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A general synopsis of birds. Vol. II. Pt. 2nd Latham, John, 1740-1837 1783

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   THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION  A 
General synopsis
 of BIRDS. 
Vol. II. p' <2 nd
BO    N   D    O N:
Printed for keigh fc Sotheb)
Tfork Street .CoventGarden.
MDCCI.XXXIII.
j  C   3*7   ]
Genus XXXIX.
LARK.
N°   i
SkyL.
Var. A. White L.
Var. B. Dufky L.
Var. C. Long-leggedL.
Rufous-backed L,
Wood L.
Italian L.
Tit L.
Field L.
, Louifiane L.
Red L.
. Marfh L.
, Meadow L»
Var. A.
, Malabar  L.
, Gingi L.
. Black L.
.Mutable L.
15. Calandre L.
Var. A. White-winged
L.
16. Mongolian L.
17. New Zealand L.
18. Gape L.
19. Shore L.
Var. A.
ao. Rufous L.
21. Cinereous L.
22. African L.
13. Crefled L.
24. Leffer-crefted L.
25. Undated L.
26. Senegal L.
27. Teftaceous L.
28. Portugal L.
THE bill in this fpecies is ftrait, (lender, bending a little
towards  the end, Iharp-pointed -,  noftrils covered with
feathers and briftles.
Tongue cloven at the end.
Toes divided to the origin j claw of the back toe very long,
and either ftrait, or very little bent *.
* Gen. of Birds.
Alauda R     K.
Alauda arvenfis, Lin.  Syft.  \.  p. 287.  ..-Fa**   S*n. ZOO.Scof. ***.
N" 84.—Br**. N° 221.—Muller, p. 28. N" 229.—F*i/cb. pi. 15. f.
SKY-LARK.
—Kram. el. p. 362. z.
L'Alouette,   Brif.  orn. iu. p. 335. N°   1.—A/". «/• ▼• P- *• P»-   "•*
Pl.enl. 363. f. 1.
Field-lark, or Sky-lark, Rati 6>. p. 69. A. x.—Will. or*. lO^—Mbim.
pi. 41.—5r. Zool. i. N° 136. pi. 55.—/&-<?. ZmZ.
j?r.ii&/. -*&£-#
ESC8.IPT10N.
'THE length of this bird is aboutfeven inches, and it is
final 1 matter bigger than the Houfe Sparrow in the body-
The bill is above half an inch long, and dufky j. the under mandible yellowifh:. the top of the head reddi/h brown, the middle
of each feather black; the hind part inclines to ad, and is-
plain; the chin whitifh:- on the upper parts of the body the feathers are reddifh. brawn,, with the middle dark brown, and the
edges very pale t the fore part of the neck rufous white, dafhed
with blackifh : from the breaft to the vent yellowifih white : quills
brown, with the outer edges yellowifh,. whitifh towards the tip 1
the two middle feathers of the tail are blackifl^ with rufous grey
margins > the reft not much- unlike in colour, but the fourth.
has a white margin,, the fifth white on the outer web, and the
outmoft the fame, and on the inner web alfo near the tip s the
legs are dufky$ the claws blackifh, the hind one long and ftrait;
The male exceeds the female in fize.
Thefe birds are very plenty in England, and moft probably
throughout the old continent,, as we hear of them in Norway,.
Sweden, Germany, France^ Italy,. Greece*, and at the Cape of
*   Brutmith-.—Faun..   Suec. p. 76-.-—Fri/cb.—Buffi*
Bektu ebf. 12.
p. I2.—
Goad: LARK.
Good Hope t. and no doubt in the intermediate places, though
not directly recorded by authors; very common in Ruffia and
Sibiria, even as far as Kamtfchatka •, in fome parts of Germany
much more plentiful than in any part of England f- I do not
find any account of their inhabiting America-, though indeed
Sloane mentions meeting with them fome leagues out at fea.
As to their manners, I can have little to add to thofe mentioned
by Mr. Pennant, in the Britijh Zoology ; who, with his ufual elegance, has faid every thing; and indeed, the general knowledge
which every one has of this bird, leaves no room for further in-
veftigation.
369
L'Alouette blanche, Brif. on
. iii. p. 339. A. pi.
19. f.
.-Buf. oif. v.
1.
Var. A.
Weiffe-Ierche, Frifch. t. 16.
WHITE L.
np HIS is a mere variety of the laft, and is oftener found in     Description
the colder climates, at leaft when of a pure white; for of
• Kolb. Cap, iii. p. 164.—One lent from the Cape by Mr. Mafon, now at
Sir J. Ban&s's, is a trifle lefs than ours ; and the hind claw fliort, though ftrait.
Haffilqmjl{a.ys it is common on the fliores of the Nile, and adjacent parts. See
Iter. Palaft.
•f- Mr. P. talks of 4000 dozen being taken in the neighbourhood of Dunfta-
ble, between September and February ; but this holds no proportion with what
are at time's caught in different parts of Germany, where there is an excife upon
them. Keyjler fays, that the excife alone produces 6000 dollars * every year to
the city of Leipfic, whofe Larks are famous all over Germany, as having the moft
delicate flavour. But it is not only at Leipfic that they are taken in fuch numbers, but alfo in the country about Naumburg, Merfeburg, Halle, and other parts,.
See Keyjler's Trav, vol. iv. p. 315.
Vol. II.
About 900/. fterling.
3 B
thofe thofe which I have feen, there has been a .mixture of fome of
other colours. In the Letterian Mufeum there is one mixed brown-
and white, with a pure white belly, and another variegated with
•white all over, but regularly difperfed throughout the plumage,*
imitating the beautiful pencilling of the Wryneck; and I have
in my poflefiion one of thefe birds, which is wholly of a -light:
cream-colour.
L'Alouette noire,. Brif. cm. i
Var'. B. f. i.
DUSKY L. - Biack Lai& jjj^ _\^fL-s_
p. 340. B.—Buf. oif v. p. 22,-rPI. tnl. 65a
Br. Muf.
TN the bird   here   defcribed by Albin*, the black  was not
pure, being of a dull reddifh brown, approaching to black
except the hind part of the head, which was dull yellow, and
fome of the belly feathers fringed with white.    Bill and legs
ion.   IN Rufifia is found a variety, which has been mentioned to me
by the name of Long-legged.    It is very like the Sky-lark,
* I am well aware of the circumftance of this and other birds becoming !
black by feeding on hemp-feed, as was the cafe in a Goldfinch zjyi. Houfe Sparrow^
recorded above under thofe heads; but this accident likewife happens by a
caufe lefs artificial, as the bird mentioned by Albin was caught in a net at large.
among other birds at Highgate. That in the Britijb Mufeum is of a full deep,
black throughout. L
R     If.
%pt larger, and ftands higher on its legs; it never rifes, but fings
fitting on the ground.
This is found only on the Mongolian frontiers *.
L* Alouette noire a Dos fauve, Buf. oif. v. p. 23.
Alouette noire de la Encenada, PI. enl. 738. f. 2.
np HIS is much lefs than the Sky-lark, meafuri-ng fcarcely
five inches. The bill half an inch ; the upper mandible
a little notched near the tip : the head, bill, legs, throat, fore
part of the neck, under part of the body, and upper tail coverts,
blackifh. brown: quills and tail fomewhat deeper, the outer fea-
the r of he laft edged with rufous : hind part of the neck, the
whole of the back, and fcapulars, of a rufous orange : the leffer
and middle wing coverts blackifia edged with fulvous.
This came from Buenos Ayres.
Description.
Alauda arborea, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 287.    N° 3.—Faun. Suec. 211.—Scop. ann. i. «,
N° 186.—Brun. p. 224.— Kram. el. p. 362. 3.—-Muller, p. 28. Nu 231.       +- WOOD L.'
—Olin. uc. p. 27.
1,'Alouette de Bois, ou le Cujelier, Brif. orn. iii. p. 340. N° 2. pi. 20. f. 1.
—Buf. oif. v. p. 25.—PI. -enl. 660. f. 2.
Wood-lark, Raii Syn. p. 69. A. 2.—Will. orn. p. 204.—Albin. i. pi. 42.—
Br. Zool. i. N° i-^.—ArS. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
♦THIS is not fo large as the Sky-lark, is of a fhorter and     Description.
thicker fhape, and meafures three quarters of an inch lefs in
length: the weight one ounce. The colours are in general paler
than in that bird, but do not differ fufficiently to need a feparate
Mr. Pennant.
3 B 2
defcriptic LARK.
defcription : round the head is a kind of wreath, of a paler colour, at leaft from eye to eye backwards, which is very confpi-
cuous; indeed in the Sky-lark there is the appearance of fuch
an one, but in a much lefs degree: in the Wood-lark the firft
quill feather is fhorter than the fecond, but in the Sky-lark it is
nearly equal. The legs in the Wood-lark are more inclined to
flefh-colour, and the hind claw, though very long, is fomewhat
incurvated.
This bird is not in near fo great plenty as the firft-defcribed,
and differs from it much in refpeft to manners : it perches upon
trees,, which the other is never known to do; like that, it lings
as it flies, but is likewife accufl:oroed-toi;ing-iiii}j£jiights, and
often fo like the Nightingale as to be miftaken for that bird;
not but it will alfo fing while perched on a branch. It builds
on the ground, laying five dufky eggs, blotched with brown,
moft fo at the biggeft end, The neft compofed, like that of the
laft, of dried grafs, &c. lined with foft hair. It builds very
early, the young ones, in fome feafons, being ready to fly before
the end of March; in this having much the ftart of the Skylark, which does not begin to build till April. Both of them
make two nefts in a year.
They are fuppofed to be a general inhabitant throughout
Europe, as the different fynonyms will teftify. It was met with,
by our late voyagers at Kamtfcbatka *.
• Ellis'* Nar. vol. ii. p. 220.
IS^nBHHSwwi K.
373
L'Alouette d'ltalie, Brif. orn. iii. 355. N° 7.
La Girole, Buf. oif v. p. 47.
Giarola Aldrov. Rail Sy*. p. 70. N° \o.—WiU. t
. p. 209* § 9.
ITALIAN L.
T E N G T H eight inches. The bill red : the upper parts of
the plumage chefnut brown, but the edge of each feather of
a reddifh white, efpecially thofe which furround the hind head,
which inclines much to white: breaft, belly,- and fides, white:
eight of the middle tail feathers are chefnut brown, with paler
edges ; the laft but one on each, fide the fame, with a white tip;
and the outer one quite white : the legs are flefh-coloured, and
the claws whiti3fh.
Inhabits Italy, according to Briffon; who fays it had the appearance of a young bird.
Ray obferves, that, except in the colour of the tail feathers, it
greatly refembled the Wood-lark; and I much fufpect it to be a
mere variety of that bird.
Buff on * mentions a bird being fbot at Bologne, about the end
of the month of May,, which anfwered to the above defcription.
The outer tail feather in this was white, and the next half white
from the tip 1 the hind claw half an inch long, and curved only
at the point.
• Bift. des oif. v. p. 4*. LARK.
-   Alauda pratenfis, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 287. N° 2.-Faun. Suec. N" 210. —Brtm.
N° 223.—Mull. p. 28. N° 23o.-Frifcb. pi. \6.-0lin. uc. p. 27.
L'Alouette de prez. ou La Farloufe, ^r// «■*. "i- P- 343- N° 3— Buf- -"/•
v. p. 31. pi. 3.—PI- enl. 660. 1.
Firft Spipola of Aldrov. and other Spipola of ditto, Will. or*, p. 110 1
Tiulark, Raii Syr. p. 69. A. 3. - Will. orn. p. 206. ~^. i. ph 43- ~ **
Zool. i. N° 138.—Aril. Zool.
.Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
HpH I S is much lefs than the Sky-lark, being only five inches
and a half in length. The bill half an inch long and black,
paler beneath : irides hazel: the upper parts of the head and
body are greenifh brown; the middle of each feather blackifii :
-over each eye a palifh ftreak: the under parts white, but the
breaft more inclined to yellow, and marked with longifh fpots
of black : the tail is blackifh; the outer feather white on the
outer edge the whole length, but on the inner, only half-way
from the end; the outermoft but one has only a fpot of white
at the tip: the legs are yellowifh, and the claws brown.
This bird is frequent in England, and, like the Wood-lark,
perches on trees. The hind claw is pretty long, but bent. It
has a fine note, though not much variety in it; yet fome compare it to the Canary-bird's, and others to that of the Nightingale-, and it is very entertaining to fee this bird warbling in the
air, and frequently increafing its fong as it defcends to a branch
whereon it intends to perch. This we have frequently feen ; not
-but it fings well in all fituations.
It builds the neft on the ground *, lining it with horfe-hair •
* Willughby faw one in afurze-bu/k, near the ground.
and LARK.
and lays five or fix eggs, of a deep brown colour -, and the young
are hatched about the beginning of June.
As to its food, Willughby fays that he found Beetles, and other
infefts, in its gizzard. It alfo feeds on feeds. Buffon kept one
of them a whole year upon this laft food only.
It is obferved that this bird, the Thrufh, Black-bird, Willow -
wren, and fome others, lofe their note about Midfiummer, and re-
fume it in September *.
The male differs only in being of a brighter colour.
A white variety of this bird is recorded by Briffon f ; and one
with dufky legs is mentioned in the Br. Zoology, fhot on the
coaft of Caernar'vonfihire.
Olina fays, that it lives only four or five years ; and that it is
difficult to raife. On the contrary, Willughby affirms, that it is
long-lived, and very hardy.—I know not which of them is in the
right.
I am told that the Cuckow very frequently lays its egg in the
neft of this bird. Dr. Heyjham informs me, that he found a
young Cuckow m the neft of one laft year. It was newly hatched.
The old tit-lark fat upon it, and fed it. The young Tits, though
not quite feathered, were, fitting at the outfide of the neft.
375
Leffer Field Lark, Will. orn. N° 207.
Field Lark, Br. Zool. i. N» i^.^-Ard. Zool.
Lev. Muf.
6.
' +. FIELD L.
np H I S is about the fize of the laft, but has a reddifh brown    Description.
tinge throughout the plumage inftead of green.    The chin,
f La Farloufe blanche, Orn. iii- p- 346.
throat, LARK,
throat, and breaft, of a pale buff-colour; the chin plain 5 the
others fpotted, much as in the tit-lark: the wing coverts edged
with dirty white, and deeper than in the laft bird : belly and chin
both white: legs pale brown : hind claw fhorter, and more curved
than in the laft fpecies.
It has the fame haunts, and is poffeffed of partly the fame manners, as the tit-lark.
La Farlouzzane, B*f. eif.ir. p. 38.
'T' H I S is longer than the laft-mentioned, meafuring at leaft
feven inches. On the upper parts of the body the colour
feems of a dull brown, but, on further examination, appears to be
compofed of a greenifh and blackifh brown, mixed : the upper wing coverts and quills blackifh brown, edged with a paler
brown : the tail brown; the outer tail feather half brown half
white, and the laft but one tipped with white: the throat of a
yellowifh grey: the neck and breaft the fame, fpotted with brown;
and the reft of the under parts fulvous.
This came from Louifiana, and has great affinity to, if not a
mere variety only of, the laft-mentioned.
L'Alouette de Penfylvanie, Brif orn. App. p. 94. N° 13.
L'Alouette aux Joues brunes de Penfylvanie, Buf. oif. v. p. 58.
Lark from Penfylvania, Edw. pi. 297.
Red Lark, Br. Zool. i. N° 140.—ArS. Zool.
Lev. Muf.
'J* H I S equals the Common Lark in fize.    The bill is blackifh: the upper parts of the body dufky brown: & black
6 mark LARK.
mark paffes through the eyes, and a clay-coloured one above it:
the eye-lids are light coloured ; the eye dark : the under parts of
the body light reddifh brown, marked with dufky fpots : legs
dark brown :  hind claw long, and fomewhat curved.
This is Mr. Edwards's defcription ; that of Mr. Pennant is not
far different; but he adds, that the upper parts are fpotted with
black, and that the middle tail feather is black, edged with
brown, and the two exterior white.
This bird is common to North America, and is often met with
in the neighbourhood of London, where Mr. Edwards firft ob-
ferved it.
I have never met with it, except in the Le-verian Mufeumt
where there is a fine fpecimen.
377-
La Rouffeline, <
f. i.
1 L'Alouette de Marais, Buf. oif v. p. 60. — Pf. ent. 601.
*T^ HIS is of a more flender make, and of a lefs fize, than the
Sky lark: the length is fix inches and a quarter: the bill eight
lines. The whole of the plumage inclines more or lefs to rufous :
the bill is yellowifh : the top of the head, and upper parts of the
neck and body, rufous, mixed with brown : the fides of the head
and throat very pale : on each fide, under the eye, are three flender brown ftripes : the under parts of the body are rufous white,
but the breaft and thighs incline much to rufous; the firft of
thefe is marked with flender lines of brown : the tail is pretty
dark, edged with rufous : legs and claws yellowifh.
This is found in Germany, particularly in Alfiace; and is found
fometimes to build on the banks of the Mofielle, in the neighbourhood of Metz, where it is feen every year in Qftober.
Vol. II. jC The II,  A     R     K.
The name which Buffon has g^-fcariftsi from its being frequently feen near the water-
It is faid to fing very/ agreieably.
Alauda campeftris^ Lin. Syft. i. p. 288. N° 4. — Faun-. Suec. 212. — .Ph**
N° 224. 22.5.—Muller, p. 29. N° 232.—■GeorgiRei/e, p. 173.
L'Alouette de Champ, Brif. orn. iii. p. 349. N° 5.
La Spipolette, Buf. oif. v. p. 43.
Alauda minor cattpgftris D. Jejbp. Rati Syn. p. 70. N° A. 6.
Brach-Ierche, Fst$c&,t. 15..
O I Z E of a tit-rlarh. The upper maradible-btackifh ; the lower
fiefh-coloured : the plumage on* the.upper parts of the body
is greyifh olive brown ;- beneath, dirty yellowifh white: the lower
part of the neck and breaft marked with longitudinal brown*
fpots:" over the eyes a ftripe of a yellowifh white : the two middle tail feathers grey brown; the others blackifh ; the outmoft
one white the whole way on the outer web, and the fame halfway from the tip on the inner web *;. the next has a white fpot
at the tip: the legs and claws brown.
lo- -Alauda Spinoletta, Lin. Syft. i.-pvsg-ii. N° j<—Scop. aim. i. N° 187.-
Var. A. Spipoletta Florentinis, Raii Syn. p. 70. N° 9.
Spipoletto, or Tordino, Will. orn. p. 209.  § 10.
Description.    'TpHIS is lefs than a Lark, and in length more than feven
inches.    The bill half an inch long, and quite black : the
s fays, that the bafe half of all the tail feathers, except the two middle ones, is white.—/W. Suec. p. 77. N° 212.
5 top
£W£ *_?.■& < L
R     L
379
■•top-of the head,oeck, fhoulders, and back^tSiite^e'o^s-i with a dafh
of green : the breaft and belly .wftfte-U 3tf&£'--tfarOflft fpotted: the
■quills dufky, "-usith pale edges: the taili3fl*ree inches long; the
feathers very dark; the two outmoft on each fide have the
outer webs and tips above half-way white: the legs are black,
«nd the hind claw very long.
This is commonly fold at Venice, among other birds, in the
markets 4 and by Linnaeus is fuppofed to be a different fpecies
from the former; but Brijfon unites all the fynonyms quoted by
•him, tending to prove his opinion to the contrary, and that both
thefe laft are varieties of each other; but the moft material difference is in the tail feathers above-mentioned, and the quills,
which are much darker, and the colour of the bill and legs.—-In
this I am not capable of deciding, having never feen the bird.
Scopoli obferves, that they build in Carniola, in moift places;
about which fome of them remain the whole of the winter * in
mild feafons.
L'Alouette huppee de la Cote de Malabar, Son. Foy. Jnd. vol-, ii. p. 203.     MALABAR L
pi. 113. f. 1.
T  ENGTH five inches and three quarters.    The bill black :     Description.
the feathers of the crown of the head are brown, tipped with.
whtce, and are long enough to form a creft: thofe of the neck
pale rufous, marked with a ftreak of black down the fhafts,
the  lower part  broadeft: the  throat  and belly rufous white I
* Said to be common at Woronefch, and about the river Don, in winter.—
Decouv. Ruff, vol, i. p. 249.
3 C 2
back, La petite Alouette
f. 2.
L    A     R    K.
back, and wing coverts, brown, margined at the ends with very
pale'rufous, and a white fpot at the tip of each: the quills and'
tail are dirty brown,, with pale rufous margins : the legs of the
laft colour.
Inhabits the coaft of Malabar.
rife de Gingi, Son. Foy. Ind. vol. u. p. 203.  pi. 1133.
half.    Bill
C I Z E of the Goldfinch I length four inches and a
and legs of a pale rufous grey: the plumage on the upper
parts is of a greyiffi umber-colour: the head cinereous grey r
through the eye a ftreak of black: throat and- under parts
black.
Found about Gingi, and other pares, of the Coromandel coaft.
Alauda Tartarica,  Pall. Tra
Black Lark, Ar£l. Zool.
• P- 7°7- N* '5' ■*• <r-
CIZE of a Starling. Bill flout, of a yellowifh horrL-cofour;
tip brown : noftrils covered with hairy feathers : the general
colour of the plumage dufky black : the feathers of the head and
neck edged with, dufky white : upper parts of the body the fame,
but edged deeper with white :. quills black, cordated at the tip :-
tailfomewhat forked in fhapej, the two. middle feathers black,,
with pale margins; the next pale on the edge at the tip; the
others all black: legs black; the hind claw elongated, fbarp,
and pretty ftrait.
The females and" young birds are brown, not unlike the Skylark :  the feathers round the bill pale; thofe on the upper parts
of LARK.
of the bod'y edged with grey; beneath, whitilh; the middle of
each feather marked with black: the quills and two outer tail
feathers margined with white : legs brown.
This is found in the drieft defarts between the rivers Volga and
jfafck,. in Ruffia, and the whole tartarian defart; and is a folitary
bird during fummer; but as winter approaches it frequents inhabited parts in numbers together.
Its fong is very trivial.
Alauda mutabilis, N. C. Ac, Fetrop. tlv. p. 459. t. 23. f. 2.
*TpHIS fpecies- is. about feven inches  in length.     The bill     Description,
eight lines long,, whitifh. at the bafe, and blackifh at the
tip : irides. livid : the bird. is. wholly of a black, colour; but on
the hind part of the neck, the backus far as the rump, the feathers have hoary edges,, and, the axillary feathers of fome are
hoary : quills and tail tipped with brown; the laft rather forked,
and the outer feather not brown at the tip : the legs and claws
black.
The female differs in having the forehead1 hoary, which in the Femaib.
male is of the fame colour, as the reft of the head.
In young birds the plumage is afh-coloured;, in fome much
inclining to red,, and otherwife vajiegated with grey; but the females have the hoary forehead in.all ftages.
This is very common at Afirachan in winter; flying in flocks Plac*.
to the more retired places near the Volga in.fpring..
I obferved a fine fpecimen of the male in the colle&ion of Mifs
Blomefield.    The edges of the feathers were cream-coloured, and
formed tranfverfe bars on the upper parts of a beautiful appearance i ance;   they were mere lines on the head, and widened as th*
proceeded downwards to the rump : the tail of one plain colour
the hind claw ftrait, and half an inch in length.
This came from Sdbiria.
Alauda calandra, Li*. Syfi.'u p. *83. N° 9.
La grofle Alouette, ou La Calandre, Brif. orn. iii. p. 35^* N° *} P1' zo' *' 2'
—Buf. oif. v. p. 49—PL enl. 363. f. 2.
Calandra, Oli*. uccel. p. yt.—Will. or*, p. 208—Edw. pi. 26%.—Ar3. Zotl.
Lev. Muf.
HPH I S exceds the Crefted La
inches and a quarter.    Th
■ki
1 fize;
1 is thr<
nd in length is feven
: quarters of an inch
long, very ftout, and of a pale colour: the plumage on the upper
parts of the body brown and grey mixed, each feather being
brown in the middle: the throat is white, beneath which is a
black mark, almoft in the fhape of a crefcent: beneath this it is
-dirty white, marked with black : the belly is white : the fides and
thighs of a rufous brown: the quills very dark, with the outer
webs brown, the very edge whitifh; the leffer quills partly the
fame, but are alfo tipped with white : the tail black; the outer
feather is white on the outer web, and about half-way from the
end of the inner; the next, bordered on the outer web with
white, and tipped with the fanite; the third, edged with grey, and
tipped with white; and the fourth, only edged with grey: the
bill and legs are pale grey.
This is found   in Italy *, Provence f in France, Sardinia,
f Hifi. des oif.
'Aleppo, LARK.
Aleppo *, and other parts of the old continent. In the Tartarian
defarts common ; and between the rivers Don and Wolga, as well
as other parts of the Ruffian empire; it is alfo faid to inhabit
America -f.
This bird is frequently kept for its fong, which,, by fome, is
accounted excellent, not only ftriking the ear with its own natural notes, but imitating thofe of others, as the Goldfinch, Linnet,
Canary-bird, and fuch like.
The mah differs from the female in being bigger, and has more
black on the neck.
It is faid to build on the ground, like the Sky-lark -, to lay four
or five eggs;, and to live four or five^years J.
a f Pall. Tram; -rc&^p-^ce^N*-!
CIZE of theCrejiedLark* BUfcf&vid, tip brown : the cn*wfr
of the headr ears, lefTer wing cov4litsis and thofe of the tail,
ferruginous, inclining to yellows the under parts dirty white,
varied with ferraginous on the fore part of the neck : the fecon-
dary quills are moftly white, moft obfervable when the wing is
fpread; the outer one of the prime quills wholly white; the
next, white on the margin : legs grey.
This is plentiful in the funny fields in the neighbourhood of
the river Irtis, in Sibiria; where it makes the neft on the
ground, like the Sky-lark;   but is inferior to it in fong.
Jescription
* Edwards*—Rufiel, Hifi. Ahp, p. 61. f Edwards. J Olina,
Alauda L     A     R     K.
Alauda Mongolica, Pall. Trav. iii. p- 697. 19.
•DIGGER than the Calandre.    Bill ftout:   head and neck
ferruginous, deepeft on the crown, which is encircled with
white, and has a fpot of white in the middle of it:   on the throat
a large bifid patch of black.
This inhabits the Salt Meadows, between the rivers Argun and
Onon, on the Chinefe frontiers. Is for the moft part feen on the
ground, and has a fweet for\g.
TENGTH (even inches and a half. Bill half an inch,
pale afh-colour, with the upper part black : the upper parts
of the body are dufky, edged with pale afh-colour: above the
eye a white ftreak; through the eye one of mottled black : fore
part of the neck marked as the upper parts, but much paler:
breaft and belly white: vent pale cinereous: legs reddiffi afli-
colour: claws black ; hind one almoft ftrait, and half an inch in
length.
Inhabits Charlotte Sound, and called Kogoo aroure.
From Sir Jofepb Banks's drawings.
Alauda Capenfis, Li*. Syft. i. 288. N° 8.
•L'Alouette du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif or*, ifi. 364. N» 11. pi. 19.
f. 3.
La Cravate jaune, ou Calandre du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf.^f, »•>
p. 54.—PI. enl. 504. f. 2.
Lev. Muf.
Description    'J'OTAL length eight inches.   Bill ten lines long, and of a
yellowifh brown colour :  the upper parts of the body and
tail
-9W4U   LARK.
tail are brown, mixed with darker brown, the laft colour poffeffing
the middle of each feather: the chin and throat are orange ; from
thence to the vent yellowifh white, inclining moft to yellow near
the vent: over the eye is a yellowifh ftreak, and beneath, on the
ear, a dufky one: four of the outer tail feathers are white at the
•ends, but irregularly fo; for the outer one is white for near an
inch, but the fourth only at the tip : the legs are dufky : the toes
pretty long: the hind claw above half an inch in length, and a
kittle bent.
This I defcribed from a fpecimen in the Leverian Mufeum,
which I take to be a female; for I find the males differ a little.
Thefe have the yellow on the throat bordered with black all
round; the ftripe over the eye orange, or deep yellow; the
breaft compofed of a mixture of brown, grey, and pale yellow;
and the belly and fides of a rufous orange colour : the greater
squills are edged with yellow, and the leffer with grey.
Buffon mentions having feen two females which had the throat
of a pale rufous colour, and the breaft fpotted with brown.
Thefe birds inhabit the Cape of Good Hope, where they are not
■uncommon.
Alauda alpeftris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 289. N° 10.—Georgi Reife, p. 173.
L'Alouette de Virginie, Brif. orn. iii.'p. 367. N° 12.
•Le Haufe-col noir, ou L'Alouette de Virginie, Buf. oif v. p. 55.
Schnee-lerche, Frifch. pi. 16.
The Lark,   Catejb. Car. i. pi. 32.
Shore Lark, Phil. Tranfi vol. lxii. p. 398.—Aril. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
C IZE and fhape of the Sky-lark : length fix inches and a half.
The bill feven inches, and black : the upper parts of the body
Vol. II, 3 D reddifh LARK,
reddifh brown, ftreaked with dufky, darkeft on the head: the
eyes are placed in a bed of yellow, which fprings from the bafe
of the bill, and paffes over the forehead: from the bill alfo arifes
a black ftroke, paffing u'nder the eye, and a little way down the
the throat and fore part of the neck are yellow; on the
lower part of the neck is a broad black band; beneath this all
the under parts"are very pale yellow : the tail coverts are ferruginous, but pale, and two of the feathers nearly as long as the tail
itfelf: the wings and tail feathers are of the fame colour as the
upper parts of the body, but have the edges paler : the legs and
claws black.
The male and female differ fomewhat. In the laft the back is
grey, and the ftripes darker: the crown is dufky, which in the
male is nearly black. In other things they referable one
another*
This inhabits North America, where it is migratory. It vifits
the neighbourhood of Albany * the beginning oi May, but goes
farther north to breed. In winter it comes, in vaft flocks, into
Virginia and Carolina -f, returning north in fpring. Feeds, during its flay in the more fouthern parts, on oats and other grain,;
and while at Albany, on the grafs, and the buds of Sprig Birch* It
runs into holes ; whence the natives of thefe laft parts have <*iven
it the name of Chi-chup-pi-fue.
The Englijh call it the Ortolan, and reckon it delicious eating.
' fome called Snow-bird, as being very plenty in that feafon.
Frequently caught in great numbers by means of horfe-hair
fpringes placed in fome bare place, the fnow being fcrap'ed away*
' Phil. Tranf.
t Catefiy.
and: LARK.
and a little chaff ftrewedabout.  It is always feen on the ground,
and has little or no fong.
This bird is not peculiar to North America: we hear of it in
Germany * alfo. It has been taken at Dantzic, both in the
months of April and December -f-; and is in plenty throughout
Rujia and Sibiria \, going northward in fpring.
La CeMture de Pri
650. f. 2.
•e, ou L'Alouette de Siberie,  Buf. oif v. p. 61—PI. enl.
HP HIS is a very beautiful fpecies : length five inches and three
quarters. The bill above half an inch long, and of a lead-
colour : the forehead, chin and throat, and fides of the head, are
yellow: between the eye and bill a black fpot, which paffes under the eye, and unites with a larger one beneath it: the top of
the head and upper parts of the body are rufous and grey brown,
mixed, fpotted with black on the crown : on the breaft is a broad
band of black; from thence to the vent whitifh : the quills are
grey, edged with dark grey : the upper tail coverts yellowifh:
the tail feathers are almoft black, edged with grey, except the
outer ones, which are edged with white: the legs are lead-
coloured : the hind claw near half an inch long, and very little
bent.
This inhabits Sibiria, but is not common.
* Frifih. t Hift- te "if.
X Decouv. Ruff. vol. i. p. 102. vol. iv. p. 459, &c.
3 D La Variole, Buf. oif. v. p. 63. i-mi
Petite Alouette de Buenos Ayres, iY. enl. 738. f. it
''HIS is five inches and a quarter long.. The bill eight lines,,
and brown: the top of the head and upper part of the body,
blackifh, mixed with, various tints of rufous :. the forepart of the
neck enamelled with the fame :• the throat, .and all the under parts
of the body, white: the greater quills grey, the leffer brown; all of
them edged with rufous: the tail feathers brown ; the eight middle ones bordered with pale rufous; the two outmoft with white ::
the legs yellowifh.
We meet with this bird" at Buenos Ayres, and elfewhere in the
neighbourhood of the river Plata, in South America.
La Cendrille, Buf. oif. v
Lev. Muf.
p. 64. *
T E N G T H fix inches.. Bill three quarters of an inch : the
noftrils placed in a foft membraneous furrow,, but the aperture very fmall and round: the plumage above, afh-colour :-
quills and tail dark brown :. belly and vent white:. the outer tail.
feathers white on the outfide near the tip :  legs dufky.
This I faw in the Leverian collection ; but whence it came,,
not known.
Buffon mentions a bird, the defcription of which was taken,
from a drawing fent him from the Cape of Good Hope, which pof-
fibly might be the male of this. In his bird the top of the head,
was rufous, forming a kind of hood, which was bordered from the*
bill to beyond the eye with, white : quills and tail black. R     K.
3*9
Ee Sirli du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf. oif v. p. 65.—PI, enl. 712.
T ENGTH eight inches. Bill black, an inch long, and
bent towards the point: the upper part of the body is com-
gofed of a mixture of brown, rufous, and white, in different
fhades * : the wing coverts,.quills, and tail, brown, edged with
white : the under part of the body white, marked with longitudinal brown fpots : legs brown: the hind claw, feyen lines long>;5
ftrait, and pointed at the end.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope-
AFRICAN L.
Description.
Alauda criftata,  Lin. Syft.  i. p.   288. N° 6,—Bru*.-orn.- p. 64*. N° 228.— 23.
Scop. ann.   i. p. 128.  N°   185. — Krom. el. p. 362. — Mull. p.   29.      CRESTED L<*.
N° 234.—Georgi Reife, p. 173.
L'Alouette hupee, ou le Cochevis, Brif. orn. iii. p. 357. N° 8.
Le Cochevis, ou la groffe Alouette huppee, Buf. oif. v. p. 66.'—Pi. enl. 503*
f. 1.
.Alauda criftata major, Rail Syn. p. 6g. N° 4..
Heide Lerche, Frifich. t. 15.
Lodola cappelluta, Olin. uccel. t. 13.
The Crefted Lark, Will. orn. p. 208. pi. 40.—Albin* iii. pi. 52.
Br. M*f.
-*TpHIS   is bigger than the Sky-lark:   length fix inches and    Description.
three quarters. Bill under three quarters of an inch, and
brown : irides hazel: on the head is a creft, comp.oled of feveral
feathers, which are darker than the reft of the plumage, and
nearly half an inch in length: the back is more cinereous, and
* Many of the feathers are dark brown ii
and white tips.
the middle, with rufous margins-
lefs lefs fpotted, than in the common Lark: the rump almoft defti-
tute of fpots: the breaft and belly white, with a dafh of yellow :
the throat is fpotted as in the common Lark: the tail is above
two inches in length ; the two outer feathers white on the outer
edges, with a dafh of red.
This defcription is from Willughby, who obferves, that it differs
from the common Lark, firft, in bignefs; fecondly, in the creft;
thirdly, in the colour of the back, which is lefs fpotted, and not
fo beautiful; fourthly, in the meafure of the tail, which in this
bird is fhorter; fifthly, that it foars not fo much in the air, and
when it mounts up, flays not fo long there; fixthly, that it flies
not in flocks, as they do; laftly, it is frequently feen about the
banks of lakes and rivers.
This fpecies is faid to be found in feveral parts of Europe; in
Italy, Germany, France, Denmark, and Ruffia: but I do not find
it in thefe kingdoms *, nor does Linnaus mention it as belonging
to Sweden.
It fings well, like the Sky-lark: lays four or five eggs, hatching them in a carelefs manner; and, if choice is to be had, prefers
the neighbourhood of junipers to be beneath. It is faid to hatch
twice in a year. R     K.
39i
tu petite Alouette hupee, Brif. orn. iii. p. 361. N° 9.
Le Lulu, ou la petite Alouette huppee, Buf. oif. v. p. 74.—Pi. enl. 503 f. 2.
Alauda criftata minor, Raii Syn. p. 69. A. 5.
Leffer Crefted Lark, Will. orn. p. 207.—Br. Zool: i. N° 141.
""p HIS is lefs than the laft fpecies. Aldrovandus * is the only
one who defcribes it; who merely obferves, that it is not fo
brown as the Greater Crefted Lark, and the tuft on the head larger
in proportion to the fize of the bird,, and that the legs are red. It
is faid likewife, that it flies in flocks, contrary to the Greater
Crefted Lark, which is feldom feen but alone. It is for the moft
part met with in woods and thickets, where it makes its neft.
This has been met with in Italy, Auftria, Poland, and Silefia;
as alfo in the northern parts of England, being faid to be found in
plenty in Torkfhire..
LESSER
CRESTED L.
La Coquillade, Buf. oif. v. p. 77.—PL enl. 662.
rT* HIS is fix inches and three quarters long. The bill nearly
an inch long, and rather flout; brown above, and whitifh
beneath : on the crown is a creft, which it can erect at pleafure;.
the feathers which eompofe this are black, with white edges: the
plumage on. the upper parts of the head and body is blackifh
and pale rufous mixed : the greater wing coverts tipped with-
white: the wing and tail feathers brown, with pale rufous
edges, a few of the wing feathers excepted, which are margined or
tipped with white : the throat, and all the under parts of the body,.
* Orn. ii. p. 371.
white, white, marked with blackifh -fpots on the neck and breaft: the
tlegs are yellowifh.
This fpecies was fent to Buffon from Provence, where it ufhers
in the morn by its fong. The male and female are conftant companions, whether in the time of incubation, or in fearch of food;
which confifts of caterpillars, grafshoppers, fnails, and fuch like.
The above author mentions it as a new fpecies, not before described : indeed there has been a Lark brought from the Cape of
Good Hope, which differed not materially from this, except in
wanting the creft, the under parts more inclined to yellow, and
no white either in the wings or tail—differences too trivial to
forbid our placing it here, either as a female of that above
defcribed, or a young bird.
"L'Alouette hupee du Senegal, Brif orn. iii. p. 362. N° 10. pi. 19. f. 2.
La Grifette ou le Cochevis du Senegal, Buf. oif, v. p. jg.— PI. enl. 504. f. 1
T E N G T H fix inches and a half. Bill nine lines and a half
long, and of an horn-colour: the head is flightly crefted :
the colour of the plumage on the upper parts is grey and brown
mixed, each feather being brown in the middle, with grey edges :
the under parts whitifh, marked with fmall fpots of brown on the
throat: the fides and under the wings incline to rufous : the
quills are grey brown, with grey edges; but at the bafe, for two
thirds of their length, are rufous within: the two middle tail
feathers are grey, the others brown, but the outer one rufous
white for nearly the whole breadth ; the next to this has the outer
edge of the fame colour: the legs and claws\
This is found at Senegal.
bIll R     K.
393
27.
TESTACEOUS
L.
DILL black: upper parts of the body teftaceous: crown of
the head dafhed with black : the wing coverts marked with
the fame : the under parts of the body teftaceous white: quills
dufky; the fecondaries deeply margined with teftaceous; the
edges of the greater pale: four of the middle tail feathers marked
as the quills; the others teftaceous white: legs yellow: hind
claw a trifle incurvated.
Inhabits Gibraltar *.
"DILL flout, white, with a dufky tip: upper part of the
plumage cream-colour; each feather dufky brown in the
middle : coverts and quills edged with grey : the under parts are
yellowifh white, deepeft on the breaft: tail as the upper parts;
fome f of the outer feathers yellowifh white: legs flefh-colour:
claws dufky.
Inhabits Portugal.
PORTUGAL L.
Description,,
* Mr. Pennant.
t As this defcription was taken from a drawing, the number could not be
afcertained.   Mr. Pennant.
Vol. IL
3E
Genus [   394   3
Genus    XL.
WAGTAIL.
I.
White W.
N°   6*. Yellow W.
Var. A. Collared W.
Var. A. Timor W.
2.
Pied W.
7. Yellow-headed W.
1
Cinereous W.
8. CapeW.
4-
Grey W.
9. African W.
Var. A. Javan W.
10. Tchutfchi W.
5-
Indian W.
11. Green W.
(ILL weak and flender; flightly notched at the tip.
Tongue lacerated at the end.
Legs flender.
Birds of this genus frequent the fides of brooks: have long
tails, which are frequently in motion : their pace running: for
the moft part fly in an undulating manner, efpecially if to any
diftance: feldom perch, and have a twittering noife in flight * t
make the neft on or very near the ground.
I believe the whole of this genus is confined to the old continent, and the ifles adjacent. WAGTAIL.
39S
Motacilla alba, Lin. Syft. i. p. 331. N" 11.—Faun. Suec 252.—Scop. an*, i.
N° 224.—Brun. N° 271.—Muller, N° 272.—Kram. el. p.   373. N° I.
—Frifch. t. 23. f. 4.—Olitia, pi. in p. 43.—GeorgiReife, p. 174.
La Lavandiere, Brif. orn. iii. 461. N° 38.—Buf. oif. v. p. 251.pl. 14. f. 1.—
PI. enl. 652. f. i.—Fariety, f. 2.
White Water-Wagtail, £«« .Syn. 7$. A. i.—Will. orn. p. 237.—Albin. i.
pi. 49.— -Sr. Zoe/. i. N° 142. pi. $$.—Ar8. Zool.
Br. Muf   Lev. Muf
nches,  of \
'"PHE length of this fpecies is feven
tail is one half.    The bill is black : irides haz^l
hich the
the hind
part of the head, and nape of the neck, are black : the forehead,
round the eyes, and fides of the neck, are white : the chin, fore
part of the neck, and breaft, black: the upper parts of the
body, wing coverts, and rump, are cinereous: greater wing
coverts, and fecondary quills, dufky, edged with grey: greater
quills blackifh; the fecondaries and prime quills nearly of a
length: the lower parts of the breaft and belly are white: the
eight middle tail feathers are black, edged with grey; the others
are white, except at the bafe, and tips of the inner webs, which
are dufky: the legs are black.
In the female the top of the head inclines to brown.
Some birds have only a crefcent of black on the breaft, the
chin and throat being quite white.
Thefe birds frequent watery places for the molt part, feeding
on flies and other infects. Make their neft on the ground, com-
pofed of dry grafs, fine fibres of roots, and mofs, lined within
with hair or feathers. The eggs are five in number, white,
fpotted with brown ; and for the moft part have only one brood
in a year. It is often feen running on the ground, which it does
3 E 2 very
Place akd
Manners. 296 WAGTAIL.
very quick, leaping up frequently after the flies, &c. which are
too high for their catching on the ground.
' It is a fpecies very far fpread, being found throughout the
whole of the old continent *. It is mentioned by authors as
migratory for the moft part; with us it fhifts its quarters to the
fouth, as the winter approaches, and I believe part of them migrate, as I do not recollect feeing fo many in winter as the
fummer feafon. In Scotland, and in the north of England, fcarce
ever feen in the hard weather.
This, and others of this clafs, are called, both by the French
and ourfelves, Wafher-women, or Difh-wafhers.
In the Leverian Mufeum is a fine variety ; white, except the
hind parts, which are yellowifh.
La Bergeronette a Collie
Var. A.
COLLARED  W.
de l'Ifle deLucon, Son. Foy. p. 61. t. 29.
Lev. Muf.
C IZ E of our Wagtail. Bill black: irides hazel: forehead,
as far as the crown, round the bill, and the cheeks and throat,
are white: hind part of the head and neck, the lower part of the
neck before, and breaft, black: the back is afh-colour: acrofs
the wing is an oblique bar of white, beginning at the baftard
wing : the quills are black, edged with white ; the outer ones
wholly black: the tail is black, except the two outer feathers,
which are white : legs black.
Inhabits the ifland of Lufonia. I have alfo feen one which
came from Kamtfchatka, now in the poffeflion of Sir Jofeph
Banks.
* I have met with this more than once in Chinefe drawings. WAGTAIL/
397
La Bergeronette de Madraft, Brif. orn. iii. p. 478. N° 44.—Buf. oif. v. 275,
Black and White Wagtail, Raii Syn. p. 194. 3. pi. 1. f. 1. PIED*W.
Forked Wagtail, Id. N° 4. pi. 1. f. 6.
"DILL, head,   neck,  breaft,  and upper  parts  of the  body,    Description.
black: the under parts white: there is alfo an oblique band
of white crofs the wing : the middle tail feathers are black, and
fome of the outer ones white, but how many of each is not
manifeft from either defcription or figure.
The forked Wagtail is  moft likely the female,  as  it differs        Female.
merely in having thofe parts afh-colour which are black in the
male.
Thefe inhabit Madras. Place.
La Bergeronette grife, Brif. 0
p. 261.—PI. enl. 674.
i. p. 465. N° 39. pi. 25. f. l.—Bufi. oif. v
. CINEREOUS W.
COMEWHAT lefs than the laft: length-.ftx inches three
quarters. Bill brown : the upper parts of the head, neck,
and body, cinereous grey: the under white: acrofs the breaft a
brownifh band: wing coverts and fecondaries blackifh, edged
with whitifh : greater quills blackifh brown : the tail dufky black,'
but the outer feather is white, except the bafe half of the
inner web; the fecond the fame, but the webs are white only for
one-third of their length, and the inner web black at the end:
legs brown.
The female wants the band on the breaft.
We have not this in England, though authors talk of it as
common on the continent, where it is frequently feen in the
fummer,
Plac
Man fummer, in fome numbers, in thepaftures among cattle; retiring
to the ftreams when the flies in the firft become fcarce. Part of
thefe only are fuppofed to migrate.
It differs fomewhat from ours in making the neft, which it
does on fome low willow near the ground, and hatches twice in
the year."
Motacilla boarula, Lin.Mant. 1771. p. 527.—Scop. ann. i. N° 225.
La Bergeronette jaune, Brif. orn. iii. p. 471. N°4i. pi. 23. f. 3. (the male).
—Buf. oif v. 268.—•/>/. enl. 28. f. 1.
Motacilla flava altera, Rati Syn. 75. 3.
Yellow Wagtail, Albin. ii. pi. 58. (female.)
Grey Wagtail, Will. orn. p. 238.— Edw. pi. 259. (the male.)—Br. Zool. i.
N° 144.—Ard. Zool.
Br. Muf     Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH feven inches and a half. Bill brown: the upper parts are greenifh afh-colour : over the eye a pale
ftreak: fides of the head afh-colour : chin and throat black:
upper tail coverts, and whole of the under parts of the body,
yellow: under tail coverts deep yellow : wing coverts brown,
edged with afh-colour: quills brown; fecondaries white at the bafe
and brown at the ends, and almoft as long as the greater quills :
tail longeft of all the fpecies; the outer feather white ; the next
has the infide and tip white, the outfide blackifh; third nearly
the fame, but has the inner edge black; the others blaejk, with
greenifh edges: legs yellowifh brown.
The female has no black on the throat.
This is a conftant inhabitant of thefe kingdoms, frequenting
watery places, and fmall ftreams, for the fake of infects, on
which it feeds.   The neft is on the ground, not far/rem the
water, WAGTAIL.
water, compofed of dried fibres and mofs, lined with hair, feathers, or wool, within. The eggs are from fix to eight in
number, of a dirty white, marked with yellow fpots.
This is a very elegant fpecies, and found on the continent in
various parts, and feems more hardy than the others. Linnaeus
fays it is gregarious, but with us is feen only fingle, except in
pairing time. It is called at Bologna by the names of Boarola, or
Btarina.   It is alfo found at •!
L
La Bergeronette de Java, Brif. orn, iii. p. 474. N° 42.   pi. 25. f. 2.—
Buf. oif v. p. 272.
E N G T H feven inches. Bill grey : the head, upper parts
of the body, and upper tail coverts, olive yellow: throat
and neck grey : reft of the under parts yellow, deepeft towards
the vent: greater wing coverts brown : quills the fame, but the
fecondaries are white half way from the bafe; the third quill
from the body as long as the greater ones: the fix middle tail
feathers are blackifh j the two next white within, and at the tip,
the outer edge blackifh; the outer one white, except for two-
thirds down the fhaft, where it is blackifh : legs grey.
Inhabits the ifland of Java,
La Bergeronette grife des Indes.
m. Foy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 207.
^p H E bill of this  bird is pale .rufous:   irides yellow: the
head, hind part of the neck, back, and rump, are dirty
greenifh grey : the throat, breaft, and belly, very light yellow :
* Adati/bH.—He calls it the Ortolan of that country.    He fays that they are
one lump of fat, and the tafte excellent.
10 on
INDIAN W.
Description. WAGTAIL.
on the breaft are two black curved bands, joining at their ends,
and are alfo united together in the middle by a line of the fame ;
the leffer wing coverts are like the back ; the others yellow,
and the fecond quills part brown part yellow; the prime quills
dirty brown, with yellow edges: the two middle tail feathers
greenifh grey ; the others blackifh brown ; the two outer ones
white, as are the thighs and vent: the legs pale rufous.    ,
•*- YELLOW W.
Placb as
Manner
Motacilla flava, Lin. Syft. i. p. 331. N° 12.—Faun. Suee. 253—Scop. ann. i.
N° 226.—Brun. N° 273, 274.—Muller, N° 27i.—Kram. el. p. 374. 2.
—Fri/ch. pi. 2$.—Georgi Reife, p. 174.   -
La Bergeronette de Printemps, Brif. orn. iii. p. 468. N° 40.—Buf.  oif. v.
265. pi. 14. f. I.—PL enl. 674. N° 2.
Yellow  Water Wagtail,   Raii Syn. 75. A.  2.—Will. orn.  p. 238. pi. 68.
—Edw. pi. 158. (the female.)—Br. Zool. i. N° 143.—Arcl. Zool.
Br. Muf.     Lev.  Muf.
T E N G T H fix inches and a half. Bill black : irides hazel :
the head, and upper parts of the body, olive green ; rump
paleft : under parts, from the breaft, bright yellow : on the throat
a few black fpots: over the eye a ftreak of yellow; through the
eye a fecond of dufky; and beneath the eye a third of the fame
colour: leffer wing coverts as the back; the others dufky, edo-ed
with pale yellow: quills dufky : the tail black, except two of
the outer feathers, which are half black half white, divided obliquely : legs black: the hind claw very long.
The female is much lefs bright in colour: the ftreak over the
eye whitifh, and wants the black markings on the throat.
This is common in moift meadows and corn-fields in England
in the fummer-time, migrating, or at leaft fhifting its quarters, WAGTAIL.
in the winter *. In France it is feen at all times of the year,
except the winter is uncommonly fevere, changing the uplands
for the fides of gentle ftreams, when food grows fcarce in the
firft.
It makes the neft in the corn-fields f, on the ground, compofing
it of bents and fibres of roots, lining it with hair. The eggs
are five in number, varied with dufky fpots and lines, without
any order.
Bergeronette de Plfle de Timor, Buf. oif. v. 27;.
"DILL black, rather flout at the bafe, leffening towards the
point, and a trifle curved: the upper part of the plumage
is cinereous grey: beneath yellow: over the eye a line of yellow : greater wing coverts tipped with white, forming a band
acrofs the wing: quills and tail black: legs pale red : the hind
claw twice the length of any of the others.
Found in the IJle of timor, in the Eajl Indies.
401
6.
Var. A.
TIMOR W.
Motacilla citreola, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 6g6. 14.
YELLOW-
HEADED W.
A  Trifle bigger than the Tellow Wagtail, but not unlike it.     Description.
The head, neck, and all beneath, yellow: on the nape is
a blackifh crefcent : the back of a blueifh afh-colour: wings
and tail like the Tellow Wagtail.
* Some remain all the year, in Hampjhire.   Br. Zool.
f In holes, under fallen trees and logs. Frifch.—Often under the -banks of
ftreams.   Hifi. des oif.
Vol. II. 3 F Very 402
wagtail;
Very common in Sibiria, even to the ar&ic circle; found alfo
in Rufifia, but lefs numerous. Has the manners of other Wagtails.
This is perhaps the fame bird mentioned by Lepechin *, which
was fix inches and a half long : the two outer tail feathers
white, and the outmoft ftreaked with black: in other things
as above defcribed.
Description^
Motacilla Capenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 333. N° 24.
La Bergeronette du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. am. iii. p. 476. N° 43.
pi. 25. f.i.—Buf. oif. v. p. 273.—PI. enl. 28. 2. ?
OIZE of the White Wagtail. Bill dufky : the upper parts
brown : the under dirty white, inclining to dufky on the
fides: over the eye a whitifh ftreak: acrofs the breaft a dufky
band: quills brown, edged with grey: the tail is black, except
the two outer feathers, the greateft half of which next the end
is white : legs dufky.
AFRICAN W.
D"ESCR,l»1*fc#N,-
La petite Bergeronette du Cap de Bonne^fperance, Buf. oif v. p. 274.
^pH IS is lefs than the former. The bill black, broad at the
bafe,. flender at the point, and a little curved : the upper
parts of the body yellowifh brown : beneath yellow, except the
under tail coverts, which are white: over the eye a ftreak of
black: wings, tail, (which is half the length of the bird) and legs,
black : the hind claw largeft..
From the Cape of Good Hope.
* See Voy. vol. ii. p. 187. W   A   G   T   A   I   L.
403
Tchutfchi Wagtail, Aril. Zool. TCHUTSCHI
W.
•PR O WN of the head, and back, deep olive brown : between     Description.
the upper mandible and eye a fpot of white: wing coverts
and primaries deep brown ; the firft croffed with two bars of
white : breaft and belly white, dafhed with ruft-colour: vent
pale yellow: tail very long; the whole of the outer, and half
of the inner, web of the outer tail feather white; all the reft
dufky: legs black.
Found off the tchutfchi coaft. Place.
Qreen Wagtail, Brown. Illuftr. p. 86. t. 33.
T ENGTH four inches*.    Head cinereous:  neck,   back,
and breaft, pale green :   wings and tail cinereous, edged
with white : belly white.
Inhabits Ceylon.
■GREEN W.
Description.
FXACBo
' In the plate—the foe is not mentioned in the defcription.
3*
Genus [   4©4   J
Genus  XLI.
WAR
B L E R.
Nightingale.
N° 18.
Black-headed W.
Var. A. Greater D°.
19.
White Throat.
Var. B. White D%
Var. A.
2.
Madagafcar W*
20.
Grafshopper W.
3-
Pettichaps.
21.
Sedge W.
4-
Pafferine W~
22.
Rufous W.
5-
Blackcap.
23-
Epicurean W.
Var. A.
24.
Fig-cater.
Var. B.
*5-
Alpine W.
Var. C.
26.
Patagonian W-
6.
Babbling W..
27.
Dartford W.
7-
Reed W.
28.
African W.
8.
Aquatic W-
29.
New York W.
9-
Hedge W.
jo.
Umbrofe W.
ro.
Rufh W.
31-
Yellow-throated W.
ii.
Redftart.
32.
Yellow-breafted W.
Var. A.
Var. A.
Var. B.
33-
Rufous-tailed W.
Var. C.
34-
Yellow-bellied W.
12
. Grey Redftart-
35-
Blue-grey W.
JJ
Chefnut-bellied W.
36-
• Yellow-backed W.
H
Red-tail.
31-
PenfileW.
15.
Guiana D°.
38.
Red-breaft.
16.
Black D°.
Var. A. Bologna D*.
*7«
Caffrarian W.
39-
Blue-throated W.
40, BI t  405  1
^40. Blue W.
N° 67. Yellow-fronted W.
41. White-breafted W.
68. Hooded W.
42. Cinnamon Wl
Var. A.
43. Black-jawed W.
69. Ruby Throat.
44. Rufty-headed W.
70. Murine W.
45. Buff-faced W.
71. Thorn-tailed W»
46. Stone Chat.
72. Magellanic W.
47. Sybil W.
73. Citrine W.
Var. A.
74. Long-legged W.
48. LuzonianW.
75. Wheat-ear.
49. Sooty W.
Var. A.
5.0. Spectacle W.
Var. B.
51. Coromandel W.
Var. C.
52.. Philippine W-
76. RuffetW.E.
53. Dark W.
Var. A.
54. White Chat.
77. Rufous W. E.
5$. Sultry W.
78. CapeW. E.
$6. Sibirian W.
79. Orange-breafted W. E
57. Senegal W.
80. Black-hooded W. E.
58. Leucomele W.
81. Provence W. E.
59. Black and White W-
82. Spotted W. E.
60. MoorW.
83. White-crowned W.
. Var. A.
84. Grifly W.
61. Yellow-browed W.
85. Pink W..
6.2. Gilt-throat W.
86. Olive W*.
63. Blue-tailed W.
8-7. Ceylon W.
64. Daurian W.
88. CingalefeW.
65. Black-poll W.
89. China W.
66. Grey-polLW.
90. Green Indian W.
91. White- Hj
White-eyed W.
N° 119
Orange-headed W.
92.
Bourbon W.
120
Crefted W.
93-
Maurice W.
i2r
Rufous and black W.
94.
Madagafcar W.
I2"2.
Equatorial W.
95-
Citron-bellied W.
I23.
Prothonotary W.
96.
Undated W.
124.
Half-collar W.
97-
Dufky W.
125.
Orange-bellied W.
98.
Flaxen W.
126.
Olive-brown W.
99-
Red-headed W.
127.
Graffet W.
100.
St. Domingo W.
128.
Grey-throated W.
101.
Louifiane W.
129.
Hang-neft W.
102.
Green and White W.
130.
White-chinned W.
103.
Orange-throated W.
Bf-8
Palm W.
104.
Yellow-rumped W.
132.
Banana W.
105.
Brown-throated W.
133-
Worm-eater.
106.
Spotted Yellow W.
134.
Simple W.
Var. A.
13S-
Great-tailed W.
107.
Pine W.
136.
Long-tailed W.
108.
Green W.
feifj
Superb W.
109.
Quebec W.
138.
Cayenne W.
no.
Jamaica W.
Var. A.
III.
Golden-crowned W.
Var. B.
112.
Belted W.
139-
Blue-headed W.
"3-
Black-throated W.
140.
Blue-ftriped W.
114.
Whfepoll W.
141.
Red-bellied W.
115.
Bloody-fide W.
142.
Guira W.
Il6.
Red-throated W.
w_
Wren.
117.
Caerulean W.
Var. A.
n8.
Gold-winged W.
Var. B.
144. Brown WARBLER.
144. Brown W.
145. Gold-cre-fted W.
Tar. A.
146. Ruby-crowned W.
147. Yellow W.
Var. A.
N* 14
149
Var. B.
Var. C.
Var. D.
Yellow-poll W.
Tailor W.
BIR DS of  this  genus have  a  flender and  weak bill    :
noftrils fmall, a little depreflfed : tongue cloven.
The exterior toe joined at the under part to the bafe of the
middle one.
This genus and the laft are blended by Linnaus, but very
properly feparated by Mr. Pennant, as they differ in feveral of
their manners. The birds here treated of perch on trees, for
the moft part; proceed by leaps, not running fi and feldom
emit any noife in flight. They are the moft numerous of any
genus and the major part inhabit the warmer regions, where
infeds of all kinds, their proper food, abound. Many of the
birds included in this chapter feem to belong to the Flycatcher
tribe ; and perhaps, on future inveftigation, may hereafter prove-
to be really fuch.
--Many have a notch at the tip of the upper mandible, bnt this charader
s not conftant.
\ The Wheat-ears, and. fome others, are an exception ,to this.- - NIGHTINGALE.
324. N° i.—Kram. el. p, 375. N° 9.—
p. 32. N° 265.—Frijch. t. 21.—Kram, el.
Motacilla lufcinia, Lin. Syft. i. p
Brun. orn. p. 79.—Muller, t
376. 10.—Olin. uc. pi. in p. ..
Sylvia lufcinia, Scop. ann. i. N° 227.
Le Roffignol, Brif. orn. iii. p. 397. N° 13.—Buf. oif v. p. 8
PI. enl. 615. N° 2.
■ Nightingale, Rait Syn. p. 7%.—Will. 01
Br. Zool. i. N° 145. Aril. Zool.
220. pi. $i.—AIbii
Muf   Lev. Muf
HPHIS, though a plain bird, merits the firft place in the
Warbler genus, on account of its delightful fong. It is
larger in fize than the Hedge Sparrow, and in length fix inches
and a quarter. The bill is brown : irides hazel : the head and
back pale tawny, dafhed with olive : the tail of a deep tawny
red: under parts pale afh-colour, growing white towards the
vent: quills cinereous brown, with the outer margins reddifh
brown : legs cinereous brown.
The male and female very fimilar.
This bird is fufficiently common in England, but not feen in
the more northern counties, and feldom in the weftern, Torkfhire
being the fartheft to which it migrates, and fcarce ever feen
either in Devonjhire or Cornwall. It comes into this ifland the
beginning of April, and departs fome time in Auguft. It is met
-with in Sibiria, Sweden, Germany, France, Italy, and Greece, but
in all thofe places is migratory, as in England; indeed we are not
clear in refpedt to its natural winter refidence, but moft likely it
is not in Europe ; nor are we pofitive of its being in Africa * :
# In the Foy. aux Canaries, p. 104, a Nightingale is mentioned, which is
faid not to fing fo well as ours, it is therefore not certain of its being the fame. WARBLER.
we may therefore conclude that it is an inhabitant of the
AJiatic regions, during fuch times as it is not to be found in
Europe. Haffelauift * fpeaks of it as being in Paleftine; and
Fryer-\ afcertains its being found about Chulminor in Perfia-, it
is alfo fpoke of as a bird of China, Kamtfchatka jl, and Japan fl;
at which laft place they are much efteemed, and fell-dear; as
they are alfo at Aleppo, where they are " in great abundance
" kept tame in houfes, and let out at a fmall rate to fuch as
" chufe it in the city, fo that no entertainment is made in the
" fpring without a concert of thefe birds §," We are almoft
certain of their not being found in America, though many of
their birds bear that name §§.
None but the vileft epicure would think of eating thefe charming fongfters ; yet we are told that their flefh is equal to that of
the Ortolan, and they are fatted in Gafcony for the table. Every
fchool-boy muft have read of Heliogabalus eating of Nightingales
tongues ; and that famed difh of the Roman tragedian ASfop,
which was compofed of thofe of every finging or talking birdJJ.
409
* He fays it is very common on the fhores of the river Nile.
f " The Nightingale, the fweet harbinger of die light, is a conftant chearer
" of thefe groves, charming with its warbling ftrains the heavieft foul into s
•'.pleafing extacy."    Fryer's Travels, p. 248.
% Ellis's Narrative, ii. p. 229.
|| JUmpfer -Japan.
§ Rujf. Alep. p. 7.
§<j Virginia* Nightingale, American Nightingale, Spanijh Nightingale. All
birds of a different fpecies, for certain.
XX This difh is faid to have coft about 6843/. I0•f• of our money. Br.
Zool. ii. 656, note.
Vol. II.
The WARBLER.
The female makes her neft in fome low bufh, or quickfet-
hedge, well covered with foliage, for fuch only this bird fre- ;
quents; and lays four or five eggs, of a greenifh brown. The
neft is compofed of dry leaves on the outfide, mixed with grafs
and fibres, lined with hair or down within, though not always
alike : I have alfo known the neft made upon a little rifing
ground. The female alone fits on and hatches the eggs, while
the male, not far off, confoles her with his delightful fong*;
but as foon as the young are hatched, leaves off finging, for the
moft part, and joins with the female in the talk of providing
for and feeding them. After the young can provide for them-
felves, the old female provides for a fecond brood, and the fong,
of the male recommences. They have alfo" been known to have
three broods in a year, and in the hot countries even four f. It
has been obferved, that the males are at leall double in number
to the females %.
. They are folitary birds, never uniting into even :fmall
flocks; and in refpect to the nefts, it is very feldom that two
are found near each other. Thefe birds are often brought
up from the neft for the fake of their fong; and are likewife
caught at their firft coming over, and, though old  birds, yet
* The male in general only fings, yet now and then a female has been known;
to fing in a cage.
t Hifi. des oif.
X Buffon fays, that there are always more males than females; fo that if one
is deftroyed, the female never fails to get a new mate, and even a fecond or
third, if wanting. Quere, How are the fupernumerary males provided for i
or did nature enjoin the unhappy batchelor a ftate of celibacy ?
The males arrive firft, and in about a week after tx\efemales, who have feldom.
any males with them. No wonder, then, if all the birds firft caught fhould be
males.    See Br. Zool. i WARBLER.
may be made by management to bear confinement, and fing
equally with thofe brought up from the neft*. — Thus much for
the general manners; the whole of which would fill a volume.
Thofe who defire more, may confult the Br. Zool. and Appendix;
alfo the Hifi. des oif. where the fubjecl: is treated in the moft ample manner.
411
Le grand Roflignol, Brif orn. iii. p. 400.-
Groffe-nachtigalle, Schwench. Sil. p. 296.
Slowick wiekfzy, Rzacz. Au£t. Pol. 391.
Sprofs-vogel, Frifch. pi. 21.
-Buf. oif. v. p. 113.
Va*. A.
GREATER N.
HP H I S is mentioned by authors as being confiderably bigger
than the other, and, according to Frifch, fings even better.
The plumage is faid to be rufous and afh-colour mixed.
This author alfo fpeaks of a third, which is fmaller than the
other two, whofe fong is only in proportion to its fize -f.
Thefe are faid to be met with chiefly in Silefta ; not but there
are Nightingales of a much larger fize to be met with about
Anjou, in France.
* If an old bird be caught at the firft coming, it begins to fing after fix or
eight days confinement, and after the ufual time, the fong goes off; and again
the end of December; and fo on every year : but if brought up from the neft, it
fings the whole year round, except during the time of moulting; and often
better than the wild Nightingale.
f See Krom. el. p. 376. N° 10. ?
!  G  2 4I«
WARBLER.
Var. B.
WHITE N.
Le Roffignol blanc, Brif orn,
ii. p, 777.
iii. p. 401. —- Buf oif. v. p. 114. — Aldr. av.
Description.    C I Z E of the common Nightingale, but wholly white t: and
others have been known with the head, neck,  wings, and
tail, white;   the reft of the plumage pale brown and white,
mixed.
MADAGASCAR
W.
PLA6
Le Roffignol de Madagafcar, Brif c
Le Foudi-jala, Buf. oif v. p. 116.
. p. 401. N° 14. pi. 22. f. 1.
OIZ E of our Nightingale : length near fix inches and a half.
Bill deep brown : the head rufous: behind each eye a brown
fpot: the upper parts of the body olive brown : throat white :
breaft pale rufous: belly rufous brown, inclining to olive : tail
above, olive brown; beneath, inclining to olive : legs deep
brown.
This is found at Madagafcar, where they call it Foudi-jala.
t Thought a prefent worthy of Agrippina, the wife of the Emperor Claudius ;
.for which bird 6000 fefterces had been offered. — Pliny, Nat. Hifi. 1. x.
eap. 29. WAR
LER.
La Fauvette, Brif. orn. iii, p. 372. 2.—Buf. oif. v. p. 117. pi. 7.—Pi. enl. 579. f.
C I Z E of the Hedge Sparrow : length fix inches. Bill blackifh ;
^ bafe of the under mandible paler : plumage, on the upper parts,
greyifh brown ; deepeft on the head: from the bafe of the bill a
whitifh ftreak, paffing over the eye, but not beyond it: the under
parts are rufous white, inclining moft to the laft colour towards the
vent : the fides and thighs verge to grey: quills cinereous brown,
with greyifh edges: tail brown, edged with grey brown ; the outer
feather dirty white on the outer web and towards the tip of the
inner, dividing the feather obliquely * : legs brown-
This is a common fpecies in France and Italy, where it frequents
the. fields and gardens, often building on the pea-flicks. The neft is
compofed of dried herbs, lined with fine fibres and hair. The eggs
are five in number.
A bird very nearly allied to the above, if not a variety, is alfo not
uncommon in England. Size and length the fame : the upper parts
greyifh brown, with a caft of green ; the under dufky white, inclining a little to brown acrofs the breaft and over the thighs: the thighs
themfelves ftill darker: quills and tail dufky, edged with the general
colour of the upper parts, but all the feathers of the laft of one colour:
there is alfo an indiftindl trace of white over the eye, as in the laft
defcribed : bill and legs brown.
This is not unfrequent in Lancafhire, from whence a pair was fent
to me from Sir A. Lever. The male and female are much alike.
The egg of a dirty white, marked with irregular dufky blotches of
various fizes, particularly about the middle; and here and there a
fcratch of black.    I received it by the name of Pettychaps.
PETTYCHAPS.
Pla.
Ma
Motacilla hippolais, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 33©. 7.
Pettychaps, or Beccafigo, Rail Syn, p. 79. A. 7.—Will. orn. p. 216.—Br. Zool. i
N° 149. (the defcription).
CIZE rather fmaller than a Linnet. Bill fhort j the upper man-
fp dible black ; the under blueifh ! infide of the mouth fiefh-colour ■
above and below the eye a yellowifh line: head, neck, and upper
* The tip of the laft feather but one is alfo white.   Hifi. des oif.
Vol. II. 3 G 3 parts,
LESSER
PETTYCHAPS. WARBLER.
parts, greenifh afh-colour : quills and tail moufe-colour,with greenifh
edges and black lliafts : under wing coverts yellow: belly filvery
white : the breaft darker, and tinged with yellow : legs blueifh or
lead-coloured.
This fpecies is frequent in feveral parts of England, and makes a
neft of an arched form, compofed of dry bents, mixed with a little
mofs, and thickly lined with feathers : it is placed on the ground
under a tuft of grafs, or at the bottom of a bufh. The eggs are
five in number, white, fprinkled all over with fmall red fpots, moft
fo at the largeft end. In Dorfetfhire it is known by the name of Hay-
bird *.    In Torkfhire it is called the Beam-bird \.
4. La petit Fauvette, Brif. orn. iii. p. 374.   N°3.
PASSERINE  W.       Pafferinette, Buf. oif. v. p. 123.— PI. enl. 579. f. 2.
Borin, Aldr. av. ii. p. 733. t. in p. -riit.—Johnfi. av. t. 44.—Rail Syn. p. Si.
N° 10.—Will. orn. p. 216.
Description. >-pHIS is lefs than the laft, being only five inches and a quarter
■*■ in length. The bill is flender and fharp, and of a brown colour -
irides red brown : the upper parts of the body pale afh-colour J; the
under parts of a greyifh white; the fides inclining to brown : over
the eye a fmall whitifh ftreak: quills and tail dufky : legs lead-colour.
Place and This inhabits various parts of Europe, but is not in England.    It
Manners. js founcj jn provence, in France, where it is called Pafferinette; by
the people of Bologna, Chivin ; at Marfeilles, Becafigulo ; and Borin
by the Genoefe.
It makes the neft on fome low bufh, near the ground ; fuch as a
goofeberry-bufh. It is compofed of dry herbs, largeft on theoutfide,
and finer within.
The eggs are four in number, of a dirty white, fpotted with green
of two colours; moft fo about the large end.
It has no other note than a chirp or two, which it repeats when
hopping from one fhrub to another.
* For the above account I am indebted to the Rev. Mr. Lightfoot. The bird, neft,
and eggs, are in the collection of the Duchefs Dowager oi Portland, at Bulfirode.
t Br. Zool.
'■ X Willughby fays, the rump is white ; but neither Bnffon nor Brijfon mention this
circumftance. WARBLER.
415
Motacilla atricapilla, Lin. Syft. i. p. 332. N° 18. — Faun. Suec N* 256.— S-
Scop.  ann. i. Nu 229. —- Brun. orn. N° 278.  279. — Muller, p.  33.       BLACKCAP.
N° 2yj.—Kram. el. 377. 15.—Frifch. t. 23. -Olin. uc. pi. in p. 9.
La Fauvette a tete noire, Brif. orn. iii. p. 380. N° 6. — Buf. oif. v. p. 125.
pi. 8. f. 1.
Blackcap, Rail Syn. p. 79. A. 8.—Will. orn. p. 226. — Br. Zool. i. N° 148.
—Aral. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T N fize lefs than the Pettichaps: length five inches and a quar-    De.
ter. Bill brown : the top of the head is black: the upper
parts of the body greenifh afh-colour: fides of the head, and
under parts, grey, changing, to very light grey, or almoft white,
towards the vent: the quills and tail cinereous brown, margined
with the fame colour as the upper parts : the tail has the two
middle feathers rather the fhorteft: legs lead-colour: claws
black.
The female differs from the male only in having the head of a
ferruginous chefnut-colour, inftead of black.
This bird is not unfrequent in England, and elfewhere in
Europe,, as far as Italy; in all which places it is known to breed ;
coming in fpring, and retiring in September.
With us it makes but one neft in the year*, which is generally
placed in fome low bufh, not far from the ground. It is compofed of dried ftalks, mixed with a little wool and green mofs
round the verge : the infide lined with the fibres of roots, thinly
covered with black horfe-hair.
SCRIPT10N.
Placb .
Manne
In Italy it builds twice in the year.—— Olina.
The WARBLER.
i in number 5 of a pale reddif
lour, and fprinkled with a few <
1 brown, mottled
The male takes turn with the female during incubation j and
the young very early leap out of the neft, efpecially if any one
approaches it, and forfake it for ever.
The food is not confined to infecls, as it will, in defe& of them,
eat the fruits of Spurge Laurel, Service, and Ivy. It feems to be
even fond of the laft, as they much frequent fuch trees as are
overgrown with it 5 and I have found more than once the berries
of ivy in their ftomach, at a time when there has been plenty of
infecls of all kinds. I once alfo knew a pair of thefe build in an
old ivy-tree, pretty high from the ground.
The fong is much efteemed, and in many things almoft equalling the Nightingale itfelf; fcarcely deficient, except in the delightful variety of note of the laft-named bird. Hence by man/
has been named the Mock Nightingale.
Of this there are two varieties*
La Fauvette a te te noire, Brif. arm. Iii. p. 383.
Ficedula varia, Aldr. av. ii. p. 759.
Description.     HPHIS differs from the other, in being wholly variegated with
white and black only.
La petite Columbadc, Buf oif y. p. 131.
Description.    'T^HIS is fomewhat bigger: has the upper parts of a very
deep and almoft blackifh colour; the throat white; and the
fides grey.
This is found in Provence, where it frequents the woods.
5 Faurettr W   A   R   B   L
417
•Fauvette verdatre de la Louifiane, Buf. oif v p. 162.
CI Z E of the Blackcap Warbler. Bill dufky : top of the head
blackifh : hind part of the neck deep afh-colour: fides and
back pale brown, with a tinge of green: wings and tail blackifh,
edged with brownifh green : above the eye a ftreak of white:
throat white", under parts of the body -grey*.
Inhabits Louifiana.
Var. C.
Description.
Motacilla
curruca,
Lin.
Syft. 1
P'3
29. Nc
6. — Faun
Sui
. i. N° 2
28.-
-Muller,
P-
32. No
267.
La Fauvet
te Babillarde
Brifio
iii. p.
384. N° 7.-
-Bi
PI
enl. 580
. f.
\zfW
■Beccafico <
anapino
Oh
n. uc. p
1
B
. f. 2.
r. M*f
-Will. orn.
pi.
, N" 247. — Scop.
BABBLING W.
T E N G T H five inches. Bill blackifh : crown of the head
cinereous: the reft of the upper parts the fame, but inclining
to brown : beneath the eye a ftreak of deep afh-colour: the under
parts, and the edge of the wing, rufous white: quills brown,
edged within with white, and outwardly with rufous grey; but
the greater ones with afh-colour: tail brown, edged with grey;
the outer feather on each fide has the outer web and tip white;
the inner web cinereous, bordered with white; the middle feather
the fhorteft, making the tail fomewhat forked : legs browm
This fpecies inhabits France and Italy; frequenting the hedges,
and building therein, not far from the ground. The eggs are
greenifh, dotted with brown *.
* Afh-coloured, fpotted with ferruginous.—Faun. Suec,
Vol, II. 3 H
The WARBLER.
The food,, for the moft part,, is Cater j
Scopoli obferves, that it is a refllefs,
notes of other birds;   and is frequent
fummer, where it is called Bianchetto.
noify bird, imitating the
in the gardens at Pifa in
Motacilla Schsenobar
. Syft.
Scop. ann. i. NQ 235..—Faun. Arab. p. 6. N° 17.
Motacilla Yvica, Hajfelq. Foy. p. 286. N° 50.
La Fauvette de bois, ou la Rouffette, Brif. or*, iii. p. 3<
v. p. 139.—RaiiSyjt. p. 80. N° 1.
Small Nightingale, Will. er*. p. 237.
Of ZE of the Pettichaps.    The bill blackifh
part of the neck, breaft, back, rump, wing
and ta
:ad, hind
I coverts,
borde
rufous
["holly--
brown and rufous; viz. each feather brown,
fous : throat, fore part of the neck, belly, fide
inclined to rufous : quills brown, edged with
brown : legs whitifh.
This is found both in France and Italy, and is likewift an inhabitant of Sweden. Whether it migrates in the laft, we are not
told; but it is known to winter in the fouth of France, changing
its place, like the Whin Chat in England.
It builds the neft in the woods, which is chiefly compofed ef
mofs and wool; and lays four or five fky-blue eggs.
The young are readily brought up; and the bird in general
very tame and familiar. Its fong is not unpleafant; and befides,
treating us. with it during the winter feafon.
Sylvia WARBLER.
419
Sylvia Schaenobanus, Scop. ann. i. N° 235.
AQUATIC W.
PT* H I S feems to me to differ in fpecies from the laft.
Scopoli defcribes his bird as having the upper parts pale rufous, fpotted with brown; the throat and breaft both inclined to
rufous; and the belly and rump whitifh: there is a whitifh fpot
alfo above the outer corner of the eye, and a band of white at the
bafe of the wing : the tail feathers are pointed.
He fays, that it builds on the ground ; is often feen fitting on
the tops of plants; migrates early in autumn; and is called
by the Italians, Grifato.
The circumftance of the migrating, gives reafon for fuppofing
it a different bird from the other; otherwife they fomewhat cor-
refpond.
I  ■
Motacilla modularis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 329. N° 3. — Faun. Suec. 245. — Brun,
70. 269.—Muller, p. 32. N° 266.—Frifch. t. 21.
LaFauvette de Hay.e, ou la Paffe-bu.fe, Brif. orn. iii. p.. 394. N° 12.
Le Traine-buiffon, Mouchet, ou la Fauvette d'Hiver, Buf. oif. v. p. 151.
pi. 9.—PI. enl.6\$. f. 1.
Hedge Sparrow, Raii Syn. p. 79. A. 6. — Will. orn. 215. — Albin. iii. pi. 59.
—Br. Zool. i. N° 150.—Artt. Zool.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
-■HpHIS well-known bird meafures five inches and a quarter.
The bill is blackifh : irides hazel: the head deep brown,
mixed with afh-colour: cheeks marked with oblong fpots of dirty
white : back and wing coverts dufky, edged with reddifh brown:
quills and tail dufky : rump greenifh brown : throat and breaft
3 H 2 dull Female.
Place and
Manners.
WARBLER.
dull.afh-colour: belly dirty white : fides, thighs, and vent, pale
tawny brown :  legs dull flefh-colour.
In the female the colours are lefs vivid than in the male.
This bird frequents hedges in England, and is very common.
Makes its neft of mofs and wool, lining it with hair; and lays
four or five eggs, of a fine pale blue. With us, and the more
northern regions, it is feen at all feafons ; but in France it is migratory, coming in Otloler, and departing northward in fpring \
however a very few flay behind; for now and then a neft is found
in France, though rare.
This is a winter fongfter; and its hote would be thought plea-
fant, did it not remind us of the approach of winter; beginning.
with the firft frofts, and continuing till a little time in fpring.
Its often repeating the words tit, tit, ut, has occasioned its-
being called titling; a name it is known by in many places.
The Cuckow frequently lays her egg in the neft of this bird.
Le Moineau de Virginie, Brif. orn. iii. p. i©i. 14
Little Brown Sparrow, Catefb. Car. i. p. 353.
Rufh Warbler, Aril. Zool.
T  ESS than our Hedge Sparrow.- length four inches and three
quarters.   Bill brown : the general colour of the plumage
the fame,  but paleft beneath :   the  tail  rather forked:   le»s-
brown.
Inhabits Virginia and Carolina r, feeds on infecls: is much of
the nature of the Hedge Sparrow: is not numerous, but moft
common near houfes in Carolina and Virginia the whole year. WARBLER.
Motacilla Phsenicurus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 335. N° 34.
. N° 257.-
Scop. ann. i. p. 157. N° 232. —Brun. N° 280. 281. — Muller, p. 33.
Nu 2j8. — Georgi Reife, p. 174.—Frifch. t. 19.—Kram. el. p. 376. n.
—Olin. uc. pi. in p. 47.
Le Roffignol de Muraille, Brif. orn. iii. p. 403. N° 15—Buf. oif. v. p. 170.
pi. 6. f. 2— PI. enl. 351. f. 1. 2.
Redftart, Rail Syn. p. 78. A. S.—Will. orn. 218.—Albin, i. pi. 50.—Br. Zool.'
i. N° 146.—ArSl. Zool.
Lev. Muf.
+-• REDSTART.
rP H I S is rather lefs than the Redbreafi: length five inches and
a quarter. Bill black: forehead white: crown of the head,
hind part of the neck, and back, deep blue grey ; in fome almoft
black : cheeks and throat black : breaft, rump, and fides, red :
belly white : the two middle tail feathers brown ; the reft red x
the legs black.
The female has the top of the head and back cinereous grey :
chin white. The fame parts are red in this fex. as in the male,
but not fo bright.    The wings are brown in both fexes.
This bird is migratory; meafuring its flay with the Nightingale, and other birds of paffage; coming in fpring, and departing
in autumn, about October; I fhould fuppofe, departing fooner or
later, according to the more northern places of its fummer refi-
dence *.    In Italy f it is feen a month later than with us.
It is not fo fhy as many birds, in refpecl to itfelf; for it approaches habitations, and frequently makes its neft in fome hole
of a wall where numbers of people pafs by frequently! yet is con-
Description.
Place .
Manne
* Scopoli fays it departs in September.
6
f Otma. WAH
tent if no one meddles with the neft ; for the leaft derangement
of the eggs, or almoft looking at them, efpecially if the female is
difturbed thereby, caufes her to forfake the neft altogether. It
frequently builds alfo in fome hole of a tree.
The neft is compofed chiefly of mofs, lined with hair and feathers.
The eggs are blue; four or five in number; not unlike, but
I rather more elongated than, thofe of the Hedge Sparrow.
It frequently wags the tail *.
It is with difficulty that thefe birds are kept in a cage, not
fubmitting to it by any means if caught old ; though it may be
brought up from the neft if great care is taken.
Its fong is not ftrong, yet agreeable enough; and will, if
taught young, imitate the note of other birds, and fing by night
frequently, as well as in the day-time.
At large, the food is infects, flies, fpiders, ants eggs, and fuch
like ; but when brought up by handj will bear to be treated as
the Nightingale.
Le Roflignol de Muraille cendre,  Brif. orn. iii. p. 406.
Aldrov. third Redftart, Rail Syn.jp. 78. A. 5. Var. i.—Will. orn. p. 2
HpH I S is a variety of the male;  and differs in having a long
line of white only on the forehead, the back more cinereous, and the bottom of the belly not white.
when he is pleafed, and not up and WAR
LER.
4*3
Le Roffignol de Muraille a. poitrine tachetee, Brif orn. iii. p. 407. ,
Roth-fchwentzlein, Frifch'. t. 20.
gp? H I S is a female, differing from the common only in having     Des'
the breaft fpotted with red.
Sylvia tithys, Lin. Syfi. ed. 10. N° 23.—Scop.
, p. 157. N° 233.
OC 0 P 0 L I feems certain of this being a different bird from
the Redfiart -, and fays, the male inclines to afh-colour: the
throat and breaft black: belly, between the thighs, whitifh : elfe-
where varied with black and white.
The female wholly brown.
Both fexes have the two middle tail feathers brown; the others
brown at the tips; the reft of the tail feathers and vent red.
It is called by the Italians, Moretto ;   and by the Germans,
Haufroth Schweife.
Var. C.
• escription.
Le Roflignol de Muraille de Gibraltar, L
oif. v. p. 177.
Grey Redftart, Edw. pi. 29.—Am. Zool,
rif. orn. iii. p. 407. N° 16.—Buf.
GREY
REDSTART.
C I Z E of the Common Redfiart. Bill dark brown : forehead,
fides of the head, and throat, black : hind head white, palling
forwards to the eyes: top of the head, neck, back, wing coverts,
breaft, and upper part of the belly, blueifh grey, or afh-colour:
lower belly white : quills grey brown, edged with white : rump
and tail orange-colour;   the two middle feathers of the laft are
brown,  WARBLER,
425
N° 35.—Faun. Suec. 258.
. p. 411. N° 18. (the male.)— Buf.
Motacillaerithacus, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 33
Le Rouge-queue a Collier, Brif. orn.
oif. v. p. 180.
Le Rouge-queue, Brif. orn. iii. p. 409. N° 17. (the female.)
Rothfchwentzel, Raii Syn.  p. 78. A.  5. 2.—Will. orn. p. 2
Frifch. t. 20.
, ch. 7. 2.—
A Trifle bigger than the Redfiart.    Bill blackifh : top of the    Descriptio:
head, hind part of the neck and back, fcapulars, and leffer Female.
wing coverts, grey : rump and tail rufous: throat, and from
thence to the vent, whitifh grey, irregularly mixed with pale
rufous: fides, under wing and tail coverts, of the laft colour :
greater wing coverts, and quills, grey brown, edged with rufous : tail wholly rufous, and a trifle forked : legs black.
The male differs from the former, which is the female, chiefly
in having a large brown mark on the fore part of the neck, in the
fliape of a horfefhoe, the concave part uppermoft : a fmall brown
fpot between the bill and eye: the two middle tail feathers
brown; the reft rufous. I place this here as the male, on the
authority of Buffon.
Thefe inhabit the continent of Europe, and are migratory :
arrive in Burgundy and Lorrain in May, and depart in Qblober :
frequent the woods, nefting in the low bufhes, near, the ground.
The neft is compofed of mofs without, and wool and feathers
within. The eggs five or fix in number, white, mi^ed with
grey. They may be found in the fkirts of the wood, which they
frequent morning and evening, to feek the worms, flies, and
the like, on which they feed. It has fcarce any fong, only a
fingle note, like the word fuit, and wags the tail like the Redfiart.
Vol. IL 3  I At
Male.
Place anb
Manners. Le Rouge-queue
WARBLER.
At the end of the fummer it is  very fat, and delicate to
eat.
dela Guyane, Buf. oif. v. p. 186.—P/. enl. 686. f. 2.
T   ENGTH fix inches  and a half.    Bill pale:   the upper
parts of the head, ne^zk, and body, are grey: the under parts
white: wings and tail, which is pretty long,  wholly rufous :
legs pale flefh-colour.
Inhabits Guiana.
Lev. Muf.
T E N G T H fix inches. General colour of the plumage black *
the top of the head lead-colour: feathers of the back
edged with dufky brown : quills dufky: outer edges of the fe-
condaries fringed with white: the two middle tail feathers are
dufky; the others red, like thofe of the Redfiart.
From whence unknown.
Motacilla Caffra, Lin. Mantif. 1771. p. 527.
gi ZE of the White Wagtail.    Head and back olive :  over
the eyes a white ftreak: between the bill and eye black:
throat and rump ferruginous: breaft and belly whitifh: quills
brown: tail even, ferruginous; the ends of the feathers brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
Mufcicapa WARBLER.
41?
L.-Pl.
. 5.—Sloan. J at,
Mufcicapa ruticilla, Lin. Syft. 1, p. 236. 10.
Le  Gobe-mouche d'Amerique, Brif.   orn. ii. p. 383.   14.-
f. 1.2.
Le petit Noir-Aurore, Buf. oif. W. p. 546.
Small black and orange-coloured bird, Rail Syn.
p. 312. 50.
Small American Redftart, Edw.pl. %o.*—Calefb. Car. i. pi. 6j. (the male.)
Yellow-tailed Flycatcher, Edw.-pl. 257.* (the female.)
Black-headed Warbler*, Am. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
C I Z E of the Pettichaps : length four inches three quarters.
Bill blackifh; the bafe befet with a few briftles : the head,
neck, and upper parts, are black : the wings are alfo black, with
a deep orange bar acrofs the middle of them: fides of the body
orange: the belly, thighs, and vent, pale orange: the tail
orange, with one-third of the end black; but the two middle
feathers are wholly black.
The female has the upper parts brownifh afh-colour ; the under
white: tail, wings, and fides of the body, the fame, but yellow
inftead of orange: legs in both brown.
Mem. Edwards's bird is lefs than that of -Catejby.
This inhabits the fhady woods of North America, as far as
Hudfon's Bay, in fummer ; in winter migrates; and is then faid
to be found in Jamaica and the neighbouring iflands.
* I have great fufpicion that both thefebifds -belong to the ge^us of Flycatcher, and are the fame, except in fex ; if fo, it would have been moft proper
to have placed them under that genus, rather than the prefent one. I have only
examined thofe from Hudfon's Bay, which appear to be true Flycatchers ; and it
remains ftill in fufpenfe whether Catefiy's bird and that of Shane be the fame;
as one Ihewn to us for the female of the laft had the bill of a Warbler.
o T 2 Motacilla
LACK-
ADED ^ WARBLER.
Place ^and
Manners.
Motacilla fylvia, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 330. N° 9.—Faun. Suec. N° 250.—Bru*.
71. N° 275.—Muller, p. 32. N° 269.
La Fauvette   grife, ou la Grifette, Brif orn. iii. p.  376. N°  4. pi. 21.
f. 1.—Buf. oif. v. p. 132.—PI. enl. 579. f 3.
La Mefange cendree, Brif. orn. iii. p. 549. N° ^,—Buf. oif v. p. 409. IH.
La Vitrec a menton blanc, Salerne, p. 226. 6.
Stoparola, Rail Syn. 77. A. 6.
White  Throat, id.   A. i.—Will. orn. 210?  236.—i?r. ZW. i. N° 160.—
^r<2. ZW.
.Sr. Ma/    Z«. Af«/.
T E N G T H above five inches and a half. Bill black, at the
bafe whitifh : irides chefnut *: head brownifh afh-colour:
the back reddifh : leffer wing coverts pale brown; the greater
brown,, with reddifh margins : throat white : breaft and belly
reddifh white: tail and quills dufky, edged with pale brown,
except the outer feather, which has the outer web wholly whitex
and inner the fame, halfway from the bafe : legs pale brown.
The female differs in having the breaft and belly wholly white..
This is a bird of paflage, vifiting us in fpring, and leaving us in autumn, and is not uncommon in England. It frequents the hedges, and makes a neft two or three feet from the
ground, compofed of mofs, and dry flalks of herbs. The ego-s
are five in number, of a greenifh grey, marked with rufous and
brown * fpots.
It is known alfo in France, and many other parts of the European continent, and is called by the people of Provence Le
Tafferine.
- Sometimes yellowilh hazel.
t Black.   Willughby, WARBLER. 4-29
With us, I believe, it lives chiefly on infecls -, but Baffon fays,
that it will alfo feed on the fruits of the^g and olive.
La Boufcarlede Provence, Buf. oif. v. 134.—P/. enl. 655. f. 2. Ig,
Var. A.
•HP HIS is of the fame fize as the laft, and very fimilar ; it dif-     Description.
fers chiefly in being much inclined throughout to fulvous,
whereas the other has a caft of grey ; it muft therefore be efteemed
only as a variety.
This was caught at Provence.    In the PI. enl. the tail feathers Place,
feem all of one colour.
Alauda trivialis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 28B. j.
L'Alouette de Buiffon, Brif orn. iii. p. 347.
*- — Pipi, Buf. oif. v. p. 39. pi. 4.—PL enl. 661. f. 2.
Piep Lerche, Frifch. pi. 16.
Pipit Lark, Albin. i. pi. 44 ?
Grafshopper Lark, Raii Syn. p. yo.r^-Will. orn. p. 209..—Br. Ztol. N° 156.
Am, Zool.
Lev. Muf.
GRASSHOPPER
W
C I Z E fmall: length between five and fix inches. Bill dufky:
between the bill and eye white : the colour of the upper
parts of the body greenifh brown, each feather dufky in the
middle : the under parts yellowifh white, with a dufky tinge on
the breaft: tail cuneiform, rather long; the outer tips of the
feathers very pale : legs dufky white : the hind claw fufficiendy
crooked to prove it does not belong to the Lark genus, witfr
which. WARBLER.
■vhich  it has  been reckoned  by all authors before Mr.
a:tt *.   "
This defcription is drawn from a fpecirrten in the I
Mufeum. It does not feem to be a common bird, as the
is the only one which has come under our infpection
Pennant fays, that it is a very artful bird, and fkulks
thickeft part of the hedges, fo as to be forced out from
with great difficulty. Its note fo like that of a Grafsbop
to be miftaken for it.
above
Mr.
in the
thence
Motacilla falicaria, Lin. Syft. i. p. 330. Nd 8.
La Fauvette de rofeaux, Brif. er*. iii. p. 378. N° S—~s*f- '!£ V'P'
PI. enl. 581. 2.
Avis confimilis lloparolx, & magnaniflae, Rati Sy*. 81.6.
Salicaria, Id. Si. n.—Will. or*, p. 217.
Leffer Reed Sparrow, Id. p. 144.
Sedge Bird, Albin. iii. pi. 60.—Br. Zool. i. N° 155.—y/r<2. Zeal,
Lev. Muf.
Description. CIZE of the Blackcap, but mote flender. The bill ish
the head brown, marked with dufky ftreaks : eheeks br
over each eye a white line, and above that a black one: the
parts of the neck and back reddifh brown, the laft marked
black: wing coverts and quills dufky, the firft edged witl
brown : the under parts are white, but the breaft and bell)
a yellow tinge j the tail is brown, and much rounded; itsc
are tawny : the legs are dufky.
* It has alfo hithferto been figured with an eve.n'ttil; but if the bird 1
authors has an even tail, it muft be another fpeeks: the hind claw <
figure is likewife too ftrait.
Ick:
with
pale
This WARBLER.
This bird is common in England, and frequents places where
reeds and fedges grow, among which it is faid to make the neft,
though it has been known to do this on the loweft branches of
trees *. The neft is compofed of ftraw and dried fibres of
plants, lined with hair. The eggs five in number, of a dirty
white, marbled with brown.
It is obferved to imitate the note of the Swallow, Sky-lark,
Houfe Sparrow, and other birds, in a pleafing but hurrying manner, and fings all night f. Whether it leaves us in the winter is
not quite certain.
La Fauvette rouffe, Brif. or*, iii.  p. 387. N°
PI. enl. 581. 1.
Kleinfte gras-mucke, Frifch. t. 24.
-Buf. oif. v.  p. 146.—
»"pHIS is lefs than the laft, being not four inches three
quarters in length J. The bill is grey brown : the upper
parts of the body are rufous grey: under parts pale rufous || :
on each fide of the head a longitudinal ftreak of the fame, beneath
the eyes : quills rufous grey, edged with pale rufous : tail the
fame § : legs brown.
This bird is not feen in England; but in France and Germany-it
frequents gardens, making the neft in fome low bufh or plant,
lined with hair. It lays five eggs, which are of a greenifh
white, fpotted with a dark colour.
* Hifi. des oif. t Sr. Zool.
X In the PI. enl. it is at leaft five inches three quarter.
|| Sometimes white.
§ In the Pi. enl. the outer tail feather is white, and the next to it tipped
with white: the legs yellow. I fufpeft this not to be the bird above-defcribed,
though quoted by Buffi*.
Motacilla
Place an©
Manners. Motacilla ficedula, Lin. Syft.
0. N° 10.—Faun. Sue
p. 33. JN** 271.—-Frifch. t. 22. (the male.)
LeBecfigue, Brif. orn. iii. p. 369. N° i.—Buf. oif.v
Beccafico, Olin, uc. p. 11.—Ruf. Alep. p. 6^—Rai
orn. p. 227.
p. 187.—PI. enl. 668.1.
Syn. Si. N°  12.—Will.
Hp H I S is a fmall bird,much lefs than our Cinereous Flycatcher:
length five inches. Bill blackifh : the upper parts are grey
brown : round the eye rufous white: under parts greyifh white,
with a tinge of brown on the breaft: leffer wing coverts grey
brown ; the greater cinereous brown, tipped with white, forming a band acrofs the wing : quills cinereous brown, edged with
greyifh brown, but the three neareft the body with white : tail
dufky, edged with grey brown ; the outer feather white the
whole way on the outer web, and the neck the fame for two-
thirds of its length : legs blackifh.
The female is much paler than the male.
This is a bird much efteemed on the continent for the delicate
flavour of its flefh. Is not found in England, but met with in
moft of the intermediate parts between Sweden and Greece; yet
it is only a fummer-inhabitant in any of them, probably retiring
ftill more fouth at the approach of winter. In the ifle of Cyprus
and Candy they abound greatly, infomuch as to be an article of
commerce *; and the Italians are as fond of them at this day, as
their forefathers were of old.
* *' They are falted up in great numbers, and tranfporte
*e tries."—Willughby. Perhaps he means potted, like our Wheat-ears. They
alfo tranfport them in veffels filled with vinegar and fweet herbs ; and the Ifle
of Cyprus alone collefls 1,000 or 1,200 of thefe pots every year. See Dapper
Defc. des Ifles dArchip. p. 51.
The WARBLER.
Their chief food is infecls, except in autumn, when they make
great havock among the figs and grapes; whence it is fuppofed
their great delicacy in fome meafure arifes. I do not find any
defcription of the neft; it is faid to be difficult to find. The
male has little or no fong.
432
La Fauvette tachetee, Brif. orn. i
Pl.enl.sSi. 3.
Le Bouvier, Salerne, p. 226. 7.
Boarina, Rail Syn. 77. 7.—Will. e
Fig-eater, Albin. iii. pi. 26.
p. 389. N° g.—Buf.  oif. v. p. 149.—
. p. 217.—Aldr. av. ii. p. 734.
FIG-EATER.
TE N G T H five inches and a half. Bill reddifh brown : the
upper parts of the body and wings are rufous brown, varied
with yellowifh and afh-colour: beneath white : breaft yellowifh,
marked with black fpots: the quills are blackifh, edged with
white : tail the fame ; the two middle feathers fhorter than the
reft : legs reddifh: claws black.
This is common in Italy, efpecially about Bologna, and is
chiefly feen in paftures where beafts * are kept. It makes the
neft about a foot from the ground, on fome fhrubor ftrong plant;
is not eafily frightened from the neft; and will fooner lofe its life
than fuffer the young to be hurt f.
Place ai
Manner
*   A  perfequendo Boves,   vulgo Boarolam, feu Boarinam nuncupantur.
Aldrov.
t H'fi. des oif
Vol. II.
3K W   A   R   B
©.—PI. enl. 668-. f. a.
La Fauvette des Alpes,. Buf. oif. v. p. 156. pi.
OIZE of the Bunting: length feven inches. Bill blackifh ;
the bafe of the under mandible yellow: the upper part of
the head and neck cinereous grey : back the fame,, mixed with,
brown : wing coverts blackifh, tipped with white; fecond quills
brown, with the outer edges pale rufous; the prime one the
fame, with whitifh. edges:. the upper tail coverts brown, edged
with greenifh grey, and towards the tip pale rufous-: the tail is
rather forked ; all the feathers marked with a pale rufous fpot
on the inner fide at the tip : the throat is white,, fpotted with
brown : breaft cinereous grey; and the reft of the under parts
grey, with a mixture of rufous and white : the legs yellowifh.
This fpecies inhabits the Alps, and the high, mountains of*
Auvergne and Dauphiny, and has not been before defcribed: they
keep within thefe limits, except the extreme fnows drive them
from thence: are feen moftly on the ground, or on a ftone, feldom.
perched on trees,, and are very fhy birds..
-*Jp H IS is a large fpecies : length nine inches. Bill one inchi
and a quarter, a little bent at the tip; colour black, with-
cinereous edges : the upper parts of the body, and tail, are cinereous-, beneath paler, marked with white ftreaks : chin and
throat quite white : over the eye a ftreak of the fame, reaching,
on each fide almoft to the hind head: the wings dark afh-colour,^
marked with pale brown,, and a. bar of the fame acrofs  the
coverts: WARBLER.
coverts & the quills have brown edges : outer tail feathers white:
legs black: toes long : hind toe and claw long and flout.
The female, or what is fuppofed fuch*, has fewer ftreaks of
white on the breaft.
Inhabits terra del Fuego. It is apt to vary both in fize and
length of bill. Met with on the fea-beach, and is fuppofed to
live on jheU-fifh or fea-^orms.
435
Le Pitchou de Provence, Buf. oif v. p. 158.—PI. enl. 655. :
Dartford Warbler, Br. Zool. i. N° 161. pi. 56.—Ar3. Zool.
Lev. Muf.
- DARTFORd
W.
fpHIS is fcarce bigger than a Wren, but, as the tail is half     Des<
the length, meafures above five inches. The bill is black,
with a white bafe, and the upper mandible a little curved at the
tip: irides red: eyelids deep crimfon : the upper parts of the
•head, neck, and body, dufky reddifh brown: breaft and belly
deep ferruginous; the middle of the belly white: quills dufky*
"edged with white : baftard wing white : the exterior web of the
outer tail feather white ; the reft dufky, and half the length
rof the bird : legs yellow.
This is a native of Provence in France, and is found among
cabbages, amongft which it fearches for food, living on fmall
infefts which harbour there; it alfo takes up its nocturnal abode
under the fhelter of the leaves.
It is likewife met with in England. A pair was brought to me
killed by a friend on Bexley Heath, near Dartford, April 10, 1773*
fitting on a ./ara<?-bufh. Thefe fed on flies, fpringing from the
bufh on fpying one within its reach> and returning to the fame
place repeatedly; in this imitating mUch the manners of our
Cinereous Fly-cauher.
3K 2 We
Pla<
Mai R   B   L   E   R.
We have a proof of this fpecies remaining with us the whole
year, as feveral were fhot laft winter on a common near Wandfr
worth, in Surrey, and are now in the Leverian Mufeum.
La Fauvette taehetee d-a Cap de Bonne Efpe
N° IO.  pi. 22.  i.2.—Buf.oiJ   v. I
C I Z E of the Mountain Finch: length ieven mche
ter. Bill horn-colour: crown of the head rufous, dafhed
with blackifh : hind part of the neck, the back, and fcapulars,.
black, edged with rufous grey : the lower part of the back, rump,
and upper tail coverts, the fame, but the margins more rufous s.
under parts dirty rufous white;. in fome birds dafhed with black
on the fides : on each fide of the throat ;
black : quills brown, fringed with rufous: tall !
and fomewhat cuneiform; the four middle feathers brown, with;
rufous margins;. the four outer ones, on each fide, rufous out--
wardly, and brown down the fhafts : legs grey brown..
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope*.
29. La Fauvette taehetee de la Looifiane, Buf. oif v. p. 161 PI. ,
NEW YORK W.
\ I Z E of the tit-lark r length five inches and three quarters.
Bill black, and rather bent towards the tip : all the upper
parts, from head to tail, are cinereous an<
over the eye,, from the noftrils, a.ftreak of white : the
yellowifh, ftreaked with black; the ftreaks broadeft on the fid
and breaft, nearly refembling the tit-lark : the legs pale reddifh
"brown..
Sound
xed:
parts. WARBLER.
Found in Louifiana:   alfo met with-in the hedges about New Plaqe.
Tork.   Never feen. in flocks..
437
Eauvette ombree de la Louifiane, Buf. oif. v. 162.
Fauvette taehetee de la Louifiane, PI. enl. yog. 1..
3°.
TJMBROSE W.
CIZE of the laft : length about five inches and a half. Bill
more flender, and'black: upper parts greyifh brown : on the
back obfeurely marked with black: fides and rump tinged with
yellowifh: wing coverts, upper rail coverts, and tail, dufky,
edged with white : greater quills dufky : the under parts are
white, fparingly marked with fmall black fpots : legs dufky.
Inhabits Louifiana, with the laft.
Buffon feems to think they are allied; but they differ exceedingly in the ffrength and' fize of the bill, as above remarked';-
eoo much to admit of a bare poflibility of any relationfhip *..
La Melange grife de la Caroline, Brif. om. iii.' p. ^'3. Nb 10. YFT I OW
. . a gorge jaune, Buf. oif v. p. 454. THROATED W.
Yellow-throated'Creeper,   Catefb. Car. i. pi. 62.—Arcli Zool.
CIZ E of a Goldfinch:- length five ir
bill half an inch long,, an&'black:
: inches and a quarter.    The    Des<
ng,. ana-black :   forehead black :   on each
fide of the bafe of the bill a fpot of_yellow :. throat and fore part
of the neck bright yellow, bounded on each fide of the neck by a.
band of black, which begins at the corner of the mouth,, and.
:* In the PI, enl. the crown is of a pale.yellow.-
p.affes-., paffes through the eyes :  the upper parts of the head, neck, and
body, are of an elegant grey: the under parts, from' the throat*
white, fpotted on the fides with black : the wing coverts incline
to brown, and are crofted with two bars of white:   th<
the coverts, but plain : the tail re a trifle forked, and black; all
but the two middle feathers are whitifh on the inner webs
brown.
The female is neither marked with black nor yellow; which fo
eminently diftinguifhes the male.
Inhabits Carolina in plenty.
In the Mufeum of M. tunfial, Efquire, I obferved a variety of
this bird. The bill plain horn-colour* the.yellow on the throat
not bounded by black : the coverts of the wings and quills edged
with white: belly white: the tail even, and of a plain colour. —•
Probably this may be a young male not in full plumage.
Turds
trichas
, Lin. Syft
i. p. 293. N
"7-
LeF.g
uier de
Mariland,
Brif. orn iii.
s, Buf. oif. v
p. 506.
p. 292.
N°S
8.
Maryla
nd Yell
jw- throat,
Edw. pi. 237
—Petiv
Gaz
Pi
$»f.
Yellow
breafted Warbler,
Ard. Zool.
Br. MuJ
.    Lev. Muf
,T",H I S Is a fmall fpecies, being in length only five inches.
The bill is brown ; on each fide, at the bafe, a few fcattered
hairs: the upper parts are of a deep olive brown : the foreh
is black, communicating with a large fpot of the fame on each
fide of the head; in the middle of which the eyes are placed :
the crdwn of the head reddifh brown : throat and breaft bright
yellow :   belly and vent yellowifh white;   the laft moft inclined WARBLER.
to yellow :  quills and tail margined with yellowifh olive :   legs
dull fiefh-colour.
Inhabits  Carolina, Maryland, and Penfylvania ;   frequenting Place.
moift woods: but is only found there in iummer.
439
La Fauvette a Pointrine jaune de la Louifiane,  Buf. oif. v. p. 162.—Pi. enl. Var. A.
709.  2.
Lev. Muf ?
T  E N G T H five inches and a half.
to the middle of the crown, black ;
Bill black: the forehead,
. which continues between
the eye and bill, and paflfes beneath the eye, finifhing behind it in
a broad patch : acrofs the top of the head, from eye to eye, is a
band of white : the upper parts of the body are olive; the under,
yellow, inclining to orange on the fides : the tail rounded :• legs-
reddifh.
Inhabits Louifiana ;  and is a moft beautiful fpecies*-
Description
13'
La Fauvette de Cayenne a queue roufle, Buf. oif. v. \6v.- RTJFOUS-
3 * J TAILED W.-
f   ENGTH five inches and a quarter.    The upper parts, as    Description.
far as the rump,, brown, tinged with- rufous on the back :
wing coverts and tail rufous: quills margined with rufous: throat
white, furrounded with pale rufous, dotted with brown : breaft
light brown : the reft of the under parts white, with a. rufous.
tinge on the under tail coverts.
Inhabits Cayenne.. Pi*ez». R   B   L
La Fauvette de Cayenne a Gorge brune & Ventre jaune, Buf. oif v. 163.
C I Z E of the Yellow Wren.    The bill broadened and flat at
the bafe, almoft like that of the Flycatcher:° the upper parts
of the head and body are greenifh brown : throat the fame: wing
coverts and quills brown, margined with pale rufous: thofe of
•eenifh :   breaft and belly yellow,   with  a fulvous
La Fauvette bleuatre de St. Domingue, Buf oif. v.
HP HIS is a very fmall fpecies, measuring in length only four
inches and a half. The plumage on the upper parts is cinereous blue : wing coverts and quills brown ; on the firft a fpot of
white; the laft edged with cinereous blue : the throat is black,
and the reft of the under parts white.
■Inhabits St. Domingo.
,jD I L L pale : head, hind part of the neck, back, and tail, cinereous blue :   between the fhoulders olive yellow : throat and
breaft yellow : belly white :   tips of the wing coverts the fame,
forming a bar : end of the tail very pale : legs pale brown.
Inhabits America. WARBLER.
Le Cou-jaune, Buf. oif. v. 165.—Pi. enl. (
C I Z E of the Pettichaps: four inches and three quarters long.
The bill is dufky : the head greyifh black, growing paler at
the back part of the neck, which, with the back, is of a deep
grey : over the eye, and round it, is a ftreak of white; and adjoining to it, between the bill and eye, a range of yellow dots :
wing coverts white and black, in bands : quills bordered with
grey: the throat, neck, and breaft, are yellow : fides of the neck
marked with black fpots: belly white: fides dotted with black :
the tail and quills dark grey, and the four outer feathers marked
with large fpots of white: the legs greenifh grey.
This is a moft beautiful little bird; and the manners are as
lingular as its beauty. It is found at St. Domingo; -and forms a
penfile neft, of a curious conftruftion. It is compofed of the fmall
dry fibres of plants, fmall roots, and decayed leaves. It hangs
by the top, and plays with every blaft of wind. The opening is
at the bottom,through which the bird rifes fome way over a kind
of partition, and defcends again to the bottom, where it lays the
eggs on a foft downy matter fpread thereon, and hatches the
brood in perfect fafety.
The eggs are only three or four in number ; but the bird repeats this more than once in the year; for young ones have
been obferved in June; again in March ; and a third time at the
end of Augufi or beginning of September.
It is moft fond of fufpending the neft on fuch withs as hang from
tree to tree, and chiefly thofe which overlook the water, whereby
the fecurity is made more certain.
Added to the reft, birds of this fpecies have a very delicate
¥"l. II. 3 L fong>
Place and
Manners. fong, which is continued throughout the year, though at fome
times better than others. The female too has her fong, but much
inferior to that of the male.
The food is fuppofed to be chiefly infecls, though at times attacks fruits of the lufcious kind; but whether for the fake of
them alone, or the infefts that infeftthem, is not known.
Motacilla rubecula,.Z/«. Syft. i. p. 337. N045.—Faun. Suec. 260.—Scop. ann.
i. N° 231. — Kram. el. 376. i$.—Brun. N° 283.—Muller, N° 276.—
Frifch. pi. ig—Olin. uc. pi. in p. 16.
Le Rouge-gorge, Brif orn, iii. p. 418. N° 21. —Buf. oif v. p. 196. pi. II.
^■Pl.enl. 361. f. I.
Robin Red-breaft, or Ruddock, Rail Syn. p. 78. A. 3. — Will. orn. p. 219.
pi. 39%_Albin. i. pi. 51.—Br. Zool. i. N° itf.—Am. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
rYK HIS needs little defcription. It is fufficient to fay, that the
upper parts are of a greenifh afh-colour : the forehead,
throat, neck, and breaft, rufous orange: belly and vent whitifh :
bill, legs, and fides of the body, dufky.
This is a conftant inhabitant of thefe kingdoms, as well as the
whole European continent from Sweden to Italy ; and is by fome
reckoned a bird of paffage, at leaft as" to the major part of them.
In great abundance in Burgundy and Lorraine, where numbers are
taken for the table, and thought excellent.
This departure, as Buffon obferves, is not fo manifeft in this as
in other migratory fpecies, as it is not its cuftom to join in
flocks : each goes off one by one. — How this matter is in re-
fpect to England, I am at a lofs to think; yet Buffon's opinion
feems WARBLER.
feems to weigh with me; and Scopoli * mentions it as a bird of
paffage in Carniola. However this be, it is certain that more are
feen in winter than fummer, owing to their frequenting the inhabited parts ; about which very few are feen in fummer, as for the
moft part they retire to the woods to build.
The neft is compofed of dried leaves, mixed with hair and mofs,
and lined with feathers.
The eggs are of a dufky white, marked with irregular reddifh
fpots ; and are from five to feven in number.
It builds not far from the ground, if in a bufh, though fome-
times fixes on an out-houfe, or retired part of fome old building.
The young, when full feathered, may be taken for a different
bird, being fpotted all over. The firft rudiments of the red
break forth on the breaft about the end of Augufi; but it is quite
the end of September before they come to the full colour.
No bird is fo tame and familiar as this; clofely attending the
heels of the gardener when he is ufing his fpade, for the fake of
worms ; frequently in winter entering houfes where windows are
open ; and will pick up the crumbs from the table while the family is at dinner.
Infects are their general food; but in defect of thefe, will eat
many other things.
Its familiarity has caufed a petty name to be given it in feve-
ral countries. The people about Bcrnholm call it tommi-liden;
in Norway, Peter Ronfmad; the Germans, thomas Gierdet; and
we, the Robin Red-breafi.
One totally white is in the collection of M. tunfial, Efquire.
443
* Circa sequino&ium venit & migrat, etfi aliqua hyemen ferant.
3 L 2 WARBLER.
Var. A.
Rouge-gorge de Bologne, Brif. orn. iii. p. 422. 22.
Spipola prima Aldrov. Rati Syn. p. 80.3.—Will. orn. p. '
"DIGGER than the Red-breaft. Bill brown S the head, hind
part of the neck, and back, are afh-coloured : the throat
white : fore part of the neck and breaft rufous: belly, thighs,
and vent, rufous and white mixed : wing coverts varied with
black, white, and rufous: quills black, edged with white, and the
fecondaries with rufous : tail as the quills : legs yellow : claws
black.
Found at Bologna.
It feems to be the laft, not yet arrived at fulnefs of plumage*.
1
V
39-
•+■ BLUE-
THROATED W.
Motacilla Suecica,   Lis
Georgi Reife, p.
La Gorge-bleue, Brif orn.
La Gorge-bleue a tache bl;
Syft.  i.   p. 336. N° 37. — Faun. Suec. N° 259.—
74.— Frifch. t. 19.
>•«. iii. p. 413. N° ig.—Buf. oif. v. p. 206. pi. 12.
PI. enl. 361. f. 2. — fans tache blanche,
PI. enl. 610. f. 1.—la femelle, f. 2.—jeune, f. 3.
Gorge-bleue de Gibraltar, Brif orn. iii. p. 416. N°20. (the female.)
'Wegflecklin, Raii Syn. p. 78. A. 5.  N° $.—Will. orn. p. 219.
Blue-throated Redftart, Edw. pi. 28.—Am. Zool.
Lev. Muf.
Description,
Male.
■THIS feems much related to the Red-breaft, and is nearly
of the fame fize.    The colour of the upper parts is nearly
* Bay fufpefts it to be the White Throat.
the WARBLER.
the fame : over the eye is a rufous white ftreak : the throat and
fore part of the neck of a bright azure blue; beneath this is a border of black; and under that the breaft is red : belly, thighs," and
vent, dufky white: the tail is brown, like the upper parts of the
bird; but the bafe half of all but the two middle feathers is of
an orange red.
This is the defcription of the male; of which fome varieties
have a beautiful filver-white fpot, of the fize of a filver penny, on
the middle of the blue on the fore part of the neck *.
The female is the fame colour with the male on the upper
parts, but differs beneath. In her the throat is white: acrofs the
neck a band of blue, bordered beneath with another of black: the
reft of the under parts dufky white.
Thefe birds are found in many parts of Europe, though nowhere
fo common as the Red-breaft. From the writers above-quoted,
we find them to be met with in various parts between Sweden
and Gibraltar. They do not frequent woods, like the Red-breaft,
but places near the water, among reeds, or the like ; frequently
making the neft on the willow-trees, of grafs, &c.
Authors mention, that it has an agreeable fong; and fome,
that it fings in the night f.
The young do not come to their colour on the breaft till after
fome time, as the laft fpecies; being, like that, only fpotted with
brown, upon that part.
It is remarked, that the fine blue colour goes off, if this bird
be kept in a cage; not retaining it after the firft moult.
• It is probable that thofe with the white fpot may be old birds, as the blue
on the breaft in fuch is obferved to be of a deeper colour,
f Frifch.
They 44-5
WARBLER.
They are pretty common at Alface ; and are thought very good
food, many being at times caught for the ufe of the table.
p. 423. N° 23.—Buf. oif.
Place ak
Manner
Motacilla fialis, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 336. N° 38.
Le Rouge-gorge bleue de la Caroline, Brif. orn, iii.
v. p. 212.—PI. enl. 390.  1. 2.
Blue Red-breaft, Edw. pi. 24.
Blue Bird, Catefb. Car. vol. i. pi. A^.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
"~P H IS is bigger than our Red-breaft; and in length five inches
and three quarters. The bill blackifh : the upper parts of
the plumage of a very fine blue : the throat, fore neck, breaft,
and fides, of a fine rufous red: belly and under tail coverts
white: legs black. In fome birds there is a little mixture of
blue on the breaft.
The female is not far different, but the colours not near fo
bright: the blue mixed with dufky, and the fecondaries edged
with white.
This fpecies is migratory ; coming into Carolina, Virginia,, the
Jerfeys, and New York, very early in the fpring; fometimes even
when the fnow is on the ground. Suppofed to come in flocks,
as great numbers appear all at once. Feed on the early Ephemera in March -, frequent fields where Maize and Mulleins grow,
and perch on the ftalks, in order to pick off the flies. Is alfo
often feen on rails, and jumps after the flies within reach, like the
Flycatcher. Is never feen on trees, though faid to make the neft
in the holes of them. Flies fwift; and has a plaintive kind of
note, but not what may be called fong.
It alfo is found in the Bermuda ifles.
Motacilla W   A
447
Motacilla Dumetorum,   Lin. Syft. {. p. 334. N° 31. — Kram. el. p. 377.
N° 19.—Georgi Reife, p. 174.
WHITE-
BREASTED W.
TIPPER parts of the body cinereous brown: the head blue-    Description
ifh : throat and breaft white.
Inhabits Raffia. Plac_
Motacilla cinnamomea, Lin, Syft, i. p. 335. N°32,
X7ERY like the Red-tail.    The upper parts] of the body are   Description
hoary: the throat black: breaft, belly, and rump, crimfon :
the quills black; the four firft red at the bafe, forming in one fex
a red fpot in that part : tail black; the four middle feathers
obliquely rufous on the fides.
Inhabits the ifland of Ceylon. pLACB»
43-
BLACK-JAWED
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill black, and pale at the bafe :
plumage above, olive brown; middle of each feather dark-
eft : from the bafe of the bill to the eye rufous yellow : throat
the fame : on each fide of the jaw a blackifh ftreak : breaft rufous, dafhed perpendicularly with blackifh: belly white; the
fides dafhed with dufky black : wing coverts dark olive brown,
with reddifh white tips : quills frill darker, with yellowifh edges:
tail even, but the feathers pointed at the ends; outer feather
white; the end of the fecond white; the reft brown: legs pale
yellow brown.
In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
q LENGTH 44-
RUSTY-
HEADED W.
BUFF-FACED
W.
Description.
WARBLER.
J ENGTH five inches. Bill pale: forehead, throat, and?
fides of the head, ferruginous; the two firft paleft : the upper parts of the body green ; the under, yellow ; both inclining
to olive : tail rounded ; the tips of all but the two middle feathers nearly white : legs dufky.
Inhabits Kamtfchatka.
T E N G T H fix inches. Bill dufky: forehead and chin dufky
buff-colour : on the ears a patch of dufky red : upper parts
of the body and tail coverts ferruginous brown : under parts
reddifh white, mottled acrofs the breaft with dufky: legs pale
brown.
In the collection of Sir Jcfeph Banks...
Native place uncertain.
). ann. i. N° 2j6. —
(the. male.) — Buf.
n. p. 224.
Tfchecantfchiki, Nov. Com. Petr. vol. xv. p. 488. t. 25. f. 3. (Lepechht.)
Stone-Smith, Stone-chatter,   Moor Titling, Rail Syn. p. 76. A. 4. — Will.
orn. p. 235. pi. 41.— Albin. i. pi. 52.—Br. Zool. i. N° 159.—Am. Z00L
Lev. Muf.
T   ENGTH more than four inches and three quarters.    The-
bill black.    The male has the upper parts of the body
mixed blackifh and pale rufous;   the feathers margined with the
laft, but the head, neck, and throat, are nearly black :   on each
fide
46V
- STONE-
Motacilla rubicola, Lin. Syfi. i.   p. 332. N° 17. — Sco
CHAT.
Krant. el. 375. Ne 6.—Georgi Reife, p. 174.
Le Traquet, Brif. orn. iii. p. 428. N° 25. pi. 23. f. 1
oif. v. p. 215. pi. ly—Pl. enl. 678. f. i.—Saler WARBLER.
fide the neck a tranfverfe ftreak of white : the breaft of a reddifh
yellow : belly paler : vent almoft white : the rump quite white :
the outer edges and ends of the two outer tail feathers pale ferruginous ; the reft black: the quills dufky, with ferruginous margins ; thofe next the body marked with a white fpot near the
bottoms; and on the wing coverts is another of the fame : the
legs are black.
The female has the colours much lefs vivid : top of the head
like the upper parts, and not black : the fides and throat paleft :
the white on the fides of the neck not fo confpicuous, and the
breaft and belly much paler: the white fpot on the wings the
fame; but that on the rump wholly wanting.
This bird inhabits with us dry places, fuch as heaths and commons, for the moft part;  living on infects of all kinds.
It makes its neft early, at the foot of fome low bufh, or under a
ftone.
The eggs five or fix in number, of a blueifh green, fparingly
marked with faint rufous fpots.
It is fo very crafty as not to betray the place of the neft; never
alighting but at fome diftance, and creeping on the ground to it
by the greateft ftealth; fo that the neft is only found by the
meereft chance.   .
It is a reftlefs bird, inceffantly flying from bufh to bufh. With
us it is not migratory * ; but is oftener feen in the moifter places
in winter, when the food becomes fcarce in the dry.
I cannot find it remarked anywhere for its having any fong.
449
Pla<
Ma:
* Said to depart from the more northern parts of France in September.—
Hifi. des oif.
Vol. II.
M Buffon compares its note to the word ouiftrata frequently repeated ; but I have ever thought it exactly imitating the clicking of two flones together, one being held in each hand. If
others have thought the fame, it will eafily account for the reafon
of its being called the Stone-Chatter.
Motacilla fibilla, Lin. Syft. i. p. 337.
Le Traquet de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. iii.
Buf. oif. v. p. 231.
Lev. Muf.
N° 28. pi. 24. f 4. —•
rP HIS is much allied to the laft, but is a trifle bigger. The
head, neck-, and upper parts of the body, are black; but
the feathers of the back, and wing coverts, have tawny margins:
it has the white fpot on the wings, like the laft, but wants that of
the rump ; and the tail feathers are all black : the under parts
are white, which goes backwards on each fide at the lower part of
the neck, like a half-collar : the breaft is rufous. At firft fight
it may be taken for the laft fpecies.
This is found at Madagafcar, where it is called Fitert.
It is faid to fing well.
.. Le Traquet du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf. oif v. p. 233.
Description.   TE N G T H fix inches.   Bill black: upper parts of the head,
neck,  and body, deep greenifh brown : under parts grey,
tinged with rufous;   and the rump is likewife of this laft colour:
wing coverts and quills brown,, edged with paler brown :  tail a
little WARBLER,
little forked; the two middle feathers blackifh brown; the others
obliquely brown and fulvous.
One like this, brought from the fame place, and appearing as
the female, had the whole of the upper parts blackifh brown ;-• the
throat white, and the breaft rufGus.
Both of thefe were fent from the Cape of Good Hope.
45*
Motacilla caprata, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 235. N° 33.
Le Traquet de L'Ifle de Lucon, Brif.
Buf. oif v. p. 229.—P/. enl. 235. f. 1. 2
. p. 442. N° 31©. pi. 24. f. z. 3.
48.
LUZONIAN W.
CIZE of the Stone-Chatter. Bill dufky: the whole bird is
blackifh brown, except the leffer wing coverts neareft the
body, and the vent, which are white; and in fome birds the rump
is alfo white : legs black brown.
The female is brown above; beneath, rufous brown: throat
whitifh: rump and upper tail coverts pale rufous; the under,
dirty rufous white :  tail brown.
Inhabits the Ifle of Luzonia, where it is called Maria-capra.
Jn fome Chinefe drawings I met with a bird fimilar to this Stone-
Chat. The head, neck, and upper parts, were blue black: the
under, reddifh white : greater wing coverts tipped with white,
forming an irregular white bar : bill and legs pale red.
Description,
Motacilla fulicata, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 336. N° 39. x
Le Traquet des Philippines, Brif. orn. iii. p, 444. N°3i. pi. 23. f. 2. —       SOO'J
Buf. oif. v. p. 230.—PI. enl. 185. f. 1.
21Z E of the laft, but has a longer tail: the length is fix inches     Descr
and a quarter.   The general colour more or lefs of a violet
3 M 2 black: black : the under tail coverts pale chefnut:   on the wing coverts
is a long white mark : bill and legs brown.
This is met with in the Philippine Iftands.
1 does not mention the colour of the under tail coverts.
They do not differ from the reft of the plumage in the Planches
Enluminees.
Le Clignot, ou Traquet a lunette, Buf. oif. v. p. 234.
rV H I S is the fize of a Goldfinch, and of a fine black colour,
except the wing coverts, on which is a fpot of white. In
fome birds the under tail coverts are alfo white; but what characterizes the bird is a naked yellowifh wrinkled fkin *, which
encircles the eye all round, giving the appearance of ■wearing/pec-
tacles: the irides are yellow, and the pupil blue : the tail is even
at the end, and when fpread, forms an almoft equilateral triangle
in fhape f.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of the river Plata, in South America ; efpecially about Montevideo.
COROlW ANDEL 'Le Petit l ra1uet aes lndes» Son. Foy. Ind, vol. ii. p. 207.
W.
Description.     § IZE of our Titmoufe.    Bill  black:   irides  rufous  yellow;
head, neck, breaft, and leffer wing coverts, black; on each
* This is faid much to refemble the yellow lichen which is found on the tiles
ofhoufes.
+ It is faid to confift of eight feathers only ; but furely four were miffing, as
all of this genus yet known have twelve.
feather WARBLER.
feather is a yellowifh fpotj the reft of the coverts edged with
yellow, and on the middle of them a fpot of white ' quills and
tail black : rump pale rufous : belly the fame, croffed with irregular black bands: the legs are black.
Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel.
453
Le grand Traquet des Philippines, Brif. o
—Buf. oif. v. p. 230.—Pi. enl. 181
Traquet de Manille, Salern. p. 225.
«. iii. p. 446. N» 32. pi. 22. f. 3. cz.
. f. 2. PHILIPPINE W.
TE N G T H fix inches and a quarter. Bill dirty yellow
head is reddifh white, in fome parts inclining to yellow
neck of a dirty red : acrofs the breaft a blueifh band: belly
and vent reddifh white: back, wings, and tail, violet black :
acrofs the middle of the wing coverts is a long white mark;
on the outer edge of the wing, below this, is another; and
fome of the greater coverts being edged with white, make a
third in the middle of the wing: the outer tail feather edged
with rufous white on the outer web. The legs ferruginous*
Inhabits the Philippine Ifies.
the     Description.
the
Le grand Traquet, Buf. oif. v. p. 232.
T^HI S meafures feven inches and a half in length. The bill
is an inch long: the head brown, mixed with darker
brown : upper part of the neck and body pale brown: throat
whitifh, mixed with brown: breaft brown : wing coverts, and
outer edge of the quills, the fame; within, half brown half rufous : the tail is alfo of thefe two laft colours, and the two outer
feathers WARBLER.
feathers white on the outer webs : the under part of the body is
pale rufous.
Native place unknown.
Motacilla rubetra, Lin,  Syft. i. p. 332. N°  16.— Faun. Suec.  255.—Scop. I
ann. i. N° 237.--.Praa. N° 277.—Muller, N° 275.—-Kram. el. p. 375.
N° 5.—-Frifch. t. 22.
Le grand Traquet, ou le Tarier, Brif. orn. iii. p. 432. N° 26. pi. 24. f. 1.—
Buf. oif. v. p. 224.—PI. enl.   678. f. 2.
Whin-Chat, Rail Syn, p. 76. A. 3.—Will. orn. p. 234.-5*-. Zool. i. N° 158.
ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev, Muf.
a trifle bigger than the Stone-Chatter. The bill
irides hazel : the upper parts of the head, neck,
back, and rump, are blackifh, edged with rufous : from the bill
arifes a ftreak of white, which paffes over the eye on each fide,
almoft to the hind head: beneath this the cheeks are blackifh:
the chin is white: the reft of the under parts rufous white; paleft
on the belly, and inclining to reddifh on the breaft : on the
wing, near the fhoulder, is a tranfverfe white mark, and another
fmaller near the baftard wing, on the outer edge : the tail is
white for two-thirds from the bafe, the reft blackifh, except
the middle feathers, which are wholly of this laft colour : the legs
are black.
The female differs in being paler, and the fpots on the wings
much lefs perceivable: the white trace over the eye is far lefs
confpicuous; and, inftead of black, the fides of the head are of
the fame colour as the other parts of it. WARBLER.
This is not uncommon in England, and is feen along with the
Stone-Chatter on the heaths, during the fummer-months; where
it breeds, making the neft much after the manner of that bird.
It lays five dirty white eggs, dotted with black *. It feems not
to be fo common as the Stone-Chatter, and in the northern parts
of England difappears in winter. I have feen them in Kent
throughout the year. This is common alfo on the continent of
Europe, in France, Italy, Germany, and the more temperate parts
of Ruffia f j but it is faid to be lefs common than the Stone*
Chatter. • !_>>',
Its food is chiefly infefts; and is faid to be as good as the
Ortolan, when fat, and in good condition.
In the Leverian Mufeum are two fmall varieties; the firft of
the common colour, except the belly, which is much varied with
white; the other with a considerable mixture of pale grey oj*
the upper parts, and the tail feathers tipped with the fame.
455
Pla<
Ma
Le Traquet du Senegal, Buf. oif. v. p. 228.—PI. enl. 583. f. 1.
CIZE of the laft. Bill black: the upper parts of the head,
neck, body, and wings, are deep brown; the edges of the
feathers rufous : on the wings are two white fpots, as in the laft
fpecies : the under parts are yellowifh white, inclining to rufous
on the breaft: the tail is dufky, with pale margins: legs
black.
Inhabits Senegal.
SULTRY w.
Description.
Salerne fays blue. f Linnet** fays as fax as Spitxbergen-
Motacilla 45 6
WARBLER.
ffi!
SIBIRIAN
Motacilla montanella, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 695. N° 12.
A Trifle bigger than the Whin-Chat. Crown of the head brown
black : over the eyes a yellowifh ftreak : chin of the fame.
colour, though in fome birds both are white: ears black, placed
in a bed of grey: back teftaceous, fpotted with brown : beneath,
the colour of pale yellow oker : the feathers on the throat brown
at the bafe : wings brown ; the quills edged with grey, and the
fecondaries with white : tail longifh, of a pale afh-colour; the
two middle feathers, and the outer one, fhorter than the others.
This comes iufto Dauria in February, together with the flocks
of Hawfinches.
57. Motacilla Senegalenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 333. 22.
SENEGAL W. Le Traquet du Senegal, Brif. orn. iii. p. 441. 29.
Description.     T   ENGTH five inches and a quarter.    Bill brown : general
colour of the plumage the fame : quills rufous, edged with
brown : tail black ; all but the two middle feathers tipped with
white.
Pi-ace. Inhabits Senegal.    One of thefe is in the poffeffion of Ch. Bod-
dam, Efq; which, I think, he faid came from the Cape of Good
Hope.    It is full fix inches in length.
LEUCOMELE
Motacilla plefchanka, N. Com. Petr. xiv. p. 503. t. 14. f. 2. (Lepechin.)
Motacilla leucomela, N. Com. Petr. xiv. p. 584. t. 22. f. 3. (Pallas.)
CIZE a trifle bigger than a Redfiart: length fix inches two
lines. Bill dufky : irides the fame : the forehead, crown, nape,
lower W   A   R   B   L. E   R.
lower part of the breaft, the belly, rump, and greateft part of
the tail, are white: the other parts black : the tail has the two
middle feathers black; the others white, with a broad band of
black at the end : claws black.
The female has the upper parts dufky or cinereous brown j
head and neck paleft : beneath inclining to afh-colour: throat,
and fore part of the neck, cinereous grey; above the eye a
white ftreak : the tail as in the male.
This fpecies inhabits the craggy cavernous places about Sara-      pLAC
low, and other parts of the Volga -, where, like the Sand Martin,
it makes holes in the banks wherein to place the neft: thefe
holes are horizontal, deep, and the neft compofed of dry ftalks,
&c.    The young are ten in number.
It is a bold bird; comes near the villages, and fits on the
ftones and flumps of trees, twittering almoft like a Swallow.
Suppofed to feed on worms and beetles, as the remains of the
laft have been found in the ftomach on diffedlion.
457
Manners.
Mufcicapa melanoleuca, N. Com. Petr, vol. xix. p. 468.  t.  15. (J. Guel-
denfiaedt.)
"VTOT unlike the laft, but the bill a trifle bent at the tip : that
and the irides are black : the whole of the back is white j
and the tail feathers all white, except at the tips; about one-
third of the ends of the two middle ones are black, from thence
the black decreafes as the feathers are more outward : the thighs
annulated brown and white.
The female is brown and dirty afh-colour, where the male is
pure black and white.
Vol. II. z N This
&
BLACK-AND 458
6o.
MOOR W.
Descriptic
Var. A.
Description
WARBLER.
This bird is faid to be migratory, and met with the whofe
fummer about teflis and Cyrus, in Georgia. It feeds on infects j
frequents  the  banks of rivers,   and  is  met with  among the
fhrubs.
Motacilla maura, Pall. Trav. ii. p. 708. N° 17-.
C I ZE of the Whin-Chat, to which it bears fome refemblance*
The head and neck black; edges of the feathers pale: back„
and bafe of the wings, black, the laft margined with grey: fides,
of the neck, and all beneath, white: the threat of a deep ferruginous 1 wings brown ; on the coverts an oblique patch of yellowifh white: tail even, black: the rump*, and bafe half of the
tail, white.
The female, and young birds, have the head grey„ clouded
with brown: back not unlike that of a Woodcock: the reft o£
the body more obfolete.
This fpecies inhabits Ruffia, and frequents the birch-trees-
which are here and there fcattered in the woods of Ural, and in
the fields planted with them between the rivers tobol and Irtifcb^
flying by pairs. Feeds on infects, and makes the neft in th*
holes in trunks of trees made by the mice, and other fmall
quadrupeds..
T   ENGTH fix inches..   Bill black : plumage above rufous
brown; beneath rufous white: chin and belly white :   over
each eye a rufous ftreak: edges of the wing coverts rufous.:
quills black* with pale edges; fecondaries edged with rufous ?
rump WARBLER.
rump white: the bafe half of the tail white ; from thence to the
end black, except the two middle feathers, which are wholly
black : legs black.
A fpecimen of this is in the collection of Sir J. Banks.   It
was met with among the ice between Afta and America.
45a
61.
YELLOW*.
BROWED W.
ABOVE greenifh: beneath pale-coloured:  on the crown of   Description.
the head a pale ftreak: over the eye a ftripe of yellow.
Inhabits Ruffia *, Place.
62.
GILT-
THROAT  W.
ABOVE cinereous : beneath whitifh : throat and neck ferru-     Description.
ginous.
Inhabits Ruffia, chiefly about the tungufka river *. Place;
Motacilla cyanura, Pall. Tra
p. 709. N°
C I Z E of the Red-breaft. The upper parts of a cinereous yellow, tinged with green: rump blueifh: over the eyes, the
throat, and under parts, yellowifh white: fides of the breaft
near the wings orange: tail even, the feathers rather pointed ; the
colour of all of them brown, edged outwardly with pale blue,
and, when folded up, appears wholly blue: wings ferown: the
outer margins of the quills of a greenifh yellow * the inner
yellow.
63.
BUTE-TAILED
W.
Description.
' Mr. Pennant.
3 N  1
This This is frequently met with in the woods which grow about
the rivulets of the fouthern parts about the Jenifei, and from
thence throughout the whole of the eaftern part of Sibiria; always at the beginning of winter.
Motacilla aurorea, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 695.
C IZE of the Redfiart- Crown of the head, and nape, hoary :
forehead whitifh : throat, and fore part of the neck, black :
back and wings the fame, marked with a triangular fpot of
white : the under parts of the body deep yellow: tail yellow*
except the two middle feathers, which are black.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of the river Selinga, in Sibiria;
frequents the willows.
PROWN black : cheeks white : upper part of the plumage
afh-colour, ftreaked with black: coverts and primaries
dufky; the firft marked with two white bars; fecondaries edged
with white : tail dufky; at the end of the two outer feathers a
white fpot: throat white, ftreaked on each fide with black:
breaft and belly dirty white, ftreaked downwards with black:
legs whitifh.
Found at New York and Newfoundland; at the laft place in.
the fummer-feafon. WARBLER.
m
•Grey-poll Warbler, Am. Zool.
66.
GREY-POLL W.
TJ EAD, fides of the neck, and upper tail coverts, of a fine    Description.
grey : wing coverts crofted with two white bars : primaries
and tail dufky, edged with grey : throat orange : chin and breaft
of a fine yellow: belly of a whitifh afh-colour.
Inhabits New York. Place.
Yellow-fronted Warbler, Are?. Zool.
HP HE forehead and crown are of a bright yellow: from the
bill, through the eye, a black band, bounded on each fide
with white: chin, throat, and fore part of the neck, black:
breaft and belly white : hind part of the neck, the back, rump,
and leffer wing coverts, of a light blueifh grey: greater coverts,
and lower order of the leffer, of a bright yellow, forming a large
fpot : the primaries and tail are deep afh-colour; the webs of
the outer feathers fpotted with white.
Found in Penfylvania.
67.
YELLOW-
FRONTED  W.
Blackburnian Warbler, Am. Zool.
67*
BLACKBURNIAN W.
pROWN intenfely black, divided by a line of rich yellow :    des<
from the corner of the upper mandible another of the
fame: through the eye a black one, reaching beyond it, bounded
beneath by a narrow yellow line: fides of the neck, throat, and
middle of the breaft, yellow: fides fpotted with black: vent and
thighs white:   leffer wing coverts black;  the greater white -,
primaries WARBLER.
primaries dufky: the middle tail feathers dufky; the three outer
ones on each fide white.
Inhabits New York.
, Brif o
i6.—Buf. oif. v.
HOODED   W.
Description.
Le Mefange a collier de la Caroli
p. 452.
Hooded Titmoufe, Catefb. Car. i. pi. 60.
Hooded Warbler, ArB. Zool.
O I Z E of a Goldfinch: length five inches. Bill black: the
fore part of the head, and throat, yellow: the hind part of
the head black, pafling on each fide to the fore part of the neck,
forming a collar : the upper parts of the body are olive green :
the under yellow : legs brown.
so Le Gobe-mouche citrin de la Louifiane, Bstf. oif, iv. p. 538.—PL enl. 666-
Var. A. f- 2-
Citrine Flycatcher, ArB. Zool f
HP H E forehead, and from thence round the eyes and cheeks,
are of a fine yellow : the reft of the head, the chin, and
fore part of the neck, of a velvety black;  from thence all the
under parts are yellow : the upper parts are of a greenifh grey.
The firft of thefe inhabits Carolina, the fecond Louifiana. I
am inclined to think them mere varieties, if not different only in
fex. Both are moft beautiful birds. That of Catefby is faid to
frequent the fhady places in the uninhabited parts.
Description.  Ill
-%*n,-/,,;/,,/"//„,//,■). W   A   R   B   L   E   R%
463
Motacilla calliope, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 697.
Ruby-throat, Am. Zool.
' lT».
69.
RUBY-
THROAT.
C IZ E of the  Redfiart.    Plumage above,  the colour of a    Description.
Nightingale : beneath, yellowifh white: throat the colour
©f vermilion, bounded on each fide by a black and white ftreak,
which takes rife at the bill: between the bill and eye black:
over the eye a ftreak of white : tail rounded, the colour of the
back.
Inhabits the eaft part of Sibiria : firft met with about the river Place.
Jenifei.    Seen moftly on the tops of the trees.    Is an excellent
finger,  chiefly in the middle of the night.
C I Z E of a Sparrow. Head and neck black i body and wings
moufe-coloured : from the bill, through the eye, pafling
down on each fide of the neck, a white ftreak : the belly white,
except the middje, which is black : the tail black; the outer
feather rather fhorteft,  and fringed with white.
In the mufeum of Ch. Boddam, Efq; but from whence unknown.
CIZE of a Sparrow : length (the appendage of the tail included) more than fix inches. Bill three quarters of an inch,
ftrait, except the very tip; bale of the under mandible white:
the head, and upper part of the body, dufky reddifh brown,
mottled with yellow on the crown: between the bill and eye,
yel-ow, pafling in a ftreak over the eye to the hind head, where
it is rufous: the wing coverts are rufous, mixed with brown,
9 except
MURINE W.
Description.
THORN-
TAILED W.
Plate LII.
Description. except the fhoulder, which is white : the under part3 of the body,
from chin to vent, are white alfo : the greater coverts and quills
brown, with pale margins : the tail is cuneiform in fhape, and of
a very fingular conftruction; for the end of each feather, for
about one-third of its length, is almoft bare of webs, ending in
a point; the four middle feathers are ferruginous, the others
reddifh brown, with the ends white: the legs are brown, one
inch in length.
Inhabits terra del Fuego.    In the collection  of Sir Jofepb
Banks.
T ENGTH four Inches and a half. Bill half an inch : vifage
fomewhat prolonged: irides reddifh : upper parts of the
body yellow brown, waved with black, with a mixture of red,
efpecially on the fides over the wings: under parts cinereous
yellow, crofted with blackifh: tail cuneiform; yellowifh brown
mixed with red, and barred with black lines; it is very fhort,
the longefl feather being only one inch : legs three quarters of
an inch long, but flout, and of a yellow colour.
Inhabits, terra del Fuego.
C I Z E of a Wren : length three inches and a half. Bill three
quarters of an inch long, ftrait, and black : irides very pale
blue: plumage above yellow, ftreaked with dufky: fides of the
head, beneath the eye, fore part of the neck, and breaft, white :
belly, thighs, vent, and rump, yellow : tail fhort, only half an
inch long; colour of it black, with the ends of the feathers of a
dull yellow: legs one inch long, dufky : claws large.
Inhabits Dufky Bay, New Zealand.,-
LENGTH 	
WARBLER.
465
•  i.m 74--
LONG-
LEGGED W.
T  E N G T H four inches and a half.    Bill three quarters of    Description.
an inch,   ftrait,   black:   irides  blueifh afh-colour:   upper
parts of the body, wings, and tail, of an elegant pale green :
forehead, fides of the head,   under the eye,  and fides of the
neck, afh-colour : above the eye a femicircular white mark : the
under parts are very pale afh-colour : thighs and vent greenifh :
tail not longer than in the laft fpecies: legs above one inch
long, and flefh-coloured: toes and claws rather flout. •
This inhabits Dufky Bay, New Zealand, and is named there Place.
E teetee tee poinom.
The three laft from Sir J. Banks's drawings.
Motacilla cenanthe, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 332. N° 15.—Faun. Suee. N° 254.—
Faun. Groen. p. 122. 84.—Scop. ann. i. N° 230.—Brun. N° 276.—
Muller, p. 33. N° 274.— Krom. el. p. 374. N° 4.
Le Cul-blanc, ou Vitrec, ou Motteux, Brif orn. iii. p. 449. N° 33.—
Buf. oif. v. p. 237.—J--4-W& 554. f. 1. 2.
Wheat-Ear, Fallow Smich, White Tail, RaiiSyn.ys- A. i.—Will. or*, p.
233. pi. 41.—Albin. i. pi. 55. (the male.) vol. iii. pi. 54. (the female.)
Br. Zool. i. N° 1 ST.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
'"THE length of this bird is five inches and a half. The bill
black: irides hazel: the top of the head, hind part of the
neck, and back, are of a blueifh grey : over the eye a ftreak of
white; through the eye another of black, which widens into a
large patch behind it: the quills are black, with tawny edges:
the rump, upper tail coverts, and bafe half of the tail, white i
the end half black : the under parts of the body yellowifh white,
Vol. II. 3 O changing changing to pure white at the vent: the breaft tinged with red t
the legs black.
The female has the mark over the eyes rather obfcure; and
inftead of the black mark under it, a patch of brown: the tail
is not fo deeply marked with white.
This bird vifits England annually in the middle of March, and
leaves us in September. The females come firft, about a fortnight before the males: they keep coming till the middle of
May. In fome parts of England are in vaft plenty ; and are much
efteemed. About Eaftbourn, in Suffex, they are taken in fnares
made of horfe-hair, placed beneath a long turf: being very
timid birds, the motion of a cloud, or the appearance of an
Hawk, will drive them for flicker into thefe traps, and fo they
are taken. The numbers annually enfnared in that diftri6l alone
amount to about 1,840 dozen, which ufually fell at fix pence
per dozen *. Quantities of thefe are eaten on the fpot by the
neighbouring inhabitants; others are picked, and fent up to the
London poulterers; and many ai:e potted, being as much efteemed
in England as the Ortolan on the oont&ierrtt; :;s
Their food is infects only, though in rainy fummers feed much
on earth-worrds -j-, whence they are fatteft in fuch feafons \.
This fpecies is met with in moft parts of Europe, even as far
as Greenland. 1 a.nd has alfo been fent to England from the Eafi
Indies, fpecimens of which I have feen §.
* Br. Zool.
f I have feen them follow the plough for the fake of worms.
X Pennant fays, that the reafon why they are fo plenty about Eafibourn is, be-
caufe a certain fly abounds in the adjacent hills, which feeds on the Wild
Thyme.
§ See Edwards's Preface, p. 12.
It WAR
LER.
It chiefly frequents heaths ; but except in particular fpots, as
before mentioned, one only fees here and there a few fcattered
paifs. The neft is ufually placed under fhelter of fome turf,
clod, ftone, or the like, always on the ground, and not unfre-
quently in fome deferted rabbit-burrow. It is compofed of dry
grafs or mofs, mixed with wool, fur of the rabbit, &c. or lined
with hair and feathers. The eggs ate from five to eight in
number, of a light blue, with a deeper blue circle at the large
end *.    The young are hatched the middle of May.
Motacilla csnanthe, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 332,
Le Cul-blanc gris, Brif, orn. iii. p. 45
p. 244.
Grey Wheat-Ear, Br. Zool. App. f
N° ic./S.
!.   N° 34.   pi. 21. f  2.-
Buf. oif. -'
HP HI S variety differs in having a mixture of whitifh and fulvous on the upper parts, and very fmall grey fpots on the
lower part of the neck : and the two middle tail feathers wholly
black; the others as in the common Wheat-Ear, and fringed
with pale rufous: bill and legs brown.
* Hifi. des off.
t In Mr. Pennant's bird, which was fliot near Uxbridge, the upper parts
were tawny: fore part of the neck dull browni-lh yellow : from the bill to the
eye an obfcure dufky line : quills and fecondaries black, edged with tawny and
white : tail like the common* Wheat-Ear, with pale tawny edges.
j02 .468
WARBLER.
Le Cul-blanc cendre, Brif. o
p. 245.
. p. 454, N' 3. pi. 21. f. i.—Buf.yf.v.
TN this the forehead is white: the upper parts of the body '
afh-coloured, irregularly mixed with grey brown :  the rump
of this laft colour.  Otherwife it is not unlike the firft-defcribed.
Description.
CCOPO LI obferves a further variety, found about Dwitta,
which is white above: throat, wings, and almoft the whole
of the two middle tail feathers, black; and two fpots of black
on the other feathers of it.
76.
RUSSET  W.
Description.
Motacilla ftapazina, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 231. N° 14.
Le Cul-blanc roux, Brif. orn. iii. p. 459. N° 37.—Buf. oif. V. p. 246.
Oenanthe altera, Rail Syn. 76. N° 2.—Will. orn. p. 233*
Red or Ruffet-coloured Wheat-Ear, Edw. pi. 31.
Stapazino, ArB. Zool.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the others. The male has the head, neck, back,
and breaft, of a dirty faint orange; deeper on the back, and
fainter on the breaft : acrofs the lower part of the back is a cref-
cent of black fpots : the chin, cheeks, and throat, black : rump,
lower belly, and upper tail coverts, white : wings light brown :
the two middle tail feathers are black; the reft white, with a
narrow border of black: bill and legs black.
The female is like the male, except that the black mark is
round and behind the eyes only, and not under the throat,
which is white.
Thefe WARBLER.
Thefe are found at Gibraltar; and are likewife met with in
Italy about Bologna, but not common.
Ah
Le Cul-blanc rouffatre, Brif. orn. iii. p. 457. pi. 25. f. 4.—Buf. oif. v. 245.
Strapazino, Raii Syn. 81. N° 13.—Will. orn. p. 233.
76.
Var.  A.
'TP HIS, fays Willughby, has the " rump underneath, and al-    Description.
" moft the whole tail likewife, white: the head and back
" of a rufty yellow: the wing feathers half black and half yel-
** low: the bill indifferently long, of a dufky colour : the throat,
" breaft, and belly, are white, lightly dafhed with yellow: the
" tail towards the rump is yellow, elfe black.'*
This was found near Nifmes, and about Bologna. Place.
It is thought by Linnaus a variety of the laft, in which fenti-
ment I will join him: and indeed, to fay the truth, I believe the
whole of the above-mentioned Wheat-Ears, are mere accidental
varieties, from age, fex, or accident.
Le Motteux du Senegal, Buf. oif. v. p. 249*.
Cul-blanc du Senegal, PI. enl. 583. 2.
RUFOUS W. E.
TRIGGER than   the  common  Wheat-Ear:   length feven   Description*
inches. Bill black: upper parts rufous brown: wing, coverts brown, edged with rufous: quills the fame : the under
parts of the body are yellowifh white, inclining to reddifh on
the breaft : the rump, upper and under tail coverts, and bafe of
the tail, white ; the reft the fame as the quills : legs black.
Inhabits .! W   A
E   H.
Le grand Motteux,  ou Cul-blanc du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf. eif. v,
p. 248.
Lev. Muf.
"DIGGER than our fpecies: length eight inches. Bill ten
lines long : top of the head, and the breaft, irregularly marked with a paler and darker brown : the reft of the upper parts to
the rump fulvous brown : on the rump a pale fulvous band:
throat dirty white, tinged with brown: upper part of the belly,
and fides, fulvous : the lower belly dirty white : under tail coverts yellowifh ; the upper white : the bafe half of the tail white,
the reft black -, the tip dirty white, except the two middle 1
thers, which are black, with fulvous tips: wings brown, the
edges fringed with yellowifh.
Found at the Cape of Good Hope.
Le Motteux, ou Cul-blanc, brun verdatre, Buf. oif v. p. 248.
CMALLER than the laft: length fix inches. Upper parts
black-brown, and greenifh-brown, mixed : leffer wing coverts the fame ; the greater white : the throat dirty white : fore
part of the neck the fame, mixed with black: breaft orange,
paleft towards the belly: upper and under tail coverts white :
tail feathers brown; all but the two middle ones have the ends
white.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, with the laft.
SIZE WARBLER.
BLACK-
HOODED W.
O I Z E of the Wheat-Ear r length fix inches. Bill black :
head black, uniting on each fide the neck with a deep
crefcent of the fame : over the eye a white ftreak: forehead and
chin white : the back and wings rufTet brown : the rump and
belly white : tait whkq?, except the whole of the two middle
feathers, and ends of all the reft, which are black.
In the collection of Charles Boddam, Efq; from the Cape of
Good Hope, where it is called Schaap Wagter. I have alfo met
with it in Chinefe drawings, feeming to prove it to be a native of
China likewife.
Le Fill de Provence,. Buf. oif v. p. 194.—PI, enl. 654. 1.
C I Z E of the Field Lark: length feven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch long, and dufky : top of the head, and hind
part of the neck, pale rufous brown; the feathers margined
at the ends with blackifh : upper part of the back rufous : leffer
wing coverts black, margined, with' rufous, and the quills the
fame, but fome of the outer ones are margined with rufous
white, efpecially near the ends: under the eyes a yellowifh white
fpot: the under parts of the body are reddilh white, marked
with fmall blackifh fpots about the neck and breaft : the tail is a
little forked in fhape; the feathers dufky black; the two middle
ones margined with rufous, the four next on each fide with whk-&.
and the two outermoft wholly white: the legs are yellowiifh;.
the hind toe pretty long, but the claw of it not exceeding the
others in length..
This
PROVENCE
W. E. 472
Place and
Manners.
WARBLER.
This is found in Provence in France, where it is called F\fi,
from its making a cry like that word : when difturbed, inftead
of flying away, it fquats beneath fome ftonc or other fheltcr till
all is quiet.
SPOTTED W. E.
Description.
83.
WHITE-
CROWNED W.
Description.
Of
La Pivote Ortolane, Buf. oif. v. p. 195.—PI. *»/. 654. 2.
CIZE of the laft, and not much unlike it.    The whol
the upper furface brown, fpotted with dufky black: rump,
and upper tail coverts, plain brown : wing coverts and quills
black, margined with dufky white -, the prime quills black:
round the eyes yellowifh white : under parts dufky white, {potted
with black on the neck and breaft, and dafhed with the fame on
the fides: the tail is white at the bafe; the reft black above, and
dufky beneath j the two outer feathers white on the outer webs,
and tips of both webs: legs as in the laft fpecies, and the hind
toe as long.
Inhabits Provence with the laft, where they are both called
Becfigues. This laft accompanies the Ortolan, and is frequently
taken with that bird.
T   ENGTH feven inches.    Bill black : plumage the fame
all the upper parts;   the under dufky white:   chi.
white : on the crown of the head
eye another : legs black.
Inhabits China.
pure
white fpot, and behind the WARBLER.
473
Le Grifin de Cayenne, Buf. oif. iii. p. 408.—PI. enl. 643. f. 1.2.
CIZE of the Pettichaps: length four inches and a half. Bill
black : the crown of the head is dufky black : throat, fore
part of the neck, and breaft, black: through the eye a white
ftreak: upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, cinereous
grey; the feathers of the firft bordered with grey, and the laft
tipped with white: belly, thighs, and vent, white: legs cinereous.
The female has the upper parts more afh-coloured than the
male, and the black parts not fo deep.
Inhabits Cayenne.
84.
GRISLY W.
escription.
Pink-coloured Warbler, Brown's III. p. 84. pi. 33.
85.
PINK W.
CIZE of the Willow Wren.   Bill reddifh : general colour of    Descriptic
the plumage a pale pink : wings and tail inclined to dufky :
legs red.
Inhabits Ceylon, Placs.
Olive-coloured Warbler, Brown's 111. p. 33. pi. 14.
CIZE of an  Hedge Sparrow.    Bill whitifh, befet with pale     D
yellow feathers : the head, upper parts of the body, wings,
and tail, olive : breaft and belly white.
This inhabits Ceylon.    It jerks up the tail fo high as to make
an acute angle.
86.
OLIVE W.
ESCRIPTION.
Vol. II.
3F
Ceylon 474
warbler.
Ceyloa Black-cap, Brown. III. p. 36. t. 15.
T ENGTH four inches and a half.   Bill a trifle bent, and
of a blueifh grey colour:  crown and nape black:   back
green : beneath wholly of a light yellow: wings black, croffed
with two bars of white.
Inhabits Ceylon.
CINGALESE W.
Description.
Green Warbler, .
wn. III. p. iz. pi. 32.
T   ENGTH four inches and a half.    Bill brown: plumage
above changeable green: beneath the heck orange: breaft
and belly yellow.
Inhabits Ceylon.
CHINA W.
Description.     ]^E N G T H
fix inches.    Bill dufky pale red :  general  co*-
lour green : from the eye to the nape a pale ftreak : a pale-
fpot on the ear: under parts of the body flefh-coloujed: tait
pointed : legs dufky..
Inhabits China.
90.
GREEN
INDIAN W.
Motacilla tiphia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 331. N° 13.
Le Figuier de Bengale, Brif. orn. iii. p. 484. N° 47*.
■ vert & jaune, Buf. oif. v. p. 27S.
Green Indian Flycatcher, Edw. pi. -jg.
' Br. Muf.
CI Z E of the Pettichaps.   Bill blackifh, but yellow at the bafe:
the upper parts of the plumage are olive green, paleft on the WARBLER.
rump :   cheeks and under parts greenifh yellow:   lefler wing
coverts deep brown; the others the fame, tipped with white,
forming two bars on the wing : quills and tail blackifh, with
the edges yellow : legs blackifh.
Inhabits .
47 S
Motacilla maderafpatana, Lin. Syft. i. p. 334. N° 28.
Le petit Figuier de Madagafcar, Brif, orn. iii. p. 498. N° 54. pi. 28. f. 2
Le Cheric, Buf. oif, v. p. 279.
CIZE of the Yellow Wren : length fcarcely three inches
three quarters. The bill is grey brown : round the eyes
white: the head, and upper parts, olive green: throat and
vent yellow; the parts between whitifh : quills pale brown,
margined with olive : two middle tail feathers olive green ; the
others brown, edged with olive :  legs cinereous.
Found at Madras, Madagafcar, and the Ifle of France. It is
a bold bird, though not often found near the inhabited parts;
it flies in flocks, and feeds on infects. At Madagafcar it is
called tcheric ; at the Ifle of France, White-Eyes.
WHITE-EYED
W.
Description.
Le Figuier de L'lile de Bourbon, Brif.-orn. iii. p. 510. N° 60. pi. 28. f. 3.—
PI. enl. 705. N° 2. BC
Le petit Simon, Buf. oif, v. p. 280.
C I Z E of the laft. Bill, and upper parts, grey brown: beneath,     D
dirty yellowifh grey:   quills and tail brown,   edged  with
grey brown : legs of the laft colour.
Inhabits the Iflands of Madagafcar and Bourbon; at the laft is
called Petit Simon.    It makes the neft in September, and gene-
3 P 2 rally
Place and
Manners. E   R.
rally lays three blue eggs. The neft is compofed of dried plants,
lined with hair, and generally placed on trees which fland finely,
as in orchards. Always keeps in flocks; and feeds on infects and
tender fruits. Sets up a particular cry when it fpies any thing run
along the ground : hence a good criterion for the fportfman in
refpect to game, which might efcape his fight alone.
Le Figuier bleu, Buf, oif. \
 de l'Ifle de France, PI. enl. 705. f. 1.
CIZE  of the two laft: length three inches three quarters.
The   bill is blackifh :   the upper  parts  of the body blue
;rey ; the under white : quills and tail black, edged with white :
legs blueifh.
Inhabits the Ifle of France.
Le Figuier bleu de Madagafcar, PI. enl. 705. f. 3.
CIZE of the laft; but four inches and a half in length. The
upper parts of a deep blue grey; the under the fame, but
paler, changing to white at the vent: the quills blackifh, edged
with white: the tail above an inch and a half in length, and
black, except the two outer feathers, which are white : bill and
legs pale lead-colour.
This is faid to be the male of the laft; but whoever will compare the defcription, added to the difference of length and markings of tail, if the PL enl. are faithful, muft join with me in the
contrary opinion. WARBLER.
417
Le Figuier du Senegal, Buf. oif. v. 282.—PL enl. 582. f. *.
 •—-— a ventre jaune du Senegal, PI. enl. 582. f. 3.
HPHE firft of thefe is four inches and a quarter in length.
The upper part of the head and body brown: quills dark
brown; the feathers edged with rufous brown: the under parts
of the body pale yellow : fides of the head almoft white: tail
even at the end, and marked as the quills : bill and legs
dufky.
The other meafures only three inches three quarters, and the
colour nearly the fame, except that the under parts have a reddifti
tinge.
95-
CITRON-BEL-
LIED W.
Description.
Figuier tachete du Senegal, PI, enl, 582. f. 2.
T ENGTH about four inches. Bill black : upper parts of
the head, neck, back, and wing coverts, black, edged with
rufous: rump deep rufous: under parts white: quills brown :
tail the fame, two inches long, and greatly cuneiform ; both that
and the quills edged with rufous white *: legs dufky.
Buffon is-inclined to think that this may be the male of the
citron-bellied one; but furely the length and fhape of the tail
entirely forbid the fuppofitioiu
96.
UNDATED W.
Figuier brun da Senegal, PI. enl. 584. f. 1. DUSKY W.
CIZE of the Petticbapst length fix inches.    The bill flende*.    Description.
and dufky: the upper parts of the plumage brown;  the
e-white- in the Pi. enf
under W   A   R ~B   L   E   R.
under grey, with a reddifh tincture on the fides: quills and tail
darker than the reft; and the laft pretty long, and even at the
end : legs yellow.
Figuier blond du Senegal, PI. enl. 584. f. 2.
—.— a ventre gris du Senegal, Pi. enl. 584. f. 3.
C IZ E much lefs than the laft : length four inches three quarters. Bill dufky : the colour much the fame as in that
bird, but feems to be paler on the rump : the tail is cuneiform,
and npf fo long in proportion : fides of the body very lightly
tinged with red.
In fig. 3. the fize and colour likewife correfponds, but the
Under parts are grey inftead of white :. the tail is likewife cuneiform, and the under part of it grey: the legs yellow in
both.
Buffon* thinks that the three laft are the fame fpecies; which I
would not venture to deny, were the fize the only difference j
but the fhape of the tails not being the fame, is an infuperable
objection, in my opinion. As to the two laft, I really think them
to be fexual differences, or varieties of the fame bird.
Thefe all inhabit !
• Hift. des oif v. p. 284. WARBLER,
479
Motacilla petechia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 334. N° 30.
Le Figuier a tete rouge de Penfilvanie, Brif, orn.
Buf. oif. v. p. 286.
Yellow Redpole, Edw. pi. 256.
Red-headed Warbler, ArB. Zool.
No 10 ^.    RED-HEADED-
• «  <*V9* w#
CIZE of the Black-cap. Bill black: the crown of the head
red : the upper parts of the body olive green; the under,
bright yellow, fpotted with red on the breaft and belly : wings
and tail dufky, edged with yellow: legs dufky.
The female differs in being paler in colour.
Thefe are migratory birds,, but folitary. Arrive in Penfylvania
in March,, but do not build there Frequent fhrubs: feldom
perch on tall trees:. and feed on infects.
Description.
Female.
Placb.
Le Figuier de St. Domingue, Brif orn. iii. p. 494. N° 52. pi. 26. f. 5.
Eiguier a gorge-blanche, Buf. oif. v. p. 287.
ST. DOMINGO?
W.
CIZE   of the Pettichaps, and almoft   five  inches in length.
Bill horrf-colour: the upper parts of the body are olive green:
fides of the head, and all beneath,, pale yellow; but the fore part
of the neck and breaft are dirty yellowifh' white,, marked with-
longitudinal reddifh fpots : quills and tail brown, edged with
greenifh yellow : the fide tail feathers are yellowifh on the inner
webs : legs grey brown.
The female is of a greenifh afh-colour, inftead: of olive, on the
hind part of the neck.
Inhabits Saint Domingo*
Description.- LOUIS 1 ANE W.
quarter.
Female.
Place.
WARBLER.
Le Figuier de la Louifiane, Brif, ern. iii. p. 500. N° 55. pi. 26. f. 4.
Figuier a gorge jaune, Buf, oif. v. p. 288.
Louifiane Warbler, Artl. Zool.
I Z E not much bigger than a Wren :  length four inches and
Bill brown;   beneath grey:   the upper parts of
the plumage olive green: the fore part of the neck and breaft
fine yellow; the laft fpotted with red: reft of the under parts
yellowifh white: acrofs the wing two bands of white: quills
blackifh brown, edged with blue grey; the inner webs white:
the two outfide tail feathers are white within at the tips, and the
third has a round white fpot at the fame place: legs cinereous.
The female wants the red fpots on the breaft.
Found in Louifiana and at St. Domingo.
Le petit Figuier de St. Domingue, Brif orn. m. p. 496. N°53. pi. 26. f.z.
Le Figuier vert & blanc, Buf, oif. v. p. 289.
Description. T ESS than the Pettichaps: length four inches and a half.
Bill horn-colour: the head and upper part are cinereous,
mixed with olive : upper parts of the body olive green ; the un- .
der yellowifh white: greater wing coverts and quills brown,
edged with yellowifh green : tail a trifle forked, of a deep olive j
the inner webs of all but the two middle feathers marked with
yellow, which is largeft as the feathers are more outward : legs
grey brown.
The female differs only in being paler in colour.
Inhabits 67. Domingo. '■   J"". "IP-HP
WARBLER.
Le grand Figuier de Canada, Brif. orn. iii. p. 508. N° 59. pi. 26. f. 1
Le Figuier a gorge orangee, Buf. oif v. p. 290.
Orange-throated Warbler, Am. Zool.
CIZE of the Black-Cap: length more than five inches. The
upper mandible brown ; the lower whitifh: the upper parts
olive green, inclining to afh-colour on the rump: the throat,
fore part of the neck, and breaft, orange : belly pale yellow : vent
and thighs almoft white: the greater wing coverts are afh-
coloured: quills brown, edged with afh-colour: the two middle
tail feathers are of this laft colour; the others black on the out-
fide and tips, and white on the infide : legs grey.
The female has the orange on the breaft lefs lively.
Inhabits Canada.
103.
QRANGE-
THROATED W,
Le Figuier tachete de Penfilvanie, Brif orn. Si. p. 50:
Le Figuier a tete cendree, Buf. oif. v. p. 291.
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher, Edw. pi. 2ss-J—ArB. Zm
, N° 56.
CIZE of the Pettichaps. Bill brown : the top of the head and
fides afh-colour: the hind part of the neck and back olive
green, fpotted with black : throat, breaft, and rump, fine yellow,
with oblong black fpots on the breaft: belly and vent white :
acrofs the wing coverts two bars of white: quills deep afh, edged
with white: the two middle tail feathers black ; the others blackifh, with a white fpot on the middle of the inner webs : legs
brown.
Inhabits Penfylvania.
Vol. IL
3CL
Le Le Figuier-delsjamaique,. Brif orn. :
Le Figuier brun, Buf. oif. v. p. 292.
Worm-eater, Sloan.. Jam. p. 310. N° 65. pi. 265.
N° 38..
Rail Syn.
Q I Z E of the Pettichaps : length five inches. Bill brown :
plumage on the upper parts pale brown; beneath, varied
with blackifh and rufous grey, not unlike a Lark,, except the
throat, which is of a plain dull brown ; and through the eyes a,
ftreak of the fame colour : quills and tail pale brown.
Inhabits Jamaica.
Le Figuier brun de Canada, Brif. orn. iii. p. 515. N-° 63. pi. 27. f. 4*
Le Figuier tachetede jaune, Buf. oif v. p. 293.
Spotted Yellow Flycatcher, Edvi. pi. 257.— ArB. Zool.
CIZE of the Pettichaps .v length four inches and a half. Bill
dufky : the feathers on the upper parts are brown, with olive
green margins: behind each eye a large rufous fpot: under parts,
as far as the belly, fides, and rump, yellow, marked with fmall
blackifh fpots on the neck and breaft : the lower part of the
belly, thighs, and under tail coverts, dirty yellowifh white |
acrofs the greater wing coverts a band of white : quills and tail,
fringed with olive green; the laft a trifle forked, and the two
outer feathers whitifh on. the inner webs near the tips: legs
brown. WARBLER.
-483
Xe Figuier brun de St. Domingue, Brif.
f. 5,
I p. 513. N° 63. pi.
106.
Var. A."
"•^TPHIS bird is like the lad, but paler: the under parts are
v-^jij^ifh, and the breaft is fpotted with brown ^  the white
band is likewife wanting On the vying coverts.
The firft is faid to inhabit Ganada; the other St. Dommgo: but
■as they have both been caught on board a fhip between thefe
places, it is probable that they migrate alternately from one to
the other, ,
Ceithia pinus, Lin. Syft. L p. 187. N° 16.
La Mefange d'Amerique, Brif orn. iii. p. 576. N° 1
ie Figuier de la Louifiane, id. Supp. p 99. N° 55.
Le Figttier des SapiBiS, Buf oif. v. p. 296.
Pine-creeper, Catefi. Car. i. p. 46.—Edw. pi. 277.-
. Zool.
. T ENGTH almoft four inches and three quarters. Bill
brown : the male has the head, hind part of the neck, back,
and rump, olive : through the eye a black ftreak : throat, neck,
and breaft, yellow: belly and vent white : upper wing coverts
brown, marked at the end with a fpot of white, forming two
bands on the wings : quills brown : tail a trifle forked ; colour
brown ; the outer webs of the outer feathers white : legs
brown.
The female is wholly brown.
Found  in  Carolina in  fummer;   comes   into Penjylvania in
April, and departs fouth in  autumn.    Has  the manners  of a
Creeper, running up and down the decayed trees in fearch of in-
3 Q^a fects,
Female.
Place and
Manners. fects, on which it feeds. Suppofed to breed there, though the
neft is not yet clearly known. Is moft frequent among the pine-
trees.
Le Figuier a gorge noire de Penfilvanie, Brif orn. Supp. p. 104. N° 77.
Le Figuier a Cravatte noire, Buf. oif v.
Black-throated Green Flycatcher, Edw pL 3°0«
Green Warbler, ArB. Zool.
CIZE of the Pettichaps. Bill black: plumage on the upper
parts olive green : fides of the head and neck bright yellow :
throat and fore pare of the neck black : upper part of the breaft
yellow: lower part, belly, and vent, white : fides black and
white: leffer wing coverts olive; middle and greater ones neareft
the body deep afh-colour tipped with white, making two bands-
acrofs the wing : outer coverts and quills afh-colour*r the laft
edged with white : tail deep afh-colour; the three outer feathers
marked with white on the inner web: legs brown.
Inhabits Penfylvania, where it comes about the month of
April; but fcarcely flops there, being only on its way to the more
northward parts :   and returns back in September.
Feeds on infecls.
N° 64. pi. 27. f. 2..
T   ESS than the Pettichaps:. length four inches and a third.
Bill dufky:  the top of the head yellow: between the bill
10 „ and WARBLER.
and eye a large triangular black fpot: beneath the eye a white
mark : the hind part of the neck, and all the upper parts, black,
edged with yellowifh green : throat and under parts whitifh:
acrofs the wing two yellowifh bars : quills and tail dufky, edged
with olive green and whitifh : the inner webs of the three outer
feathers of a yellowifli- white, from the middle to the end : legs
dufky.
The figure in the PI. enl. -wants the black on the fides of the
head -, and is otherwife much paler in colour. It is moft likely
a female, or a young bird.
This inhabits Canada and the northern parts of North America,
into which it migrates the beginning of April. Frequents low
ftirubs, and the under branches- of the Red Cedars.. Departs in
autumn^
Motacilla Dominica, Lin. Syft. I. p. 334. N° 26.
Le Figuier cendre de  St. Domingue, Brif orn. iii. p. 5^20. N° 65. pi. 27.
/• 3-
Le Figuier cendre a gorge jaune, Buf. oif. v. p. 300.
Mufcicapa a. Cceruleo cinereo, fufco & luteo varia, Rail Syn. 186. N° 37.
Blue and alh-coloured Mufcicapa, Sloan. Jam. ii. p. 310. N° 44.
485
Place
Mann
no.
JAMAICA W.
T   ENGTH four inches and a half.    Bill brown:  the upper     Description*
parts of the bird afh-coloured : throat * and fore part of the
neck yellow r from thence to the vent white : between the bill
and eye a ftreak of yellow j beneath the eye a large fpot of black;
» Linmeus fays the throat is black ; but this* does not appear by Briffony%
figure. Perhaps the black on each fide may unite under the chin in fome fpe-
eimens, and not in others.
and GOLDEN-
CROWNED W.
W   A   R   B   L   E   R.
and behind it a white fpot: fides of the breaft marked with fmall
black fpots: wing coverts brown, crofled with two white bands-:
quills and tail cinereous brown, edged with grey; the two outer
feathers have a white fpot on the infide, near the tips: legs
brown.
This is met with at Jamaica and St. Domingo.
Motacilla coronata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 333. N° 21.
Le Figuier cendre tachete de Penfilvanie, Bvif. orn. Supp. p. no. N- 81.
Le Figuier couronne d'Or, Buf, oif v. p. 312.
Golden-crowned Flycatcher, Edw. pi. 298.—ArB. Zool.
CIZE of the Pettichaps. Bill dufky: plumage above, cinereous blue, fpotted with black : crown and rump y^Uftw j
fides of the head and throat whitifh: through the eyes a black
band : fore part of the neck and upper part of the breaft black,
mixed with cinereous blue : fides of the breaft yellow, fpotted
with black: the reft of the under parts white; but the fides have
a few black fpots: wing coverts and quills blackifh.; acrofs the
firft two white bands; the laft edged with grey: tail the fame,
but the inner webs of the three outer feathers marked with a fpot
of white: legs blackifh.
The female is rufous brown above ; wants the black mark
through the eyes; and has no black fpots on the breaft.
Inhabits Penfylvania.
Migrates fouth in autumn. WARBLE   R.
437
Motacilla Canadenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p.-334. N° 27.
Le Figuier cendre de Canada, Brif orn. iii. 524. N° 67. pi. 27. f.i.
Le Figuier a ceinture, Buf. oif. v. p. 393.,
Belted Warbler, ArB. Zool.
CIZE of a Black-Cap;, length five inches.. Bill black: the
plumage on the upper parts of a deep cinereous blue, nearly
black : on the middle of the crown a fpot of yellow : over the
eye a white ftreak; round the eyes alfo the fame: acrofs the.
wing coverts two bands of white : the under parts of the body
white ; but the lower part of the neck and breaft fpotted with
blackifh; and acrofs the breaft a yellow, band, lefs than a quarter
of an inch in breadth : the upper tail coverts of the laft colour ;.
quills brown,, edged with grey : tail a trifle forked, blackifh,
edged with afh-colour; the outer feather marked with white
within, near the tip : legs brown.
The female has the upper parts brown j and the upper tail coverts are not yellow-
Found in Canada.
Motacilla Canadenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 336. N°42. 113.
Le petit Figuier cendre de Canada, Brif. orn* iii. p. C27. N? 68. pi. 27. f. 6. BLACE»
B        p,     . ,Q     , J V > ' *     ' THROATED W.
—ri. enl. 005. 1. 2.
Le Figuier bleu, Buf. oif. v. p. 304.
Blue flycatcher, Edw. pi. 252.
Black-throated Warbler, ArB. Zool.
13 AT HER lefs than the laft : length four inches and a half.   I>»mi*-tiok.
Bill black:   the upper parts are the fame colour as the laft
bird ;   but. the fides of the head, the throat, and fore part.of the
1 neck, neck, are black: the fides are alfo fpotted with the fame : the
belly and the under parts whitifh: quills dufky black; on the
outfide of the greater quills, near the baftard wing, a white fpot:
tail fomewhat forked ; the feathers cinereous blue; three of the
outer ones are white within, at the bafe and tips; and the two
next are whitifh within at the tip : legs brown *.
One of thefe was taken at fea, in a calm, eight or ten leagues
from St. Domingo -, and another was fent Mr. Edwards from
Penfylvania; at which place they arrive in April, make their nefts,
and depart to the fouth in autumn.
P. 333. N°23.
ingue, Brif. 0
p. 529. N°69. pi. 27.
N° 36. — Sloan. J at
Motacilla varia, L
Le Figuier varie de St.
-Buf. oif v. ¥
Small black and  whi
p. 309. pi. 265.  f. 1,
Black and white Creeper, Edw. pi. 300
White-poll Warbler, ArB. Zool.
Br.  Muf.
CIZE of the laft : length four inches and three quartes. Bill
dufky: top of the head white; fides of it black, marked" with
two ftreaks of white : back, rump, and throat, white, marked with
large black fpots : breaft and belly white, fpotted with black on
the breaft and fides: wing coverts black, crofled with two white
bands :   quills blackifh, edged with grey;   and  fome of thofe
* In the PL enl. they are yellow, and the tail appears wholly black. 	
WARBLER.
neareft the body almoft wholly greyifh, or white : tail a trifle
forked ; colour blackifh, edged with grey outwardly ;   all  the
outer feathes whitifh on the infide:   legs greenifh brown ;   claws
. yellowifh.
Found at Penfylvania in the fummer feafon throughout; coming in April, and departing in autumn. It is alfo found in
Jamaica, St. Domingo, and other parts. About New York it has
been met with, among the Maples, the whole fummer; coming
about the end of March.
48?
Le Figuier de la Martinique, Brif. orn. iii. p. 490.
. a tete roufle, Buf. oif. v. p. 306.
Bloody-fide Warbler, ArB. Zool.
N°5o. pi. 22. f. 4.
BLOODY-SIDE
W.
CIZE of the Pettichaps: length not quite four inches and a
quarter. Bill brown : the crown of the head is rufous: upper parts of the neck and body olive green : throat, fore part of
the neck, and breaft, yellow, marked with longitudinal rufous
fpots : belly and vent plain yellow: wing coverts and quills
brown, edged with olive green : tail as the quills; but the two
outer feathers are yellowifh within : legs grey.
Found at Martinico.
Is faid to be continually in motion, and to have a trifling fong,
but very melodious.
Vol. II. WAR
L   E   R.
RED-
THROATED w.
p. 333. N° 19.
s, Brif. orn. Sup
Motacilla Penfylvanica, Lin. Syft. i
Le Figuier a tete jaune de Penfilvai
j — a poitrine rouge, Buf. oif. v. p. 308.
Red-throated Flycatcher,  Edw, pi. 301.
p. 105. N° 78.
g I Z E of the Pettichaps. Bill black : upper parts of the body
olive green fpotted with black: crown of the head yellow :
hind part of the head black : beneath the eyes a broad band of
the fame : fides of the head, and under parts of the body, white :
top of the breaft and fides deep red : wing coverts dufky, croffed
with two whitifh bars : quills dufky; fome of the inner ones
edged and tipped with ©live green : tail dufky; the outer feathers fpotted within with white: legs black.
The female wants the black at the hind head; the back not
fpotted ; and the fides fcarcely marked with red.
Thefe are feen in Penfylvania in fpring, on their pafiage northward, where they go to breed, and pafs the fummer.
Their food confifts of infects, fpiders, and fuch like.
CERULEAN W.
Motacilla Czerulea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 337. N° 43.
Le Figuier cendre de Penfilvanie, Brif orn. Supp. p. 107. N° yg.
— E™de Fer, Buf. oif. v. p. 309.
Little Blue-grey Flycatcher, Edw. pi. 302.
Cerulean Warbler, ArB. Zool.
J   ESS than the Pettichaps.    Bill black;   bafe of the under
mandible reddifh :   head and upper parts of the body blue
grey : eyelids white: from the bill to the hind head paflfes a ftripe
of A
E   R.
of black : under parts white : wings cinereous brown ; the quills
edged with whitifh within ; but the outer edges and tips of fome
of the inner ones are whitifh : the tail is longifh; the eight middle feathers cinereous blue, and the outer one of thefe white at
the tip; but the two outmoft on each fide are wholly white : legs
black.
The female has not the black ftreak over the eyes; and the
eight middle tail feathers are cinereous brown; the reft as in the
male.
Thefe are inhabitants of Penfylvania, where they arrive early
in fpring, and return in autumn. The neft is of a lingular con-
ftruftion; and Edwards has given a good figure of it. It is
compofed of fine downy matter, with the outfide of mofs and
liver-wort, and lined with horfe-hair. The form of it is cylindrical, placed between the forks of the branches of a tree, and open
on the top.
Place
Mann
Le Figuier a tete r
e de Cayenne, Pi. enl. 704. f. 1.
>TpH I S is very like the laft, but has the whole of the upper
part of the head above the eyes black: the greater quills are
wholly black; as are the fix middle tail feathers;   the others
white.
This is a mere variety of the laft, and came from Cayenne,
3 R 2 49a
WARBLER.
118. Motacilla chryfoptera, Lin. Syft. i. p. 333. N" 20.
GOLD WINGED       Le F;guIer cendr6 .   gorge noire de Penfilvanie,   Brif. orn. Supp. p. i.og,
N° 80.
Le Figuier aux ailes dorees, Buf oif. y. p. 311.
Golden-winged Flycatcher, Edw. pi. 2gg.—ArB. Zool.
Description.
CIZE of the laft. Bill black: crown of the head yellow ;
fides of it white : through the eyes a black ftreak: the upper
parts of the body deep afh-colour: throat and fore part of the
neck black: reft of the under parts white: on the wing coverts a
fpot of yellow : the outer tail feather has a white fpot on the inner web: legs black.
Found in Penfylvania in April, going northward to breed ; and
returns back fouthward in autumn.
119.
ORANGE-
HEADED W.
Le Figuier Orange, Buf. oif. v. p. 313.
■■ —etranger, Pi. enl. 58. f. 3.
T) I L L black : top and fides of the head, fore part and fides of
the neck, fine orange : over the eye a brown band • beneath
the eye a fecond, but paler: the upper parts of the body and
quills reddifh brown: wing coverts black and white : breaft and
belly pale yellow: tail black, edged with pale yellow : legs
yellow.
From Guiana.   I have only heard of this fingle fpecimen. WARBLER.
Le Figuier huppe de Cayenne, PI. enl. 391. f. 1
Buf. oif. v. p. 314.
T ENGTH four inches. Bill dufky brown : upper parts of
the body brownifh green -, the under, greenifh grey : the
feathers of the whole top of the head long enough to form a creft,
which is of a blackifh brown, edged with white, and may be
erected at pleafure: legs yellowifh brown.
Found at Guiana, where it may be met with throughout the
year.
It frequents the open parts, and feeds on infects.
CRESTED W.
Description.
Le Figuier noir, Buf. oif. v. p. 314.
■  & jaune de Cayenne, PI. enl. 391V" f. 2.
T ENGTH five inches. Bill brown: the whole head, throat,
and upper parts of the body and wings, are black, except
the tips of the larger coverts, which are deep rufous, and form a
band on the wing : fides of the neck and breaft of this laft colour ; but the middle of the breaft, belly, and vent, are white:
tail half deep rufous; the end half black : legs brown.
This is met with at Cayenne, but is rare.
RUFOUS AND
BLACK. W.
Le Figuier olive de Cayenne, PI. enl, <
f. i—Buf. oif. v. p. 315.
122.
EQUATORIAL
npH I S is a trifle lefs than the laft.    Bill black:  the upper    Description
parts of the plumage greenifh brown ; the under parts yellowifh white: throat and breaft pale yellow: quills and tail
dufky brown : legs brown.
Inhabits 123-
PROTHONO-
TARY W.
WARBLER.
Inhabits Cayenne with the laft, where it is met with at all fea-
fons of the year.
Le Figuier protonotaire, Buf. oif. v. p. 316.
. a ventre & tete jaunes, PI. enl. 704. f. 2.
Prothonotary Warbler, ArB. Zool.
CIZE of the laft ; but the bill is longer, and the tail fhorter;
the firft is dufky : the head, neck, breaft, and belly, of a fine
jonquil yellow : the back the fame, with a caft of olive : rump
afh-colour: vent white : quills and tail blackifh and afh-co-
loured * : legs black.
This inhabits Louifiana, where it has obtained the name of
Protonotaire.
HALF-COLLAR
W.
Le Figuier a demi-collier, Buf. oif v. p. 316.
Half-collar Warbler, ArB. Zool,
T ENGTH four inches and a half. Bill blackifh above,
and whitifh beneath : top of the head yellowifh olive : behind the eyes a cinereous ftripe : wing coverts brown, bordered '
with.yellow : greater quills brown, bordered with whitifh, and
the fecondaries the fame, but bordered with olive, and tipped
with white : the under parts of the body pale afh-colour, inclining to yellow on the belly : a yellowifh bar, or rather half-collar,
on the lower part of the neck : tail feathers pointed at the ends,
So Buffo* fays.—In the Pi. enl, the tail feathers feem white, margined with WARBLER.
and afh-coloured ; the two middle ones plain ; the four others*,
on each fide, white within : legs blackifh.
Inhabits Louifiana.
Le Figuier a gorge jaune,  Buf. oif. v. p. 317.
Orange-bellied Warbler, ArB. Zool.
"DILL brown, paleft beneath: head and upper parts olive brown:
the under, as far as the breaft, yellow; the laft inclining to
brown; the reft of the under parts rufous, inclining to yellow at
the vent: under wing coverts yellow, mixed with brown : the quills
brown; the fecondaries edged with olive, and the greater with pale
grey, growing paler the more outwardly, and- on the outer quill
quite white : tail feathers brown, edged with olive : legs yellowifh
brown.
Inhabits Louifiana.
ORANGE-
BELLIED W.
Le Figuier brun-olive, Buf. oif. v. p. 318,
Olive-brown Warbler, ArB. Zool.
OLIVE-BROWN
HPH E bill of this fpecies as the laft :   upper parts of the plu-     Description
, mage olive brown: throat, fore part of the neck, and fides,,
whitifh,' varied with grey: belly yellowifh white : under tail coverts yellow : wings brown ; the coverts and fecondaries bordered with paler brown, the tips whitifh;   the greater bordered
lis makes but ten in all.    He fays,
-I know of none of this genus that 1
Routes dix font Jpointues par le
s fewer then twelve.
with with pale grey : tail brown, bordered with grey ; the two middle
feathers  tinged with yellow; the two outer ones fpotted with
white within, near the tip;   and the outer one of all bordered
with white : legs brown.
Inhabits Louifiana.
Le Figuier Graffet, Buf. oif \
DILL black: the upper parts of the body greyifh olive . on
the head a fpot of yellow : on the body fome dafhes of
black: the rump is yellow : throat and fore part of the neck
pale rufous, with a mixture of afh-colour: reft of the under parts
whitifh : greater quills brown, edged with grey without, and
whitifh within; fecondaries blackifh, edged and tipped with
grey : tail black, edged with grey; the four outer feathers have a
white fpot on the inner webs, near the tip : legs black.
Inhabits Louifiana.
Le Figuier cendre a gorge cendree, Buf. oif ^
Grey-throated Warbler, Am. Zool.
"DILL black ; beneath grey : the general colour of the plumage cinereous, but the head and upper parts much deeper
than the reft : the quills have whitifh edges : the tail black; the
outer feathers almoft wholly white ; the next the fame on the end
half; the third only tipped with white.
Both the laft are called Graffet in Louifiana, on account of their
being extremely fat.
They WARBLER.
They frequent the tulip-trees and Magnolias;   particularly
the laft.
497
"9-
Motacilla calidris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 329. N° 2.
Le GrandFiguier de la Jamaique, Brif orn. Suppl. p. \o\.—Buf. oif v. p. 320.      HANG-NEST
Watchy Picket, Spanifli Nightingale, or American Hang-neft, Sloan. Jam. ii. "*
p. 299?—Rail Syn. p. 184. N°27?
American Nightingale, Edw. pi. 121. f. 2.
C I Z E of the Red-breafi.   Bill flout, blackifh ; the under man-    Description.
dible flefh-colour: the upper parts of the bird are greenifh
brown, paleft on the rump and ends of fome of the tail feathers;
all but the two middle ones of which are rufous within : the fides
of the head and under parts of the body dirty orange: through
each eye a dufky line, and a fecond beneath the eye,. pointing
downards : the wing coverts have yellowifh edges, and moft of
the quills are rufous on the inner webs : legs blackifh.
Inhabits Jamaica. Place.
Edwards is inclined to think that this bird is the Watchy Picket
of Shane, above-named. If fo, it is faid to make a curious pen-
file neft, compofed chiefly of Old Man's Beard*.
\
Le Demi-fin noir & roux> Buf. oif v-. p. 328^
139*
WHITE-
CHINNED W.
Cl Z E of a Linnet:  length five inches and two thirds.    The    Description.
bill blackifh, rather flender :   irides chefnut: the upper part
* See Hang.-neft OrioJe, vol. i. p. 437 of this Work.
Vol. II. 3S
of of the head and body, wings and tail, a full black : throat, fore
part of the neck, and fides of the body, ferruginous: between the
bill and eyes white:   the chin, middle of the belly, and the
outer tail feathers, are alfo white: hind claw large.
Inhabits Buenos Ayres,
Le Bimbele, ou la Fauffe Linotte, Buf. oif v.
T ENGTH five inches. Bill fharp-pointed : irides pale
brown : the plumage on the upper parts is brown, deepeft
on the head : rump and upper tail coverts olive green : wings
and tail brown, with paler edges ; the two outer feathers have a
band of white on the inner web, near the tip : the under parts of
the body are dirty yellowifh white as far as the belly -, from
thence pale yellow.
Inhabits St. Domingo.
Lives both on feeds and fruits; keeps among the palm-trees,
in which it makes the neft.
Lays two or three eggs only.
The fong confifts of four or five notes only, neither varied nor
ftriking, though not unpleafant, being foft and mellow.
The negroes call this bird Bimbele.
Description.     J^E N G T H three inches and three quarters.    Bill black,
pointed, of a middle fize, and a trifle bent: the upper parts
of the bird are of a deep grey, almoft black; approaching to
io brown WARBLER.
brown on the wing coverts and tail; the laft tipped with white,
and on the firft a white fpot: the fhoulders of the wings are
yellow : juft over the eyes a ftreak of white; and a black one
from the bafe of the bill quite to the hind head : the throat is
greyifh afh-colour : breaft, belly, and rump, pale yellow: fides,
thighs, and vent, pale yellow and grey mixed : legs flate-
colour.
This inhabits St. Domingo. Makes the neft on the withs which
entwine among the trees; and is often feen on the bananas, on
which it is fuppofed to feed, as well as on oranges, papaws, and
other fruits; though it is faid to eat feeds and infects likewife.
Found often among the bufhes in the untitled grounds r flies by
jerks, but quick, making a little note at that time. The fong is
little varied, and not remarkable.
It is known in its native place by the name of Bawnifie*
499
Place and
Manners.
Le Figuier de Penfylvanie, Brif. orn. vi. Suppl. p. 102. 76.
Le Demi-fin mangeur de vers, Buf. oif. v. p. 325.
Wonn-eater, Edw. pi. 305.—ArB. Zool.
WORM-EATER.
■
CIZE of a  Hedge Sparrow.     Bill dufky;   beneath flefh-    Di
coloured : from the corner of the mouth, through the eye, a
nasrrow black line; juft above the eye a yellowifh line; above
that an arch of black : remainder of the head, throat, and breaft,
reddifh yellow, gradually growing white towards the tail 5 the
whole upper fide, wings, and tail, dark olive green : inner coverts
of the wings, and under the tail, afh-colour : legs flefh-colour..
This inhabits Penfylvania, where it is migratory, coming in
3 s a 7*b,
scription, WARBLER,
July, and going northward;   but is not feen there in autumn on
its return.
Motacilla campeftris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 329. N°5.
Fauvette de Haye de la Jamaique, Brif orn. Suppl. p. 100.
L'Habit-uni, Buf. oif. v. p. 336.
American Hedge Sparrow, Edw. pi. 122. f. 1.
CIZE of the Hedge Sparrow, but the bill ftouter, and black*
The head and neck are greenifh afh-colour:   the upper parts
of the body, wings, and tail, rufous brown :   the under parts -of
the body are brownifh white : legs brown.
Inhabits Jamaica.
La petite Fauvette taehetee du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf, oif, v. p. 161.
—PI. enl. 752. f. 2.
T ESS than the Babbling Warbler': length fix inches. Bill
brown : all the upper parts of the body brown; the under
yellowifh white, dafhed with blackifh on the breaft and fides, and
fome minute ones on the throat and chin: from the noftrils-a
white line pafling above the eye : the tail is cuneiform, and occupies above one half of the length of the bird: the legs are
reddifh.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. XW^^^O  WARBLER,
Le petit Figuier a longue queue de la Chine, Son. Foy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 206.
r'p H E top of the head is pale rufous : hind part of the neck,
back, rump, wing coverts, and tail, pale olive green:
quills olive brown: the tail is long and flender, compofed of
very narrow feathers; the two middle ones as long as the
body.
This inhabits China, is frequent among the trees with which
the Chinefe adorn the courts about their houfes, and is very tame.
It has an agreeable note.
Motacilla cyanea, Ellis's Narr. p. 22.
Lev. Muf.
£jp H E length of this beautiful fpecies is five inches and a half.
The bill black : the feathers of the head are long, and ftand
erect like a full creft; from the forehead to the crown they are
of a bright blue j from thence to the nape black like velvet:
through the eyes from the bill a line of black : beneath the eye
Iprings a tuft of the fame blue feathers; beneath thefe, and on the
chin, it is of a deep blue, almoft black, and feeling like velvet:
on the ears is another patch of blue, and acrofs the back part of
the head a band of the fame*; the whole giving the head a greater
appearance of bulk than is natural : the hind part of the neck,
and upper pafrts of the body and tail, deep blue black; the under
pure white : wings dufky; fhafts of the quills chefnut: the tail
* In fome fpecimens, the patches of blue under the eye, and on the ear,
unite together* and join with the band at the nape, as-in the oppofite plate.
o tWO 502 WARBLER.
two inches and a quarter long, and cuneiform; the two outer
feathers very fhort: legs dufky brown : claws black.
Place. Inhabits Van Diemerfs Land, the moft fouthern part of New
Holland.
In Sir Jofeph Banks's collection are fome of thefe birds; one of
which differed from the above : the fhafts of the quills blackifh :
the under pkrt of the body dufky : and inftead of the blue
tranfverfe line at the back part of the head, was a large triangular patch of the fame, with the point downwards. This dif-
tinction, I make no doubt, arifes from fex.
Gobe-mouche a tete bleue de L'lfle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 58. pi. 27. f. 1
CI Z E and fhape of the Long-tailed titmoufe. Bill blackifh :
irides pale red: the head, throat, and hind part of the neck,
deep blue: the neck, back, breaft, and belly, of a flaty grey:
wing coverts brown, appearing as a large fpot: quills and tail
black ; the two middle feathers of the laft longer by half than
the others : legs blackifh.
Inhabits the ifland of Manilla.
138.
CAYENNE W.
Motacilla cayana, Lin. Syft. i. p. 336. N° 40.
Le Pipit bleu de Cayenne, Brif orn. iii. p. 534. N° 72. pi. 27. f.  1.—.
Buf. oif. v. p. 339,—P/. enl, 669. f. 2.
JJE N G T H four inches three quarters.    Bill blackifh : forehead and fides of it, the fore part of the back, wings, and
tail, are all of a fine black : reft of the plumage blue : legs grey. WARBLER.
S°$
Blue Manakin, Edw. pi. 263.
Br. Muf.
138.
Var. A.
■T"1 HIS differs in having only the throat black:  the head    D
wholly blue: the wings, tail, and body, as in the laft.
ESCRIPTION.
Le Pitpit bleu de Cayenne, PI, enl. 669. f. 1.
Br. Muf.
"X* HIS variety is the fame as the others, in the body, \
and tail: but the head is of a plain blue colour.
All thefe are found at Guiana.    Briffon fuppofes his bird to be
the Elotototl of Fernandez *.
138,
Var. B.
Description.
Le Pipit  verd, Brif. em, iii. p. 531. N° 70. pi. 28. f. L.—Buf. oif. v. I39*
■   „ „« BLUE-HEADED
P* 330* w#
CIZE of the Pettichaps: length four inches three quarters. Bill    Description.
brown: the head and upper wing coverts are blue : throat
blueifh grey: the reft of the body, with the greater coverts,
bright green : quills brown, edged with green : legs grey.
-Inhabits Cayenne.
• This is merely faid to be the fize of a Chaffinch, of a white or blue
colour, and the tail wholly black, Raii Syn. p. 170. N° 4. 504
WARBLE   R.
140.
BLUE-STRIPED
W.
Description.
Place.
Le Pitpit a coifFe bleue, Buf. oif. iii. p. 344.
"DILL black : on the top of the head is a longitudinal fpot
of blue : the forehead of a deep bright blue, which pafles
over each eye quite to the middle of the back : on the breaft
begins a ftripe of white, which reaches to the vent, growing
broader as it pafles backwards : the reft of the under parts, blue :
legs black.
Found at Cayenne with the laft..
j  j Motacilla velia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 336. N-°4l.
RED-BELLIED       Le Pipit bleu de Surinam, Brif orn. iii. p. 536. N° 73.—PI. enl. 66g. f. 3.
W. Le Pitpit varie, Buf. oif. v. p. 341.
Rouge gorge, Perm. Defer, de Surin. ii. p. 194 f
Red-bellied Blue-bird, Edw. pi. 22.—Bancr. Guian. p. 182.?
•Description. Q * Z E of the Pettichaps. Bill lead-colour; beneath whitifh: the
forehead is blueifh green: rump green gold : the upper parts
of the head, neck, and back, are fine black, mixed with blue
green : throat violet:. fore part of the neck the fame, mixed with
brown: the reft of the under parts rufous : greater wing coverts, quills, and tail, black, edged with blue: legs cinereous.
I fhould think that this bird varies as the laft fpecies. Brif-
fon%s defcription fays, the forehead and rump are both gold-
colour : beneath pale blue:. bottom, of the belly chefnut.
That in Bancroft is faid to be blue, except the belly and back
parts, which are reddifh. This likewife agrees with.the defcription of Edwards.
Fermin's w
R   B   L   E   R.
Fermin's bird had the back of a dull brown, inclining to
black : breaft and belly fcarlet red ; paleft in the female. Whether thefe differ in age or fex, or whether they are really the fame
bird, does not clearly appear, as the defcriptions of the two laft
are too concife to be certain about them.
It is faid to be as fine tafted as an Ortolan.
Found at Surinam, Guiana, and Cayenne.
Motacilla guira, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 335. N° 36.
Le Pipit verddu Brefil, Brif. orn. m.p. 533. N° 71.
Guira-beraba, Buf. oif. v. p. 342.
Guira guacuberaba, Rati Syn. p. 83. N° 10.—Will.  orn. p. 239. pi. 41.—
Edw.pl. 351. f. 2.
OlZEof a Goldfinch. Bill dufky; beneath flefh-coloured;
round the bafe of it black, extending round the eyes, ears,
and throat: over the eye a line of yelloi^ pafling down on
each fide the neck: the upper parts of the body, wings, and
tail, olive green: the under parts, from throat to breaft, of a
fine orange; from thence to the vent yellow, changing into this
colour by degrees : the upper tail coverts are of this laft colour,
but the rump is fine orange; tips of the quills brown: legs
"brown.
Inhabits Brafil.
j3
s°s
Vol. II.
3T W   A   R   B   L   E   K.
Motacilla troglodytes, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 337- N° 46.—Faun. Suec. N° 261-
Scop. ann, i. N° 239.—Krom. el. 378. 20.—Brun. p. 72. N° 284-
Muller, p. 33. p. 2-jg.—Georgi Reife, p. 175.-Frifch. t. 24.—0/»*. «
pi. in p. 6.
Le Roitelet, Brif. orn. iii. p. 425. N° 24.—PL enl- 651. N° 2.
Le Troglodyte, Buf. oif. v. p. 352. pi. 1.
The Wxen, Rail Syn. p. 80. A. 11.—Will. orn. p. 229. pi. 42.—Albin:
P1- 53-
-5r. Z»/. :
Ir. Muf   Li
-ArB. Zool.
v.Muf.
'"PHIS is a very fmall fpecies, in length only three inches
three quarters, though I have feen fome which meafured
four inches. Bill very flender,. and dufky brown : irides hazel:
the head, neck, and back, are of a reddifh brown:. the laft, as-
well as the wing coverts and tail, croflfed with obfcure blackifh
lines: cheeks marked with dirty white mixed with rufous: over
each eye a pale redafljfh white ftreak : the under parts, as far as
the breaft, of this laft colour; the reft more inclined to brown,
croflfed with brown lines: quills barred alternate with reddifh*
and black : legs pale brown.
The neft is of a curious conftruction, infhape almoft oval, and;
has only one fmall entrance : it is chiefly compofed of mqfs, well
lined within with feathers. In this the female, lays from ten to
fixteen, or even eighteen eggs, which are almoft white,, witfo
reddifh markings at the large end. Builds twice in a year, in
April and June. The neft is frequently found in fome corner of
an outhoufe, flack of wood, hole in a wall, or fuch like, if
near habitations; but, in the woods, often in a bufh near the
ground, ftump of a tree, or on the ground itfelf.
This
wjmmfBmmm^^m'mwm;^L^M^M^& WARBLE   R-.
This minute bird is found throughout Europe. In England
it defies our fevereft winters. In the colder regions is lefs
common. To the north it is found both in Sweden and Ruffia ;
our laft-circumnavigators met with it alfo ztAoonalafhka. The
fartheft fouth, Aleppo* in Afia.
Its fong is much efteemed, being, though fhort, a plegfing
warble, and is much louder than could be expected from the fize
of the bird ; it continues throughout the year. I have feen
this little bird fing unconcerned even during the fall of fnow;
it will alfo very late in the evening, though not after dafk,
like the Nightingale.    Generally carries the tail erect.
P7
Le Roitelet de Buenos-Ayres, Buf. oif v. p. 361.—PL enl. 730. 2.
**PHIS feems to be of the fame fize with the common, but
the tail is a trifle longer: the colours feem more diftinct
■than in our bird, and the under parts paler-; it wants alfo the
ftreak over the eye. This I collect from infpeftion of the
-Planches enluminees, for I have not feen the bird.
Found in the neighbourhood of the  river Plate in South
-America.
Description.
Le Troglodyte de la Louifiane, Buf. oif v. p. 361.
Le Roitelet de la Louifiane, PI. enl. 730. f. 1.
Br. Muf   Lev. Muf.
HP HIS is  much larger than  the others, being five inches
long.    The bill is dufky : the upper parts reddifh brown,
•crofted with blackifh lines, as in the common Wren: over the
* Ruff. Alep. p. 71.
3 T 2 eye mmmm
WARBLER.
eye a pale ftreak, which reaches a good way on the fide of the
neck: cheeks mottled, dufky and whitifh: the under parts are
pale rufous yellow, paleft on the throat and fides of the body :
legs pale brown.
This inhabits Louifiana, and other parts of North America. If
it be the fame bird that Charlevoix * fpeaks of, it is faid to fing
very pleafmgly.
Brown Warbler, Brown. Ill, p. 68. pi. 18.
Le Roitelet de Surinam, Perm. Deft. Surin. vol. ii. p. 201 ?
LENGTH four inches and a half. Bill a trifle bent, of a*
yellowifh brown colour: general colour of the plumage
brown •, paleft on the belly, and marked on the back, wings,
and tail, with dufky bars: legs yellow brown.
1 If this be the bird mentioned by Fermin, which I much fufpect,
he fays that it fings very agreeably, infomuch that it is called
the Nightingale at Surinam, where it inhabits.
145.
GOLD-
CRESTED WR.
Description.
Motacilla regulus, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 338. N° 48.—Faun. Suec. N° 262.—
Scop. ann. i. N° 240.— Kram. el. p. 378. N° 21.—Brun. N° 285.—
Muller, p. 33, N° 280.—Georgi Reife, p. 175.—Frifch. t. 2\.—0Hn.
pi. in p. 6.
Le Poul, on Souci; Roitelet hupe, Brif. orn. iii. p. 579. N° 17.—PL enl.
<-5»- f-3-
Le Roitelet, Buf. oif. v. p. 363. pi. 16. f. 2.
Golden-crowned Wren, Rail Syn. p. 79. A. g.—Will. orn. p. 227.  pi. 42.—
Albin. i.  pi. 53. A.—Edvj. pi. 254. i.—Catefb. Car. App. 36. 37.	
Br. Zool. i. H° 1 si—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
^£ HI S is, I believe, the leaft fpecies in thefe iflands, if not
in Europe: its length only three inches and a half: weight .
* Char lev. Trav.
feventy- WARBLER.
feventy-fix grains. The bill is very flender, and black: irides
hazel: on the crown the feathers are orange-coloured, bounded
on each fide by black: the plumage on the upper parts is yellowifh green, paleft on the rump : under parts rufous white,
with a' greenifh tinge on the fides : the wing coverts dufky,
croflfed with two white bands : quills and tail dufky, edged with
pale green, and fome of the inner feathers have blackifh edges :
legs yellowifh.
The female has the colours paler, and the crown of the head
yellow inftead  of orange.
This pretty fpecies inhabits England, where it abides throughout our winters; but befides this, is found throughout Europe,
as well as met with in the three other quarters of the globe,
with very little variation. It is mentioned as both a Ruffian *,
Swedifh, and Norway birdi is in France, Aufiria, and Italy -, alfo
at the Cape of Good Hope, and no doubt in the other parts between : it is alfo an inhabitant of the north part of America,
Penfylvania \, and New York \y and I have lately feen a fpe-
cimen brought from Cayenne \; if fo, why not in the intermediate parts alfo ? It is feen as far north as Shetland, but there
difappears before winter. It is faid fo to do in the more northern countries, but in all to bear the cold to admiration §.
It feems to frequent oak trees, in preference to others. I have
more than once feen a brood of thefe in a large oak in the
middle of a lawn, the whole little family of which, as foon as
able, were in perpetual motion, and gave great pleafure to many
* Georgi. f Edwards. % Major Davies.
H The fpecimen which I faw from Cayenne had black legs.
§ It is perhaps rather from defect of infefts, than mere cold, that the bird is
obliged to change place.
who
509
Place and
Manners.
! who viewed them. The number of young from fix to eight.
The neft of one of thefe has alfo been made in a garden, on a
fir-tree ; it was compofed of mofs, the opening on one fide; in
fhape roundifh: it was lined with a downy fubftance, mixed with
fmall filaments *.
It is faid to fing very melodioufly, very like, but weaker than
the common Wren f.
Le Roitelet mefange, Buf. oif. V. p. 375.
Mefange hupee de Cayenne, PL e
*T* HIS is even fmaller than the laft, and differs in the bill,
which is much fhorter and fmaller : the yellow is not in the
middle of the crown, but acrofs the back part of the head, or
rather the back part of the creft, which is of a jonquil yellow :
the upper parts of the body greenifh: the head inclined to brown :
wings and tail dufky green; acrofs the firft, two pale bars; the
fecondaries edged, and the tail, except the two middle feathers,
tipped with the fame : the fore part of the neck pale afh-colour :
breaft and belly greenifh: towards the vent, and the fides, pale
yellow : legs dufky.
This inhabits Cayenne, where it only appears in winter, and
frequents low trees and fhrubs in the favannas, that are not over
wet.    It has much fimilarity to the laft fpecies.
ee Hifi. des oif. v. p. 367. WARBLER.
5*1-
Motacilla calendula, Lin. Syfi. i. p. 337. N° 47. RUBY
Le Poul, ou Souci de Penfilvanie, Brif. orn. iii. p. 584. N° 18. CROWNED WR,
Le Roitelet rubis, Buf. oif. v. p. 373.
Ruby-crowned Wren, Edw. pi. 254. f. 2.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
HP H I S is much larger than the laft, and is an inch longer.     Description,
The bill is almoft half an inch long, and dufky: on the
crown .of the head is a fpot of a ruby-red colour, not bordered
with black, as in the laft : the upper parts are olive, but have a
tinge of brown ; paleft on the rump: the under parts are yellowifh white, inclining moft to yellow on the breaft: acrofs the
wings two yellowifh bands : quills and tail much as in the laft
fpecies : the legs brown.
The female has no red on the head. * Female;
This inhabits North America.    Feeds on the infects which Place.
frequent the Spruce-trees, and runs up the trees in the manner
of a titmoufe.
Buffon mentions a bird which was fent from Louifiana, and he       Variety,    j
thinks a variety; it differs chiefly in having the hind part of the
head environed with a crown of crimfon.
Mention is alfo made by Kolben of a red-headed Wren, at the
Cape of Good Hope. This, he fays, is bigger than the Blue titmoufe ; that it has the wings black, and the legs reddifh. As
this is the whole that he fays, it is uncertain whether it is a variety of any of the preceding, or a feparate fpecies.
There is alfo a fcarlet-crefted Titmoufe, fent from Groenland
9 to W   A   R
to M. Muller; but what the bird really is, cannot be by this
bare name decided *.
Motacilla trochilus, Lin. Syft. i.  p. 338- N° A9--~Iaun- SuSi- N° *6\-~
Scop.ann. i. N° 238.—Kram. el. p.  378. N° 22.—Brun. N°
Muller, N" 281.—Frifch. t. 24. f. 2.
Motacilla Hifpanica, Hafelq. Foy. 287. 52.
Le Pouillot, ou Chantre, Brif. orn. iii. p. 479. N° 45.—Buf. oif v. p. 344.—
PL enl. 651   f. i.
Small Yellow Bird, Rail Syn. p. 80. A. 10.—Will. orn. p. 228.
Green Wren, Albin. ii. pi. 86. 6.
Yellow Wren, Br. Zool. N° 151.— ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
HP HIS  fpecies Is very  little  bigger than the Wren:   the
length four inches three quarters. The upper parts pale olive
green; the under pale yellow, and a ftreak of the laft over the
eyes : the wings and tail are brown, edged with yellowifh green:
5 yellowifh.
The female is paler, and inclines much to white at the vent:
and indeed both males and females vary much in colour.
This little bird is pretty common with us in England, as well
as in many other parts of Europe f, where it chiefly frequents
places where willows 'grow: it is migratory, but comes pretty
early. Makes the neft in the holes at the roots of trees, hollows
of dry banks, and fuch-like places : it is round, not unlike
that of the Wren; formed of mofs, with a lining of wool, hair, WARBLE   R.
or feathers. The eggs are dufky white, marked with reddifh
fpots, and are five in number. Its note is trifling, fcarcely more
than twit, twit, which it utters when running up and down the
branches of trees in fearch of infects, on which it feeds; but it
is faid that during incubation the male has a fong, far from un-
pleafing, and is foft though weak.
Motacilla  acredula, Lin. Syft. i. p. 338. N° 49. &. H7-
Le Figuier de la Caroline, Brif. orn. iii.   p. 486. N° 48. Var' A'
Oenanthe fufco-lutea minor, Raii Syn.  p.   186.   N° 39.—Sloan. Jam.  ii.
p. 310. N° 46.
Yellow Titmoufe, Catefib. Car. i. pi. 63.
■ Wren, Edvj. pi. 278. f. 2.
Scotch Wren, Br. Zool. i. p. 379 f *
Br. Muf.
-*"p HIS feems to be a mere variety, and differs in being rather    Description
inclined to brown than green on the upper, and more yellow on the under parts.
This is found in Jamaica, Carolina, and other parts of America. Place.
Shane obferves, that at the firft place it feeds on Cimices, fmall
Beetles, and fuch-like. Moft plenty about the town of Saint
Jago de la Vega.
Brijbn's bird feems rather bigger ; the upper parts olive
green; the under yellow: and the female lefs bright. It is faid
to be found both at Jamaica and Carolina in fummer. It feems
a mere variety, if not the fame bird.
* This bird was given to me by E. S. Frafer, Efq; who informed me that it
was fhot in the Highlands of Scotland.
Vol. II.
BUFFON $l4
WAR
LER.
tion.       DUFFON likewife mentions a further variety, found in Lor-
rain, which is one-fourth fmaller.   The throat, and ftreak
over the eye, are both white: breaft and belly rufous white :
and a blackifh mixture on the upper parts of the body.
Le grand Pouillot, Brif. orn.
Greater not-crefted Regulus,
iii. p. 482. A.-
Will. orn. p. 2:
-Buf. oif. v. p. 3s
Description. *T*HIS refembles the common one, but is of twice the fize.
It is faid to have the note of a Grafshspper. Whether or
no it be a variety, I will not pretend to determine, as the fi:ze
feems againft it; but as it is a bird found in all quarters of the
globe, and even in Europe differs both in fize as well as colour*
the fact is poffible.
Motacilla corpore ex  fufco-viridefcente,  pe&ore ferrugineo,   Hajffela.  Fey.
286. p. 51.
CIZ E of the Yellow Wren. Bill pointed; ftrait ; the upper mandible a trifle bent at the tip; colour very pale ferruginous: !
head and upper parts greenifh brown : fore part of the neck and
breaft fulvous: beneath the fhoulders, and end of upper wing
coverts, inclining to ferruginous.
This flew  on board  a fhiji in the Mediterranean, near the
Spanijh lhore. WARBLER.
$i|
POLL W,
Le Figuier de Canada, Brif. orn. iii. p. 492, N° tt. pi. 26. f. 3.—PI. enl. 14.8.
58. N° 2. '■*'.;"■*> YELLOW-
Le Figuier tachete, Buf. oif. v. p. 285.
 de la Caroline, PI. enl. 58. f. 1.—Variety,  58. 2.
Yellow-Poll, ArB. Zool.
Br, Muf.    Lev. Muf.
p AT HER lefs th^n the Pettichaps-
half.    Bill black : the head, and all the unde;
length four inches and j
parts, of ;
PLACB   AN!
Manners
Ifine yellow, marked on the neck, breaft, and fides, with longitudinal reddifh fpots : the upper parts, and edges of the quills,
olive green ; the quills themfelves brown : the tail marked as the
quills*, but the two middle feathers wholly of a dark brown: the
inner webs of the fide feathers yellow : legs black.
This fpecies is found in America, and is migratory: it is feen
in Canada during the fummer only ; but its chief refidence is in
Guiana, and parts adjacent, where it makes the neft. Its
note faid to be very agreeable, and not unlike that of the
Linnet.
The fecond of thefe is not unlike the firft; but has the whole
of the upper parts brown, except the forehead juft over the
bill, which, with the under parts, is yellow, and not fpotted.
It is no doubt a mere variety.
Tailor Bird, Ind. Zool. p. 7. pi. 8. 149-
Motacilla Sutoria, Zool. Ind. p. 17. pi. 8. TAILOR W.
rV' HIS is a fmall fpecies, being only three inches in length,   Description.
and the weight not more than ninety grains : the colour
wholly of a light yellow.
3 TJ 2 This WARBLER.
This inhabits India; and is remarkable for nothing fo much
as the neft, which is conftrufted after a curious manner, being
compofed of two leaves; the one dead, which it fixes, at the
end of fome branch, to the fide of a living one, by fewing both
together in the manner of a pouch or purfe, and open at top:
it lines the infide with fine down : thus the brood is fecure
from the depredation of Jnakes and monkies, to which they might
otherwife fall a prey.   The eggs are white.
Genus [   5*7    3
Genus XLII.    M A N A K I N.
Rock M.
Var. A. Peruvian M.
Blue-backed M.
White-fronted M.
Black-crowned M.
Var. A.
Gold-headed M.
Var. A.
, White-capped M.
White-headed M.
White-throated M.
Red and black M.
Var. A.
, Little M.
, Striped-headed M.
N° 12. Spotted M.
13. White-eared M.
14. Purple M.
15. Yellow M.
16. Collared M.
17. Grey M.
18. White-crefted M.
Var. A.
19. Black-crowned M.
20. Papuan M.
2r. Crimfon-vented M.
22. Black-throated M.
23. Orange-bellied M.
24. Cinereous M.
25. Tuneful M.
BILL fhort, ftrong, hard, and flightly incurvated :  noftrils
naked.
The middle toe connected to the outer as far as the third
joint *.
Tail fhort.
* There muft be fome latitude given to this character, for fome of the fpecies
below-mentioned differ a little in this particular.
r   This 5x8
I
:
Description.
M   A   N   A   K   I   N.
This genus, at firft fight, much refembles the following, or
that of titmice -, and fuppofed to inhabit South America only;
but we have feen more than one bird, below-defcribed, which
came from other parts, and appeared to belong to this clafs as
clearly as thofe from the firft-named place.
Pipra rupicola, Lin, Syft. i. p. 338. I.
Le Coq-de-roche, Brif. orn. iv. p. 437. 1. pi. 34. f. i.—Buf. oif iv. p. 432.
pi. 20.—PI. enl. pi. 39. (the male.) pi. 747. (female )—Fofmaer, t. 6.
Hoopoe Hen, Edw. pi. 264.
Crefted Manakin, Gen, of Birds, p. 64. pi. 10.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a fmall Pigeon : length from ten to twelve Inches.
Bill an inch and a quarter long, and of a yellowifh colour:
the head furnifhed with a double round creft: general colour of
the plumage orange, inclining to faffron : the wing coverts loofe
and fringed: quills part white part brown: tail feathers twelve
in number; the bafe half of the ten middle ones orange, from
thence to the ends brown; the outer feathers brown, with the
bafe half of the inner web orange; all of them fringed at the
ends with the fame : the upper tail coverts are very long, loofely
webbed, and fquare at the ends: legs and claws yellow.
The female is wholly brown, except the under wing coverts,
which are of a rufous orange; and the creft neither fo complete
nor rounded as in the male.
Both males and females are at firft grey, or of a very pale
yellow, inclining to brown : the male does not acquire the
orange colour till the fecond year, neither does the female the
fulLbrown *.
* Mem. fur Cayenne, vol. ii. p. 256.
This M   A   N   A   K   I   N.
This beautiful fpecies inhabits various parts of Surinam, Cayenne, and Guiana, in rocky fituations; but is no where fo frequent as in the mountain Luca, near the river Oyapoc, and in
the mountain Courouaye, near the river Aprouack; where they
build in the cavernous hollows, and the darkeft receflfes. They
lay two round white eggs, the fize of thofe of a Pigeon; and
make the neft of a few dry bits of flicks. Are in general very
fhy ; but have been frequently tamed, infomuch as to run at
large among the poultry. It is faid that the female, after fhe has
laid eggs for fome years, and ceafes fo to do more, becomes at the
enfuing moult of the fame colour as the male, and may be mistaken for him * ; in this imitating the females of various kinds
of poultry, fuch as the Peacock, Pheafant, &c. which will be mentioned under thofe refpective heads.
A moft complete pair i;s- in the Leverian Mufeum.
5*9
Le Coc-cfe-roche de Perovr, Buf. oif iv. p. 437.—PI. enl. 745.
rF,HIS bird is longer than the preceding, efpecially in the
tail, and the upper coverts of it not truncated at the ends :
£he wing coverts not fringed, as in the Rock Manakin, and the
creft is not fo well defined as in that bird: the general colour of
the plumage much inclining to red: the fecond coverts and rump
afh-colour : wings and tail black: bill and legs as in the laft-
defcribed.
Inhabits the country about Peru.
PERUVIAN M.
Description. 1
$20
M   A   N   A
■+- BLUE-
BACKED M.
Pipra pareohS, Lin.  Syft. i. p. 339. 2.
Manacus fuperbus, Pall. Spic. vi. p. 8. t. 3. f. 1.
Le Manakin noir hupe, Brif. orn. iv. p. 459. pi. 35'
f. 2.
Le Tije, ou Grand Manakin, Buf. oif. iv. p. 411. pi.
Tijeguacu, Will. orn. p. 218.
Blue-backed Manakin, Edw. pi. 261. f. 1.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
f. 1.—PL
19. f. 2.
CI Z E of a Sparrov
dufky : irides fapp
length four inches and a half. Bill
re blue : general colour of the" plumage
black; except the back, and leffer wing coverts, which are of
a very fine blue: the top of the head has the "feathers elongated,
and form a creft, flat on the top, and indented in the middle at
the back part, and may be erected at the will of the bird ; the
colour of this is a glowing crimfon : legs red.
Young birds are at firft green all over, except the creft,
which is crimfon, but lefs bright: this we are allured of from
'now and then meeting with birds with mixed colours of blue,
green, and black, in their various intermediate approaches towards their perfect ftate.
It has been mentioned likewife to us, that the females are
wholly of the olive-green colour *, ever remaining fo during
life, but flill retain the creft like the male ; however we will not
aflure this for fa£t.
Thefe birds are natives of Brafit and Cayenne, and have alfo
been met with in the Ifle of Cuba.
Both the. above-defcribed are in the Leverian Mufeum.
• See PI. enl. 303. f. 2.
Pipra MANAKIN.
|2I
Pipra ferena, Lin. Syft.i. p. 340. N° n.—N. C. Petr. vol.  xi. p. 433. 3.
t. 15. f. 5. WHITE-
Le Manakin a front blanc, Brif. orn. iv. p. 457. N° 9. pi. 36. f. 2—PL enl.   FR°NTED M.
324. f. 2.
Le Manakin varie, Buf. oif. iv. 423.
Lev. Muf,
CIZE of a Wren : length three inches and a half.    Bill half   Description.
an inch; colour black: the forehead appears white, but the
feathers are black at the bafe, then dlue, tipped with white: on
the crown the white filvery tips are wanting* whence it appears
blue : the reft of the head, neck, breaft, body, wings, and tail,
are of a velvety blueifh black: the rump is blue: the belly,
thighs, and vent, fine orange : legs black.
This inhabits Cayenne and Guiana, but is not common. Placs.
Pipra manacus, Lin. Syft.i. p.^40. N° 12.
Le Manakin, Brif. orn. iv. 442. N° 1.
Le Cafle-noifette, Buf. oif. iv. 413.
Manakin du Brefil, PI. enl. 302. f. 1.
Black-capped Manakin, Edw. pi. 260. f. 1.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH four inches and a quarter. Bill half an inch long,
and black : crown, and hind head, black: the chin, fore
part of the neck, and under parts of the body, white; which
pafling round the lower part of the neck, forms a ring at that
part: on the wings a white fpot: the reft of the plumage dull
black: legs orange.
BLACK-
CAPPED M.
Vol. II.
X
Manakin 522
MANAKIN.
Var. A.
Descriptic
Manakin a tete noire de Cayenne, PL enl. 303. f. 1.
HP HI S is precifely the fame, but the white fpot on the wing
is wanting:  the legs yellow.    Moft likely a variety, or
fexual difference.
Thefe birds are common at Guiana, efpecially in the fkirts of
woods; for they do not fancy open places and moift meadows,
like many of the genus. They keep together in (mall flocks,
like other Manakins, but do not mix with them: are often found
on the ground; now and then on low branches of trees; frequent
in the neighbourhood of ants-nefis, and are obferved to leap up
frequently, being flung by them, as is fuppofed, in the legs, fet-
ting up at the fame time a cry, not unlike that of cracking a
nut, repeating this pretty often. They -are very lively birds,
and of a reftlefs nature; feldom feen in a ftill pofture, though
not able to fly far at a tinje.
r _S'_ Pipra erythrocephala, Lin. Syft. i. p. 139. N" 6.
HEADED  M. Le Mankin a tete d'or, Brif. orn. iv. 448. N° 4.  pi. 34. f. 2—Buf. oif iv.
ifil.—PLenl. 34. f. 1.
Golden-headed black Titmoufe, Edw. pi. 21.—Gen. of Birds, p. 64.  pL
10. f. 2.
Description.    T   ENGTH three inches and a quarter.    Bill five lines, and
of a dull yellow : crown of the head, nape, and cheeks, of
a bright golden orange : -reft of the body, wings, and tail, of a
purplifh black: garter orange : legs flefh-colour.
Pipra M   A   N   A   K   I   N,
5*3
Pipra erythrocephala, (3. Lin. Syft. i. 339. N° 6.
Le Manakin a. tete rouge, Brif. orn. iv. p. 450. N°
Tangarae alia fpecies, Rail Syn. p. 84. N° 14.
Second kind of Tangara, Will. orn. p. 244.
Lev. Muf.
Suf. oif.br. p. 418.
CIZE of the laft : length three inches and a quarter. Bill
very fhort, and yellowifh: the top of the head crimfon : reft
of the body, wings, and tail, glofly fteel black: the quills and
tail are blackifh, with glofly fteel black margins : thighs white ;
but the outfide, near the joint or garter, is crimfon: legs yellowifh.
Pipra leucocilla, Lin. Syft. i. p. 340. N° 9.
Le Manakin a tete blanche, Brif. ortt.iv. p. 446. N* 3, pi.  35. f. 2.—
Buf. oif. iv. p. 418.—P/. enL 34. f. 2.
White-capped Manakin, Edw. pi. 260.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
■pATHER lefs in fize than the laft: length three inches
and a quarter.    Bill four lines and a half;  colour grey
brown : top of the head white: the reft of the body of a fine
polifhed fteel black : legs and claws reddifh.
Linnaus thinks the two before defcribed to be merely va?-
rieties. Buffon joins this alfo, as fuppofing all three to differ
by age, or fexually. The colour of the black is alike in all. M.
Manoncour * has obferved the red garter in this bird, which is
feen in the other two ; but obferves that it is not always
found.
I Hifi. des oif. iv. p. 420J
3 X 2
6-
WHITE^
CAPPED M.
All 524
Place and
Manners.
M.  A   N   A   K   I   N.
All of them are met with in Guiana, as well as at Brafil and .
Mexico, and herd together; moftly frequenting woods; and have
the fame chirping note common to almoft all of this genus : but
Linnaeus obferves, that the laft-defcribed fings remarkably well,
and is met with among the reeds.
WHITE-
HEADED M.
Pipra Leucocephala, Lin. Syfi. i. 340.
N° S.—Muf Adolph. ii. p. 33*.
but the bill ftronger.    Th
f H I S is the fize of a Wagtail,
whole head is white: the reft of the body black : about the
mouth are feveral pretty ftrong briftlies.
Inhabits Surinam*
WHITE-
THROATED M.
Description.
Pipra Gutturalis> Lin. Syfi. i. p. 340. N" 10
Le Manakin a gorge blanche, Brif. orn. iv.
Buf. oif. iv. p. 421—PI. enl. 324. f. i
Br. Muf.
,444. N° 2. pi. 36. f. I.—-
T ENGTH three inches eight lines. Bill four lines and a
half; the upper mandible blackifh; the lower white : the
whole body is of a fine polifhed fteely black, except the fore part
of the neck and throat, which are white: fome of the middle
quills are alfo more or lefs white on the inner webs : legs and
claws red.
Inhabits the hotter parts of America.
Biprft- M   A   N   A   K   I   N,
S*$
Pipra aureola, Lin, Syft. i. p. 339. N° 7.
Le Manakin rouge, Brif. orn. iv. p. 452. N° 6. pi. 34. f. 3.—Buf. oif. iv.
p. 415.—PL enl. 302. f. 2.
Red and black Manakin, Edw. pi. 261. f. 2.
Br. Muf,
TE N G T H three inches three quarters. Bill half an inch,
and black ; the bafe of it furrounded with orange: head,
neck, throat, and breaft, crimfon (in fome orange): back,
rump, fcapulars, upper wing and tail coverts, belly, and fides,
black, with a glofs of polifhed fteel: the middle of the belly
inclines to red * : thighs grey: on the wings is a white fpot 1
beneath them yellow : legs and claws red.
The upper part of the body of the female is olive, with a mere
trace of red furrounding the head like a crown: the under parts
of the body olive yellow : the reft as in the male. Young birds
have' the whole body of an olive-colour, except the head,
throat, breaft, and belly, which are marked with red fpots.
This fpecies is very common at Guiana, the moft fo of all of
this genus.
RED AND
BLACK M.
Pipra aureola, (3. Lin. Syft. 1. p. 339. N° 7. g
Le  Manakin orange, Brif. orn. iv. p. 45-4. N° 7.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 417.— Var, A.
PL enl. 302. f. 3.
Black and yellow Manakin, Edw. pi. 83. f. 2.
Br. Muf.
C IZE of the laft. Head, neck, breaft, belly, and fides, orange :     Description
reft of the plumage black, except the  thighs, which are
* In PI. enl. the forehead, chin, throat, and edge of the mag, are yellow.
orange 1
orange and black mixed; and the bend of the wing dirty orange j
on the middle of the wing a fpot of white :   legs and claws
brown.
This likewife inhabits Guiana.
CIZE of a Wren. The head black, marked with round fpot*
of white; one fpot on each feather : back and wings grey :
breaft yellowifh, crofted with tranfverfe lines of black: tail
brown, with pale margins.
The male has flefh-coloured lines on the fore part of the head j
behind dotted with white.
Inhabits India.
T ENGTH four inches and a half. Bill brown: crown of
the head and nape black, with a ftripe of white down the
fhaft of each feather : hind part of the neck and back of*a brown-
ifh afh-colour, inclining to olive near the rump: between the bill
and eye a deep yellow fpot: the wing coverts are brownifh : the
baftard wings tipped with white, and fome of the outer coverts
tipped with yellow, making an oblique mark near the outer edge
of the wing : the quills dufky ; the third fhorter in proportion
than any of the others, being a quarter of an inch fhorter than the
fecond, though all the others are of the ufual length * :  the under   MANAKIN.
parts of the bird are yellowifh, growing very pale near the vent:
under tail coverts are buff-colour :   the tail black;  very fhort;
the outer feather tipped frith white :  legs dufky.
This is in the pofTeflion of Sir Jofeph Banks,
5*7
Fourmillier tachete de Cayenne, PL enl, %£$. £. z.
SPOTTED M.
T   ENGTH four inches.    Bill dufky:   upper parts of the     Description.
body, the quills, and tail, brown; tips of the laft white:
throat and chin black: breaft and upper part of belly white:
acrofs the breaft and the fides fpotted with black : two white bars
on the wings; and the lower part of the back and fome of the
inner fecondaries marked with white on the outer webs: lower
belly, thighs, and vent, orange: legs pale brown; outer toe
united to the middle one almoft to the tip.
Le Fourmillier a oreilles blanches,
f.   I.   2.
luf. oif. iv. p. 477 PL enl. 82;
WHITE-EARED
M.
T   ENGTH four inches  and three quarters.    Top of the    Description.
head brown ; fides of it, and throat, black : the upper parts
of the body olive and pale rufous mixed; the under, to the
breaft, rufous; the reft grey : on each fide of the neck is a lift
of glofly white feathers, which are longer than the reft, and begins beneath the eye: the legs brown.
The female has the chin and throat white: a green ftreak from        Femal*.
the bafe of the bill, paffing beneath the eye, down each fide of the
5 neck; MANAKIN.
neck; this is accompanied by the white lift, as in the mah\ and
the reft of the plumage is not far different.
Thefe  inhabit Cayenne,   Guiana,   and other parts ©f South
America.
Pipra criftata, Lin. Syft. i. 339. N° 3.
Le Manakin rouge hupe, Brif. ern. iv. p. 462. N° 12.
Picicitli, Seba, i. p. 95. t. 59. £4 ?—Buf. oif. iv. 4x6.
'Serin de Surinam, Defer. Surin. vol. ii. 194 ?
Description,   T  E N G T H three inches and a half.    The bill red : the top
of the head is crefted, and of a yellow colour :   the reft of
the body andwings of the moft beautiful purple: the tail red.
fon hints, that this cannot be the bird named Picicitli, fince
one mentioned by that name by Fernandez is otherwife defcribed;
viz. afh-coloured, with a black head and neck, and a white fpot
Surrounding its large eyes, proceeding to the breaft.
This inhabits Mexico and Brajil.
1 take it to be the Surinam Finch, defcribed by Fermin, above-
mentioned. His bird has a golden orange creft: the reft of
the body violet, like an Ametbyft. He adds, that it is lefs than a
Sparrow, and its note far from agreeable.
Pipra MANAKIN.
529
Pipra rubetra, Lin. Syft. \. p. 339. N° 4.
Le Manakin roux hupe, Brif.  orn.iv. 461. N° n.
Rubetra, ou Oifeau d'Amerique huppe, Buf, oif. iv. 425. -
t. ,02. f. 4.
•Seba, i. p. 160.
T  E N G T H four inches and a quarter.   Bill fix lines and a
half, and yellow.    This bird has a yellow creft :   general
colour of the plumage yellowifh : throat brown :   quills and tail
bright blue.
Inhabits Brafil and Cayenne.
Manakin a Collier, Brif. orn.
Maizi de Miacatototl *, Seba,
iv. p. 456. N° 8.
i. p. 92. pi. S7. f. %.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 424.
COLLARED M.
I
I
CIZE of the Gold-headed Manakin : length almoft three inches
and a half. Bill four lines and a half long, and of a yellowifh
colour : the head of a bright red : throat and fore part of the
neck golden yellow, in fhape of a collar: the hind part of the
neck, back, rump, the breaft, and reft of the under parts, are
black: wing coverts and quills deep blue : tail black: legs
pale yellow.
Said to inhabit Brafil;   but Buffon obferves, that the name it
bears is Mexican, and fignifies Maize Bird.
* Fernandez defcribes another bird by the name of Miacatototl; faying
merely that it is a fmall one, and is found fitting on the heads ofmaixe: that it
has a palifli belly ; the reft of the body black ; on the wing fome white feathers;
and under the tail cinereous: that it lives ia cold places, and is good food. —
See Hifi. N. Hifp. p. 30.
Vol. II.
3 Y
Le M   A   N   A   K
N.
Le Manakin gris hupe, Brif orn. iv. p. 463. N° 13.
Coquantototl, avicula criftata, forma Pafleris, Seba, ii. p. 74,
Buf. oif. iv. p. 427.
t. 30. f. 7. —
HP HIS is in fhape like a Sparrow, and is three inches and a
quarter long. The bill is four lines, and of a yellow colour : on the forehead is a yellow fpot: the head, hind part of
the neck, back, and rump, are grey: the feathers on the hind
head are longer than the others, and form a fmall creft: the
throat, and fore part of the neck, quite to the tail, light yellow : the greater wing coverts red ; and the quills and tail cinereous grey.
Pipra albifrons, Lin. Syft. i. p. 339. N° 5.
Le Demi-fin a huppe & gorge blanches, Buf. oif. v. p. 335.
White-faced Manakin, Edw. pi. 344.
HP HIS bird is five inches and a quarter long. The bill three-
quarters of an inch, black, ftrait, and pointed : the head is
crefted, confifting of long pointed feathers, which may be elevated or depreffed at will;. this creft, as well as the throat, and
between the eyes, is white : a white ftreak pafles over the eye :
the white on the throat is furrounded with a border of black all
round, from eye to eye : the reft of the body and^tail of an orange,
inclining to cinnamon ; but the hind part of the neck, middle of
the back, and wings, are blackifh afh-colour : thighs dufky : legs
reddifh yellow: outer and middle toes cohere deeply. MANAKIN.
m
Le Plumet blanc, Buf. oif. iv. p. 429.
Le Manicup de Cayenne, Pi. enl. 707. f, 1.    .
np H I S bird is fix inches in length ; and is remarkable for the
creft, which is compofed of fcattered white feathers, fome of
which are above an inch in length, and give it a remarkable appearance. The bill is black, three quarters of an inch in length,
and a trifle curved at the tip: the whole front, as far as the eye,
the chin, and throat, are alfo, with the creft, white; the whole of
this white is bordered with black, which is broadeft on the hind
head : the back and wings are of a dufky black ; and the reft of
the body and tail a bright cinnamon-colour, inclined to ferruginous : the legs are reddifh; and the outer toe connected to the
middle as far as the fecond joint, like the reft of the Manakin
genus.
Buffbn will have thefe to be two different birds. The laft-de-
fcribed comes from Guiana, where it is faid to be rare. It feems
to have a much longer creft than that of Edwards, projecting
into an irregular long tuft on each fide over the eye; whereas
that of Edwards's is perfectly regular. The bill too in Buffon's
bird feems a trifle durved at the tip; while that of Edwards's is
ftrait. Yet the colours very nearly correfpond, and the diftribu-
tion of them exactly fo : the toes likewife are united exactly in the
fame manner in both birds. I have feen a fpecimen of that in the
Planches enluminees ; and find it to be exactly copied. Edwards's
bird has not yet come under my infpection. Surely they are no
other than male and female, with a little variety of climate.
Edwards's bird came from South America.
ESCRIPTIOM. $w
.MANAKIN.
BLACK-
CROWNED M.
Le Oifeau cendre de la Guiane, Buf. oif. iv. 43*.
Manakin cendre de Cayenne, Pi. enl. 687. f. 1.
T   E N G T H fix inches.    Bill  feven  lines  in length,  and
black : the crown of the head is black :  the upper parts of
,d, fides of the head
greyifh white :   the
deed with grey : tail
the body and tail pale afh-colour:   fo;
beneath the eyes,  and all the under p
greater coverts and quills are du:fky bia
longer than in the Manakin genus, and fomewhat cuneiform : legs
pale grey; the outer toes deeply united, like the laft fpecies.
This inhabits Guiana; but is not common.
Place.
nikor, Buf. oif. :
 de la Nom
■• P- 4;
die Gu
, PL enl, 707. f.
HP H I S is a fmall fpecies, meafuring in length only three
inches and a quarter. The bill is fhort and black : the upper parts of the head, neck, body, wings, and tail, are greenifh
black; the laft is not quite even at the end, the two middle feathers being rather fhorter than the others: the under parts, from
the chin to the vent, dirty white: on the breaft an oblong orange-
coloured fpot, which reaches to the belly r legs dufky lead-
colour.
Inhabits New Guinea.
Buffott thinks that thisfhould not be ranked with the Manakins
from the place whence it was brought; from the bill having no
notch ; and from the fhape of the tail: fuppofing the whole of
that genus to inhabit South America.
LENGTH MANAKIN.
T ENGTH three inches and three quarters, Bill pale : the
upper parts dufky black; the under white: on the vent a
fpot of crimfon : the under tail coverts are white, and reach almoft to the end of the tail, which is very fhort, as ufual in this
genus: legs brown.
Native place unknown.
533
CRIMSON-
VENTED M.
BLACK-
THROATED' M.
T   ENGTH four inches.    Bill brown: general colour of the
plumage on the upper parts blueifh black : throat and vent
black : belly white: legs brown.
Native place unknown.
2-3-
ORANGE-
BELLIED M,
T ENGTH four inches. Bill black : plumage on the upper
parts of the bird dufky : the edge of the wing, and all beneath, pale yellowifh orange: quills dufky, with pale edges :
legs dufky.
From the Cape of Good Hope.
The two laft in the collection of Sir Jojeph Banks*
Br. Muf.
J^ENGTH three inches and a half.    General colour of the    Description
plumage cinereous;   beneath paleft: the belly very pale,
inclining to white.
Native place uncertain.
L'Organifte,
____m K   I    N.
L'Organine, Buf. oif. iv. p. tgo.—PI. enl. 80.
L'Eveque, Hifi. de la Louif. vol.;
T ENGTH four inches. Bill dufky: forehead yellow:
crown and nape blue : chin, fides of the head below the
eyes, and throat, black : upper part of the back, the wings, and
tail, dufky black; the laft fhort: lower part of the back and
rump, the breaft, belly, vent, and thighs, orange : legs dufky.
This is indigenous to St. Domingo, where it has gained the
name of Organifte from its note, forming the complete octave in
the moft agreeable manner, one note fucceflively after another.
It is faid not to be uncommon; but not eafy to be :fhot, as, like
the Creeper, it perpetually fhifts to the oppofite part of the
branch from the fpectator's eye, fo as to elude his vigilance.
It is moft likely the very bird mentioned by Du Pratz, above-
quoted ; whofe notes, he fays, are fo varied and fweet, and which
warbles fo tenderly, that thofe who have heard it value much lefs
the fong of the Nightingale. It is faid to fing for near two hours
without fcarce taking breath; and, after a refpite of about the
fame time, begins agafn.
Du Pratz, who himfelf has heard it, fays that it fang perched
on an oak, near the houfe he was then in.
Genus E   S3!   ]
Genus  XLIII.
TITMOUSE.
I.
Great T.
N°
14. Guiana T.
32.
Norway T.
15. Amorous T.
3-
Azure T.
16. PendulineT.
4-
Crimfon-rumped T.
17. Languedoc T.
5-
Crimfon-crowned T.
18. Long-tailed T.
6.
Black-breafted T.
19. CapeT.
7-
Colemoufe.
20. Bearded T.
8.
Marfh T.
21. ChinefeT.
Var. A.
22. Malabar T.
Var. B.
23. Sibirian T.
9
Canada T.
Var. A.
IO
Blue T.
24. Hudfon's Bay T
ii
Toupet T.
25. Great-headed T
12
Crefted T.
26. New Zealand T.
13
Virginian T.
27. Creeping T.
BILL ftrait, a little compreflfed, ftrong, hard, and fharp-
pointed.
Noftrils round, and covered with briftles reflected over them.
Tongue cut off at the end, and terminated by three or four
briftles.
Toes  divided  to  their  origin ;   back toe very large,  and
ftrong.
This is the definition of the genus, according to the Genera of
Birds; which is fully fufiicient.
I do S36 TITMOUSE.
I do not find that any of this genus migrate, either in this cli*
mate or any other.
The food is general; feeds, fruits, and infects. A few of them
greedy after flefh, whether lean or fat; but are fondeft of the laft.
Are reftlefs birds, and by no means timid; fome of them, efpe-
cially the firft fpecies, daring to aflault birds of three times their
own fize ; and often attack birds weaker than themfelves, which
they kill; or, on finding one already dead, in both cafes pick a
hole in the fkull, and eat the brains on the fpot.
Are very fruitful, even to a proverb ; fome of them laying
eighteen or twenty eggs for one hatch.
Parus Major, Lin, Syft. i. p. 341. N° 3.-— Scop. ann. i. p. 162. N° 24a. —
Kram. el. p. 378, 1.— Muller, p  34. N° 283. — Georgi Reife, p, 175.
Olin. uc. p. 28.-Frifch. t. 13.
La Groffe Mefange, ou la Charbonniere,  Brif. orn. iu. p. 539. N° i.—Bnf.
oif. v. p. 392. pi. 17.—PI. enl. 3. f. 1.
Parus Major, feu Fringillago, Raii Syn. p. 73. A. 1.
Great Titmoufe, or Ox-eye, Will. orn. p. 240. pi. 43. — Albin. i. pi. 46.—
Br. Zool. i. N° 162. pi. 57. f. 1.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
Description. HT H E length of this well-known fpecies is five inches and
three quarters, and weighs nearly one ounce. Bill above
half an inch, and black: the head and throat are black: the
cheeks white : back and wings olive green : the belly greenifh
yellow; down the middle of it an irregular ftripe of black, dividing it into two parts quite to the vent: rump blue grey :
quills dufky, edged with grey :   the greater coverts tipped with
white, —	
TITMOUSE.
white, forming a bar on the wing : tail dufky black; the outer
feathers white on the outfide, but the others blue grey : legs
lead-colour.
This bird is found throughout Europe, as well as other parts
of the old continent. We hear of it from Sweden to the Cape of
Good Hope. In this ifland it is a very common bird, frequenting
our gardens, except in breeding-time, when it is feen moftly in
woods, and builds in hollow trees, laying from eight to twelve
eggs, which are white, fpotted with ruft-colour, moftly at the
large end. The family after hatching keep together till the next
fpring, when they feparate in pairs, in order to form a future generation. Said to build twice, and even three times, in a year,
if the firft nefts have been taken.
What little note it has is not difagreeable, but is too little varied to be kept for the purpofe of finging; nor is the flefh good
to eat, being very bitter.
It generally lives five years *; but is faid to be fubject to
cramps, and other difeafes.
537
Flacs and-
MANKER.S.
Parus ignotus, Brun. orn. Bar. p. 73.
DILL above black; beneath yellow: the throat is yellow:
the neck, and all the upper parts of the body, yellow green :
the breaft yellow, fpotted with chefnut: belly blue: near the
vent yellowifh : -tail forked ; of the fame colour as the back; the
two middle feathers greenifh ; the two outer ones white on the
outfide: legs black; hind claw three times as long as the
others.
NORWAY T.
Description.
Vol. II.
Olina.
3 Z
Brunnich I
TITMOUSE.
Brunnich fuppofes it to be a variety of the Greater titmoufe \
but it has no black on the head.
This inhabits Norway.
La Groffe Mefange bleue, Brif. orn. iii. p. 548. N° 3.-—Buf. oif v. p. 455.
Parus indicus Aldrovandi, Raii Syn. p. 74. N° 7. — Aldrov. av. ii. p. 714.
fig. in 715.
Parus Dorfo dilute cseruleo inferne albus, &c. JV. C. Petr, vol. xiv. p. 498.
N" 1. t. 13. f. 1. (Lepechin.)
Parus Cyanus, N. C. Petr. vol. xiv. p. 588. N° 8. t. 23. f. 3. (Pallas.)
Azure Titmoufe, ArB. Zool.
C I Z E of the Greater titmoufe: length five inches and a half.
Bill blackifh blue; the edges dirty white : forehead, crown,
cheeks, and all the under parts, white, except an irregular oblong
blue mark from the breaft to the middle of the belly, and a blue
ftripe from the bill, through the eyes, to the hind head; beneath
which is a pale band': the back and rump are pale blue : upper
tail coverts deep blue; the ends white: the wings are varied
with white, lead-colour, and blue; the firft forming a band acrofs
the wing : the quills brown ; the primaries have the inner edge
white; the outer blue; towards the tip white; fecondaries white
at the tips: the tail is blue; the outer edges of the feathers
whitifh; moft fo in proportion as they are more outward ; the
outer one of all has the whole of the outer web white; this feather too is fhorter than the others:  legs and claws black.
This fpecies has hitherto been but very obfcurely known; the
whole account being drawn from a painting of Aldrovandus *,
who tells us that it was a native of the Eafi Indies.
* Aldrovandh bird had a black fpot beneath the eyes; and the crown, as well.
as the reft of the upper parts, was of a pale blue : irides yellow.
The 	
T    I
MOUSE.
The bird here defcribed is feen throughout Ruffia and Sibiria
in winter only; probably coming from the north. Frequently
met with about the fuburbs of St. Peterfburgh.
539
Parus peregrinus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 342. N° 10.
CIZE of the Greater titmoufe. General colour cinereous:
beneath wholly white : rump crimfon : quills brown: tail
black; the four middle feathers have the ends obliquely tipped
with yellow ; but the two middle ones have leaft of that
colour.
Place unknown.
CRIMSON-
RUMPED T.
Parus grifeas, Muller, p. 34. N° 284.
'"I"* H E general colour of this bird is grey, except the crown,
which is crimfon *.
Inhabits Groenland.
CIZE of the Great titmoufe:  length fix inches.   Plumage
above dufky: fides of the head, and round the eye, white: on
each fide of the neck a ftripe of the fame:   at the hind head a
fpot of white : chin, throat, and breaft, bl|ck : belly dirty white:
CRIMSON-
CROWNED T.
Description.
Place.
6.
BLACK-
BREASTED T.
Description.
* We have our fufpicions that this bird is no other than our Grimfin-tfowned
Finch, p. 250. pi. 47. not yet arrived at full plumage.
3 Z *
quills 540
TITMOUSE.
quills brown : tail black ;   the outer web of the exterior feather
white ; the next to it tipped with white : legs black.
From the Cape of Good Hope.
In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
t-COLEMOUSE.
Parus ater, Lin. Syfi, i. p. 341- N
7. — Scop. ann. i. p. 163
N°
245.
Kram. el. p. 379. N° 4.—Ge
rgi Reife, p. 17s.—Frifch. t
.13-
La Mefange a tete noire, Brif. orn.
iii. p. 551. N°S.
La petite Charbonniere, Buf. oij. v.
p 400.
Parus ater, or Colemoufe, Raii Syn.
p.7i.A.2. — Wi!Lornr}
>. 24
. t.
164. pi. 57. f. 3.—Am. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T  E S S than the
four  inches.
Blue titmoufe: weight two drams: length
Bill four lines and a half; colour black r
head and throat black : from the bill, on each fide, a broad band
of white, pafling juft under the eye to the fides of the neck : on
the hind head a large white fpot: hind part of the neck, back,
and rump, afh-colour: from the breaft to the vent rufbus white :
wing coverts grey, tipped with white, forming two bands of the
fame colour: quills and tail feathers brownifh afh-colour, bordered with grey : the tail fomewhat forked : legs and claws lead-
colour.
This is pretty common in woods, orchards, and gardens, where
it lives on the fame food as the reft of the Britifh fpecies of this
genus, and lays a number of eggs. It is found throughout
Europe, and likewife met with in America. T  r T   M   o  u
541
Parus paluftris, Lin. Syft.i. p. 341. N° 8.—Scop. ann. i. p. 164. N° 246.—
Kramer, 379. N° 5.—'Muller, p. 34. N°286. —Frifch. t. 13.—Georgi
Reife, 175.
La.Mefange de Marais, ou la Nondtte cendree, Brif orn. iii. p. 555. N° 7.
-Buf. oif. v. p. 403.-P/. enl. iii. f. 3.
Parus paluftris,  Marfh Titmoufe, or  Black-Cap,   Raii Syn. p. 73.  A. 3.—
Will. orn. p. 241.  pi.  43. — Albin. iii. pi. 58. f.  1. —Br. Zovl.'u
N° 165. pi. 57. f. 4.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
npH I S is a trifle bigger than the laft, and differs but in a very
few particulars. The crown of the head is black, but'no
fpot of white on the hind head : on the throat is a fmall black
fpot, but not fo large as in the laft : upper parts of the body
grey : wing coverts in fome plain : the under parts white: legs
as in the laft.
This is common with-us in England; and is remarked by others
as an European bird. Is found in Sweden, Italy, and moft of the
parts between. It is much to be feared that it is not a dif-
tinct fpecies; moft probably a mere variety of the laft. Manners
and haunts the fame. Equally prolific with the others. Lays
up ftore of feeds againft want.    Fond of bees.
Plac
Ma:
Le Mefange a gorge noire^
PL enl. 502. f. 1
Hp H I S is four inches and a half in length, and is fomewhat
like the laft ; but wants both the white fpot at the hind head,
and the bands on the wings; the black fpot on the throat is
much larger ; and the colours in general deeper: the tail a little
cuneiform.
• The
Var. A.
Descriptio TITMOUSE.
Female. The female has the head of a rufous grey, almoft like the upper
parts of the body, but darker.
Place. Inhabits Louifiana,
\X7 E have alfo feen a further variety, which differed in not
having a black chin, all the under parts being white. One
fex had the whole head black, with a band of white acrofs the
hind head : in the other, only the top of the head was black, and
the nape yellowifh.
Thefe are in the collection of Sir Jqfepb Banks, and were taken
on board a fhip off the coaft of Japan.
g. Parus atricapillus, Lin, Syfi. i. p. 341. N° 6.
CANADA T. La Mefange a tete noire de Canada, Brif. orn. iii. p. 553. N» 6. pL 29. f. 1
Canada Titmoufe,
. p. 408.
dm. Zool.
I Z E of the laft: length four inches and a half.    The
upper
part of the head and the throat are black: hind part of the
neck, fcapulars, and lefifer wing coverts, deep afh-colour : rump
the fame, but paler : upper tail coverts dirty white: fides of the
head, and all beneath to the tail, white: thighs cinereous:
greater wing coverts brown, edged with grey: quills brown,
edged without with grey; within with whitifh : tail brown, edged
with grey; the two middle feathers cinereous: legs and claws
blackifh.
Inhabits North America. •TITMOUSE.
543-
parus casruleus, Lin. Syfi.'i. p. 341. N°5.—Scop. ann. i. p. 163. N° 244— 10.
Kram. el. 379. N° 3.—Rail Syn. p. 74. A. 4.—Muller, p. 34. N° 285.       +■ BLUE  T-
—Frifch. pi. 14.
La Mefange bleue, Brif. orn. "iii. p. 544. N° 2.—Buf. oif v. p.413.—P/. enl.
iii. f. 2.
Blue Titmoufe, Albin. i. pi. tf.— Will. orn. p. 242. pi. 43.—.Br. Zool. i.
N° 163. pi. 57. f. 2.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
T E N G T H four inches and a half.- Bill four lines and a
half, and blackifh : crown blue: forehead, and whole fide
of the head, white : from the bill, through the eyes, runs a narrow line of black to the hind head, which, as well as the hind
part of the neck, is black, and is continued in a line of black to
the bill, bounding the lower part of the white on the fides of the
head: the back is yellowifh green: wing coverts blue : quills
black, edged with dufky : tail blue; outer edge paler; the two
middle feathers longeft : the under parts of the body yellowifli
white: legs and claws black.
This beautiful fpecies is. well known throughout Europe, and'
is found to be very deftru6live to our gardens and orchards, by
biting off the buds of the bloffoms, in fearch of infects; yet, as
Albin obferves, is ufeful in another manner, in deftroying young
caterpillars, and eggs of thofe infects which deftroy the fruit.
The female makes a neft in the hollows of walls or trees, lining
it well with feathers; laying a great number of white fmall eggs,
at leaft fourteen or fifteen, though fome fay as far as twenty-
two ; but hatches only once a year, except the firft neft is plundered.    It eafily forfakes its neft, even if the eggs are touched, 1
:544 TITMOUSE.
or efpecially if one is broken :   but when the young are hatched,
no bird defends them more courageoufly.
Its note confifts in general of a difagreeable fhriek, except now
and then an attempt to warble; but then far from pleafing.
_nT »•     _ Parus bicolor, Lin. Syft. i. p. 340. N° u—Faun. Groen. p. 123. N° 85.
1 uUi-ii L   l. La Mefange hup6e de ia Caroline, Brif. orn. iii. p. 561. N» 9. — Buf. oif.
v. p. 451.
Crefted Titmoufe, Catefb. Car. i. pi. 57.
Toupet Titmoufe, ArB. Zool.
Lev. Muf
Place .
Manni
•ion. CIZE of the Greater titmoufe: length fix inches. Bill five
lines and a half long, and of a black colour: on the forehead, juft over the bill, is a black fpot: the head is furnifhed
with a longifh pointed creft, which, with all the upper parts of
the body, is of a deep grey : the under parts reddifh white,
deepeft on the fides : quills and tail edged with rufous grey; the
laft a trifle forked : legs lead-colour.
.. The female differs from the male, in having the belly and fides
nearly white. I
*d This bird inhabits Carolina and Virginia, where it is found the
whole year, and keeps chiefly in the woods, living on infects, like
others of its race. It is alfo met with in Denmark and the fouth-
ern parts of Groenland, where it is called Avingarfak. It flies
fwiftly ; and during flight folds up the wing frequently, when it
utters a weak note. TITMOUSE.
545
Parus criftatus,   Lin. Syft. i. p. 340. N° 2. — Scop. ann. i. p. 162. 243. — ii-,
Krom. el. p. 379. N° 2. — Rail Syn.  p. 74. N° 6. —Muller, p. 34.     CRESTED T.
N° 282—Georgi Reife, p. 175.—Frifch. t. 14.
Le Mefange huppee, Brif. orn. iii. p. 558. N° 8. —Buf. oif. v. p. 447. —-
PL enl. 502. f. 2.
Crefted Titmoufe, Rail Syn. p. 74. N° 6. —• ^#/«. ii. pi. 57. — #7//. «•«.
p. 242. t. 43.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.
CIZE of the Blue titmoufe: weighs one third of an ounce:    Description.
length four inches and three quarters. Bill five lines and a
half, and blackifh: the forehead and fides of the head are white:
the top of the head is adorned with long feathers, of a black colour, margined with white, which, when elevated, form a beautiful creft, pointed at the top: the chin and throat are black, from
which paffes a line of black to the hind head, bounding the
white on the cheeks at the under part: on the ears an irregular
fpot of black: the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, are
rufous grey; the two laft deepeft: the under parts of the body
white: the fides have a rufous tinge : the legs lead-colour.
This bird is found in many parts of France, efpecially in Nor- Place an»
mandy *, and in many parts between that and Sweden. It is in
the deep forefts that it is chiefly met with, and efpecially among
the evergreen trees, infomuch that it is fcented with their refinous
odour. It is faid to be fond of folitude; never mixing with other
birds, nor in numbers even with its own fpecies; and will not be
tamed ; whence it is little known, except to the few who frequent
its place of refidence. It is full as fruitful as the reft of its
race.
* Not met with either about Paris or Orleans. —• Salerne, p. 216.
Vol. II, 4 A Panis $46
VIRGINIAN T.
Female.
.Place.
TITMOUSE.
Parus Virginianus, Lin.