British Columbia History

BC Historical News Jun 30, 1971

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 historical
IMS
JUNE 1971
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©ROCforf   POIr^T BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Vol. 4 No. 4
June, 1971
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by tho secretaries of their
respective societies. Subscription rate to non-members: $3.50 per
year, including postage, directly from the editor, P.A. Yandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver 8, B.C.
Executive
Hon. Patron:
Hon. President:
President:
Past President:
1st Vice-President:
2nd Vice-President:
Sec. & Editor:
Treasurer:
Executive Members:
Lieut.Gov. J.R. Nicholson
Dr Margaret Ormsby
Mr H. R. Brammall
Mrs Mabel E. Jordon
Mr G.T. German
Mrs J. Roff
Mr P. A. Yandle
Mrs H.R. Brammall
Mr F. Street
Mr H. B. Nash
TABLE OF CONTENTS-
Editorial
Page
2
Minutes
Society Notes & Comments
Jottings
B.C. Books of Interest
4
8
11
12
Lord Dufferin - Godfather of Confederation, by H.R. Brammall
14
FRONT COVER The Nine o'clock gun in Stanley Park, Vancouver,
drawn by Vancouver member Robert Genn. EDITORIAL
In lieu of my usual opinions, I am submitting a doggerel account
of the Convention, which some of you may find more interesting than the
usual banal platitudes used in writing an account of the proceedings.
If I have offended anyone please accept my apologies.
THE 1971 CONVENTION AT VICTORIA
'Twas a pleasant evening in May, with Victoria at its best
When the members started to assemble, all full of historical zest;
There was much to-do and chattering, as Registration proceeded
With Mr & Mrs Turnbull making sure each got what he needed.
They strolled around the Museum - it was held in that Maritime place,
And then to the top of the building in that cage of metallic lace.
Commander Coning addressed us, with a few well chosen words,
And the call to tea was answered, like the last of the buffalo herds.
By the time the gulping was over, the evening was definitely shot -
It was back to get some "shut eye", as Council met "9 on the dot".
The morning broke full of promise, and Council met right at nine,
For the Annual Meeting at ten simply had to. start on time.
At ten the faithful' assembled, to be welcomed by the City Mayor;
He was thanked by Robin Beau Brammall, who was also in the "chair".
Everything went off like clockwork; each society gave its report
And to every business matter, the members gave full support.
At twelve the meeting adjourned, for lunch at the Empress was next,
And the gastric juices were flowing when Mr German gave us "the text".
With a rattle and clatter of cutlery, each trencherman showed his skill
Till the last chicken bone was denuded, and each had eaten his fill.
This pleasant feeling of fullness was shattered by a rasping chair;
All eyes were turned to the platform, to see the Pres. standing there.
Oh, 'tis sad to be the President, and have to give a luncheon address
In that sea of blissful faces, and he feeling such distress.
It's one of the penalties of office to have these duties to face
But the President's speech on Dufferin was certainly no disgrace.
There was now a lull in proceedings, for the ladies to reach for a hat;
We're going to have tea at Government HouseJ Now what do you think of that?
The grounds were very enchanting and the cameras were all in high gear
And everyone recounting the pest till you expected ghosts to appear.
Then came the great moment of entry, that all had been waiting for;
The tea was ready and waiting, and the parade was to the front door.
Inside it was elegant splendour, as we leisurely strode through the hall;
Once again the jaws were in motion, answering another refreshment call.
It was on and into the ballroom, as contentment returned to each face,
To sit and relax in wonder, and ponder on who last used this space.
The afternoon now was over, back to realism we started to crawl
To await the coining of evening, and the Archives - our next port of call.
We entered that holy of holies; George Newell was shepherding each flock
By the back door "and please step lively, we must be out by nine o'clock".
On the third floor of the Museum, what a fascinating sight to behold
There's a model town a building, and a scene in the search for gold.
What an exciting revelation, to see what our Museum has planned
Recording this visual history - and the whole thing is simply grandI We scurried off into the raw night, hoping none of us would catch colds,
For to-morrow we have a bus trip, to Fort Rodd and then Royal Roads.
In the light of a blustery morning With everyone wearing their coats
We eventually filled two buses, one for sheep and another for goats.
We headed out of the city, to a site that was once England's glory
To be entertained by a student guide, who had certainly learned his story;
It was climb up here and look in there, then ask another question
And if the guide wasn't sure, there was always a ready suggestion.
There were many amusing incidents, and one by a notable lady
Who thought the private car overflow smacked of something a little shady;
When asked if she favoured Women's Lib, she gave a loud guffaw
And made it plain to all around, that she wasn't burning her braJ
By 12.15 the time had come to move to our next destination
Another gastric attack was due, which was planned for The Plantation.
We clambered back in our buses, and headed for Royal Roads
And in Dunsmuir's days it must have been one of the Canada.'s finest abodes.
It was now a beautiful sunny day, and most of the coats were shed;
What a lovely place to stroll in the sun, without any fear or dread.,
That any moment now a stentorian voice would give an official command
"Get out, get out, you trespassers, you're walking on private land",
We entered that once baronial hall, to the sound of a familiar voice,.
James Nesbitt was giving a brief resume of the things he thought to be choice *
He took us through the main floor rooms and he waxed most enthusiastic
From the window art to the panelled walls, in this age of veneer and plastic,
A major-domo then appeared, and we were guided up to the tower;
We got a panoramic view of land and sea, and a glimpse of my lady's bower.-
It was time to go and leave this peace for the mundane ways of the city,
To tidy up for the Banquet tonight, and the ladies to make themselves pretty.
We started out in leisurely fashion, to get to the U. of Vic.
By the direction that we'd all been given, this seemed quite a simple trick,
We got on the campus ring-road, and couldn't find a single sign;
All we wanted to find was the Faculty Club, for it was there we W6re goin*
At last out of sheer frustration, we drove up a road in despair-,  /to dine
•Twas as if a miracle had happened, for lo and behold, we were there.
What a brilliant array of costumes were worn especially tonight;
Perhaps the liquor had some part in it, it was still a beautiful sight.
We got through the usual preamble, *nd at last we were all in our place;
Then the Pres. asked Father Leeming and we all stood up for his "grace".
When the "silence" of feeding was over, the President rose to his feet
And asked us to drink a toast to the Queen, which we did in water-neat.
He now called on Dr Humphries, who was seated above the salt
And suggested that if he had something to say, he'd best do it now or defa\xlt.
Dr Humphries rose to the occasion, and he can for he's six feet tall,
And started right in on Victoria, for a riot he'd like to recall.
When he'd given all the facts and figures, Col. Andrews said a few words of thanks
Then the Pres. started to call it a day, -when Mr Wellburn decided to break ranks.
He said he was there on that memorable night, and so were others he could name;
The papers had made it headlines, and this made them partly to blame.
So it was on that note it ended; the Convention wow was done.
Come along with us next year in Alberni, and help join in on the fun. MINUTES
Minutes of the Fourth Council Meeting for 1970-71 of the B.C. Historical
Association, held on Friday May 28th. at the Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Present: Mr R. Brammall (Pres.); Mr G. German (2nd V.Pres.); Mrs M.
Jordon (Past.Pres.); Mrs P. Brammall (Treas.); Mr D. New and Mr H.B.
Nash (Exec, members); Mr Ford (Alberni); Mrs Claxwi (Gulf Islands);
Mr F. Street (Burnaby); Mr Hunter (E. Kootenay); Miss E. Johnson (W.
Kootenay); Mrs Bowes (Vancouver); P. Yandle (Sec).
The President called the meeting to order at 9.00 a.m. Moved Mrs
Jordon, seconded Mr German that the minutes of the last Council meeting
be adopted as read. - Carried.
The secretary reported that the essay competition had been ignored
by the universities and junior colleges, and that only two entries had
been received from our own members. He read the reports of the three
judges on the adjudication panel which consisted of Mrs Jordon (East
Kootenay), Mrs Yandle (Vancouver) and Mr George Newell (Victoria). It
was the majority opinion of the panel that in view of the fact that only
two essays had been submitted, and that both contestants had obviously
spent a considerable time on their respective work, the prize money should
be equally divided between them. Each judge had independently of the others
made a written appraisal which was read to Council. It was moved New,
seconded Nash, that the majority opinion of the judges be implemented and
that the prize be equally divided between the two contestants. - Carried.
Mrs P. Brammall gave a report on what she had accomplished on future
sites for conventions. She had received a letter from Mrs Adams of the
Alberni Society agreeing to host the convention in 1972 instead of 1973.
thus assuring the Association of a site for its next convention. She
was hoping to get Vancouver to agree to host the convention in 1973* Mr
Hunter stated that East Kootenay would be quite receptive to a convention
at Fort Steele in the future. The President would not accept a motion
on the 1972 site as he stated the Constitution gave the right to the
Annual General Meeting. The President asked that the correspondence from
the B.C. Museums Association which was inconclusive be tabled for the
time being. - Carried.
The Secretary read a letter from the Creston and District Historical
Association asking for affiliation with the B.C. Historical Association,
and they had enclosed a per capita cheque for $40 with their request. Mr
Hunter said that the East Kootenay Association were aware of the formation
of this new society and that they had bean instrumental in its being formed.
It was moved Mrs Jordon, seconded Nash that this new association be welcomed
into the B.C. Historical Association. - Carried.
The Secretary read a letter he had written to the Hon. Ray WUliston,
which was a continuation of a request that was made a year ago in respect
to the retention of the headwaters of the Tulameen River, and that they be
set aside for a wild life area. The answers had not been what had been
hoped for, but at least the Minister of Lands and Forests is aware that the
situation is being watched and will continue to be so. It was moved New,
seconded Street, that the Council endorse the actions of the Secretary and
the letter to the Hon. R.G. Williston. - Carried. The Secretary, in his capacity as Editor, asked that Council give
consideration to the Association acquiring a fully automatic duplicating
machine to ease the work involved in producing "The News", It was moved
Ford, seconded Hunter, that Council recommend to the Annual General Meeting
that the Editor be empowered to make this purchase. - Carried.
In general discussion, it was recommended that the new Council
consider a revision of the date for future conventions, as they seem to
conflict when held at the end of May.
Moved New, seconded Yandle that meeting adjourn at 10.00 a.m.
Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of the B.C. Historical Association,
held in Victoria May 28th, 1971.
The meeting was called to order by the President at 10.15 a.m. He
then called upon Mr Slocum, Joint Chairman of the Victoria Society Convention Committee to introduce Mayor Courtenay Haddock of Victoria. His
Worship welcomed the members to Victoria and wished the meeting every
success in their deliberations.
The President reconvened the meeting and called for the reading of
the minutes of the last Annual General Meeting held in Nanaimo on May 22nd,
1970. It was moved Mrs O'Reilly, seconded Mr Wellburn that the minutes
be adopted as read. - Carried.
Mrs Brammall gave the Treasurer's report as follows: Total assets
including cash on hand at April 30th, 1970 - $4437.38. Total assets
including cash on hand at April 30th, 1971 - $5203.79. The Treasurer
reported that the Debenture of $3849.60 is with Canada Permanent Trust,
and will be due for renewal next March. "This report leaves us with a
thousand dollars on hand to use and I hope that this Association will see
fit to use it largely in helping Mr Yandle to build up and make a bigger
and better publication which can only benefit us all". It was moved Nash,
seconded Mrs Roff that the report be accepted. - Carried.
The Secretary reported quite a busy year but would not repeat much
of the detail which had appeared, either as minutes or direct information
in the various issues of the News during the year. It was very disappointing that the Universities and Junior Colleges did not enter the essay
competition, and it is a rather sad reflection on our times that a prize
of $200.00 is no longer an inducement to put forth the effort to write
an essay of 5000 words.
A further submission was made to the Hon. R.G. Williston regarding the
Punch Bowl Lake area and the headwaters of the Tulameen River when it was
brought to our attention that the Government was granting two land leases
in the area. We should consider it our business to subscribe to the British
Columbia Gazette since the Government resorts to' such widely read papers
as the Oliver Chronicle for the public advertising of such items. Environmental ecology must be a part of our thinking since the encroachment by
industry and private interests have in the past eliminated much of our vital
history. The B.C. Historical Association is now a member of the American
Association for State and Local History. The value of the affiliation
will depend to what extent we use the services offered to us.
Reporting as Editor, he requested the members to consider the
authorization of the purchase of a fully automatic duplicating machine to
cut down on the physical work involved in producing the News. The News
will probably run to 1000 copies per issue for the coming year, and it was
too much labour to do this manually.
He wished to thank Robert Genn (Vancouver Historical Society) for
his art work in designing the covers for the News, which he has done for
the past three years. These covers have immeasurably improved its appearance. The content of the News must meet with approval as his "fanmail"
is usually a call for more copies. The editorials have been written with
the express purpose of sparking reader reaction, but so far none has been
forthdoming.  In conelusion he asked all secretaries to note that the
deadline for tho News has been put forward to the 10th of the month of issue.
The President sfated that Council had approved in principle the new
duplicating machine and recommended that this Annual General Meeting give
its endorsation. It was moved Wellburn, seconded Atwood that the Editor
purchase the necessary machine as requested. - Carried.
The President reposted on the growth of the Association and gave a
resume on the membership roll which was 454 in 1963 and was now 796 in 1971.
He spoke with regret at the passing of Dr Clifford Carl and stressed
the impact of his work on the Provincial Museum.
The President stated that it was the prerogative of the Annual General
Meeting to choose the site of the next convention. Alberni had written to
Council consenting to host the convention in Port Alberni in 1972. It was
moved Leeming, seconded Street that Port Alberni be the site of the 1972
convention. - Carried.
NEW BUSINESS Mrs O'Reilly asked what could be done to get action and
interest in the preservation of our old houses which were of historic significance. In the discussion Mr H.K. Ralston pointed out that there was
a survey at present being conducted across Canada in this regard. It was
sponsored by the Federal Government and was under the guidance of Professor
Harold Kalman, Fine Arts Department, University of B.C. The question was
raised - "Were these houses being photographed?" Mr D. Scholes said that
they were and that it was colour photography, Mrs Goodman stated that the
Victoria Association has taken a lot of photographs also,
Mr A. Royick of Douglas College asked if it would not be possible
to have the News printed so that pictures could be included. The Editor
stated that in its present form it was something that a man and wife team
could do with their own equipment, .but if this meant that it had to be
jobbed out to printers to meed deadlines etc., it could not be done as a
voluntary production. Mr Royick further asked if the Provincial Government
could not offer a subsidy to cover such a publication. Mr Bowes stated
that we had been through the problems of having Government sponsorship and
had had the unhappy period of the slow death of the Quarterly. We were now
on our own and beholding to no ohe, and for his part was quite happy with
the present state of affairs. Reports were read from the following societies covering the year's
activities since the last convention, by their respective delegates:-
Alberni & District, East Kootenay, Gulf Islands, West Kootenay,
Vancouver, and Victoria. There was representation but no report from
Burnaby and Nanaimo. There was no representation from Golden. (These
reports are noted under Society Notes and Comments during the year. - Ed.)
Mrs Jordon asked that Convention dates be revised and set for two
weeks earlier. The President stated that this would be taken up by the
New Council.
Moved Leeming, seconded Mrs Evans that the meeting adjourn at
12.00 noon. Carried.
Minutes of the First Council Meeting of the 1971-72 season of the
B.C. Historical Association held May 28th 1971 in the Provincial Museum
at 5.15 P.m. - - •- ■
Present: Mr Ford (Alberni); Mr F. Street (Burnaby); Mr New and Mrs
Claxton (Gulf Islands); Mrs Jordon and Mr HUnter (East Kootenay); Mr
Cooling (Nanaimo); Miss E. Johnson (West Kootenay); Mr Brammall, Mrs
Brammall, Mrs Bowes, Mrs Roff and Mr Yandle (Vancouver); Mr Leeming
Mr German, Mr Andrews and Mr Nash (Victoria). .
Mr Brammall called the meeting to order and there was considerable
discussion on the question of society representation. Mr Brammall stated
that the representation was set out in the constitution, and alternate
delegates could not be considered for the Executive. The Constitution
allowed for Treasurer, Secretary and Editor to be elected from delegates
at large.
The election proceeded by Mr New taking the chair. As had been
requested at previous elections, those positions that would be filled by
delegates at large (so that they may have voting privileges for the balance
of the election) were dealt with first.   Sec. and Editor: Mr Yandle;
Treasurer: Mrs P. Brammall; President: Mr R. Brammall; 1st Vice-Pres:
Mr G. German; 2nd Vice-Pres.: Mrs Roff; Executive members: Mr F. Street,
Mr Nash.
Mr Brammall as reelected president opened the business of the new
Council with the matter referred by the Annual General Meeting, namely
revision of dates for the next Convention. After discussion, it was
decided that the next convention in Port Alberni be held on May 11th, 12th
and 13th, but Mr Ford and Mr Yandle were to confer should there be any
reason these dates are not satisfactory to the Alberni Society.
The Secretary reported on a request that he had received from an
artist for sponsorship to obtain a Koerner Foundation grant. His work
takes him all over the province for the purpose of painting historic
houses and writing a history of each such house. It was. moved Leeming,
seconded Cooling that as the person lived in Vancouver, the Council members
in the Vancouver area investigate and act accordingly. - Carried. 8
Mr German agreed to remain as Chairman of the Membership Committee.
He reported on his activities last year and wondered just how far he
should go in sebking affiliations. A number of societies throughout the
province called themselves historical societies, when in effect they were
museum organizations. This was to be left to,, his own judgement, and he
was promised the cooperation of Council to supply any leads that might be
worthy of affiliation.
It was moved Mrs Jordon, seconded Ford that the Treasurer mail the
two contestants in the Essay Competition - Miss E. Norcross, Nanaimo,
and Rev, Cyril Williams, Vancouver, a cheque each for $50.00. - Carried.
Moved New, seconded Leeming that the Editor investigate electric
staplers and if he found one advantageous to his work to go ahead and
purchase same. - Carried.
Moved Ford, seconded Mrs Brammall that meeting adjourn at 6.00 p.m.
Carried.
SOCIETY NOTES AND COMMENTS
ALBERNI ' The 1'970-71 year began most auspiciously when the brief submitted by our Society and supported by many local organizations, resulted
in the announcement that a museum would be Port Alberni's Centennial
project. After an exploratory trip to view other museums, a committee
recommended it be revised to a library-museum complex, which is now in
the planning .stage.
The steady influx of acquisitions having depleted our working area,
the City Council granted us the temporary use of a building. It has
proved invaluable for work involved in editing the memoirs of Mr George
Bird, who came in 1892 to work at B.C.'s first maper mill. Towards this
project we have received our fourth annual grant from the Community Arts
Council, and a Koerner Foundation grant last year.
• The Sproat Lake petroglyphs have formed the nucleus of the Society's
exhibit at the Community Arts Festival currently in progress. Ceramic
pendants and pins, and recently designed hasti-notes carry oui" this theme.
It is most gratifying that the numerous and highly effective civic
efforts of our President, Mrs Adams, were given recognition. She was
proclaimed "Citizen of the Year".
GULF ISLANDS  Our membership remains at about fifty, with an average
attendance of eighteen at meetings on the various islands. The Society's
annual bursary of $100 was awarded to Miss Jean Azak of Canyon City, who,
after a neglected childhood and the bewildering experience of foster homes and
various schools, has arrived at a point where she has proved a help to
other new-comers and, despite academic difficulties, has been accepted
at Capilano College for a general business course.
- During the summer the Society was approached by U.B.C.'s Linguistic
Department for assistance in its effort to record changes in our language usage in the last hundred years. A number, of common objects were described and persons of various ages asked to name them, Mr Nep Grimmer
and Mr Victor Menzies, representing the over-seventy group, made a splendid contribution, turning their thoughts back to their childhood, as they
recorded agricultural terms long obsolete, while Mrs- Norris Amies for the
forty year old group, recorded the current adult vocabulary. Unfortunately
a suitable eighteen year old could not be found, whose contribution should
have rounded out the plan.       ,
At the request of South Pender pioneer...families, the- Parks Board
was approached, asking that a "Point of Interest" sign be placed to mark
the old Indian trail over which their canoes, and later the White Man's
row-boats, were portaged between Bedwell and Browning Harbours. North
Pender pioneers' used this route to shorten the journey to Sidney, hauling
their open boats over on skids to continue under sail if they were lucky,
otherwise by man-power only, some twenty miles or more. A favourable reply
has been received and it is hoped that this marker, the first of its kind
on the Gulf Islands, will shortly be-erected.
CRESTON AND'DISTRICT The Creston and District Historical Association was
created on March 1.4th of the Centennial Year. Members of the East Kootenay Association attended the inaugural meeting on that date and acted in
an advisory capacity. The ruling chief of the Lower Kootenay Band will
be made Honorary President, the present Chief being Christopher Luke.
At the first regular meeting of the society Mr Bert Hobden presented the
'Society with a gavel that he had hand-crafted, from apple-wood procured
from a tree planted at the turn of the century by pioneer Mr Geo. Hockley.
Mr H. Dodd reported on a meeting which he had had with Mr W. Ireland,
Provincial Archivist, during which Mr Ireland gave valuable advice regarding incorporation of the society as well as various activities which might
be carried out.
Future plans include an archive room which will- be provided and
furnished, with the help of the Kiwanis Club, in- the Community Library
Building, in*which all materials will be housed and catalogued. The
Society looks forward in the coming year to holding some public meetings
and niaklhg several field trips to various points of historical interest.
EAST KOOTENAY Prior to the Queen's visit in May, the R.CM.P. had a
work bee and did a lot of cleaning up at the Fort Steele Cemetery, with
assistance from Bob Jeffrey on behalf of the Historical Association.
More work-is- planned on both the Fort Steele and Wild Horse cemeteries.
The Association is also discussing the possibility of members of the
Association, during the busy season, giving information and directions to
visitors at Fort Steele, in a voluntary capacity.
(Ed.: Mrs Candace House, of Glendale, California, author of The Galbraiths
and,the Kootenays, attended the Convention in Victoria last month and
indicated that she intended to visit the East Kootenay Association afterwards.) 10
NANAIMO Mrs F. McGirr addressed the May meeting on the history of Wallace
Street, Nanaimo. As usual, the notice for this meeting included a line
drawing by Mr W. Barraclough, this time a picture of an early business
house on Wallace Street.
The field trip will be held in Ladysmith this year.
WEST KOOTENAY Trail city records, which were due for destruction, have
been shared between the Rossland Museum, Selkirk College, and the West
Kootenay Branch of the Historical Association. Trail's share is at
present in the care of President Edwards in his home.
At the April meeting of the society, Mrs Helen Peachey showed slides
of her trip last summer to England, Switzerland and then to the Passion
Play at Oberammergau.
At the May meeting there was discussion on a letter requesting cooperation, with the National Historic Sites Service, in compiling an
inventory of buildings in British Columbia which were built before 1914.
The Society decided to welcome teams of photographers and architectural
students who would be travelling through the interior during the summer,
and help in any way they could.
A member of the Trail Horsemen's Society requested the Historical
Society's support on the development of trails off the highways for hiking
and horseback riding in southern B.C. This might be linked with the
Historical Society's interest in the old Dewdney Trail continuing through
to Fort Steele. Contacts have been made with the Rrovincial Government and
the May meeting agreed that it should cooperate. \
The speaker at the May meeting was Mr Andrew R. Waldie who reminisced
about his early memories of Nelson and Trail. Newly arrived from Scotland
in 1907 at age 14 he picked up odd jobs on the small fruit farms around
Nelson. After a business course in Belleville, Ontario, he returned to the
district and eventually started office work at the -CM&S plant Tadanac.
He was sent to Kimberly and district in 1914 by CM&S Co., and in 1922,
with his brother, he bought Mr "Daddy" Warren's business in Trail. This
has developed into an insurance and real estate business now known as
Waldie Agencies, ably carried on by his son Allan. Mr Waldie, Sr.
retired in 1965.
VANCOUVER At the Society's meeting in May, Dr Roy Daniells, author of
the recently published "Alexander Mackenzie and the Northwest" gave an
address entitled "A Literary Bloke's View of Alexander Mackenzie".
The Vancouver Society proposes to sponsor in the fall, in cooperation
with Douglas College, New Westminster, a night school course on the
methods involved in researching, writing and publishing local history.
VICTORIA At their January meeting Mr James K. Nesbitt, a well known
Victorian, spoke on his chosen subject "A Look Back at 1871", which focussed
on the few critical years when there was considerable controversy over 11
three questions - Should we remain a Crown Colony? Should we become a
part of the United States? Should we join the Dominion of Canada?
In February, Mr Cecil Clark, following the centennial theme, traced
back over the century the police work of the Province of B.C.
At the Victoria Society's March meeting, Col. G.S. Andrews spoke on
the subject "Joseph Trutch - the First Civilian Surveyor-General of the
Mainland Colony of British Columbia".
At their April meeting Commander A.G. Coning addressed a thrilled
audience on "Commodore Anson's Pacific Voyage, 1740-1744 ".
The May meeting was cancelled to provide more time for the Victoria
Society to host the May 1971 Convention of the B.C. Historical Association,
JOTTINGS
At the Annual General Meeting the question was raised in regard to
the preservation of our old houses. In the April 1971 issue of "Museum
Round-Up" there is an informative article on the subject "The Preservation
of Historic Buildings in British Columbia" by Allen Astles, Dept, of
Geography, University of Victoria.
Another item from the "Museum Round-Up" "While Golden's museum
is still in the planning stage its Historical Society, under High School
teacher, Peter Miller, is building up a substantial trust fund through
various productive fund-raising projects. Last year the small community
held a Walkathon for the Museum that brought in $7000 for starters.
Another source of income is realized from sale of a beautiful series of
information bulletins compiled by C.H. Graham, and printed locally on
slick paper which is 3-hole punched for easy binding"."
From Db R.H. Roy, Dept. of History, University of Victoria:  "I am
not sure if you are aware of a publication recently published by the
University of Victoria. It is the second volume of a bibliography of
British Columbia Your Association might be interestedalso to know
that we have started work on the third and final volume which will cover
the period from 1900 to about 1965« This latest volume is being ;under-
taken by Mr J.C. Lort, formerly Head Librarian of the Victoria Public
Library. The work referred to is entitled "Navigations, Traffiques and
Discoveries 1774-1848", a guide to publications relating to the area now
British Columbia; compiled by Gloria M. Strathern. It is obtainable from
the Social Sciences Research Centre, University of Victoria. Price $18.50.
John Raybould of the Vancouver Historical Society sends a clipping
from the Alberni Valley Times, Monday May 10th, 1971, entitled "90-year-
old Diary found" " A diary covering a period of the 1880's into
the '90's has been found in a home on Service Road and a veritable mine 12
of information has been uncovered. The journal goes back to the year 1882
and presents a scene in which Indians outnumbered white men, travel was on
foot and by Indian canoe and schooners sailed the seas.
Mr and Mrs Dan Cristea have no idea how the papers, the journal and
correspondence, came to be in the house which they bought about six years
ago and have since remodelled. One of their three children found the papers
tucked back under the rafters in a corner.
Beside Mr Cuillod's papers were files of letters and accounts from the
late A.W. Neill's Pioneer Feed Store.
The Guillod letters and diary are of particular interest for the light
they throw on the early contact of the Indians with officialdom.
Mr and Mrs Gerry Wellburn of Duncan are celebrating their Golden
Wedding Anniversary on June 5th, 1971. The News would like to pass on
to them congratulations fromiheir many friends in the B. C. Historical
Association.
B.C. BOOKS CF.INTEREST, compiled by Frances Woodward, Vancouver Hist. Soc.
BREDIN, Thomas, From sea to sea: Alexander Mackenzie. (Canadian pageant
series) Toronto, Longmans, 1970. 117 pp. $3.95.
CLARK, Cecil. Tales of the British Columbia Provincial Police. Sidney,
Gray's Publishing, 1971. 183 pp. $7.50.
COOK BICENTENARY SYMPOSIUM, Australian Academy of Science, 1969. Captain
Cook, navigator and scientist; papers presented at the Cook Bicentenary
Symposium, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, May 1969; edited by
G.M. Badger. Canberra, Australian University Press, 1970. j.43 pp. $5.00
GRAVES, S.H. On the White Pass pay-roll. (Chicago, Lakeside Press, 1908)
New York, Paladin Press, 1970. 258 pp.
GREGS0N, Harry. A history of Victoria, 1842-1970. Victoria, Observer
Publishing, 1970. 246 pp. $10.00.
HULL, Raymond, ed. Tales of a pioneer surveyor Charles Aeneas Shaw;
introduction by Norman Aeneas Shaw. Toronto, Longmans, 1970. 167 pp. $8.95.
MCKENZIE, Sir-Alexander. The journals and letters of Sir Alexander Mackenzie;
edited by W. Kaye Lamb. (Hakluyt Society Extra Series No. 4l) Toronto,
Macmillan, 1970'. 551 pp. $25.00.
MAHOOD, Ian S. The land of Maquinna. Vancouver, Agency Press, 1971. 128,
32 pp. $7.95.
MEADE, Edward. Indian rock carvings on the Pacific Northwest. Sidney, Gray's
Publishing, 1971. 96 pp. $8.00. 13
MIRSKY, Jeanette. The westward crossings: Balboa, Mackenzie, Lewis and
Clark. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1970. 363 pp. $11.00. Reprint.
MOZINO, Jose Mariano. Noticias de Nutka; translated by Iris Wilson.
Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1970. 142 pp. $10.00,
MUNRO.-, John A. The Alaska boundary dispute, (Issues in Canadian history)
Toronto, Copp Clark, 1970. 169 pp. $3.00. *
100 MILE HOUSE FREE PRESS. The story of the settlement and growth of
100 Mile House and District. 100'Mile House, Herald House Publications,
1970. 76 pp. $.25.
ORMSBY, Margaret A, British Columbia: a history. Toronto, Macmillan, 1971.
608 pp. $14.50; $7.95.(paper)
RICHARDSON, David. Pig War Islands. Eastsound, Wash., Orcas Publishing,
1971. 362 ppv $9.52.
ROBERTSON, R.W.W. Stand fast Craigellachie: the building of the transcontinental railway (I867-I885). (Adventures in Canadian History)
Toronto, Burns & MacEachern, 1970. 36 pp. $1.50.
ROGERS, Edward S. Indians of the North Pacific coast. Toronto, Royal
Ontario Museum, 1970. 18 pp. $.50.
R0HNER, Ronald P. and Evelyn C. The Kwakiutl: Indians of British Columbia. (Case studies in Cultural Anthropology) New York,- Montreal,
Holt, Rinehar't and Winston, 1970. Ill pp. $2.50.
R0WE, Percy. The wines of Canada. Toronto, McGraw Hill, 1970. 200 pp. $6.95»
SADLER, James H. The hard way to Goshen. Creston, The Review, 1969. 108 pp.
/$1.50.
SCOTT, R Bruce. "Breakers ahead" on the graveyard of the Pacific.
Sidney, Review Publishing, 1970. 171 pp. $4.25.
SMITH, Dorothy Blakey. James Douglas: father of British Columbia. (Canadian Lives) Toronto, Oxford, 1971. 128 pp. $3.50.
T0MKINS, Doreen Margaret. British Columbia: mountain wonderland; by Doreen
M. Tomkins with George S„ Tomkins and Neville V. Scarfe. (Regional
Studies of Canada) Toronto, Gage, 1970. 39 pp. $1.00.
TRELEAVEN, G. Fern. The Surrey Story, v.2. Surrey, Museum & Historical
Society, 1970. 72 pp. $1.95.
WE.BSTER, Daisy. Growth of the N.D.P. in B.C. 1900-1970. 61 political biographies. Vancouver, N.D.P., 1970. 103 pp. $2.50.
WILSON, Clifford. Campbell of the Yukon. Toronto, Macmillan, 1970.
189 pp. $8.95.
WOODCOCK, George. The Hudson's Bay Company. Toronto, Collier-Macmillan,
1971. 186 pp. $5.95 14
LORD DUFFERIN - GODFATHER OF CONFEDERATION
Text of the British Columbia Historical Association's Luncheon Address
given by the President, Mr H. R. Brammall, on May 28th, 1971.
In this year of 1971, when we are celebrating the 100th anniversary
of our Confederation in the Dominion of Canada, it behooves us to reflect
equally as much on those who helped to maintain Confederation, as on
those who conceived and achieved it.
While one should in no way minimize the vision of the founding
fathers of 1867 and those who cajoled British Columbia into Confederation
in 1871, all too little recognition has been granted those who did so
much to preserve, strengthen, and perpetuate the Canadian nation. As our
Queen mentioned in May of 1971, it was ",,...the beginning of an experiment in federation, that most difficult of all political structures.
That this structure has survived and-flourished for a century is a tribute to the good sense and political maturity of all Canadians",  Lord
Dufferin, the third Governor-General of Canada, was perhaps one of the
last non-Canadians who had any significant role in maintaining the Canadian nation as he did during his administration from 1872 to I878.
But first one should consider his background before Queen Victoria
appointed him as Governor-General in 1872, following which we should go
on to the Canadian political scene of the 1870's and Lord Dufferin's role
in the same.
Frederick Temple Blackwood, the future Lord Dufferin, was born in
1826. His father, Price Blackwood, was a naval man by training, a baronet by birth, and heir to extensive Irish estates, which had been built
up by the Blackwood family over many generations. In sharp contrast to
his father, Dufferin's mother, Helen Sheridan, was a granddaughter of
Richard Brinsley Sheridan and as such was a member of the brilliant
Sheridan literary family. On the ono hand Dufferin received a legacy
of title and material comforts from his father, but it was through his
mother that he inherited the literary and artistic abilities upon which
his future career was built. His respect for his mother bordered on that
of adulation, and throughout the years the two maintained an exceptionally
close relationship and correspondence which lasted until her death in I867.
In her memory he published in 1894 a book of her poems and verses and
even built on his Irish Clandeboye estate a sizeable memorial tower to
her called "Helen's Tower", in which were engraved specially composed
poetical inscriptions by Browning and Tennyson.
Although he was born in Italy, he grew up largely in England with
periodic visits to the family's estate in Ireland. He was educated at
Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he became president of the Oxford
Union.
A liberal in politics, he visited Ireland in 1847 specifically to
see at first hand the ravages of the potato famine and from that time on
he became increasingly involved in Irish questions especially the tenants'
1. The Vancouver Sun. May 12, 1971, p. 10. 15
rights controversy. Despite his obvious interest as a landlord and his
understandable demands for "justice" for the landlords, as a liberal in
politics he showed his sincere concern for the impoverished Irish
tenantry and offered many suggestions concerning and supporting remedial
legislation.
Through his mother's sisters he gained easy entree into London
society, and with his increasing political connections he became a Lord-
in-waiting at Court in 1849. In 18.50 he was appointed an English peer
taking his place in the House of Lords as Baron Clandeboye after his
beloved Irish estate.
An inveterate traveller, in I856 he voyaged on his yacht, the "Foam",
to Iceland (where the "Foam" was given a helpful tow by Prince Napoleon
in his steam yacht) and as far north as Jan Mayen and Spitzbergen. His
published account of this trip in "Letters from High Latitudes" not
only confirmed his literary reputation, but also revealed him as a fearless venturer and indeed a man of the world. In the Sheridan tradition
of lampoon his mother wrote in I863 "Lispings from Low Latitudes, or
Extracts from the Journal of the Honourable Impulsia Gushington".-^
In I858 he travelled extensively with his mother in the Mediterranean
on his yacht the "Erminia", a vessel of 220 tons.
By i860, he was the British representative on a joint French-English
commission in Syria, where his diplomatic skills were proven in the
various negotiations leading to the settlement of the tribal strife in
that area between Christians and Mohammedans.
By 1862 he had married Hariot Hamilton, who is known to us today
chiefly as a result of her "My Canadian Journal, 1872-1878", which was
published in 1.891. In true Victorian fashion they had seven children.
From 1864 to 1866 he was Under-Secretary for India, in 1866 Under-
Secretary for War, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1868 to
1872, and in 1871 was created Earl of Dufferin.
The man who came to Canada in 1872 was therefore a man who moved
in the highest society, was an accomplished- speaker even in French and
Latin, and more than a competent writer. Both amiable and tactful he
had a great talent for diplomacy. He was very much the epitome of the
Victorian gentleman. In our eyes, he and his prose were perhaps gushy
and florid, but one must consider it as a sign of the times rather than
any sign of inherent weakness as it may appear by today's standards.
His subsequent life is not part of our story, suffice it to say that when
he left Canada in 18?8 he was subsequently Ambassador to Russia, Ambassador to Turkey, British Commissioner to Egypt, Viceroy to India, Ambassador to Rome, and Ambassador to Paris. In 1888 he was created Marquess
of Dufferin and Ava, and he died in 1902 at the age of 76.
On Lord Dufferin's arrival in Canada in 1872, Canadian politics
were still dominated by Sir John A. Macdonald. However, the honeymoon
2. Dufferin, Lord. Letters from high latitudes.. London, John Murray, 1858,
3. Mentioned in "Songs, poems, & verses by Helen, Lady Dufferin", London,
John Murray, 1894, page 425. 16
of Confederation was somewhat over and the trials 0and tribulations of
the arranged marriage had set in. Nova Scotia was restive and British
Columbia, with which we aro more concerned, was scarcely less so.
All will remember the fateful Article 11 of the British Columbia
Terms of Union that:
"The Government of the Dominion undertake to secure the commencement '-simultaneously within two years from the date of the Union,
of the construction of a railway from the Pacific towards the
Rocky Mountains, and from such point as may be selected, east of
the Rocky Mountains towards the Pacific, to connect the seaboard
of British Columbia with the railway system of Canada; and further,
to secure the completion of such Railway within ten years from the
date of the Union."^
It is well known that Joseph William Trutch, as a provincial delegate to the Union discussions in Ottawa, had publicly stated that British
Columbia would not be too concerned if the ten year period were exceeded,
and in any event the railway was really the idea of others than the
British Columbia negotiators, who viewed it as so much icing to the
already acceptable terms. In retrospect, the concept of building such
a railway across a largely unmapped continent is staggering to the imagination. But to finance such a railroad and construct it in such a short
time to serve a mere 10,000 white inhabitants on the Pacific seaboard
was nothing short of madness, not only in retrospect to ourselves, but
also to the Liberal parliamentary opposition which fought it-tooth and
nail while in oppisition and dragged their feet on it when they formed
a government from 1874 to 1878. Few, except perhaps the Colonial Office
in London, Sir John A. Macdonald'. and certainly Lord Dufferin, were able
to appreciate and support as an end in itself the grand design of a union
from sea to sea as part of a British Empire encircling the globe. The
Canadian proponents on the one hand, and the British Columbia citizens
on the other hand, tended to look upon it more from what was to be got
from it than from any motive of Empire. The fundamental materialistic
basis of the Union is only too evident when one considers the acceptance
of British Columbia's debts and liabilities by Canada, and the per capita
cash payments to British Columbia with the population of B.C. deliberately
falsified at 60,000 souls.
Sir John A. Macdonald may well have succeeded in his grand undertaking without any difficulty had it not been for the econo. mic decline
in the 1870's. However, the final straw that bro'ke the camel's back was
the untimely disclosures of electoral payments which really were bribery
by railway interests, not to mention the American participation in the
scheme, all of which is known as the Pacific Scandal. It is a sign of
those times that the wrath of the opposition and public was concerned not
so much that there had been huge sums of money paid by the railway
interests at the time of the 1872 election, not so much that the railway
was to be a private undertaking, but rather that Americans were involved
in the matter. Until recent times Canada has perhaps not witnessed such
4. Howay, F.W, "British Columbia; from the earliest times to the
present'.!. Vancouver, S.J. Clarke Pub. Co., 1914. Vol.""II, page 696. 17
a hysterical outburst as that during the Pacific Scandal against American investment and therefore American control.
Master though he was of tactical manoeuvering, Sir John A. Macdonald was unable to avoid the inevitable and was forced to resign in
November of 1873. Lord Dufferin called upon Alexander Mackenzie to form
a government, which was fully supported in the elections of January 1874.
Two years had. passed and it was evident to the people of British
Columbia that the railway was progressing with anything but dispatch.
Although Esquimalt was named as the terminus as a gesture by Macdonald's
Order-in-Council of June 7, 1873, no start had been made from the Pacific
according to the Terms of Union. Mackenzie felt honour-bound to pursue
the railway undertaking as a public enterprise despite his party's
opposition to the railway when it was made a term of Union. However,
the considerable opposition within his own party polarized around Blake
-who manoeuvered Mackenzie into the position of dealing with the railroad question only on the basis that there would be no increase in taxation, which was an obvious impossibility.
Superimposed on all of the foregoing difficulties was the not so
innocent rivalry between Vancouver Island, where the majority of the
population existed, and the Mainland. A mainland terminus would obviously
spell the end of the dominance of the Island. The fact that it would
cost $20 million in Sandford Fleming's opinion to bridge the Straits
(a cost of $2,000 for oach of the 10,000 odd white persons in British
Columbia) did not daunt the demands of the Islanders.
With little tangible developments the Mackenzie administration
sent party stalwart James Edgar to British Columbia early in 1874.
Premier Walkem quarrelled with him and appealed over his head not to
Ottawa but directly to London.
.Both Lord Carnarvon, who was the Colonial Secretary not only prior
to Confederation in j.867 but also from February 1874 to February I878,
and also Lord Dufferin viewed the entry of British Columbia into Confederation as being a T,ri-party arrangement involving the Colonial
Office. Canada most certainly disagreed.. In any event Lord Carnarvon
rightly or wrongly offered to arbitrate in 1874 and his offer was be-
grudgingly accepted. The Carnarvon terms were quite simply as follows:
construction of the Esquimalt-Nanaimo Railway, the pursuit of surveys
for the main line with the utmost vigour, the construction of a transcontinental wagon road and telegraph immediately, and the expenditure
of $2 million a year in the Province of British Columbia on the railway
after location, with the completion of the line to be by December 31st,
1890. These terms were accepted by both Canada and British Columbia.
Edward Blake, who had not been in the Liberal Cabinet at the time
of the acceptance of the Carnarvon terms, severely castigated the terms
as ".... imprudently liberal...." and complained bitterly that it was
not the Colonial Secretary who had to raise the money but the Canadian
government. And from 1874 on it was Blake rather than Prime Minister
Mackenzie who controlled the Liberal Party.
The Esquimalt-Nanaimo Railway was becoming an increasingly sore
point to the Vancouver Islanders to whom it was an integral part of the 18
trans-continental route. To the Mackenzie government the Esquimalt-
Nanaimo railway was to be the price of modification of the Terms of
Union. Exactly why it was promised became increasingly obscure. But
in any event the Esquimalt-Nanaimo Railway Bill failed to pass in the
Senate in 1875 which could not help but appear most sinister' to the
citizens of British Columbia. To compensate, an Order-in-Council of
September 20th, j.875 offered British Columbia $750,000 in lieu of the
Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway.
Finally in January of I8.76 British Columbia rejected outright
Ottawa's overtures of settlement, threatened secession and once again
petitioned London.
The difficulties were further exacerbated in March of 1876, when
a Federal Order-in-Council spoke in almost belligerent terms concerning
the ".... appalling obligations..." of the Federal Government as well as
the necessity of ".... avoiding disaster from a premature announcement
and a reckless prosecution of the Pacific Railway".
The following passage from a letter from Lord Dufferin to Lord
Carnarvon on April 6th, I876 not only sums up Dufferin's view on the
problem but also makes clear that the famous British Columbia tour in
I876 was Dufferin's idea:
"When therefore Canada says to B.C. you must not be too hard upon
us, but allow us to feel our way, and extend our railway pari
passu with the gradual march of population westward, and not drive
us into damaging our credit, or destroying the principal inducement we can hold out to immigrants in the shape of immunity from
taxation, she does not make an unreasonable appeal; - nor is it
one to which I think B.C. herself would have proved deaf, if it
had been kindly and affectionately urged. The force of these considerations are too obvious to be resisted and in their conversations with me the B.C. members have fully recognized them, but
Mackenzie's irritability of temper, and want of largeness and generosity of feeling, has landed us in the present mess.
"The question remains what is to be done. The only thing that I
can suggest that I should go myself this year to British Columbia,
that I should come to a precise and complete understanding with my
Ministers, and obtain from them an authority to re-iterate the
promises they already made last year to B.C. at your instigation.
(That is to say the instigation of Lord Carnarvon.) I have no
doubt that if I were to appear upon the scene, and in my own
person, and with your sanction were to pledge Canada afresh to her
engagements, that B.C. could be satisfied, and that she would
believe me- even though she. has so completely lost faith in the
asseverations of my Ministers."5
In formulating the official announcement of his trip to British
Columbia Dufferin conferred with Mackenzie, Cartwright, the Minister of
Finance, and Edward Blake. Of the meeting he says:
5. "Dufferin Carnarvon Correspondence", Toronto, The Champlain Society,
1955.. page 212. 19
"... I found that all three were possessed of a terror that the
graphic language in which their obligations were dwelt upon and
reiterated, should unduly inflate the expectations of the British
Columbia Govt, (sic), and render the revival of a good understanding
more impossible than ever. Were their intentions as honest as we
could wish them, they would not of course feel so acutely as they
have done, the reminder which has been conveyed to them, but I
fear we are dealing with very loose fish."°
Dufferin's triumphal journey to British Columbia is all too well
known.
Arriving in Victoria he was greeted with the legendary triumphal
arch bearing the words "Our Railroad or Separation" under which he
refused to go unless the 'S* was changed to an 'R* so that it would
read "Our Railroad or Reparation". The foregoing incident more clearly
than any other indicates that Dufferin was hardly a passive Governor-
General but would take a stand in public as well, as private in supporting British Columbia's rights under the Terms of Union.
After an extensive trip up the British Columbia coast with visits to
Nanaimo, Bute Inlet to view the proposed terminus of the railway,
Metlakatla, Port Simpson, the Queen Charlotte Islands, he visited New
Westminster, the Fraser.Valley, the Cornwall Farm at Ashcroft, and
Kamloops, following which he returned to Victoria.
While on his way up the Fraser he dashed off the following to
Lord Carnarvon on September 6th, I876:
"I am now on my way up the Fraser River and' shall not stop until
I reach Kamloops ..... there is nowhere any serious discontent
with Canada, except amongst the inhabitants of Victoria, and
this has solely been generated by their disappointment about the
Nanaimo and Esquimalt Railway.
Now that I am acquainted with the conditions of that part of the
question, I consider Mackenzie most culpable in having offered
to build it.'
The expenditure of a million of money - and it would scarcely
cost less - upon such an enterprise would be absurd. It leads
through a country as barren and as difficult as the most
difficult portion of the Cascade Range. There could never be any
traffic on it for years and years, as Nanaimo is an excellent port,
and the only benefit conferred even upon Victoria itself would be
the brute expenditure of the construction money in its neighbourhood.
As for the rest of the population of British Columbia, there will
tbe no difficulty with them for the present. They will be perfectly
content provided any real progress can be made with the commencement
. of the main line ..."°
6. "Dufferin Carnarvon Correspondence" page 232.
7- Dufferin minimizes the fact that it was Macdonald by the Order-in-
Council of June 7, 1873 which set Esquimalt as the terminus.
8. "Dufferin Carnarvon Correspondence" page 258. , 20
His great British Columbia speech of September 20th, 1876 lasted a
full two and a quarter hours. I commend to you a detailed reading of the
actual speech^ not only for its insight into British Columbia of that
time, but also as a masterpiece of conciliation and. diplomatic persuasion.
On his.return to Ottawa from British Columbia in the fall of I876
Dufferin.was increasingly insistent that the Canadian Government abide
by its obligations. Pierre Berton in his recent book "The National
Dream"1^ mentions an impromptu speech given by Dufferin at the time of
his return from B.C. ati" the railway station in Ottawa, at which time he
went so far as to reflect upon government policy. By adroitly absconding with the only verbatim report of his remarks Dufferin extracted himself from a complete confrontation with his government. However, by
November Dufferin had virtually come to blows with Blake and Mackenzie
and privately criticized them bitterly for their decidedly liberal and
improper interpretation of their various obligations.
Dufferin optimistically suggested that the further difficulties
with regard to the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway might be amicably
arbitrated once again through the auspices of Lord Carnarvon. Mackenzie,
once bitten was twice shy and refused.
There is no doubt that Lord Dufferin felt that the Government of
Canada was derelict in its obligations to British Columbia. His support
of British Columbia behind the scenes culminated in an extraordinary
confrontation between Lord Dufferin and Mackenzie with Dufferin going so
far as to openly criticize the ambiguity of the September 1875 Order-in-
Council offering British Columbia $750,000 in cash in lieu of the Esquimalt
and Nanaimo Railroad, a deliberate ambiguity by which Blake disguised
the fact that the $750,000 was not merely payment for no Esquimalt and
Nanaimo Railway as British Columbia took it to. be, but was for 'further
delays as well.
Writing to Lord Carnarvon on November 23rd, I876, Dufferin had this
to say:
"Last Saturday I had a most disagreeable, and stormy interview with
Blake and the Prime Minister. Not only would they not go beyond
their two last Orders-in-Council of 20th September 1875 and 13th
March I876, but they intimated - and this is the first hint I have
had of such a thing - that they intended the phrase 'delays which may
may occur' to cover all delays however indefinite or posterior to
the commencement of construction. This is pretty much what the
B.C. petition accuses them of doing.
"At this announcement I confessed I completely lost my  temper, and
told them both in very harsh language what I thought of their
principle of interpreting public documents. Mackenzie's aspect
was simply pitiable and Blake was upon the point of crying, as he
very readily does when he is excited."11
9. Leggo, William. The history of the administration of the... Earl of
Dufferin. Montreal, Lovoll Printing and Publishing, 187&. p.455.
10.- Berton* Pierre. The national dream. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart,
1970. page 206.
11, Dufferin Carnarvon correspondence, page 310. 21
Unfortunately, by this time Blake had more or less made his point
that Dufferin was obliged to accept the advice of his ministers.
Although Dufferin's interest in the British Columbia question continued
for the remaining two years of his term, he avoided further clashes
with his ministers. The idea of further mediation by Carnarvon was
quietly dropped and Dufferin did not make an official report.
The upshot of it all was that in December of 1876 Lord Carnarvon
replied to Victoria's petition of January of I876 by suggesting that
the language was "... more severe and exaggerated ... than the circumstances perhaps justified". And Carnarvon went on to point out that
the surveys were being carried but as expeditiously as possible, and
that the question of the terminus required in essence further serious
consideration.
Carnarvon's reply was certainly anything but encouraging to
British Columbia and from that time on both Dufferin and Carnarvon
tended to avoid any direct participation. Both British Columbia and
Dufferin had gone too far.
During the year 1877 much progress was made on the railway. In
October 1877 the locomotive the Countess of Dufferin was delivered to
the Winnipeg area, and the surveys and preparatory studies of course
continued.
In February of I878 Lord Carnarvon resigned. In May I878 Mackenzie rescinded the Order-in-Council of June 7th, 1873 which had
designated Esquimalt as the terminus of the trans-continental railway.
In August of 1878 came the renowned B.C. Secession resolution requiring compliance with the Carnarvon terms and a start of construction by
May of 1879 failing-which British Columbia would secede.
The Mackenzie administration was defeated in the election of September 17th, I878 and Sir John A. Macdonald was sworn in once again as
Prime Minister on October 17th, I878 - two days before Lord Dufferin
left at the end of his term.
In view of the foregoing is it true that Dufferin was a Godfather
to British Columbia in the Canadian Confederation?
To be sure Dufferin left his mark in many small ways. In Canada
there are innumerable Dufferin this's and that's: the more well known
of which are of course Dufferin Terrace by tho Chateau Frontenac Hotel
in Quebec, Thomas Dufferin Pattullo, and of course last but not least,
the new District Municipality of Dufferin outside Kamloops, ..incorporated
in May of 1971. (There was even Frederick Temple Cornwall, apparently
the son of the Ashcroft Cornwalls, christened at Christ Church in
Victoria on the 20th of September I876 and named in honour of Dufferin,
Frederick Temple Blackwood.)•
In the scheme of things, the foregoing are perhaps of minimal
interest. On the grander-scale, Dufferin was very clearly a friend of
British Columbia in Ottawa, he supported the contractual rights of
British Columbia under the Terms of Union to the point where Mackenzie
asked him at the time of their row in November of I876 whether or not
he would prefer to choose another Prime Minister. Further pushing 22
Lord Dufferin could not do. Believing fervently in a Dominion from sea
to sea, he supported the Canadian identity throughout the critical depression of the early 1870's and during the absence of a strong leader
from the scene. The Liberal regime under Mackenzie was anything but
effectual up to about 1875 or I876 and from that time on until the
defeat of the Liberal Government in I878 the party was really torn by
internal factions and run by Blake rather than Prime Minister Mackenzie.
In no small-measure Dufferin reconciled tho British Columbians not
only through his connection with the Carnarvon terms.In 1874, but as a
direct result of his conciliation during his,trip to B,.C in I876. In
short, he helped to bridge the critical hiatus of effective leadership
during the Liberal administration from 1874 to I878. Had Dufferin not
taken upon himself improperly to intervene, as he unquestionably had no
business in doing as a Governor-General with a parliamentary government,
the history of British Columbia may well have been decidedly different.
And it is with this in mind that we should consider Lord Dufferin as a
Godfather of British Colombia within the Canadian Confederation.
BIBLIOGRAPHY - General Works
BERTON, Pierre. The great railway, 1871-1881. The national dreary. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1970. 439 PP.
Farr, David M.L. The Colonial Office and Canada, 1867-1887. Toronto,
University of Toronto Press, 1955.
Howay, F.W. British Columbia from the early times to the present. Vol.. II.
Vancouver, S.J. Clarke Pub. Co., 1914. 72? pp.
Myers, Gustavus. History of Canadian wealth. Vol. I. Chicago, Charles H.
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H. R. Brammall
LLB., Docteur de l'Universite
de Paris.

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