British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical News 1984

Item Metadata


JSON: bch-1.0190504.json
JSON-LD: bch-1.0190504-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bch-1.0190504-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bch-1.0190504-rdf.json
Turtle: bch-1.0190504-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bch-1.0190504-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bch-1.0190504-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

 May 24th. Wayne Island, 1913
mmmmmm On the cover ..
The white handkerchief drops, and they're off! Amateur photographer John Aitken caught the
intensity, determination ... and cheating... of a May 24th egg and spoon race at Mayne Island in 1913.
(Photo courtesy Anna DeRousie)
...Story starts on page six
Member societies and their secretaries are responsible for seeing that the correct addresses
for their society and for its member subscribers are up-to-date. Please send changes to both
the treasurer and the editor whose addresses are at the bottom of the next page. The Annual
Report as at October 31 should show a telephone number for contact.
Member dues for the year 1982-83 (Volume 16) were paid by the following member
Alberni District Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M7
Atlin Historical Society, P.O. Box 111, Atlin, B.C. VOW 1A0
BCHA — Gulf Islands Branch, c/o P.O. Box 35, Saturna Island, B.C. VON 2Y0
BCHA — Victoria Branch, c/o Margaret Bell, 1187 Hampshire, Victoria. B.C. V8S 4T1
Burnaby Historical Society, c/o 5406 Manor St., Burnaby, B.C. V5G 1B7 ;
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, P.O. Box 172, Chemainus, B.C. VOR 1K0 '
Cowichan Historical Society, P.O. Box 1014, Duncan, B.C. V9L 3Y2
Creston & District Historical & Museum Society, P.O. Box 1123, Creston, B.C. VOB 1G0
District 69 Historical Society, P.O. Box 213, Parksville, B.C. VOR 2S0-
East Kootenay Historical Association, c/o H. Mayberry, 216 6th Avenue S.,
Cranbrook, B.C. V1C 2H6
Golden & District Historical Society, Box 992, Golden, B.C. VOA 1H0
Hedley Arts and Crafts Society (1982),P.O. Box 218, Hedley, B.C. VOX 1K0
Ladysmith New Horizons Historical Society, c/o Mrs. V. Cull, R.R. #2,
Ladysmith, B.C. VOR 2E0
Lantzville Historical Society, c/o Susan Crayston, Box 76, Lantzville, B.C. VOR 2H0
Nanaimo Historical Society, P.O. Box 933, Station "A", Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
Nanooa Historical & Museum Society, R.R. #1, Box 5, Kinghorn Rd., Nanoose Bay, B.C.f VOR 2R0
Nootka Sound Historical Society, Box 748, Gold River, B.C. VOP 1G0
North Shore Historical Society, c/o Robert W. Brown, 2327 Kilmarnock Crescent,
North Vancouver, B.C. V7J 2Z3
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum and Archives, Box 21, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
Qualicum Beach Historical & Museum Society, c/o A.C. Killip, R.R #1  Site 142 C-19
Qualicum Beach, B.C. VOR 2T0
Saltspring Island Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Olive Clayton, R.R. #3, Comp. 4, Scott Pt #1
Ganges, B.C. VOS 1E0 '
Sidney & North Saanich Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Ray Joy, 10719 Bayfield Road, R.R. #3,
Sidney, B.C. V8L 3P6
Trail Historical Society, P.O. Box 405, Trail, B.C. V1R 4L7
Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 3071, Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3X6
West Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 91785, West Vancouver, B.C. V7V 4S1
Windermere District Historical Society, Box 784, Invermere, B.C. VOA 1K0
Affiliated Groups
City of White Rock Museum Archives Society, 1030 Martin St., White Rock, B.C. V4B 5E3
The Hallmark Society, 207 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 2K8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Winners of Writing Competition 1983     4
Writing Competition     5
A Message from the President  5
John Aitken, Amateur Photographer     7
by Marie Elliott
The Hartley Road    11
by Kay (Hartley) Piersdorff
BCHF Annual Convention     17
Discovery: Prisons' Regulations Act     19
Dr. Dorothy Blakey Smith   20
by Frances Gundry
Early Memories of Vancouver     21
by Dorothy Blakey Smith
Bibliography     23
News and Notes
Reports from the Branches  25
From the Treasurer     26
Museums and Archives   27
Research  27
News from the British Columbia Heritage Trust  28
Bookshelf   29
New Members     30
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E,
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5. Our Charitable Donations number is 0404681-52-27. Printed by Prestige Printers, Victoria,
Manuscripts and correspondence for the editor are to be addressed to 1745 Taylor St., Victoria, B.C. V8R3E8. Send all
other correspondence, including changes of address, to the Vancouver address given above.
Subscriptions: Institutional $16.00 per year; Individual (non-members) $8.00 per year.
The B.C. Historical Federation gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance of the British Columbia Heritage
Trust. From the Editor
A wealth of historical information is stored
away in old photograph albums, and musty
boxes of negatives—perhaps even on glass plates
that have survived intact for almost a century.
This issue contains just one example of the
amateur photographer's art at the turn of the
century. Do you know of any more?
If you have a photograph collection that
illustrates some important aspect of British
Columbia history,please consider sharing it with
our readers. Photographic stories are eligible for
the writing contest.
— Marie Elliott
Deadline for submissions for the next issue of the
Historical News is June 1, 1984. Please double
space. Mail to the Editor, B.C. Historical News,
1745 Taylor Street, Victoria, B.C. V8R3E8.
The British Columbia Historical Federation
wishes to acknowledge and encourage writers
who are recording any facet of history within our
province. The first annual writing competition
brought in a variety of articles and nineteen
entries in the book category. Overall the quality
of submissions was very high. The books submitted will be on display at the convention in
Vernon, and will be listed in the next issue of this
Honorable mention was awarded to Mr. J.B.
Glanville and his publications committee for the
Boundary Historical Society—9th Report, and to
John Adams of Victoria for Historic Guide to Ross
Bay Cemetery.
The winner of the 1983 competition is Mrs.
Daphne Sleigh of Deroche, for Discovering
Deroche: from Nicomen to Lake Errock.
The best article award was given to Shirlee
Smith Matheson for "Learning Our Legends
Through the Hudson's Hope Museum".
Our congratulations to these writers, and a
thank you to all who participated. We hope to
make formal presentations to each of the
winners at the banquet at the British Columbia
Historical Federation Convention in Vernon, on
Saturday, May 5,1984.
—Naomi Miller
I wish to subscribe to B.C. Historical News. I enclose a cheque or money order payable to the
B.C. Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E, Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5.    .
Individual   Four issues for $8.00 ( )
Institutional     Four issues for $16.00 ( )
Postal Code
Page 4 Writing Competition
The British Columbia Historical Federation
invites submissions of books or articles for the
second annual competition for writers of British
Columbia history.
Any book with historical context published
in 1984 is eligible. Whether the work was
prepared as a thesis, or a community project, for
an industry, or an organization, or just for the
pleasure of sharing a pioneer's reminiscences, it
is considered history as long as names, locations,
and dates are included. Stories told in the
vernacular are acceptable when indicated as
quotations of a story teller. Please include the
selling price of the book, and an address from
where it may be purchased.
Submit your book with your name, address,
and telephone number to:
British Columbia Historical Federation
c/o Mrs. Naomi Miller
Box 105,
Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Book contest deadline is January 31, 1985.
There will also be a prize for the writer
submitting the best historical article published in
the British Columbia Historical News quarterly
magazine. Articles are to be submitted directly
The Editor,
British Columbia Historical News,
1745 Taylor Street,
Victoria, B.C. V8R 3E8
Written length should be no more than 2,000 to
3,000 words, substantiated with footnotes if
possible, and accompanied by photographs if
available. Deadlines for the quarterly issues are
September 1, December 1, March 1, and June 1.
A Message
the President
It hardly seems possible we are looking
forward to the end of our first year as a federation. It has been a very busy year for the members
of the executive, what with the new constitution
and other rules and regulations.
I would like to thank my executive for a year
of accomplishment, and my committees for
carrying out their duties so diligently. A very
special thanks to Dr. Pat Roy for the time and
expertise she has given to our past editor
Maureen Cassidy, and our present editor, Marie
Elliott. It is the devotion of people like Dr. Roy
which makes a project of this nature successful.
The report from our convention centre this
year in Vernon sounds very exciting. I do hope
you will all be able to attend and take advantage
of the opportunity to learn a little of the history of
this area, and the part it played in the development of the history of British Columbia.
See you in Vernon the first week in May.
Barbara Stannard
Page 5 Bound for Vladivostock with
railroad equipment, the Kenkon
Maru #3 was holed on Belle Chain
Reef during a severe snow storm in
January 1916. Termed one of the
worst wrecks ever hauled out at
the Esquimalt drydock, Japanese
salvage experts worked for six
months before the ship was
refloated. The salvage tug Do/a
from Vancouver Dredging and
Salvaging Company, is standing by
while one of four attempts is made
to refloat the vessel.
At the beginning of the fishing
season, steam tugs brought flotillas
of Indian sailboats and canoes from
the West Coast of Vancouver Island
to the Fraser River. From "the
Bluffs" on Galiano Island, John
framed the Squid and her tow
entering Active Pass, ca. 1905.
Page 6 Marie Elliott
The amateur photographer has played an
important part in documenting British Columbia
history. In rural areas, especially, beginning at
the turn of the century, he or she recorded social
history that eluded professional photographers
in the cities. By 1900 new techniques made the
camera a popular acquisition for the novice. A
"dry plate" process had replaced the difficult
"wet plate" process of earlier years for glass
plates, and negative film had been introduced
which would soon make the plates obsolete.
Often employing second-hand equipment, and
with makeshift darkrooms, these self-taught
photographers managed to produce excellent
camera work. In many cases their photographs
are the only evidence we have of a building or
major event of the time.
Whether capturing the annual migration of
Indian fishing families to the Fraser River, the
intensity of an egg and spoon race (see cover), or
two proud young Japanese families, John
Aitken's photographs are a prime example of the
contribution amateur photographers have made
to the visual history of British Columbia, John
arrived in Victoria as a young lad of twelve from
Scotland in the late 1880s. One of his first jobs
was as a milkman's helper, ladling milk from a
can into housewive's pitchers, but by the late
1890s he had married, and purchased his camera,
probably a second-hand model. It was a large,
clumsy contraption, his daughter Anna De
Rousie remembers, with storage sections for
glass negatives, a tripod, and the traditional black
cloth. In 1898 John took his camera with him to
the Klondike, lugging it over the Chilkoot Pass.
At the end of the season he returned to Victoria
with a permanent record of his adventures, and
two gold nuggets for his first-born daughter.
John Aitken!, bound for the Klondike in 1898.
Page 7 John Aitken proudly
photographed his first home on
Mayne Island, which was an
essential part of any rural
community, the grocery store.
Shortly thereafter, the Aitken family moved
to the Gulf Islands. They lived on Moresby, then
Galiano, and finally Mayne Island. The photographs that John continued to take as a hobby for
the next twenty years represent one of the finest
visuai accounts we have of social events in the
Gulf Islands between 1900 and 1920. Anna
remembers her father being very fussy over
details, even when arranging a casual picnic
gathering for the camera. The pictures shown
here confirm that he had a sharp eye for
composition and lighting, and excellent timing
in capturing the "right moment". A keen
historical sense is displayed also in the photographs of the Egeria at anchor in Miners Bay, and
the Kenkon Maru #3 on Belle Chain Reef, which
were once-in-a-lifetime events.
John's first home on Mayne Island, the
Mayne Island Store, built ca. 1900, and purchased from Eustace Maude in 1909, is still used
as a private residence. It is one of the few
buildings remaining that he skillfully recorded
for posterity.
The author wishes to thank:
Anna DeRousie, John Aitken's daughter, for
generously permitting the use of her father's
David Mattison, archivist with Sound and
Moving Images Division, Provincial Archives, for
his professional advice. David is preparing a
directory of photographers in British Columbia
prior to 1900.
Robert Spearing, Department of Education,
Victoria, for his expert knowledge of West Coast
marine history that he is currently researching.
Page 8 Riding majestically at anchor in
Miners Bay, the survey ship
HMS Egeria was photographed
in 1904. Built in 1873, the ship
served on the China Station,
and came to Esquimalt in 1898.
The 940 ton, 4-gun screw sloop
was scuttled at North
Vancouver in 1913.
Designed by architects Soule
and Day of Victoria in 1892, to
emulate an old English inn, the
Point Comfort Hotel offered
thirty bedrooms and "all the
pleasures of the bar" to local
residents and middle class
vacationers from the mainland at
the turn of the century. The
building reverted to a private
residence in 1910, and was
demolished in 1958.
Page 9 Yuso Adachi and Kataro
Kadonaga, and their families in
1915. The Japanese residents
formed one-third of the
population on Mayne Island by
1940. Their relocation in 1942
was a great loss, socially and
economically, to the
Victoria Day celebrations, May
24th, began early in the
settlement history of British
Columbia. While the day had
patriotic overtones, it was also a
major social gathering in rural
communities after a long winter,
and spring planting was done.
Mothers pored over catalogues
well in advance to ensure that
their families would be dressed
in their very best. ca. 1913
Page 10 Kay (Hartley) Piersdorff
The Hartley Road, which was named after my
father, George Williamson Hartley, runs from the
Trans-Canada Highway at Moberly, up the hill
toward Moberly Mountain. It crosses the Upper
Donald Road, which my father also had a hand in
building, and leads to the land that was the Hartley
homestead from 1912 until about 1930, when the
land was sold for taxes. Moberly is approximately
six miles west of Golden, in British Columbia.
I have been able to piece together the story of
that time when the Hartleys lived at Moberly, and
the Hartley Road was built. It is a story of hardship,
of courage, and often of despair; and it is a story of
a gentle man and an indomitable woman who
succeeded better than they ever knew.
George Williamson Hartley was born in Butler
County, Ohio, in 1878. He was the fifth child in a
family of ten. He had planned to become an
electrical engineer, and had completed the first
year of his University training when two things
happened to change both his plans and his life.
His father died, leaving no money for University,
and he himself caught typhoid fever. After he
recovered, he realized that the dream of being an
electrical engineer had to be abandoned. He
made the decision to train for the Ministry, since
he had always maintained close ties with his
church. He took his theological training at
Dayton, Ohio, but he was not ordained at the time
of his graduation. In those early days, the
prospective minister was ordained when a
congregation called him. Apparently there were
no openings at that time.
My father got a job with the Y.M.C.A.; his task
was to go to cities and towns where there was not
yet a Y.M.C.A. to help build one.
George Hartley married Daisy (Jane) May
O'Bannon in 1902, and from then on, he moved
his family yearly. David was born in Mattoon,
Illinois, in 1903. George Jr. was born in Danville,
Illinois in 1904, and James was born in Pontiac,
Illinois in 1906.
Then, once again back in Mattoon, George and
Daisy were given the choice between going to
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, or out to Washington
State, for the Y.M.C.A. The choice was left to
Daisy. Because she did not know anything about
either place, and New Glasgow was closer to
home, she chose New Glasgow. And thus the
Hartleys came to Canada in the spring of 1909.
While George worked sixteen hours a day to
establish a Y.M.C.A. in New Glasgow, Daisy kept
busy with her children, and added to the family.
Margaret was born that fall in New Glasgow.
To Field
In the spring of 1911, the Home Mission
Superintendent for the Presbyterian Church came
to New Glasgow. He was seeking a man to go West
where "Men were men, and needed to be
saved ", as he put it. He decided my father was the
right man for the job.
The man who was to go forth and save Western
souls had to be an ordained Minister. The
Presbytery of New Glasgow got busy and admitted
my father as a Licentiate of the Presbyterian
church. He was ordained on July 4th, 1911.
John was born two weeks later. When he was
just three weeks old, my father took his family
back to Mattoon to stay with his mother until he
could send for them. He went on to Winnipeg,
expecting to meet the Home Superintendent
there. To his dismay, he found the Superintendent
had left on a lengthy visit out West Father had to
find his own way out to Field, B.C. where his
mission was to begin.
In October of 1911, mother and her five
children, ranging in age from three months to
eight years, left to go to Field. They were
accompanied by her widowed father, George
O'Bannon, who came along to help her with the
young children. From Winnipeg, they travelled in
a Colonist car, with wooden slat-seats and a big
stove at one end of the car.
Page 11 During the train journey west, one of the
children picked up scarlet fever. When they
arrived in Field, they were placed in quarantine.
My father had found a house for them; it was little
more than a shell held together with wallpaper,
and for twelve very long weeks, over the
Christmas season as well, the family stayed isolated
in that small house.
Father had a mission to perform, so he stayed in
a small shack nearby and brought mother the
food and fuel that she needed, handing it all
through the window. Milk and bread came from
Calgary, and like fuel, were very expensive.
That was a dreadful winter, and one from which
my mother did not readily recover. During the
time that she was confined to the house, nursing
her sick children and almost losing young George
in the battle, father learned of land near Golden,
in the Forest Land Reserve, that was being thrown
open for settlers. Father and grandfather
O'Bannon decided to go and get some of the
To Moberly
On the advice of a family named Bergenham,
who had lived in the district since 1897,
Grandfather O'Bannon took out land at the upper
end of a wood-cutting road, at Moberly. The land
was taken in his name at the time because he was
able to stay on it and prove it out, while father had
to return to Field. Grandfather, who was a
carpenter by trade, set up a tent with a small stove
in it, took out his tools, and set to work to build the
nucleus of the home that was to shelter the
Hartley family. He chopped down slim firs to use
as supports, and with the lumber that had been
sent up from Golden, he made an eighteen by
twenty room, with a single-slope roof. The floor
was still a dirt one when the family came from
Field in May, and there was still snow on the
Father was given the charge of a Presbyterian
Church as Nakusp, along with several other small
places on the Arrow Lakes, including Brouse, so
he was often away from home. Mother and
Grandfather cleared the brush around the stumps
left when the land was logged out. Some of the
stumps, especially the cedar ones, were four feet
across, and presented quite a problem in
preparing enough land for a decent sized garden.
Grandfather laid the floor for the big room he
had built, which was later to become the kitchen.
The floor was essential, because mother had
brought with her from Illinois the heavy oak chairs
and sideboard that her father had made as a
wedding gift.
At New Glasgow, N.S., October 1908
At first, until a viable well could be dug, water
was obtained from Andrew Erickson's spring, a
quarter of a mile away. While there was a creek
just above the house, it was too small for such a
large family. That first summer, two four-gallon
kerosene cans on a shoulder yoke was the way
mother and grandfather got the water from Mr.
Erikson's spring.
There were several large flat rocks up the creek
from the house, and this became mother's
laundry room for the summer. She took her
copper boiler, her wash tubs and washboard, her
soap that she had made herself, and her family's
clothes up to the rocks. She made a ring of rocks
on one of the big flat ones, and lit her fire to heat
the water in the boiler. She set up a small tent for
herself, and after she had done the wash, she slept
at night in the tent, to keep an eye on both the fire
and the clothes that she had strung out on lines
between the trees.
Page 12 Perhaps she welcomed the opportunity to get
away for a while from the many demands that
were made on her. She knew she could count on
grandfather to take good care of the children.
That summer, mother's sister, Ethel O'Bannon,
sent her young ward out to the homestead. Ethel
was teaching school in Kenora, Ontario. One of
her pupils was a young Indian boy named Robert
Laurenson. When he was studdenly orphaned,
Ethel adopted him. By the time he had reached
the age of thirteen, he was too much for Ethel to
cope with, and she felt he needed the regular
family life. She sent him out to mother. Her wire
saying he was on his way never got past Golden,
and when the young thirteen-year old got off the
train at Moberly, there was no one to meet him.
He was a frightened boy until he found someone
to tell him how to get to the homestead.
Once there, he quickly became one of the
family. He taught David and George how to make
and use bows and arrows, and he knew how to
handle a gun. In those days, the gun was part of
every family's possessions. There were bears to
frighten away, and rabbits to shoot for the table.
To Nakusp
Before winter set in, the family moved to
Nakusp. Grandfather O'Bannon and Bobby
stayed at the homestead, to finish the house
before the family returned in the spring. They had
only grandfather's Civil War pension to live on,
and they almost starved that winter. Ethel came
out, stayed with them a short while, and then went
to Nakusp where she obtained work and sent her
salary back to the homestead.
The house in Nakusp was much better than the
one in Field. Though the HaTJey family were >
crowded, they were comfortable and warm. They
made an extra bedroom for the boys by closing in
the porch with screening and canvas.
Father acquired a boat and added a motor to it,
and he went up and down the Lakes to his charges
on Sunday. Mother led the Young People's
Society in the church at Nakusp on Sunday
afternoon, and had the church all cleaned and
ready for father to take the service Sunday night.
As was customary in those early days where
there were no fast-food places and few
restaurants, people who came in on the noon
boat, which mother called the Minto, came to the
minister's house for the noon meal. Mother had
to find the extra food for the unexpected guests as
well as for her large family. She never seemed to
get the grocery bills paid off, but she was an expert
in stretching a couple of chickens and a potato or
two a long way.
Most of the clothing for herself and her
children came from the 'Missionary Boxes' that
were sent to the minister's family by the church.
Luckily, mother was handy with a needle, and had
an old treadle machine as well. She seldom
needed a pattern. Before her marriage she had
worked in a clothing factory in Mattoon, where
she had done piece work. The clothes were
'hand-me-downs' though, and one of my sister's
earliest memories are of dresses and skirts made
from the clothes in the Missionary Boxes. Her
dearest wish was to have something brand new
and all her own.
The congregations at Nakusp and down the
Lakes were happy ones. Mother's memories of
those days at Nakusp were far happier than any
since she had left New Glasgow.
In the spring of 1913, the family moved back to
the homestead. Father decided that the work of
clearing the land was not going quickly enough,
mainly because there was not enough money for
dynamite to move the big stumps. The only
solution was a loan from the Land Settlement
Board. Once the stumps were gone, mother and
grandfather and Bobby were able to get a fairly big
garden in.
Grandfather had built a barn, and had added
the lean-to onto the house. They put in the root
cellar in the sandy soil to hold their vegetables for
the winter; they got a cow, another horse and
some chickens; they put in a strawberry patch;
and they settled in.
Father took out a claim on the piece of land
above that of Grandfather O'Bannon's, put up a
tent with a small cookstove, and stayed there to
prove out his land that summer. He was privately
admitting that being dependent on the Home
Mission Field to clothe and feed his family was not
the best way to go. For a while, although he could
not abandon his ministry, he took on other jobs
and interests.
The people in the Moberly area felt that they
were badly in need of a school. Ethel was teaching
my brothers and Bobby at home, but a school was
in order if enough children could be found to
make the provincial government agree to finance
the building of the school. The number of
children in the district exceeded the number
required, so the money came to start building the
road to where the school was to be built.
Father 'straw-bossed' the building of the road,
through our land. The road was later to become
the Upper Donald Road. He also worked as
secretary for the local Farmer's organization, and
helped to set up a Creamery in Golden.
Page 13 On June 18th, 1913, he became a naturalized
Canadian citizen in the Court of the East
Kootenays. His witness for that ceremony was CR.
Parsons, of Golden.
That summer, mother thought she should do
something to bring in money as well. She went to
Calgary and took a seven-week course in
demonstrating and selling a product called
Mapleine. Mapleine is a maple-flavoured extract
that is in use to this day. Mother was to be paid
twenty-five dollars a month, plus her railway fare,
to go on the C.P.R. to various towns and
demonstrate the product in British Columbia.
When the course was over, she was allowed to
work her way home from Calgary, going on to
Revelstoke before she finally got back to the
homestead. She reached Golden at noon, and
decided to stop over at the homestead for one
night before going to Revelstoke.
She left her trunk at Golden, took her kimono
wrapped in a newspaper with her, and set off for
home. The new road had been built while she was
gone, and it confused her. She got lost. She
eventually found that she was on a wood-cutting
road that seemed to be leading around Moberly
Somewhere along the way she had taken off the
jacket to her new navy blue suit that she had made
especially for the new job. And somewhere along
the way she had lost it. By sundown, she knew that
she was well and truly lost. As darkness fell, she
curled up in a hollow, and with her kimono and
newspaper over her, she spent a fitful night.
She was up with the dawn, and she hitched her
hobble skirt up around her knees, took a sighting
on the Selkirks across the river, and set out. She
finally found her way home. She got there twenty-
four hours after she had left Golden. That
evening she and father took the horses and tried
to retrace her steps, hoping to find her suit
jacket. They were not successful. Mother took
the midnight train to Revelstoke to demonstrate
and sell the Mapleine. Like my father, mother
had many talents, and selling was one of them.
On one of her trips with the Mapleine, she went
to Hedley. She was able to talk the manager of the
coal mine there into allowing her ... in fact, he
personally escorted her... into the mine to talk to
the men. It sounds unbelievable, but she returned
home with vivid memories of climbing down, and
back up the ladder into the mine in a hobble skirt,
and of very angry miners who felt that having a
women in the mine would bring bad luck.
When Every Housewife
has tried
realize there is Another de-j
licious flavor as easy to use;
as vanilla.
The purest,
sweetest syrup
for hot cakes is
made at the low-
est cost with
Mapleine, white
sugar and water.
Crescent Mfg. Ce„ SeattfeWn.
Recipe Book sent for 2c Stamp.
On one occasion when she went to Revelstoke,
she took the opportunity to talk with the man who
supervised the schools in the Moberly-Golden
distict. The road-building to the Moberly school
had been stopped because the money ran out
when the war started in 1914.
The superintendent advanced the money to
finish the road and get the school ready. In the fall
of 1914, the Moberly school opened its doors. Its
first teacher was my aunt, Ethel O'Bannon.
Mother recalled that year from the summer of
1914 to the winter of 1915 as being a very good
time for the family on the homestead. She loved
the mountain that she could see from her kitchen
window; she called it her red-and-gold mountain,
because when the sun was on it, it had a reddish-
gold color that seemed to glow.
She had a Maytag washer that ran with a
gasoline engine, and the engine also ran her
churn. They had been able to get in on a
butchered hog, and had plenty of chickens. The
strawberry crop had been very good, and there
were jars of preserves tucked away. They had milk
and butter and cream, and a good stock of
vegetables in the root cellar. For once, Mother felt
she was getting on top of things at last, and she was
Page 14 In December of 1915, two days after Christmas,
my sister Jean was born. Miss Wright, who had
taught with Ethel in Kenora, and had moved out to
Victoria, came to visit us before Christmas. She
was with mother for the birth, and though she had
never seen a baby born, she was able to cope very
well. Mother, of course, was an old hand at it. She
had all her babies at home, and most of the time
the baby arrived long before the doctor did. Jean
was ten hours old before the doctor managed to
get away from his busy practice in Golden and
come to the homestead.
During the winter of 1915-16, father worked on
the Connaught Tunnel through the Roger's Pass,
at one time operating a steam shovel at the tunnel.
It was a very hard winter for him; he was a quiet
man and not at all suited for the type of labor he
had to do to keep his family fed and clothed.
There were many times during that winter when
he really despaired of ever establishing a firm
foundation for his family.
The Mill
In the spring of 1917, father and mother
borrowed money from the United Grain Growers
in Calgary and bought a sawmill at Parson, down
the Columbia from Golden. They got good orders
for the lumber in the mill and things began to look
up. There was a busy sawmill at Golden, but there
seemed to be enough work for both mills.
Mother had become very tired. She was
pregnant again, and at forty she most likely felt
that she had enough children. There seemed to
be no end to the number of people in the house
demanding her time and her energy. She had to
help father with his orders for the mill as well.
Ethel and Bobby were living in a small cabin up
near the school, but mother had her six children
and her father, and things seemed to pile up.
Father was away most of the time at the mill.
Mother lost her patience, and asked her father
to leave. He was seventy-nine. He never reproached her for what must have seemed like
gross ingratitude. He went into Golden, deeded
his land over to my father, and left for California.
I was born that summer. I was a puny wee thing
who needed constant attention for the first few
weeks of my life. Because I was so small, Ethel
never realized that mother was pregnant, and
mother took care not to let Ethel know. Ethel was
away visiting neighbours when I decided to make
my debut. Mother send David to get the horse
and ride into Golden for the doctor. The horse
sensed David's excitement, and ran away. David
finally had to go into Golden on foot, running a
good part of the way. In Golden, the Methodist
minister had the only car available. He brought
the doctor and David home, but by then, I too was
many hours old. Father was away at Donald,
having made the trip early so he could be back
before I came. He got home after the doctor had
When Ethel came home and found that there
was yet another child in the house, and she with
no idea that one was expected, she was furious.
She left soon after, joining grandfather O'Bannon
in California. They lived there until he died in
In the fall of 1917, father moved his family in to
Golden, renting a house there. He needed
mother to answer the telephone for the orders for
the mill. All that winter, he and a man named
Charlie Nicholson cut logs for the mill, snugging
them behind a boom so that when the spring
break-up came, they would be ready to be floated
down to the mill.
The spring break-up became a raging torrent.
The Columbia and the Kicking Horse Rivers went
on a rampage, flooding their banks. Father had
hired a watchman to keep an eye on the boom,
with orders to let mother know if it looked as
though it might give away. The watchman, alone
and probably cold, fortified himself with liquid
fire, and missed the boom's going completely.
The logs floated past Parson, and on to the mill at
My father could not pay his workman and he
lost the mill. Neither he nor mother thought of
going back to the United Grain Growers to ask for
help, which, as they learned much later, would
have been gladly given to them. They had paid off
the first loan in record time. By the time they knew
that they could have had help, it was much too
Father went to Calgary in the summer of 1918,
and got work with Mount Royal College as a Field
Representative. Mother and the family followed
him, and while they were in Calgary, they felt
some of the effects of the great flu epidemic,
although none of the family was seriously ill.
Nanaimo, McBride and Jasper
The Y.M.C.A. got in touch with father, and
again gave him two choices of places to go,
Nanaimo or Edmonton, Alberta. Again mother
made the choice, and we went to Nanaimo, in the
spring of 1919.
Nanaimo didn't want a Y.M.C.A. The Home
Mission stepped in and sent father to McBride.
We stayed on in Nanaimo, since there was no
Page 15 place for a large family in McBride. At first, we
lived on Townsite Road. To make ends meet,
mother washed dishes at night in a restaurant
downtown. She left home after her young
children were in bed, and came back in the early
hours of the morning, and she carried her gun
with her because she had to walk both ways. Like
Bobby, mother knew how to shoot.
Meanwhile father was sharing accommodations in McBride with the man who operated the
town gambling house. To augment his salary,
father got a moving-picture machine that was
hand cranked, and showed pictures in a tent at
McBride, at Lucerne, and above Otto's Pool Hall
in Jasper. Later he obtained a Delco plant that ran
on batteries, to run the moving pictures. David
joined him in Lucerne in 1920, and helped run the
That summer father gave up the Home Mission
Field for good. He could not feed, clothe and
educate seven children on the money he got as a
minister. He and David went to Jasper, and got
work on the C.N.R. We joined them in March of
1921, and Jasper became our home.
It was to be fifty years before any of the Hartleys
went back to the homestead at Moberly.
Sometime during those years, mother had
managed to find the man who had bought father's
land, above the homestead, and she bought that
land back from him. She couldn't locate the
person who had bought the homestead itself, but
in getting father's land back, she brought the
family back full circle as well.
Kay Piersdorff is a resident of Salmon Arm. She returns
to Moberly every year because, "The land and the
mountain have a special pull on us. Whether we own it
or not in the future, the homestead at Moberly will be
a part of us as long as we Uve."
Why not join the British Columbia Historical
Federation and receive the British Columbia
Historical News regularly?
The BCHF is composed of member societies in
all parts of the province. By joining your local
society you receive not only a subscription to
British Columbia Historical News, but the
opportunity to participate in a program of talks
and field trips, and to meet others interested in
British Columbia's history and the BCHF'sannual
For information, contact your local society
(address on the inside of front cover) No local
society in your area? Perhaps you might think of
forming one. For information contact the
secretary of the BCHF (address inside back
VHS Book Sale
Please support the Vancouver Historical Society
BOOK SALE at the British Columbia Historical
Federation convention at Vernon, May 3-6.
Page 16 bchf      Annual Convention      vernon 1984
Annual "get togethers" for organizations
are usually an accepted fact—but when one can
combine a working meeting with a "mini-
holiday" so much the better.
For the Okanagan Historical Society—
Vernon Branch—it is a distinct pleasure to host
the 1984 B.C. Historical Federation's annual get-
Many of you know the Okanagan for its
fruit, but the Okanagan is also renowned for
many treasures—beautiful bodies of waters with
names like Shuswap, Kalamalka, Skaha, Vaseaux,
Tuc-el-nuit, and Osoyoos to mention only a few.
You'll enjoy fragrant, colourful desert country,
green, lush hillsides—sage—brown grasses—
wild flowers in a mass of colours that only Mother
Nature could paint.
Incorporated in 1892, Vernon lies at the
confluence of 5 valleys. When the early fur trade
and mining fever faded—cattle provided new
opportunities. The railroad came in 1891 and
Sternwheelers on Okanagan Lake offered a
sense of continuity to the Valley and generated
greater growth. We do have a storied past.
The Vernon Historical group has planned a
busy three day agenda—so come prepared to
keep on the move. You will visit two historic
cattle ranches—the O'Keefe Ranch with its
museum, and the still very active Coldstream
Ranch. A visual presentation will introduce you
to the Okanagan from the desert border country
to the lush green areas of the mainline in the
Our featured speaker at the annual banquet
will be the very well respected Historian, Dr.
Margaret Ormsby. The subject will be "Growing
up in the Okanagan".
Again, we invite and urge all B.C.H.F.
members to attend the annual conference in
Vernon—May 3, 4, 5, 6,1984.
Headquarters are at the Village Green Inn.
For further information please contact:
Hugh Caley, Okanagan Historical Society,
Vernon Branch, 2101-12th Street, Vernon, B.C.
V1T3S5, Phone number: 112-542-0562.
Page 17 Discovery: Prisons5 Regulation Act
Victoria City Gaol, Bastion Square ca. 1865
Regulations regarding Visitors.
1. Visitors may be allowed to see prisoners under sentence on Saturdays, between the hours of 1
and 4:30 p.m.
2. On Sundays, from 1 to 2:30 p.m., and from 4 to 4:30 p.m.
3. Visitors may be allowed to see prisoners awaiting "trial" at any hour between 10 a.m. and 4:30
p.m. (excepting on Sunday, when Rule 2 must be followed), provided the business to be transacted is of
such importance.
4. No visitor shall be allowed in the Gaol or to speak with prisoners at any time, except with the
permission of the Officer in charge of the Gaol, and a Gaol Official must be present at all interviews unless
otherwise ordered.
5. No visitor shall be allowed to enter or remain in the Gaol at any other hours than those specified,
without the written permission of the Superintendent of Provincial Police or the Warden of the Gaol.
6. All visitors are requested to make their visits as brief as possible.
Page 18 Prisons' Regulations Act.
Scale of Dietaries for use in Provincial Gaols.
1. No beer or wine, or fermented or spirituous liquors of any kind, shall be allowed to prisoners, or
permitted within the Gaol, unless specially ordered by the Gaol Surgeon, such order to be recorded in his
Journal, together with the name of the prisoner for whom the article is ordered.
2. No smoking shall be allowed, nor shall any tobacco be permitted in the Gaol, except by order of
the Gaol Surgeon, such order to be recorded in his Journal, together with the name of the prisoner to
whom the privilege is allowed.
3. No food of any kind shall be sold by any Gaol Officer to a prisoner, or by one prisoner to another;
nor shall any Gaol Officer have any pecuniary interest, direct or indirect, in any food, clothing or other
articles supplied to the prisoners; nor shall any Gaol Officer, or any member of his family, use any of the
Gaol stores except for heating, lighting or cleaning the house or quarters allotted to him.
4. The Gaol dietaries shall be divided into two scales, viz:—
(1.) For prisoners awaiting trial, or under sentence with hard labour for a term of thirty days or under,
where the labour is done in ordinary Gaol work.
(2.) For prisoners sentenced with hard labour for a term of over thirty days, and the labour consists of
cutting wood, breaking stones, or is extra-mural.
5. The dietary under the foregoing scale shall be as follows:—
Scale No. 1
One pint of gruel (made from oatmeal or Indian cornmeal) and eight ounces of bread every
Five ounces of cooked meat (without bone), eight ounces of bread, and eight ounces of potatoes on
three days of the week. Eight ounces of bread, one pound of potatoes, and one pint of gruel on two days
of the week. One pint of soup and eight ounces of bread on two days of the week.
One pint of gruel and eight ounces of bread every night.
Scale No. 2.
One pint of gruel, eight ounces of bread, and one pint of pea coffee, sweetened with molasses or
brown sugar, every morning.
Six ounces of cooked meat (without bone), eight ounces of bread, and eight ounces of potatoes on
each day that hard labour is performed; otherwise Scale No. 1 to be followed.
One pint of gruel and eight ounces of bread every night.
6. The oatmeal gruel shall contain two ounces of oatmeal to every pint of water, and the Indian
cornmeal gruel two and a quarter ounces to the pint; the soup shall contain three ounces of cooked meat
to the pint, and the usual quantity of vegetables, with pepper and salt. Pork may be used once a week
instead of beef, but one ounce less in weight must be given than is named in the different scales; fish may
also be substituted for beef once a week, in which four ounces more must be given than is named in the
different scales; and all prisoners shall be allowed at their meals as much good water and salt as they
B.C. Sessional Papers 1898
Page 19 Frances Gundry
Dr. Dorothy Blakey Smith
Dr. Dorothy Blakey Smith was closely associated
with the Provincial Archives of British Columbia
from 1956 until her death on December 10,1983.
She came to the archives in 1956 as a research
assistant with the British Columbia Centennial
Committee under Dr. Willard Ireland. In 1958 she
became a permanent member of the staff and
was, until her retirement in 1968, the archives'
premiere researcher, working on special projects
for Dr. Ireland, answering the majority of the
reference letters received by the archives, editing
articles submitted to the British Columbia
Historical Quarterly, and writing articles and
editing manuscripts for that journal herself.
Researchers who came into the "old" archives will
remember Dr. Blakey Smith and the invaluable
reference service which she, together with Miss
Inez Mitchell, then the Assistant Provincial
Archivist, provided. Those using the new archives
still receive enormous help from the hundreds of
Dr. Blakey Smith's "memos" - the originals in her
rather distinctive typing, all initialled D.B.S. and
dated - to be found in the archives Vertical File.
Dr. Blakey Smith's career at the archives was
only one phase of a varied, interesting and useful
life. She had a remarkable academic record,
winning the Governor General's medal both on
matriculation and on her graduation from the
University of British Columbia in Honours English
in 1921. She taught school, first in Alberta, during
the university vacations, and then, after obtaining her M.A. from U.B.C. in 1922, at the high
school in Trail from 1922 to 1925. She then went
to the University of Toronto, from which she
received her M.A. in English in 1926. After a year
as a Teaching Fellow at the University of Toronto
and four years as an assistant in the Department
of English at U.B.C, she went to the University of
London for her Ph.D. in 1931. Dr. Blakey Smith
completed the work for her degree in two years.
When her thesis on the Minerva Press was
Dr. Dorothy Blakey Smith LL.D. 1978
published by the Bibliographical Society in 1939,
the Times Literary Supplement's reviewer wrote
"... it would be hard to find, granted the extent
and obscurity of her subject, a piece of research
more thorough, accurate, and intelligently
planned than Miss Blakey's book ... the Minerva
Press - the chief exponent of Gothic Romance -
has been as completely charted as it is ever likely
to be."
Page 20 Following a delay caused by the depression,
during which Dr. Blakey Smith marked papers and
taught school in Vancouver, she rejoined the
Department of English at U.B.C. in 1935. Any
U.B.C. student who wrote an essay after 1939 will
remember with gratitude "Blakey and Cooke" -
The Preparation of Term Essays which she wrote
with Albert C. Cooke of the Department of
History. First published in 1939, it was last reprinted in 1974.
In 1948, Dr. Blakey Smith resigned as an
Associate Professor of English to join her husband,
F. Stuart S. Smith, whom she had married during
the war, at the small, isolated forestry station of
Thurston Bay on Sonora Island, north of Campbell
River. The Smiths lived at Thurston Bay, where Mr.
Smith was an engineer with the British Columbia
Forest Service, until 1955. On Mr. Smith's
retirement, they moved to a house on the
waterfront in View Royal on the outskirts of
Victoria. There they developed a beautiful garden
in which Mr. Smith grew an exotic variety of fruits
and vegetables. Mr. Smith died in the spring of
1982 and Dr. Blakey Smith continued to live in the
house, which she dearly loved, until her own
After her retirement from the archives in 1968,
Dr. Blakey Smith, as well as keeping in touch with
her enormous number of friends, and maintaining her interest in music and the theatre,
produced a body of work which many people
would consider quite satisfactory for a lifetime. In
addition to the autobiographical article which
appears below, and which conveys a great deal of
her charm, she wrote a biography of Sir James
Douglas and a number of articles for the
Dictionary of Canadian Biography and edited the
letters of Sophia Cracroft, the reminiscences of
her friend Gwen Suttie, and the reminiscences of
John Sebastian Helmcken. In 1978 she was granted
the honourary degree of Doctor of Letters by the
University of British Columbia.
Dr. Blakey Smith's work brought her into the
archives frequently. She was generous with her
time, acting as the court of last resort for reference
questions the staff could not answer. She was
always the most welcome of researchers, cheerful,
interesting, and interested in everyone. She set an
extraordinarily high standard, both in her life and
her work, and the staff of the Provincial Archives
will miss her very much indeed.
Frances Gundry is Head of the Manuscripts and
Government Records Section, Provincial Archives,
Dorothy Blakey Smith
Early Memories
of Vancouver
My first memory of Vancouver is of rain —
steady persistent unrelenting rain — that poured
down remorselessly (at leasy in my recollection, if
not perhaps in the records of the weather office)
for six solid weeks after my mother, my younger
sister and my fourteen-year-old self arrived direct
from England in late October 1913. I remember
the trans-continental train pulling in to the long
wooden platform beneath the red brick turrets of
the old CPR station at the foot of Granville Street,
and the relief with which our weary trio climbed
down from the tourist sleeping car with its smell of
babies and oranges, and its communal galley
where the pots and pans slithered unendingly
back and forth across the stove. I remember the
lifting of my own personal nightmare that the bell-
clanging monster would leave me behind, all
alone in a foreign land, at some Prairie station
where mother had sent me to forage for fresh milk
or butter; and I remember anxiously scanning the
crowd for my six-foot-one father's blue eyes and
sandy moustache, and the shock of mild surprise
to find his image more than a little blurred by
nearly three years of separation.
My father had come out early in 1911, believing
all the glossy propaganda so shamelessly put out
by the CPR and the Government of British
Columbia during the first decade of this century.
He had found the Port Moody lots he had
purchased, sight unseen, under water at high tide
(or so the family legend insisted). He had very
soon lost his capital, derived from the sale of the
firm of cabinet makers and shopfitters he had
owned and managed in England, by investing it in
some fly-by-night Vancouver business whose
books had been most competently cooked; and
he had then been confronted everywhere by the
sign "No Englishman need apply". Fortunately for
him, the building boom in Vancouver had not
Page 21 quite come to an end by 1911; and since he looked
like a Scot, and did not speak with the accent of a
remittance man, he managed to get work, first as a
construction carpenter on a new Granville Street
hotel, and then as a travelling salesman for the
original Restmore Manufacturing Company,
whose unpolished but refreshingly honest
founder, F.H. Barber, was then in fierce
competition for the business of supplying beds
and furniture both to the citizens of Vancouver
and also to the hotels and construction camps of
the still developing hinterland. My father's
adventures by four-horse stages and Indian canoe
in the wilds of British Columbia are another story.
But by the time he had scraped together enough
money to send for his family, the boom had
collapsed completely, and then came World War
Consequently family finances were far from
stable when I was growing up in Vancouver. We
lived at first in a five-room bungalow at the lower
end of Maple Street in Kitsilano — not a
fashionable part of town. The small brown-
shingled house (now obliterated by apartments)
followed a common Vancouver pattern:
verandah across the front; door in the middle
leading directly into the living room; kitchen
behind containing a wood-and-coal-burning
stove with a high warming oven and much shiny
curlicue trim. I remember the sour smell of the
wet fir slabs from the Rat Portage woodyard, piled
in the back garden for my father to split for the
stove, and the frustrated and sometimes even
tearful rage of my gallant mother, accustomed to
the dependable kitchen ranges of England, as she
struggled, first to get the fire to burn at all, and
then to keep it in long enough to cook the dinner
in time for Father's return.
Outside the small front garden ran the usual
three-plank, slippery-when-wet wooden
sidewalk of those days, tall grass growing
alongside and sometimes through the cracks.
There were plenty of vacant lots still, where my
little sister and her pals played after school among
the salmonberry and elderberry bushes, the wild
roses, lady slippers and skunk cabbages. A few
blocks away was Kitsilano Beach. There were no
"amenities" then, no tidy park, no landscaping,
and few people. I remember the endless summer
days (for it did finally stop raining) on the wide
stretch of sun-warmed sand bordered by coarse
grass and native bushes; the picnic meals, with a
hole scooped out to make sitting more
comfortable, and one's back against the logs so
casually distributed by the winter storms; and the
expanse of sea between Point Grey and the Point
Atkinson lighthouse that grew opalescent as the
sun went down and a purple haze drifted across
the Sleeping Beauty and her sister mountains on
the north shore. We swam, too; and I still
remember the scratchiness of my navy blue lustre
bathing costume; a skirt well below the knee,
trimmed with white braid, over a sort of romper
suit with baggy bloomers and elbow-length
sleeves that rubbed my upper arms raw until
mother sewed silk patches inside.
The beach was the terminus of the Kitsilano
tram line. Sometimes we went into the city on the
street car, but more often than not, for my mother
was a formidable walker, we would go across the
trestle bridge over False Creek, proceeding in
single file alongside the street cars themselves.
Then as now, the principal streets were Granville
and Hastings. The "quality" stores were Gordon
Drysdale's and the Hudson's Bay; David Spencer's
catered to the middle income. But we usually
shopped at Woodward's, whose slogan was "We
Sell Everything; the Best for Less", and who really
did invent not only $1.49 Day but its predecessor,
95 Cent Day — known to some of my
contemporaries, though not in our family, as the
Highland Games. For my sister and me, mother
bought only what she must: buttoned boots, for
instance, and sand-shoes; and coats, which she
could not make herself as she did our dresses and
hats. If we had too many parcels we might take the
street car back; but usually, fortified sometimes by
the treat of a sundae at Purdy's, we would walk
home again across the trestle.
There was no Burrard Bridge in those days.
Maple Street ran uphill from our house to the
Fourth Avenue tram line that went over the
Granville Street Bridge, but I don't remember
using this street car, not even to go to "A.J. Parker
Fresh Fish Daily" near the corner of Granville and
Fourth, for the crabs or shrimps that were a
favorite high tea on Saturdays, when father was at
home. It was easier, too, to walk there than to ride
my bicycle, which had come out with us from
England, knocked down, in one of the packing
cases marked "Settlers' Effects". Father had put it
together again, and with another English exile I
did ride it once in a while round Stanley Park. But
in Vancouver in 1914 it was not the thing for
females to ride bikes, and small boys jeered at us as
we passed. And I certainly didn't need to ride to
school, for Henry Hudson, which has survived in
the same building to this day, was just across the
street from our house.
Page 22 Nobody need try to tell me that schooldays are
the happiest time of one's life. My sister was young
enough to slip easily into Canadian ways, but I was
not; and I suffered. Everybody my age was
wearing skirts and middy blouses then; and
everybody, or so it seemed to me, had curly hair.
English print frocks were all wrong; and mother
could not afford to get rid of mine in exchange for
the sword ferns or woven baskets brought by
Indian women to our door. Long straight hair and
granny glasses — why couldn't I have been born
sixty years later? — were cause for mirth. My
English accent (and I really couldn't help it!) was
imitated to the point that I opened my mouth at
school as little as possible. Worst of all, I was a
short-sighted rabbit at games. At school in
England these had been part of the curriculum,
and everybody had played basketball and grass
hockey, badly or otherwise, as a matter of course. I
still remember the agony of those after-school
games of girls' baseball in which I tried to take
part; and the humiliation of being the last one to
be picked up for the side by a captain at her wit's
end. Even with the tennis racket used in those days
by the girls instead of the regulation baseball bat, I
was a total loss.
And I wasn't much happier in the classroom. I
had been at a girls' high school in England, but
now I must pass the entrance examination into the
local high school system; and since I had not been
enrolled at Henry Hudson until November there
were eight months to be endured before I could
even try the exam. In arithmetic, reading and
spelling, grammar and composition, geography
and drawing I was well in advance of my
classmates — which was not conducive to
popularity, in spite of the help with problems and
parsing often asked and gratefully given. Of
Canadian history I was abysmally ignorant — and I
simply had to pass Entrance next June; family
finances permitted no delay. The textbook was
duller than ditchwater; the teaching, conscientious but uninspired; and I still remember the
resentment with which I laboriously got up the
details of the Family Compact or the Hincks-
Morin ministry — if that's what the nadir of
boredom was actually called.
Canadian history notwithstanding and to my
own surprise, I won the Governor-General's
bronze medal in the 1914 Entrance examination,
and so passed on to King Edward High School. I
had made two or three lifelong friends at Henry
Hudson, but I have to admit that I left that
institution a painfully shy and awkward
adolescent, with few social graces and a
reputation as a "brain" — a reputation which I
didn't want but couldn't afford not to have. Those
first new months as a displaced person had shaken
my once normal self-confidence pretty badly; and
it was many a long year before I was able to
contemplate without squirming most of my early
memories of Vancouver.
Reprinted with permiWnm from the Vancouver //isforici/ Society Newdetter  Vol  1 i.
No.  i. November 197i
Ethnic Groups in British Columbia, A Selected
Bibliography Based on a Check-list of Material in
the Provincial Library and Archives (Victoria:
British Columbia Centennial Committee, 1957)
64 p.
"The First Capital of British Columbia: Langley or
New Westminster? British Columbia Historical
Quarterly, V. 21, no. 1-4,1957-58, p. 15-50.
"Harry Guillod's Journal of a Trip to Cariboo
1862," edited with an introduction and notes by
Dorothy Blakey Smith, BCHQ Vol. 19, no. 3-4,
1955, p. 187-232.
James Douglas, Father of British Columbia
(Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1971), 128 p.
James Douglas in California, 1841; Being the
Journal of a Vovaee from the Columbia to
California, with an introduction and explanatory
notes by Dorothy Blakey Smith (Vancouver: The
Library's Press. 1965), 56 p.
"The Journal of Arthur Thomas Bushby, 1858-
1859," edited with an introduction and notes by
Dorothy Blakey Smith, BCHQ, Vol. 21, no. 1-4,
1957-1958, p. 83-198.
Lady Franklin Visits the Pacific Northwest, edited
with notes and introduction by Dorothy Blakey
Smith (Victoria: Provincial Archives of British
Columbia, 1974), 157 p.
"Mouth of Homathco, Bute Inlet, 1865," B.C.
Teacher, Vol. 38, no. 2, 1958, p. 126.
"Music in the Furthest West a Hundred Years
Ago," Canadian Music Journal, Vol. 2, no. 4,1958,
p. 3-14.
Page 23 "The Parliament Buildings: A Postscript to
Parkinson," Canadian Public Administration, Vol.
6, no. 4, December 1963, p. 453-462.
"The Parliament Buildings, Victoria," Habitat,
Vol. 3, no. 5,1960, p. 6-10.
"'Poor Gaggin': Irish Misfit in the Colonial
Service," Personality and History in British
Columbia: Essays in Honour of Margaret Ormsby
(Vancouver: U.B.C. Press, 1977) (B.C. Studies
The Preparation of Term Essays, Dorothy Blakey
Smith and A.C. Cooke (Vancouver: The University of British Columbia, 1939) 18 p. (Vancouver:
University of B.C., 1943,1950; Campbell & Smith
1960; Talex Print 1967, 1974), 22-32 p.
The Reminiscences of Dr. John Sebastian Helmcken, ed. by Dorothy Blakey Smith (Vancouver:
U.B.C. Press, 1975), 373 p.
Suttie, Ethel Gwen, "With the Nisei in New
Denver", edited by Dorothy Blakey Smith, B.C.
Historical News, Vol. 5,1972, p. 15-25.
Editor's Note:
We neglected to mention in Vol. 17, No. 2, that
Shirlee S. Matheson, author of "Learning Our
Legends Through the Hudson's Hope Museum,"
is a native of Manitoba who has lived in Hudson's
Hope and is now at Calgary. She has written
numerous articles for literary and commercial
magazines. She is presently preparing the
biography of Father Emile Jungbluth, OMI,
tentatively called Priest of the Peace, for
Friday evening and Saturday
April 27-28, 1984
Camosun College
Young Building
Victoria, B.C.
Topics to be discussed at the Conference
—The B.C. Women's Institutes in Two World
— B.C. Schoolgirls in the Business Boom
— Chinese Women in B.C., 1920-1930
— Equal Pay: A Retrospective
— Women in the Kitchen in the '20s
— Vancouver Club Women, 1910-1928
— Women in Politics: Mary Ellen Smith, Grace
Maclnnis, and Dorothy Steeves
— Mattie Gunterman (1872-1945): Pioneer
— Early Women Missionaries in B.C.
— Women's Historical Fiction: a Canadian
Fees: $25
$15 (students and unemployed)
Send registration requests to:
Barbara Latham
Pacific Canada Research/Development
Camosun College
3100 Foul Bay Road
Victoria, B.C.
V8P 4X8
For further information, phone: 592-1281, local
(Hours: 12:30-4:30 pm)
Page 24 News and Notes
Reports from the Branches
The "Festival of Murals" mural of Hong
Hing, which we donated, was completed in 1983.
Hong Hing was a very colourful personage for
many years in Chemainus, and was known as the
"Unofficial Mayor". A plaque was installed,
giving us recognition.
A $300.00 bursary was presented to a deserving student. Our work towards a museum is
continuous. We sincerely hope our efforts will
one day be rewarded in the not too distant
We enjoyed several outings. One was to the
Black Nugget Museum in Ladysmith, which is
privately owned and worthy of much praise. This
museum can boast of being in a very historic
building, brought in from the Extension mining
site in the early 1900s. Known as the Jones Hotel,
it was purchased by a lad of eighteen a few years
ago, with no help of grants. This museum has the
original bar room with "peek-a-boo" door, and
the original bar complete with brass foot rail and
—Audrey M. Ginn
BCHF Convention
Delegates to the annual convention are
requested to bring a written report of their
group's activities. This report will appear in the
Historical News.
Please send an account of any special event
to the Editor as soon as possible after it occurs.
Include a photograph or newspaper clipping,
where applicable.
In December we took part in the first annual
Historic Church Tour, sponsored by seven of
New Westminster's oldest churches. They
arranged to open their buildings and provide
guides for the visitors. We were permitted to
tour Holy Trinity Cathedral, Knox Presbyterian
Church, St. Paul's Reformed Episcopal Church,
St. Mary the Virgin Anglican and St. Barnabas'
Churches, Olivet Baptist Church, and St. Aiden's
Presbyterian Church. Afterwards a large tea was
supplied in St. Barnabas' Hall. The money raised
went to the Food Bank.
The Native Daughters of B.C., Post No. 1,
opened the doors of their Old Hastings Mill
Store Museum for a special visit by members of
the Vancouver Historical Society January 14.
About 30 members of the Society took advantage of the occasion and an unusually fine day.
Among the many items crowded together in
the building are a good collection of Native
Indian artifacts, and early photographs of
Vancouver people, landscapes, and events. The
building is believed to be the oldest building
surviving the Great Fire of June 1886. It was built
about 1865 and served the Hastings Mill as store
and post office. When the Mill buildings were to
be demolished, the store was saved on the
initiative of the Native Daughters, and moved by
barge in 1930 to its present site.
—Marion E. Johnson and
Mary Rawson
Page 25 From the Treasurer
At the meeting of the Council of the
Federation held in Vancouver Museum on
February 18 the Treasurer reported on a number
of items.
The following figures constitute a comparison of the financial position as from January 31,
1983 to the same date in 1984: Dues/Subscriptions—$5,540 down to $3,450; Sales (of the
magazine)—$480 down to $247; Interest—$1,863
down to $1,312; Exchange—$40 down to $3;
Total Receipts (other than the Grant) $9,865
down to $5,279; and Expenses: B.C. HISTORICAL
NEWS—$8,214 up to $10,665 (but for 3 complete
and part of 2 issues); Secretarial—$207 up to $883.
The Balance in the working Bank Account—
$8,594 down to $4,822; and the Funds available
for General Purposes—$14,860 down to $11,011.
It was not pleasing to have to report that
there were 10 Member Societies that had not
submitted a complete "Annual Return" by
January 31. On the other hand, it was very
satisfying to report that a new Subscriber (as from
November 1983) had ordered a copy of all
available back issues of the magazine. It was
possible to let him have 32 issues.
As a result of letters to "Tax Interpretations,
Excise Branch, Pacific Region" of Revenue
Canada, we received a letter in December that
NEWS qualifies for exemption from Federal Tax.
Somewhat similar letters to the Provincial
Minister of Finance has resulted in an exemption
from the payment of Provincial Sales Tax on
materials which become a component part (ink.
paper, binding elements, etc.) of the publication
The B.C. Heritage Trust has granted $4,000, tor
one year, to further assist in the establishment of
the B.C. HISTORICAL NEWS under our new
revenue scheme.
Two Regulations under Bylaw 38 (on page 4
of the yellow insert in Vol. 17 No. 2) had
additional wording approved by Council: Regulation 3, Membership—a new sub-clause "(6)
DUES for an Affiliated Group are set as, and
include, an Institutional Subscription to the
magazine."; and to Regulation 7, Annual Return-
a new sentence "The Form, together with any
monies owed to the Federation, is to be sent to
the Federation Treasurer by the next, succeeding, December 31.")
Two policy decisions were also adopted by
Council without dissent: (1) "Institutions that
have in the past subscribed through a Member
Society at member's rates should be advised that
they should pay for the rate for Institutional
Subscribers" and (2) "That postage be charged
for magazines that are not included in the regular
Another very important request regarding
the B.C. HISTORICAL NEWS arose from the
meeting: that all members and Member Societies should continually endeavour to increase the
sales of the magazine. In particular it was
requested that local book stores (especially
independents) and similar outlets be approached with a sample issue of THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS to see whether a small
(or large), regular, commercial order (say 5 to 10
copies) would be possible. The cost to the store
would be 60% of the cover price (60% of $3.50 is
$2.70) with return and credit privileges for unsold
copies. Any such order is to be sent, with full
particulars, to the Editor of the magazine.
Finally, an effort should be made to encourage societies that do not have the word History
(or Historical) in the society name to join the
Federation as an Affiliated Group. Such action
will strengthen the influence of the Historical
Federation. Further details are in the Bylaws, and
any application to join should be sent to the P.O.
Box number.
—J. Rhys Richardson
Back Issues of the News
Back issues of the News can be ordered at $3.50
each plus postage from the Editor.
Cranbrook Railway Museum
sleeping car "Rutherglen" restoration is now
going ahead full speed thanks to two recent
assistance programs. The B.C. Heritage Trust
awarded the museum $28,800.00 to have a
contract awarded to re-do the steel work on the
windows which had been severely "modernized" during the early 1950s. Then in January, the
Federal Job Creation program awarded
$46,000.00 to insulate, re-wire and restore all
original windows, panelling on the interior. This
last project is employing 5 people until
of this car increases as more people find out
about the afternoon teas, 12:00-5:00 P.M. each
Saturday. Besides several community groups
who meet often in the parlour, other occasional
special-interest groups are beginning to use the
space as well. Local musicians such as flutists,
guitarists, etc., are being assembled, as well, to
provide quiet entertainment in the parlour
during tea.
CAR #19 (Superintendent's Car) — donated by
CP. Rail to the B.C. Heritage Trust and to the
museum on a permanent loan basis, this
beautiful, original 1928 private car is now on site
and ready for environmental controls to be
installed. A corps of volunteer tour guides is
being assembled to take the public through the
car beginning in April.
B.C. Young Artists Exhibiton 83/84 April 8-28
A touring exhibition of student art from across
British Columbia and assembled by the Emily
Carr College of Art in Vancouver.
Secondary Student Art April 29-May 17
The 4th Annual Exhibition of selected student art
from Mt. Baker, Parkland and Laurie Schools.
Butterflies of the World May 20-31
A unique display from the private collection of
Lloyd Janz of Cranbrook.
Cranbrook Historical Exhibition June 3-Sept. 20
The 3rd Annual Summer and Fall Exhibition
illuminating Cranbrook's past, and growth into a
major British Columbia city
The last issue of the Historical News contained
some suggestions for gene6k>gical research.
Here is another one. A list of 'Material of Use to
Genealogical Researchers" is available from the
Provincial Archives, Parliament Buildings,
Victoria. The material is noted under headings:
Printed Material, Government Publications,
Newspapers, Government Records, and Private
Voters' Lists
A request for a source of voters' lists in British
Columbia prior to 1900 has been received. These
are bound in the Sessional Papers for most years
from 1871 to 1899.
The Registrar of Voters, 421 Menzies Street,
Victoria, has the voters' lists from 1900 to present.
Please inquire in person, if possible.
Don't let your subscription expire.
Check your address label for date of renewal.
Page 27 News from the
British Columbia
Heritage Trust
The following is a report on The Gitwinksihlkw
Heritage Conservation Project:.
The Nisga'a village of Canyon City, British
Columbia—traditionally known as Gitwinksihlkw—perched on the edge of the Naas River
canyon attributes its origin to a volcanic disaster.
When visiting the Canyon City area, it is the vast
and surreal-like Lava Beds which catch a person's
attention. However, along with this stark natural
locale is the fascinating Nisga'a oral history which
records the volcanic eruption and its effects.
Perhaps no other community in British Columbia has a cultural tradition which so strongly
details the volcanic phenomenon.
Nisga'a tradition states that prior to the
eruption of the Naas Valley volcano there was
only a shallow lake "full of lizards, frogs, and
fierce small animals" (Chief Wiihoon of the Wolf
clan to William Beynon, 1929. Recorded in
Totem Poles by Marius Barbeau, p. 77,1950). The
lava flow destroyed two or three large Nisga'a
villages, the Lake of Lizards, and forced the Naas
River to flow down the north side of the valley
rather than up against the mountain on the
southern side of the valley.
The lava took at least two years to cool. The
Nisga'a people then migrated near the Naas
River canyon—the river is the Naas Valley's
thoroughfare and principal source of food—
around the old site of the Lake of Lizards. The
Nisga'a people constructed new longhouses and
fishing sites at this place. The village was called
Gitwinksihlkw—people of the Place of Lizards—
and the Nisga'a have lived at this canyon since
the establishment of that site.
The story of the volcano and the resultant
village migrations has been recorded for posterity in the form of several Nisga clan histories
(adaawaks) as told by High Chiefs of Canyon
City. The Gitwinksihlkw (Canyon City) Heritage
Conservation Project report documents the
various oral and written records of this unique
village history, and by doing so outlines the ways
in which this cultural heritage functions as the
basis of the Nisga'a social structure.
As an ethno-history of one of the four Naas
River communities, this report describes the
relationship between the tribe, their history and
the land. It documents the functions of clan
affiliations and illustrates the manner by which
people inherit certain rights to lands and
resources from certain territories.
Most significantly of all, this report stresses
the fact that this cultural heritage has not been
relegated to the role of a museum piece. The
"Nisga'a Way" is a living heritage which still
operates today. The granting of historic names,
the granting of title to traditional lands, still exists
today. This is evidenced by the way in which
hereditary title and leadership responsibilities of
Canyon City's Highest Chieftainship, Chief
Baxk'ap, was transferred in the Feast Hall in June,
—Margaret Woods
This project was carried out under the British
Columbia Heritage Trust Student Employment
Thinking of Publishing?
A seminar publishing local history, given by Philip
and Helen Akrigg, may be arranged for your
historical society. Please contact Leonard G.
McCann, #2, 1430 Maple Street, Vancouver, V6J
Page 28 Bookshelf
Publications of
The Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia
Hardbound at $15.00
Paperbound at $5.00
Paperbound at $4.00
Paperbound at $4.00
Paperbound at $4.00
Offprint from Saskatchewan History, Spring
1983 $2.00
The Jewish Historical Society of B.C.
$1.50 per issue
Order from:
The Jewish Historical Society of British
950 West 41st Avenue
Vancouver, B.C.
V5Z 2N7
This Book Review section is to help you or
your group with publicity of your newest
publication. Please submit your book for review
to Patricia Roy, Book Review Editor, at #602-139
Clarence Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V2J1
The Vancouver Historical Society will be holding a book sale at the BCHF Convention at Vernon. These
book sales are very popular, and the profits go towards supporting the VHS Centennial Bibliography Fund.
For further details please contact:
Mrs. Anne Yandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue,
Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1E4
Phone: 733-6484
Please note: Anyone wishing to have their book sold must contact Mrs. Yandle before the Convention. A HOLIDAY SUGGESTION
Much of British Columbia's history is rooted in
the Pacific Northwest states. Both Oregon and
Washington State have historic guides available if
you are planning a holiday south of the border.
Washington's Department of Commerce and
Economic Development, Tourism Promotion
Division, 101 General Administration Building,
Olympia, Washington 98504, U.S.A. will send a 22-
page typed guide to historic places and museums,
region by region. Their highway map gives inserts
showing freeway exits and local roads.
The following societies have recently joined the
Hedley Arts and Crafts Society
Saltspring Island Historical Society
City of White Rock Museum Archives Society
The Hallmark Society, Victoria
The winner of our contest is Elizabeth Norcross, Duncan, B.C.,
who correctly guessed that the name Bennett is common to two
British Columbia premiers and an important Klondike water
Watch for a new contest next issue.
Honorary President:      Col. C.S. Andrews, 116 Wellington, Victoria, B.C. V8V 4H7
382-7202 (res.)
Barbara Stannard, #211-450 Stewart Ave., Nanaimo, V9S 5E9
754-6195 (res.)
Leonard G. McCann, #2-1430 Maple St., Vancouver, V6J 3R9
736-4431 (bus.)
Naomi Miller, Box 105, Wasa, VOB 2K0
422-3594 (res.)
T. Don Sale, 262 Juniper St., Nanaimo, V9S 1X4
753-2067 (res.)
Recording Secretary:     Margaret Stoneberg, P.O. Box 687, Princeton, VOX 1W0
295-3362 (res.)
J. Rhys Richardson, 2875 W. 29th, Vancouver, V6L 1Y2
733-1897 (res.)
Tom Carrington, #401 - 1012 Collinson St., Victoria. V8V 3C1
383-3446 (res.)
Myrtle Haslam, 1875 Wessex Road, Cowichan Bay, VOR 1N0
748-8397 (res.)
Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River, V9W 3P3
287-8097 (res.)
Marie Elliott, Editor, fi.C. Historical News, 1745 Taylor St., Victoria, V8R 3E8
1st Vice President:
2nd Vice President
Chairmen of Committees:
Historic Trails: John D. Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Rd., North Vancouver, V7R 1R9
988-4565 (res.)
B.C. Historical News      Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River, V9W 3P3
Policy Committee: 287-8097 (res.)
Publications Assistance Committee (not involved with B.C. Historical News)
Helen Akrigg, 4633 W. 8th Ave., Vancouver, V6R 2A6
228-8606 (res.)
Loans are available for publication. Please submit manuscripts to Helen Akrigg. 1984
British Columbia Historical Federation
May 3-6
Registration Form Inside


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items