 a
distance of 100 miles and back again on the next day. The climate of
Valparaiso is certainly delightful - one continu al sunshine and not too
hot to be disagreeable. One would think it the most healthy place in
creation and yet all the Englishmen here complain that it is most relaxing
and I believe it is a fact that there is more consumption among English
residents here than even in England. When I came here, I thought, as I
told you in my last that this was the most dirty miserable jplace I had
ever seen, but I find it improved wonderfully on acquaintance and I feel
certain that when in San Francisco I shall then thoroughly appreciate the
merits of Valparaiso. I cannot toll you much about the society as I have
not had any opportunities of being introduced, I went one evening to a
public subscription Ball but it was a very slow affair -• indeed there were
only twenty ladies in the room and more than 100 gentlemen so that I did
not get a single dance. I was much pleased however on the whole as tho
ladies danced beautifully, far superior to anything I have ever seen in
England. They had polka, waltz, and quadrille the whole evening, The way
in which the men dress here would in England be considered most absurd -
they all affect the most outre French stylo - just the sort of dress that
you sometimes meet in the neighbourhood of Leicester Square on very seedy
Frenchmen - tho ladies however are always elegantly dressed and for the
most part supply the place of a bonnet in tho street with a large black
veil or a mantilla which certainly has a vory picturesque appearance to
a foreigner.
I am writing this vory badly and without .connection; there is so
much talking and confusion about me in the office that I cannot compose
my thoughts; I trust however that you will excuse my bad diction &c. I
did not forget that the 6th November was your joint birthday and drank
your health with most affectionate & sincere wishes for your health and
that we may be spared to meet again in greater happiness than when we
parted. I have just finished a long letter to John which I shall leave
here for him to receive on his arrival the period of which however I
cannot even guess at now as it appears from what I hear from Dr Thomas
that the departure of their vessel was to be delayed for Mr Crossly the
head of the house who is coming out hero again but it is nc'^ known when,
11. Santiago.
12. Alexander Cross. See note 29« 15
and I conclude that John will come with him. I feel certain that he will
be very comfortable and,happy if he comes to this house - but I hope he will
not come without specific engagement, for this place is so inundated with
clerks who have returned from California that he might never get a situation at all and then the salaries here I find are very low - i:150 a year
is considered quite as something extraordinary, and every thing so dear that
you may reckon,    /      three shillings here not more than 1 in England - at the same time you get in the house everything that you require,
there is always plenty of wine or liquor for you if you wish and plenty to
eat - washing costs just ,,£12 sterling per annum for which you can have a
clean shirt every day if you chose. Clothes are of course very dear here -
also every description of wearing attire and you are obliged to dress well
to be in keeping with those about you: in fact dress is the greatest toll
upon a young man out here so that I trust John will bring a good supply
with him for even if he brings more than he requires he can always sell them
.at a great profit. It is now just three weeks than [sic]  I have been here
and I (km]  anxious t o get to my ultimate destination so that I may form
my own opinion of my prospects in California. Each succeeding ship that
arrives here from thence brings worse and worse accounts, but I do not
place implicit reliance on these reports as they proceed for the most part
from disappointed parties who are returning from the diggings with ruined
health & fortunes - there is no doubt however that everything is in disorder there and comfort Unknown even to the richest of the inhabitants. It
■remains to be seen however whether in tho course of a twelvemonth the state
of affairs will not be greatly improved. For my own part if I keep my
health I shall be full satisfied to rough it on for a short time until I can
look about me and see how matters are likely to turn out.
I shall anxiously expect letters from you on my arrival at San Francisco which will be about the 10th January and most sincerely do I hope
that they may contain more cheering accounts than I received by the last
mail. I feel almost certain that old Jones must have given in and paid up
the money so as at least for a time to release you all from your embarrassments and afford John the means of getting a good outfit which as I said
before is a great point in coming out here. Failing this supply I am at
a loss to imagine how you will manage to get on. Dear Charlotte also
seemed to be in great embarrassment until she heard again from Wm. Davey -
however I trust that all this has been removed by Jones paying up the
money without carrying on the lawsuit any further.
I hope that John will see Mr Cross and. arrange something definite as
to his engagement in coming out here. He is the managing man of the firm
and by far the richest - indeed it is only since his successful speculations in California that the others have joined him. Dr Thomas has been
very kind to me here - as much so as I could have expected - indeed /he/
is quite a favourite with the clerks here although quite a Scotchman in
taking care Of his money. He is not a married man but the eldest Cross's
wife and family live in the house here - they are beautiful children and I
understand that she is a very nice person, but I have not had the pleasure
of seeing her as she has been all the time of my stay here at Saint Iago
but is expected back at the end of this week. I hoar an excollent character of Mr Hobsonl3 the resident partner at San Francisco, whom they
describe as everything that can be desired. He also is a married man and
13« Joseph Hobson. See note 28.' 16
his wife has been living with him in California, but she is now on her way
to Valparaiso in the American ship of the fllnelj  Ohio - which is expected
every day. Captain Webster!** has made another engagement for his brig
with which he seems very satisfied. He is to stop on this coast for some
time employed in bringing lime to Valparaiso for the new docks which they
are building here. All the crew with the exception of the mates and boys
have left him and he has shipped Chilonos in their places with which he
intends to work the ship until he goes round the Horn again.
Novr. 15th. I sail this morning and have just time to write these
lines in conclusion. I have a very nice cabin and I have no doubt that I
shall be very comfortable on board. Yesterday evening I took leave of the
Favourite and I cannot tell you what misery I experienced in parting from
her. It was like severing the last connecting link with England. I have
left Nero*-' on board the Favourite as Webster has promised to take care of
him and take him home again to you. I found that he would not live in this
climate - he has had three fits already and every one advised me not to
take him to California as he would be a great trouble and expense and would
be likely perhaps to involve me in disagreeables, so as they are all so
fond of him on board the brig he continues with them until she goes home
when he Is to be given back to you. And now I must say goodbye. I shall
most anxiously look for a letter at San Francisco. Give my fond love to
dear Charlotte and Caroline^ with kisses for the little pets. God bless
you all - and with my affectionate love beliove me your ever dutiful Son
Joseph W. Trutch.
I fear I have forgotten much that I intended to say - once more goodbye.
Do write long letters. Remember [mej  to all friends.
At sea, on board the "Independence"
Long: W.88° - Lat: S.20° -
Novr. 27th. 1849
My beloved Parents,
I take up my pen to give you some further account of my adventures
since I wrote to you from Valparaiso - in that letter I think I told you
I was to sail for California on the following day - Thursday the l6th.
Novr, - on the morning of that day however the Captn. informed me that he
could hot get his papers ready, but that he should positively weigh anchor
and be off early next morning so I was already prepared but determined not
to go on board until the last minute, and it was very lucky I did not, as
it turned out. You must know that nearly every day, say four days in the
week, the land wind from the high hills above the harbour, sets in about
II o'clock and blows with more or less strength until 6 or 7 o'C: when it
VKT. Webster, master of the brig "Favourite" (Lloyd's Register of
British and Foreign Shipping, London, 1849)
15. Trutch;s dog. ._..   , . .._ -
16. Caroline Agnes Trutch (1831-1899), Joseph's youngest sister. She
married Hon. Peter O'Reilly in Victoria in I863. 17
falls quite calm. This wind is both a nuisance and a blessing to the town -
in the first place it blows the dust up in such suffocating clouds and at
times with such fury that not the most private rooms or drawers are free
from it; everything in the houses is covered with dust and as soon as the
wind lulls the people strip and have a good wash down which I assure you I
found very necessary - it has likewise the ill effect of rendering the
harbour impassable for boats or launches, so that all the Custom house &
shipping business in general is stopped for the rest of the day - and people
for the most part close their shops and take a quiet siesta. On the other
hand this wind may be called the scavenger of Valparaiso, for it carries
everything that is at all movable into the sea, and leaves the streets by
7 o'C: as clean as if they had been swept whilst the harbour and shipping
are covered with dust and refuse of all description. Tho night too is cool
and agreeable after these Southers, as they are called - the South being
the quarter from which they blow. Well - on the Friday morning my/ new
Capt. (Schacht is his name) came to tell me that the ship was under weigh
and that I had bettor go on board at once but that ho was waiting to finish
some necessary business with his broker so down I went to the Mole with my
friend Mr Williams who had arranged to go off with me and return in a shore
boat; when wo asked the boatmen however they said he must not think of
going off for he would not be able to get on shore against the Souther
which was just setting in without getting the boat full of water, and said
they "if the Capt. does not make haste he won't go on board at all for it
is going to blow furiously". And so it turned out. I determined when I
heard this to wait for the Captn. as I did not like the idea of being on
board all day unnecessarily - by 10 o'C: it was blowing a galo and several
ships dragged their anchors and fouled one another, and the end of it was
that the "Independence" which had been under sail, off and on, all the
morning, took the management into her own hands, and went away to sea
entirely independent of all the wishes and endeavours of the mate and crew
to the contrary. It was most amusing to witness the dismay of the poor old
Capt. when we told him that his ship was blown to sea out of sight. He
ran about like a madman asking what he was to do, and the only comfort he
could get was the advice freely given "to grin and bear it" for that it
was a common occurrence there for a ship to run away and that she would
come back when she had had her freakout. For my own part I congratulated
myself that I was not on board, and after a good wash we had a comfortable
dinner and then the Captain who dined with us wanted to go off in a whale
boat to look for his ship; we managed to dissuade him however and we agreed
to meet on tho Mole at 5 o'C: the next morning. Accordingly I got up at
daylight and found the Captain already on tho pier but nothing to be seen
or hoard of tho ship - wo then sent a messenger up to tho signal post on
the hill but could gain- no tidings of the runaway - so I went to the house
and slept for two hours on the sofa until past 7 o'C; when in came the
captn. with the news that the ship was coming into the bay - with difficulty
I persuaded /him/ to take some breakfast, after which we started off in a
whale boat with four rowers, but on rounding the point of the bay we found
that the vessel coming in was an American so we were still as far off as
ever from our object: however we made for the Yankee and boarded her about
4 miles the town and the Captn. told us that there was a ship just
in the Northward, having roconnoitered her through the glass
Captn. Schacht declared it was his ship and so off we set again to pull
10 miles out to sea to meet her. This was quite an adventure, for after
pulling for an hour the boatmen doclared it was impossible to go any further
for that the wind was getting up and there would presently be a great sea 18
running and we should bo drowned - in fact they got regularly frightened,
and we had groat difficulty to persuade them by promises of money to keep
on rowing - at last we reached the ship just as it was breezing up, and
very glad I was to get on board and tho Spaniards started off for the
nearest land as hard as they could pull. I fear they had a bad time of it
for it blew hard all the day. At last I have got on board after the
long story I have been telling you: it appeared they had had a very bad
night and had lost some sails in trying to hold on the wind as much as
possible now however the yards were squared and we went away 9 knots an
hour before the favouring breeze which has continued ever since - the
sails have been scarcely trimmed, since we set the studding sails that
day but are /sic/ on we go day after day wafted by the trade wind which
we expected will carry us to the line. I was not long on board before
I was seasick much to my surprise, as I thought my Horn voyage had
seasoned me. I was not very ill however though I was very miserable and
unhappy and determined in my mind entirely to my own satisfaction or
rather dissatisfaction, that I was the most wretched and unfortunate
being alive. All Sunday I was in very bad spirits, thoroughly miserable
I laid in bed. all that day and nursed my melancholy - however I managed
to regain my courage an Monday morning, had a good wash, put on a clean
shirt &c., and determined to forget my troubles and make the best of a
bad business. The fact is I have heard such discouraging accounts of
this California and of the hardships and misery to be encountered there
that I can't help thinking that I have made a mistake in accepting Cross'
terms which are absurdly inadequate as a remuneration for my services
when you consider that even a- common labourer gets five or six dollars per
day, I confidently anticipate however that they will at least double my
salary and I shall make a point of coming to an understanding before I
commence tho work. Before this letter is despatched I shall probably be
able to sav something more on this subject, and to give you some accounts
of San Francisco from my own authority.
The good ship "Independence" which now bears "Caesar and his fortunes"
across the Pacific ocean, is by no means a clipper - she has evidently
been built to carry a largo cargo without regard to her sailing powers
and I find her therefore quite a contrast to the "Favourite": everything
is differently managed and arranged on board the German - there is a great
want of that punctuality and order that was so admirable on the brig -
our decks here are lumbered with all sorts .of planks, barrels, &c, and
only indulged twice a week with washing.' On the whole however I am
tolerably comfortable. I have a state room to myself on the starboard
side, and' plenty of space to stow away all my luggage and etceteras.
She is a poop ship with a large airy cuddy cabinl7 entered from the main
deck which renders it very agreeable in hot weather especially when the
after x^jindows are open and as there is only one other passenger we have
plenty of room to keep out of one another's way which I assure you is a
great comfort on board ship. Our captain is a very good sort of an old
man - tall - grey haired and plenty of grey beard & mustaches. He talks
English very much to his own satisfaction, and equally to my amusement
particularly when he gets excited about the German confederation or the
Sleswich Holstein dispute which are for him favorite subjects; he is
much enraged with the English, who, he declares, encouraged the continuance of the war between Denmark & Germany that they might sell powder,
17» A cabin abaft, in which the officers and cabin passengers eat their meals,
18. This dispute between Denmark and Germany over Schleswig and Holstein
lasted from 1848 to 1850. 19
cannon, &c, to the belligerents - nothing can move him from this opinion -
indeed you would be amused to hear our .-political arguments and wrangles.
Our living is pretty good, much about the same as in the Favourite, but
we have infinitely better cooking and French wine instead of beer, and I
much prefer it particularly as it is quite a change. It is somewhat
better than vin ordinaire but you may drink a bottle without feeling any
effect. We breakfast at 8 o'c; dine at f past 12 - and take supper at
7 o'C: I tried their sauer craut once, and was quite cured of any further
curiosity on that subject. We have five pigs on board, so that there is
an appearance of much fresh pork for the passage; as for the fowls of which
there were 8 dozen they die three or four every night and those that are
cooked are so tough that I can hardly get my teeth into them. We get soup
(tolerably good) every day, plenty of fine potatoes - and puddings every
other day - and I think this completes the bill of fare. I must not forget
by the bye some of the best sherry I ever tasted which is produced at
intervals, I have been quite delighted with the caboose!9 on board which
is the most complete thing you ever saw and as clean and shining as a new
shilling - not so the Favourite. My fellow passenger is not deserving of
much description, although he affords me some little amusement - and I may
as well say something about him. His name is Henshaw - he comes from Staffordshire direct where he was employed as an edge tool maker - having command
of some little money and being infected with the California mania he is
come out post haste to make his fortune. He thinks of .nothing - talks of
nothing and I verily believe dreams of nothing else but the gold regions -
he is in such a state of excitement that he cannot keep still for 10 minutes
together - he rushes on deck, takes two or three turns and then down again -
seizes a book - reads for 10 minutes always half aloud, then up again on
the poop - much to our annoyance he wears a pair of half boots with great
nails, just adapted for a ploughboy and he has a most extraordinary manner
of walking throwing out each leg as if it was not entirely under control
and making a striding sort of jump ho alights on the deck with a shock
that shakes the whole cuddy underneath. The captain and I have watched
him take the whole'length of the poop in his ordinary gait at 7 strides,
whilst I make it 13 paces. I assure you I have laughed till I was tired
at his elephantine mode of progression particularly when from the motion
of the ship ho makes a lurch to leward, then he goes half way across the
deck at a bound. I forgot to say he is six feet in height and his dress
much in accordance with the boots. He murders the Queen's English fearfully in true Staffordshire dialect, and will always address me with -
"I say mister" - His chief amusement is teasing the steward boy and trying
to make him talk English when /sic/ laughs at his attempt. I believe
however that the only timo he ever forgets his golden anticipations is at
meal's - then he is quite himself and more than a match for anyone - though
I can tell you my performances with the knife and fork are by no means
trifling since I left Valparaiso. After supper wo generally have a game
at whist, and I am sure it /would/ amuse you if you could see us and hear
the observations. I play with Dummy and the Captn. whom we have taught
to play - takes of course Mr Henshaw for his partner - The Captn. is always
provoking as Henshaw calls revoking (quite innocent of any intention to pun)
and then there is a blow up - then they always consult one another as to
what they shall play out next, and indeed we have altogether the most
priginal games of whist that were perhaps ever played. The Captn. and I
play sometimes at backgammon and /he/ always beats me as he is quite an
.19. The ship's galley. 20
adept IplayerJ. He and Henshaw also play at "all fours"20 and then Henshaw
is at home - I take my walks on the poop regularly, an hour after breakfast -
an hour and a half before supper and again before turning in. I have been
reading some novels all the past week that Williams gave me - now however I
have commenced Don Quixote again which is my great standby and I am most
anxious not to lose, the Spanish which I can now read as freely as I can French.
I found it however much more difficult to speak in the language than I had
expected for it is full of idioms which one can only acquire by practise.
I could generally understand what was said and I think that in three months
I should have conversed with fluency.
Novr. 29th. We have had very pleasant weather ever since we left Valparaiso
and although we are now only 10 degrees from the equator we do not find it
unpleasantly hot; there is always a veil of. misty clouds between us and the
sun which without obstructing the light, tempers the heat and renders the
tropics in the Pacific quite cool in comparison with the Atlantic and India
Oceans. Tho trade winds are getting very light now and we expect to have
calms and plenty of rain under the line, after that we shall soon run into
cold weather and arrive at San Francisco in the midst of their winter frost and snow. I often fancy what a different climate you have
in England now wrapped up in warm .clothing and shivering over the fires
whilst I am sitting writing in my shirt sleeves. In Valparaiso they really
have no winter - there is generally a month of rainy weather about August
or July, but it is never cold enough for a great coat - indeed no one has
a great coat, except one or two Englishmen lately come out - they wear when
it is at all chilly or raining what are called Ponchos - these are square
pieces of cloth or woollen or silk with a hole in the centre to put the
head through -and some are much embroidered and very gay - these they also
make use of to keep the dust from their clothes and no one ever goes to ride
any distance without his poncho. I bought one of dark blue English broad
cloth bound with rose coloured ribbon, it comes below the knees and makes
a capital cloak or wrapper - it cost me 15 dollars, and I had to sell one of
my shooting jackets for 12$ to go towards it. These Ponchos are worn in
Chile by high and low and the very poorest peon adjusts his ragged Poncho
with as jaunty and consequential an air as though he were an hidalgo. It is
a strange sight to see one of the Huaso or Farmers on horse back. The horse
is small, and- always with a long switch tail and hogged mane - the bridle
cumbersome and generally ornamented with knobs of silver on the head stall.
The reins are of leather in strips plaited into a rope very neat ly and
attached to these is a long lash reaching to the ground with four or five
tails. This is carried in the right hand as a whip but more for ornament
than use. The saddle fisj  very high in front and behind and on it are
strapped several sheep skins dyed of various colours called "pillona" -
(I have counted as many as 13) these are strapped down very tightly so that
the rider is quite embedded in them something like our lifeguards and it is
impossible for them to be thrown - their legs however are spread very wide and
seen from behind it has a by no moans elegant appearance - then the stirrups
are of wood - a block five inches square, much carved generally, and with a
hole in the hinder side for.the toes - these are intended to protect the feet
in riding through thorny woods &c. hung over a hook on the pommel in coils
is the lasso of twisted hide which they throw with unerring skill. The
Huaso wears the never failing poncho - his head generally tied up in a cotton
handkerchief of red. or some other bright colour to protect him from the heat
20. A card game, played by two, named from the four particulars by which it
is reckoned, and which joined in the hand of either of -the parties are
said to make all fours. 21
of the sun, and over this the broad brimmed straw hat. He wears loose
trousers and a sort of garters of cloth strapped above the knees -, but the
spurs are the most extraordinary part of the turnout - they are of immense
size - I assure you I have seen them six inches across the rowels - which are
like the spokes of a small wheel - and some of them have small pieces of metal
hanging losely which make a jingling noise as they ride along, and as they
fancy, encourage the horse when he is getting .tired. Thus mounted and
attired they come into Valparaiso in troops to transact the business of selling their corn, cattle &c. and think nothing of 100 miles for a days ride,
and this too at a pace that would soon kill an English horse. The better
classes are all.very fond of riding and every one that can afford it keeps a
horse; they ride in quite a different style to us - sitting far back in the
saddle with legs quite straight and never rising in the stirrups indeed they
only touch them with the great toe. The horses most valued are those which
are well trained to what they term "paso dulce" a sort of running trot,
which to me appears very inelegant - the reins are held very loosely and to
guide the horse you turn your hand in the desired direction so pressing the
rein against the neck on the opposite side. If you pull on the rein the
horse stops immediately as the bits are so powerful. I was nearly thrown
in this way the first time I mounted. They have a favourite .amusement on
horseback which they call - pechar - which consists in endeavouring to
unhorse one another by pressing the knees one against the other - in these
combats it is wonderful to see how the horses seem to enter into the fun -
turning and rearing at tho right instant. I cannot attempt to describe it
to you minutely - in tho end one fellow is on his back on the ground amidst
the laughter of the byestanders - some of the women are very fond and expert
of this game. Williams told me he was on horse one day in the rejoicing
days which are in Sepr. when a lady rode full tilt at him and nearly knocked
horse and all down at the"first charge when he took to flight she in pursuit,
and only saved himself by the fleetness of his horse. They laugh at the
English style of riding and indeed it is not so elegant as theirs - but for
going across country infinitely superior - indeed they can't leap over a
log of wood, and the whole country was wonderstruck with an English steeplechase which was got up here some two or three years since. I believe they
have ever since had more respect for the English riders. They are great
people for Picnics to which they all go on horseback on the feast days -
riding like mad particularly coming home after the champaigne. These
feast days used to be one or two every week but they /sic/ merchants & the
government petitioned the Pope to reduce the number, so some of the
Saint's have been shorn of their honors and these holidays now only come
about once a fortnight and on these days not a morcel of work of any kind
is done - all the offices & shops are closed and every one goes into the
country to enjoy themselves.
Decr. 4th. Long. 103W. Lat. 6S.  A week has elapsed since I last wrote -
in that time we have made very slow progress in consequence of light winds -
it gets hotter every day but I do not yet complain of heat - our cabin is
airy and we have an awning over the poop - in fact it is really most enjoyable
weather. In the morning at 7 o'C: I get my bath on deck which is quite a
luxury and gives me an appetite for the coffee and salf beef at breakfast.
The nights are lovely. I was on deck Tjntil 12 o'C: last night enjoying the
moonlight and thinking of far distant scenes and events long past away -
and wondering how you all were in Old England. It Would be seven o'C: in
the morning with you and I fancied, you turning out in [a]  cold dark winter's
morning in London. Well! we get on much the same day after day. I believe 22
it is the very monotony of the voyage that makes me grow so fat - I do
assure you I am getting into condition for exhibition at Baker St. at Xmas
if I could only be conveyed, there in time.^l As soon as breakfast is over
we look forward to dinner and when that is disposed of we begin to think
about supper. I cannot say that I find time hanging very heavy. I have a
regular course of employment for each hour and I find that this routine makes
the day fly by quite as quickly as I could wish. Don Quixote is my great
pont d'apais22 when I feel at all ennuye and indeed I spend three hours
everyday in reading and studying Spanish. Then I have turned tailor, and.
with the assistance of the Captn. I am making myself an overcoat out of a
sheet which is afterwards to be soaked, in oil and then to have a coat of
black paint - in this undertaking I find Harriette Sisons* housewife23
invaluable and I pray you to toll her so when you when you [sic]  see or
communicate with her & to reiterate my thanks.
Our card parties continue every evening, indeed the Captn. produces
the cards as a matter of course as soon as the supper things are cleared away.
My fellow passenger's excentricitios are remarkable as ever. He is constantly
(when at cards particularly) spitting on his hands, then rubbing them together as if he were going to "fill put"- he has also a favourite trick of
making a ndse with his mouth as if he was driving horses, and he indulges
in this at every little incident in the game or in conversation. You may
imagine from my mentioning these little absurd items how entirely at a loss
I am for anything of interest connected with this voyage to write to you -
not a sail is moved from day to day - on, on, on we go pursuing the even
tenour of our way over the "weary waters of trackless deep" - a little kingdom to ourselves - in the world and yet apart from it. By the bye we have
had a sort of invasion of our dominions lately - the cabin is getting full
of cockroaches as the weather gets warmer - they swarm in the berths -
crawling over me at night with the utmost assurance - besides these visitors
we have the society of thousands nay millions of evils, little ants from
the rice which is part of the ship's cargo - these don't trouble me much
however. I don't even bother myself to knock them out of the biscuit that
I eat.
Decr. 15th. Long. W. 117? Lat. N. 10°  We.have had some very hot weather
with heavy rains since I last wrote, for two days we were becalmed but now
we have a fine N.E. trade, and are rapidly nearing our destination. Everything goes on in the same monotony on board, and I have not the smallest
incident to tell you. In three weeks we hope to be in San Francisco and then
I trust to get news of you all, and God grant that they may /be]  favourable
as regards your health. & circumstances. For the present I can find nothing
to write more just now.
December 27th. I might just write you.a few lines today, that you may hear
how I passed the first Christmas that I have spent from home, and having
crossed the remainder of this sheet I shall forbear from scribbling to you
any more until I reach California for I find that my letter is already
swollen to a small book, almost rivalling White's "Letter to Lord John
Russel". I will not attempt to conceal from you that Christmas has been
anything but a merry time with us despite my most strenuous endeavours to
shake off dull care, nor had I even the consolation of hoping that you would
21. His is. puzzling. He probably refers to the exhibition
of plump animals and poultry which were exhibited at the Baker St. Bazaar
22. "support"
23. A pocket case for keeping needles, pins, thread, etc. 23
pass a more happy time in Old England, for it would not be otherwise than
that the absence of both your sons2^", as well as that of my dear Sister Emily,
would throw a gloom over this season, to which we wero accustomed to look
forward with anticipations of enjoyment and merry making when we were all at
home together; I trust however that it was managed that you had the happiness of dear Charlotte's and Carry's society to cheer you and talk over our
whereabouts and sing of the absent ones with my favourite song "I wish they
were here" - This day week was the anniversary of the day of Emily's departure to India; it seoms but yesterday that we were all mourning over her withdrawal from the family circle and how little did I then think that the return
of that day in the course of one short year would find us all so scattered
and separated from one another. It is indeed [aj  mercy that the events of
the future are ever hidden from us — We have had plenty of good eating &
drinking during the past week consequent (at least the former) on the death
of a very fine pig, and we did not fail over and over again to drink the
healths of all our absent friends. We have had a calm for six days, not a
breath of wind to stir the sails, whilst I am writing however the sky has
changed its appearance and we are anxiously expecting a breeze, being
heartily tired of our voyage and most anxious to see the worst of California.
I will now wish you good bye until I write from San Francisco, which.I hope
will be the end of next week. In the meantime I have it in contemplation
to commence a letter to dear Charlotte for I expect I shall not have much
time to spare on shore. N. B. to tell me whether you received the note I
sent you from the Downs, for I can find nor mention of it in any of your letters,
Lat. 27°N. Long. 128° W.
As I am in rather a scribbling humour this morning I will amuse myself
in giving you some slight description of Valparaiso and its inhabitants.
It will at least serve to pass away an hour or two agreeably to myself, and
may interest you as my dear brother is likely to spend some time there and
I will endeavour to cheat myself into the happy idea that I am conversing
with, instead of writing to you, my beloved parents.
Approaching Valparaiso from the sea and at the distance of three or <:■
four miles, the appearance of the scenery is by no means inviting -. there is
little or no grass on the hills - absolutely no trees, and in fact so little
vegetation that the whole country appears of reddish brown hue. It is only
when you round the point of Angels and are fairly in the bay, that the
striking beauties of ■this lovely port burst upon the view of the voyager,
rendered more keenly alive to the charms of the scene by a three months
wandering on the pathless ocean where day after day the sea meets the sky
all around, and he at once allows that the name of Valparaiso (vale of
paradise) was well applied. You are at first much deceived in" the size of
Town - as you lay in the Bay the line of houses extends for nearly two miles -
the "Puerto" or business being on the right where the shipping anchor and
on the left or West End the residences of the merchants and others - but as
this part, called the Almendral, is built on a flat formed by the receding
year by year of the sea, you have no idea that it contains 40,000 inhabitants,
when you view it from the sea. Landing on the mole - a wooden pier run out
some 200 ft., you aro at once in the midst of the busiest part of the town.
The custom house fronts you; the offices of the Captain of the Harbour are
on your left and crowded as near as they can get to these are the stores and
merchants' offices - for I must tell you that you are allowed to land or
24\Joseph is under the impression that John has left for Valparaiso. 24
embark only at this mole and everything in the shape ©f business is confined
to this immediate neighbourhood. There are some vory good streets and shops
in Valparaiso - paving is universal in all the main streets - also oil lamps,
and they have introduced lately watering after a fashion - a man rides along
the street (they do everything on horseback here) with a barrel of water
;slung on each side of him with a sort of hose which allows the water to
escape slowly and even this is most acceptable in this frightfully dirty place.
The houses are all built very low and of light materials for fear of earthquakes -they are generally of two stories and in the best families beautifully
furnished. Speaking of earthquakes reminds me to tell you that one occurred
whilst I was in Valparaiso. It took place at 6 o'C: in the morning when I
was in bed and I was' awakened by the motion, but did not feel in the least
alarmed which is I am told always the case with foreigners on first landing
but after experiencing some three or four shocks you become just as terrified as the. rest. I never witnessed such a scene as I did when I went to the
window that morning - everyone had rushed into the streets, most of -them
were on their knees praying, and shrieking for mercy and very many were in
their night clothes as they had jumped out of bed and for the whole of that
day every one- talked of the earthquake. In 1822 nearly the whole of Valparaiso was-destroyed but since that time no injury has been sustained
beyond cracked walls and loosened tiles, but never the less the terror of
the people at the bare mention of "tremble" is beyond expression. I cannot
manage to keep up any regular connection in my notes so I must just write
whatever comes uppermost in my mind as if we wore chatting together. They
have a most efficient police here, and you never see any disturbance in the
street unless it is caused by some drunken sailor either an English or
American for a certainty. Throughout the night they call the hours just as
the old "Charlies"25. used to do & here also they blow a whistle which they
keep answering from one to the other all the night. They make an awful
noise whicn until you get accustomed to it quite spoils one's sleep.
The people however are not the only murderers of sleep - fleas swarm
here and of a monstrous size - "they do indeed graze on the human pretty
freely" as Dickens writes, but you get accustomed to them, and people never
think of trying to catch them - if you kill 100 in a night it is only a drop
from the ocean - like our cockroaches on board, which are so numerous that
the Capt. never even takes the trouble to knock them down When he sees them.
The beds also are awfully hard and pillows almost unknown - they have just a
little hard bolster like a log of wood - of course in the best English houses
things aro somewhat different; still even here the fleas assert their
I cannot speak much as to the society as I had not much opportunity
of forming an opinion - as far as I can judge the Chilenos are much like the
French in-manners and habits- they aro passionately fond, of dancing and party
going and are very agreeable as acquaintances but I believe, very deceitful
& hollow hearted* The Englishmen are in great estimation and if respectable
easily get into .(society but for the most part the clerks are Very wild -
though not so much so as they used to be. There is a great mixture among
them for the most part - they are of the class which we should call snobs in
England but many are quite the contrary and I was so fortunate as to meet
with several who were exceedingly gentlemanly/nice' feUows. It only requires
some little discrimination in choosing your society for though you know" every
one it does not follow that you are to be intimate beyond a nod or a word in
25. London watchmen. 25
The Theatre is generally well attended and as far as I could judge
the performance was pretty good but I could not manage to understand much
of what was said, Cross has a box there and the'' clerks go when ever they
like without paying - this is the case with most of the houses where the
patrons are married men. Like the theatres on the continent the ajrangements
here are much superior to those in London - there is no rushing or scrambling for places; every seat is numbered and you keep your place all the
evening if you choose.
There are no fine Churches in Valparaiso - they are afraid to build them
on account of the earthquakes, above a certain height, but they are much
ornamented internally - the people do not trouble themselves much however
about religion, at least they are only religious as far as it does not interfere with their business or pleasure. You see plenty of padres walking
about the streets - of all colours and denominations - white friars, black
friars & grey friars - then there are Augustin friars and mendicant friars
and a whole host of others - they were all fat jolly looking fellows that I
saw, and I was told that their appearance was no libel to their mode of life
which is loose in the extreme. What rather amused me was the fashion they
have of burying people here at midnight; one night I was at a card party
with several young men and quite merry and full of"laughter &c., when about
•§■ past 11 o'clock one of the party, a Chileno, jumps up with his watch in
hand, "Por Deos", says he "abera necessito ir al Pantheon"2"- and sure enough
off he went to the Pantheon, which is the name of their burying ground, to
attend the funeral of a relation - this will give you some idea what sort
of people they are. It was all Saints' day on the 1st Novr. whilst I was in
Valparaiso - on that day the priests in full dress attend at the Pantheon,
whither go numbers of the people, chiefly women (and these so wrapped up in
their mantillos that it is impossible to. recognise them) to offer money for
masses to be said for the dead and to confess and pray forgiveness of their
own sins. This occurrs chiefly in the early morning - afterwards they start
off for picnics and pleasure parties of all descriptions. Of course Mrs
Cross is a Roman Catholic;so, my dear Mother, I know, will be fretting herself lest she should try to convert John - but of this be assured Mrs Cross
is far too much employed in devising fresh amusements & parties of pleasure
for herself ever to think much of religion;- after breakfast she goes, I
suppose, in the morning to Mass, as mostly is the custom with the women in
Valparaiso, and the rest she loaves to the charge of her patron saint of
whom she has a large painted statue at the end of the passage in her house.
I don't know whether I told you that Sunday is always the great night at
the theatre, but Englishmen I am told cannot even though wild enough in
everything else accustom themselves to this custom so totally repugnant to
all their ideas not only of right and wrong but even of respectability. I
found that it was considered a disgrace for an Englishman to be seen at the
theatre on Sunday evening.
The Clerks have a very fine cricket Club generally mustering two
elevens on each field day and among them some tolerably good players. I
enjoyed two very good games, although I was much out of practice in batting.
There is also here a rowing club, but I never went in their boat, but I
fancy if John still retains the samo passion for pulling as when we were
together members of the C.C.C.^, he will be inclined to join them - and
26, Por deos should be spelled por dios. The sentence he writes is bad
Spanish for "I need to go to tho cemetery".
27. This might refer to an English cricket club - but the exact reference
cannot be identified. 26
the climate is such that with a little care you need not fear any ill effects
from violent exercise, but rather the contrary.
The great misfortune with most of the English in Valparaiso is that they
so soon contract the habits and way of life of the natives and in the course
of a few years become enervated and lazy to a degree. This is entirely from
giving way more and more to the relaxing effects of the climate because some
who always take plenty of exorcise, rising early and taking a good walk each
morning - remain just as strong and active in body and mind after ten years
residence in the country. What pleased me so much here was the universal air
of politeness and what we should call good breeding which pervades all classes;
from the highest to the iowost they are all a well mannered people - a common
person stops you in the street and asks permission to light his cigarette from
the cigar which you are smoking with such a sweeping bow and so much elegance of I
address that you quite feel a pleasure in obliging him. Then again if you enter
a shop, and it happens that a Chileno is negociating some purchase at the counter
seeing you enter, he raises his hat, and makes way for you to be served before
him. This I experienced on various occasions, though I do not mean to say that
they always carry their politeness to this extent, but it is always most striking to a stranger - particularly an Englishman. Smoking is universal in Valparaiso - in the streets - in the Theatre, in tho Counting Rouse - and in the
drawing room - it matters not whore - no place is sacred from tobacco smoke, and
in every room of - every house there are spitoons placed conveniently for visitors:
"Billiards" is a very favourite game, and in every Cafe there are two or more
tables. They play a different game from the English with four balls, sometimes
also they have five pins placed in the centre of the table and each one that you
knock down after striking the other balls counts in your favour. I need not telJ
you that there is an immense deal of gambling carried on here, although I believe
it is contrary to law.., Monte is the great game and is a pure matter of chance, I
(when played fairly) as much as throwing with the dice. At this game of Monte
fortunes are won and lost every day in all tho towns of South America.
And now I-have said all I can think of about Valparaiso, and written I
have no doubt much that will be tiresome to you to read, indeed. I am afraid to
read it through myself for I fear that: there are many repititions and common
place matters that I should wish to erase, however I have written as I said I wd.
just what came uppermost in my head and so let it go in. I shall be glad if 'this
scribbling serves to give you some idea of a place in which it is likely that my |
dear Brother will pass some time, and I can only say in fine that as far as
climate, people, & situation go it is a delightful residence.
/San/ Francisco* January 13th. 1850,
My beloved Parents,
At last I have reached my destination - the object of many months of
weary voyaging is attained but what a consummation! I landed yesterday morning
(Saturday) at 11 o'C: after a passage of ^6  days from Valparaiso. At this early
period after only a day's experience I will not attempt to give you any description of the place, nor do I dare to venture to impart my feelings. My brain is
in a whirl and I can hardly collect my thoughts to write you even a few lines to
give you the earliest information of my safe arrival. Thank God, my health is
good and if it please him to. continue this blessing to me, 1 shall think light
of every other' hardship and deprivation. The steamer for England leaves either
tomorrow or Tuesday and I have therefore taken this opportunity to relieve your 27
anxiety on account of my sea voyage and to acknowledge the receipt of your
dear kind letters but I cannot write you a long letter today. I must defer
any matter of detail until the next steamer. Without preamble I will just
mention categorically such subjects as I think most important for your
knowledge. I find then that the house of Cross Hobson is in great estimation here - every one speaks well of them which I cannot but feel as a
great point in their favour. The two partners here are, Hobson & Hooper, °
both in appearance and manners gentlemen, and as far as I can judge I am
likely to agree with them, but, I have made up my mind to be very cautious
in forming any opinions and I will therefore as I said before defer until
next mail all particulars. I am to have a room to myself which I assure
you is no small luxury here, over their store and close to the site of the
proposed iron house. The subject of salary I have not touched upon yet,
but they talk magniloquently of my making my fortune here &c, &c. I have
not entered on this matter yesterday because Mr. Alex. Cross the head of
the house is expected here in a day or two from England - it is not certain
however if he will come here direct or go first to Valparaiso. I should
prefer broaching the matter with him as it was his brother the engagement
was contracted with. " By the mail as I have said more than once you may
expect my impressions & opinions of this place but I will not attempt to
conceal from you that at present I am quite disheartened - and when in such
a humour I think tho less said the better. So no more of myself now except
that I am quite well and not likely to want for anything that the place
will afford in the way of board. & lodging.
Can you fancy my delight, my rapturous enjoyment in seeing once more
your hand writing, and hearing news of you all. You may form some idea of
my feeli ngs when I tell you I have been guilty of the. lover like folly of
kissing those letters over and over again. They shewed mo that I was not
yet forgotten to those I so dearly love - not so /sorry7 an outcast as I
had brought myself to belief. Thank you a thousand times for the comfort
they afforded, when I most needed it - but I will not venture - I will not
indulge in any further Expressions of dejection. I regret that I have
written these last lines for they ^may_/ serve to distress you without benefiting one beyond the momentary satisfaction of imparting our grief to others -
remember however as I said before that it is the very newness of everything
here which casts that shade which may brighten up as I become habituated.
I believe I must now congratulate my dear Sister on her marriage. I would
that I could say all that now fills my heart on her behalf, but I will
leave it to you to imagine all that the most affectionate brother could conceive of good wishes towards a much loved sister on such an occasion and to
assure her that such are my feelings though just now words are beyond my
command. My dear mother, how I grieve to hear of your hand being so much
affected, those dear soft hands that I have so often fondled - may your next
letters inform me that you have quite regained their use - Oh what a train
of happy hours spent in your society is now passing through my recollection.
How little do we value the blessings we enjoy until we are deprived of them.
I am getting quite unmanned - I sat down to write determined to suppress my
28. See H.H. Bancroft, History of California. He identifies the partners
as Joseph Hobson and William Hooper. Hobson probably came to San Francisco in 1848 and was a native of Maryland. Hooper had apparently come
to the West Coast in 1833 from Boston and had spent the years 1845-1848
at Honolulu.
29. William Cross was the brother with whom Joseph and John contracted. Alex
ander Cross was apparently the senior partner and it is he whom Bancroft
identifies with Cross Hobson and Co. 28
feelings but the pen seems to guide itself to disclose to you some hints of
my anguish of mind at this season, and which /!/ blame myself for as I fully
believe that in- the course of a few weeks I /shall/ be able to write in
better spirits.
I enclose a letter for Holden^O which you are to read and afterward
wafer /&/ post it for him. You may perhaps derive some amusement from it.
Thank my dear brother for his long letter which was a great treat. Give
him my love and say I shall most likely write him an answer by next mail.
I regret much to hear that he has been so shabbily treated by Mr Cross. I
have had my doubts over since I left Valparaiso because I could not see that
there was any opening for a clerk /in7 their house - of this more by and
bye. Ask him to oblige my /German?/ Captain by reporting in the London
Lloyd's list or the Shipping Gazette the arrival at this port on the 12th
Jany. of the Hamburg ship Independence. Anyone will put him in the way to
manage this without cost. I have so many things to say that I could keep
writing all the night but I have a headache as well as a heartache and I
.fancy you will hardly decypher fully the wholo of this budget before you
get ray next for it is indeed lengthy and closely written. I have spent
some of the pleasantest hours of my passage in writing these pages. I fear
it will take you almost as ..many to road them. The newspapers did not reach
me. 1 Shall enquire how this has occurred and let you know the right means
of sending them. Do continue to write me long letters all of you they are
my only comfort; a steamer is now daily expected. How anxiously I anticipate bettor news from you, I have only read these last letters of yours
once I have to read tljem once more again to get everything properly remembered. Do. write long long letters all of you; they are the only bright spot
I can see in my future for .some time to come. Caroline has not sent me a
line nor Charlotte nor Emily. I never neglected them when they were longing
for news from home. Bobby.might have /spared"fj  me an hour from her happiness to cheer my exile. I sh . have thought so much of a letter from her
at a time when she was in the heyday of enjoyment. But never mind perhaps
it is that I am too greedy of all your loves - You will I /am/ sure rightly
understand why I do not write more at length now. I really cannot bring
my mind to it. I. cannot control my feelings today, I think too much to
write. Tomorrow if possible I shall add a few lines to dr. Charlotte -
if I have time & more pluck than today I will say more of myself. Goodbye Goodbye my dear Parents - with fond love from your affect. Son
J. W. Trutch
30. P, M, Holden, a fellow pupil of Trutch,.while both were articled
. t& Sir John Rennie. In 1858 he was minister of St. Paul's Episcopal
•Chapel, Great Portland Street, Mary-le-bone, London.
Charles F. Forbes, a member of the Vancouver Historical Society, is
Assistant Librarian, Sedgewick Library, University of British Columbia, BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Annual Convention, 27th -■ 29th May. 1971 - Victoria, B.C.
NAME (Please print) ,
ADDRESS (Please print)  ,
Registration fee, all participants     - $2.00 $_
"      " attending one day only  - $1.00 $_
Intended participation please check as indicated       YES  NO
THURSDAY, 27th May. Maritime Museum, Bastion Square.
7.30 p.m. Registration; Welcome to delegates by
Cmdr. A. G, Coning; light refreshments.
FRIDAY, 28th May, Newcombe Auditorium, Provincial Museum.
9.00 a.m. Meeting of old Council
9.00 a.m. Registration of delegates.
(Deadline for Luncheon and Banquet tickets - 9.45 a.m.)
10.00 a.m. Annual Meeting
12.30 p.m. Luncheon, Empress Hotel, Crystal     c
Ballroom $3.25      $_
Followed by President's address -'"Lord
Dufferin - Godfather of Confederation"
* 3.00 p.m. Non-conducted tour of Government House grounds
3.30 p.m. Tea at Government House (by invitation only)
5.00 p.m. Meeting of new Council
7.30 p.m. Meet in Newcombe Auditorium; greetings from
Mr Willard Ireland; tours of Museum and Archives.
SATURDAY, 29th May
10.15 a.m. Meet at Vancouver Island Coach Lines Depot
10.30 a.m. Board buses for tour of Fort Rodd Hill
12.30 p.m. Luncheon at Plantation
2.00 p.m. Tour of Royal Roads. Combined tour & lunch
$4.00 $_
4.00 p.m. Return to depot
6.00 p.m. Faculty Club, University of Victoria;
no host refreshments
7.00 p.m. Banquet $4.75
Speaker, Dr Charles Hump hries: "War &
Patriotism: the Lusitania Riot".
NOTE - Advance registrants complete the form and mail together with
payment to Mrs A. D. Turnbull, Chairman,Registration Committee,
36l4 Cadboro Bay Road, Victoria, B.C. (Phone 592-6025)
Please make your own reservations for accommodation,
* All persons wishing to visit Government House must send their names
and addresses to Commander Dixon, Government House, Victoria,
before May 7th.


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