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A general synopsis of birds. Vol. II. Part 1st Latham, John, 1740-1837 1783

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   THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOODWARD HISTORICAL
COLLECTION  -A fpf
General synobsts
of
BIRDS.
Vol.lIPart 1
&
L  O   ~N   13    OX:
Printed for Leigh & Sotieby,
York: Street,Covent Garden.
md c ci.x_ozni.  PREFACE.
T N the Preface to the Firft Volume, the plan of this Work has
**• been mentioned, of which the prefent is a continuation, and
contains the whole of the Pafferine, Columbine, and Gallinaceous
Orders. Thefe, as before, are difpofed, for the moft part, according to the Linnaan method of feparation into genera ;
having a frequent eye to the judicious alterations of our friend'
Thomas Pennant, Efq; noticed in his Genera of Birds: however,
from the great number of new fpecies which have come under
our infpection in almoft every genus, new lights have been
thrown on fome fubjecls, whereby we have been obliged, in
fome few inftances, to deviate a trifle from the fentiments contained in the laft-named work; and for which fuch reafons are
given, in their refpeclive places, as have feemed requifite. The.
above will alfo account for the introduction of a new Genus, not-
having been able to arrange the fpecies which form it under any
of the old ones: 'to this.is given the name of Tinamou * ; and>,
as ufual, a plate is given of one of the fpecies,.in order to illuf-
trate the reft of the genus.
*' This name has been given to them by the natives in the parts where they
are found. PREFACE.
In the former parts of this Undertaking, a reference has beei>
made throughout to a work called American Zoology, which I beg-
leave to advertife my readers is, in the prefent, changed to that of
ArtJic Zoology ; both of them meant to refer to a work by Mr.
Pennant, which originally^was defigned to have been confined to
the animals of North America : but he was induced to enlarge
his plan, by adding thofe of Kamtfchatka and Northern Afia, in
order to comprehend the zoology of thofe countries, and make:
the volume fupplemental, in that part of Natural Hiftory, to the
Northern Voyage of the celebrated Captain Cook. The title of
ArtJic he feems therefore to think better adapted to the contents
of the book *.
In refpecT: to ourfelves, we "have nothing more here to add,
except the repetition of our acknowledgments for the afliftance
which our friends have afforded us in this Undertaking ; and to
wife fincerely that it may, in any degree, afford amufement to
the reader, or add to his inftruction.
JOHN LATHAM.
This work, in one volume _tto, will' appear about the time of the publication of the Voyage, and fome copies on the fame fized paper as tie Voyage;,
the reft fuitable to Mr. Pennant's other 4to works.
BIRDS. BIRDS.
Order   III.     PASSERINE.
Gaus   XXX*   STARE.
N* i. Common St.
Var. A. White St.
Var. B. Pied St.
Var. C. Grey St.
a. Cape St.
Var. A. Contra St.
3. Louifiane St.
Var. A. Crefcent St.
4. Magellanic St.
N° 5. Collared St.
6. Wattled St.
7. CockfcombSt.
8. Silk St.
9. Green St.
10. Brown St.
11. Ceylonefe St.
12. Brown-headed St.
13. Mexican St.
BILL ftrait, depreffed.
Noftrils guarded above by a prominent rim.
Tongue hard and cloven.
The middle toe united to the outmoft as far as the firft joint.
Vol. II. N° iZg.—Kram.
Stumus vulgaris, Lin. Syfl. 1. p. 290. N» x.—Scep. ann. 1. JN° I89.—*.ram.
El.^.—Brun. orn. p. 64. N° 229.—Haffela. It. p. 287. N° 47.—
Mntt.-Zool. Dan. p. ■z'i.—Georgi. Reife. i. p. if_.—Frifch. pl. 217.
L'Etourneau, Brif. orn. ii. p. 439. N° i.—B«f. of. iii. p.  176. pl.  15.—
PI   *,,/   -r.
37.-_5r.
*~p H E Starling is a bird fo well known that it needs only a
ihort defcription.
The weight of the male is three ounces j that of the female
rather lefs: length eight inches three quarters. Bill brown or
yellow: the whole plumage is black, gloffed with blue, purple,
and copper; each feather marked at the end with a pale yellow
fpot: the wing coverts are edged with yellow; the quills and tail
dufky, the former edged with yellow, the laft with dirty white:
the legs of a reddifh brown.
This bird, appears to be a general inhabitant throughout the
old continent, from Sweden * to the Cape of Good Hope. We may
fuppofe that the general manners agree in all climates; in this
it affects to build its neft in hollows of rocks, ruinous edifices,
pigeon-houfes, hollows of trees, but; feldom on the branches,
except in fome cafes, when I have been, informed that it has
made ufe of an old neft of a Thrufh, or other bird, but moft often
that of theGreen Woodpecker; which in turn feizes that of a Starling, when placed in the hollow of a tree ; for as both thefe birds
alfo met with in Den
middle of Jpril, and depar
■/?, Norway, ;
ad Iceland.    Vifits Ruffla -i
>.Ruff. vol. i. p. 102. STARE.
really make no neft, placing only a mere covering of leaves, and
other dry materials, whereon to lay their eggs, very little ceremony, further than bare poffeffion, is requifite. The eggs are
greenifh afh-colour, five or fix in number: the young birds are
dufky brown till the firft moult.
Thefe birds, in the winter feafon, are often feen in company
with Redwings and Fieldfares, and frequently in large flocks, con-
fifting only of their own fpecies; when this is the cafe, they may
be known at a great diftance, from their tumultuous and diforderly
' method of flight, different from that of any other bird.
The chief food of thefe are infects and worms ; Buffon afferts
their fondnefs for the Rofe Beetle *: but befides thefe, they are
faid to eat many kinds of grain -\-, and m fome parts olives,
grapes, and cherries, giving the laft the preference ; they are alfo
accufed of fucking the eggs of the Pigeons in Pigeon-houfes :
hence a general feeder: however I am inclined to think that they
will give animal food the preference, only taking to vegetable
nourifhment in cafes of neceflityj for when kept in cages, they
are contented and pleafed with the fcraps of meat of every kind.
WHITE STARE.
L'Etourneau blanc, Brif. orn. ii. p. 444. A.
Sturnus albus, Aldrov. Av. ii. p. 636.
White Starling, Will. orn. p. 196.
Lev.  Muf.
'TpHlS is wholly white: the bill reddifh: and the legs flefh-  Description.
coloured.    Two of thefe are in the Leverian Mufeum.
j Scarabaus auratus.
t Buf, of. iii. 184.
B a  STARE-
Sturnus Capenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 290.
L'Etourneau du Cap de Bonne Efpera
41. f. 3—PL enl. 280.
L'Etourneau-Pie, Buf. of. iii. p. 191.
:e, Brif. orn. ii. p. 446. N° 2. pl.     CAPE STARE.
CIZE of our Starling. Bill fixteen lines long, and yellowifh :
the plumage is only of two colours, black and white : the
bead, neck, back, wings, and tail, are of the firft colour : on
each fide of the head, beginning, at the bafe of the upper mandible, is a ftreak of white, which encompaffing the eye fwells
out into a broad patch, fo as to make almoft the whole fide of
the head of that colour: at the hinder bafe of this it is a little
prolonged downwards on cadi fide of the neck, in a narrow ftripe
of black and white mixed : the feapulars, are tipped with white;
and the edge of the wing, for three quarters of an inch, is white
alfo: the breaft, belly,, vent, and rump, of the fame colour: the
legs yellow.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
N° 9.—Suppl. p. 94.
Var. A.
CONTRAv
L'Etourneau Pie, Buf of iii.
STARE.
Sturnus contra, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 290. N" 4.
Le Troupiale de Bengale, Brif. orn. ii. p, 94.
L'Etourneau du Cap de Bonne Efperance, ou
p. 191.
Contra from Bengal, Alb. iii. pl. 21.
Black.and white Indian Starling, Edw.,\_Y. 187.
'THE head,, neck, back, rump, upper tail coverts, and fca- :
pulars, are black: from the bill fprings a ftripe of white,
paffing through the eyes, and tending to the hind head: the
upper part of the neck is alfo furrounded by a dirty white band :
heneath each eye is a fpot of white: from the lower part of the neck to the vent is white: the upper wing coverts are black,
variegated with fix fpots of white : quills and tail black: legs
yellow-brown.
Thefe are clearly varieties of each other. We are told that
this bird is called by the name of Contra, in the places where it
inhabits.
Sturnus Ludovicianus, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 290. f. 3.
L'Etourneau de la Louifiane, Brif. orn. ii, p. 449. N9 4. pl. 42. f. 1.
u de la Louifiane ouLe.Stourne,_9/^*. of. iii. p. igz.—Pl. enl. z_6.
CIZE of a Thrufh : length nine inches and a half. Bill whitifh,
'i a brown tip : the upper parts of the plumage are brown
and rufous grey mixed : on the head three ftripes of white; one
down the middle of the crown, and one over each eye: cheeks,
throat, fore part of the neck, breaft, and belly, fine yellow : on
the fore part of the neck is a large fpot of black feathers, each
of which is tipped with grey : fides, thighs, and under tail
coverts, dirty white, marked with fome fpots of brown : beneath
the wings whitifh grey : edge of the wing yellow : quills rufous
grey, blended with brown on the outer webs: tail- the fame;
but the four outer feathers are white within : legs and claws
Syfl. p. 289, N° 11.
Amerique, Brif orn. ii. 242. N» 15.
a Collier d'Amerique, Buf. of. i
Alauda mag
Le Merle a Collie
Le Fer-a-cheval,
Large Lark, Catejb. Car. i. pl.
Crefcent Starling, Aril. Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev, Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird: length eleven inches.    Bill blackifh i
top of the head and neck brown j fides of them pale grey :
from the bafe of the bill, and down the crown to the hind head, ST   A   R   E.
is a ftripe of pale grey : between the bill and eye a luteous fpot;
and behind each eye a black ftripe of an inch in length : the
upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, are brown, mixed with
rufous and blackifh, not unlike a Partridge : all the under parts
are yellow : on the breaft is a black crefcent, not unlike a horfe-
ihoe in fhape: thighs and under tail coverts grey : greater
quills brown; the leffer the fame, fpotted with rufous: tail
brown, marked on the outer edge with rufous : legs and claws
brown.
The young birds have fcarce any trace of the black crefcent.
This fpecies is frequent in North America, artd is migratory :
it comes to New York early, and is feen in great flocks together
in the fait meadows, which it chiefly frequents, and is fcarce
elfewhere. Like the Lark, it is feldom feen except on "the ground.
It is known in America by the name of Meadow Lark.
Sturnus militaris, Lin.Mant. 1771. p. 527.
L'Etourneau des terres Magellaniques, ou
p. ig6.—Pl.enl. 113.
Lev. Muf.
Buf. ofi
MAGELLANIC
STARE.
*~]pHlS meafures about eight inches and a half in length, and 1
is about the fize of a Starling. The bill is an inch and a
quarter long, and in fhape not unlike that bird : the upper parts
of the plumage are brown; each feather margined with paler
brown: from the bill to the eye a crimfon line: at the bafe of
the under mandible a white fpot: behind- the eye a ftreak of
white : on each fide the neck a bed of black, dividing the brown
on the hind part from the fore part of the neck; which, with the ;
chin, breaft, and upper part of the belly, is of a fine deep
crimfon : the fhoulder of the wing is of the fame colour, as is a
little STARE.
little of the outer edge of it: the fides, under the wings, and
thighs, are black, edged with afh-colour: the vent, under tail
coverts, and the whole of the tail, black; the laft a trifle forked:
the legs are brown.
In fome birds the white fpot at the bafe of the under mandible
is wanting j and in fuch, the white line begins at the noftrils,
and paffes over the eye a good way behind-,
This is an inhabitant of Falkland Iflands, where it is fuppofed
for the moft part to frequent the ground, rather than to perch on
trees; for one of them being kept in a cage, was never known
to fit upon the perch, always keeping at the bottom. It feemed
fond of all kinds of infects •, whence it was fuppofed that thefe
were its natural food.
COLLARED
STARE.
is collaris, Scop. ann. i. p. •
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the red-backed Shrike; length fix inches and a half.
Bill brown-; towards the bafe pale yellow: the upper part of
the body dufky, with largifh fpots on the back: rump brown
and white mixed: breaft cinereous brown : belly brown, efpecially the fides : throat white, fpotted with brown : quills
blackifh; the margins of the tips and inner webs are rufous:
tail brown, with pale rufous tips; legs horn-colour.
This inhabits Carniola and Carinthia, where it is a folitary
bird, and not very common. It feeds oh infeclrs and grain; is
accuftomed to wag the tail often : has a weak flender note; and
affedls covered places, where it may enjoy retirement undif-
«overed.
That   S   T   A   R   £
That in the Mufeum of Sir A. Lever, had each of the wing coverts terminated by a white fpot: the margin of the wings, and
tips of the quills and tail, grey. This fpecimen came from
Gibraltar.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of our Starling: length nearly ten inches.    The bill
rather long, and fomewhat bent; it is fharp at the tip, but _
a trifle flatted; the colour is black, tinged with blue towards the
bafe: irides dull hazel: from the angle of the lower mandible
fprings a carunculated orange-coloured membrane, tending downwards like the wattle of a,Cock ; this is about a quarter of an
inch in fize : the general colour of the plumage is dull black ;
but the back and wing coverts are ferruginous: the legs are
black.
The female is wholly of a dull ferruginous brown : the bill and
legs are the fame as in the male; but the wattle is not fo large,
nor is it very confpicuous, except in old birds.
This fpecies is found in New Zealand, particularly in the
fouthern ifland, where it is pretty common, as Dr. Forfter informs me; and that it has a weak piping voice, not worthy of
being called a fens;.
- WATTLED
STARE.
Pl. XXXVI.
Tringa * carunculata, capenfis, Naturf. vol. xi. p. q. tab. z. 7.
COCKSCOMB
T ENGTH fix inches and a half.    Bill brown, and made not        STARE.
unlike that of a Starling: from the bafe of the under man-  Inscription.
dible hangs a double wattle, like that of a Cock, half an inch or
Vol. II.
jt in the leaft bare above the knee.
C more STARE.
more in length, of a red or deep orange colour: on the crown
are two pointed combs; the one behind the other, ftanding upright : the eyes are furrounded by a broad bare yellow fpace :
the plumage in general of a dirty afh-colour, the under parts
paleft: the quills and tail black; the laft even at the end, or at
leaft but very little rounded: the legs are long, and of a pale
yellow-brown colour.
Three of thefe birds were fent into Holland from the Cape of
Good Hope in fpirits: one of them wanted the pointed combs on
the crown; the other had only a rudiment, and the wattle like-
wife was fmaller : it was fuppofed that the wattles were originally
red, but the fpirits had taken out much of their colour.
SILK STARE.
Silk Starling, Bro
. III. pl. ,
CIZE of a Starling.    The bill of a deep orange: the whole
head yellowifh white:   body entirely of a pale grey : the
plumage in general gloffy and filky : wings black, croffed with a
, bar of white : the tail black: legs reddifh yellow.
Inhabits China.
I obferved one of thefe among fome Chinefe paintings. The
bill was red: the head'white: upper parts of the body black;
the under dufky: legs red.   This was perhaps the oppofite fex.
GREEN STARE. Grcen sWre,  Ofb. Voy. ii. p. 327.
Description.       O^ ^ ^ore^ea^ an^ cn^n *s a tu^ °f black and white feathers |
above the firft is a fpot of white: beyond the eye another :
the whole upper part of the body green: on the feapulars are
two white fpots: wings and tail green; the outer webs of the
5 firft STARE.
firft white : the fhafts of the wings and tail white: the under fide
of the   neck,  breaft,   and belly,   pale  blue:   legs  cinereous
blue.
Inhabits China.
Brown Stare, Ofb. Voy. ii. p. 328.
BROWN
STARE.
" 'THHE bill is whitifh red : the eye lodged in a long ftripe Description.
" of a pale cerulean :   the whole body, wings, and  tail,
" light olive-brown; on the belly faint, and tinged with yellow :
" the legs are pale red : the tail is long."
Inhabits China. Place.
ii.
CEYLONESE
STARE.
"DILL black: head pale yellow: through the eye a line of Description.
black, beginning at the bafe of the bill; and a fecond beneath the cheeks : breaft light grey, marked with oblong yellowifh white fpots: back and belly grey, marked with white
and dufky femicircular lines: vent plain grey: quill feathers
dull green: tail barred with pea-green and black : legs blueifh
grey.
Inhabits Ceylon.    It is faid to whiftle all forts of fongs in a Place.
mocking way. The Javans call it Tjutjecrawany *.
L'Etourneau de la Nouvelle Elpagne, Brif. orn. ii. p. 448. N° 3.
Le Tolcana, Buf. oif. iii. p. 193.
Tolocatzanatl, Rail Syn. p. 168. N° 3.
BROWN-
HEADED
STARE.
JJE S S  than a Starling, but like it in fhape.   The head is Description.
brown : the reft of the body, wings, and tail, black.
• Mr. Pennant.
C 2 Inhabits STARE.
Inhabits New Spain, where it is called Tolocatzanatl, or Rufih
Starling. As this is not a well-defined fpecies, it may perhaps
prove the brown-headed Oriole of our firft volume *.
MEXICAN
STARE.
Le Cotinga du Mexique, Brif. em. i
Le Cacaftotl, Buf. oif. iii. p. 195.
CaxcaxtototI, Rati Syn. p. 167. N°
p. 347. N» 4.
CIZE of a Starling.    Bill black: general colour blue, varied
with black : the head is fmall: the eyes are black : and the
irides luteous.
This inhabits the more temperate parts of South America, fuch
as Mexico, and its neighbourhood. It, has little or no fong. Like
the laft, it is a very doubtful fpecies.
* P. 446. N° 38.
Genus C  *J ]
G?os   XXXI.   THRUSH,
f° I.
Miffel Thr.
N° 26.
White-browed Thr.
1.
Throftle.
27.
Pale Thr.
Vvjj;
Guiana Thr.
28.
Reed Thr.
4-
Jamaica Thr.
Var. A.
5-
Little Thr.
29.
Red-legged Thr.
6.
Golden-crowned Thr.
3°-
Thick-billed Thr.
I^S
Red-wing ^ hr.
P
Bay Thr.
8.
Aoonalafhka Thr.
32.
Crying Thr.
9-
Barbary Thr.
33-
Chinefe Thr.
IO.
Tripoli Thr.
34-
Crefcent Thr.
ii.
Fieldfare.
3S-
New Holland Thr.
Var. A. B. C.
36.
Black-faced Thr.
12.
Red-breafted Thr.
37-
Philippine Thr.
*3-
Spotted Thr.
38.
Surat Thr.
14.
Kamtfchatka Thr.
39-
Pacific Thr.
IS-
Tawny Thr.
40.
Sandwich Thr.
16.
Brown Thr.
41.
FerruginousThr.
*7-
Yellow-backed Thr.
42.
Mimic Thr.
18.
Variegated Thr.
43-
Mocking Thr.
19.
Cayenne Thr.
Var. A.
20.
Pagoda Thr.
44
St. Domingo Thr.
21.
Malabar Thr.
45
Yellow-bellied Thr.
22
Rufous-tailed Thr.
46
Blackbird.
23
Red-tailed Thr.
Var. A. White-headed Bl
24
Dark Thr.
 B. Pied Bl.
25
Red-necked Thr.
 C. White Bl.
N°47. THRUSH.
47
White-chinned Thr.
N°74-
Yellow Thr.
Var. A. B. C
75-
White-rumped Thr.
48.
Labrador Thr.
76.
Cinereous Thr.
49.
Ring Ouzel.
77-
Pigeon Thi*.
5°
Water Ouzel.
78.
Black-throated Thr.'
$'•
White-tailed Thr.
79-
Green Thr.
52.
Rofe-coloured Thr.
80.
Olive Thr.
S3-
Blue Thr.
81.
Indian Thr.
54
Solitary Thr.
82.
Afh-coloured Thr.
55-
Penfive Thr.
83-
Grey Thr.
56.
Hermit Thr.
84.
Long-billed Thr.
57-
Rock Thr.
ii
Senegal Thr.
58.
African Thr.
' 86.
Madagafcar Thr.
59-
Rufous-winged Thr.
87.
Mindanao Thr.
60.
Shining Thr.
88.
Mauritius Thr.
Var. A.
89.
Black-headed Thr.
61.
Gloffy Thr.
90.
Brunet Thr.
62.
Gilded Thr.
Var. A.
63-
Violet Thr.
91.
White-fronted Thr.
64.
Whidah Thr.
Var. A.
6S.
Dominican Thr.
92.
Cape Thr.
66.
White-headed Thr.
Var. A.
67.
Songfter Thr.
93-
Long-tailed Thr.
68.
Black-necked Thr.
94-
Amboina Thr.
69.
Yellow^fronted Thr.
95-
Bourbon Thr.
70.
Chanting Thr.
96.
Yellow-crowned Thr.
71-
Spectacle Thr.
97-
Afh-rumped Thr.
72.
Ceylon Thr.
98.
Black-cheeked Thr.
73-
Orange-bellied Thr.
99-
Hifpaniola Thr.
Var. A.
IOC
. Surinam Thr.
N° 101 THRUSH.
N°
IOI.
Palm Thr.
N° IJ2.
White-backed Thr.
Var. A.
"3-
Black-crefted Thr.
I02.
Nun Thr.
114.
Chiming Thr.
103.
Ethiopian Thr.
115.
Black-winged Thr.
IO4.
Abyflinian Thr.
116.
White-eared Thr.
IO5.
Yellow-breafted Thr.
117.
Rufous-naped Thr.
106.
Black-chinned Thr.
Var. A.
107.
Black-breafted Thr.
118.
Alarum Thr.
108.
Rufous Thr.
119.
Speckled Thr.
IO9.
Mufician Thr.
120.
Ant Thr.
no.
Barred-tail Thr.
121.
Blue-tailed Thr.
III.
Buff-winged Thr.
122.
King Thr.
THE general characters of the Thrufh genus are the following :
Bill ftraitifh, bending towards the point, and flightly notched
near the end of the upper mandible.
Noftrils oval, and for the moft part naked *.
Tongue flightly jagged at the end. l!lMI?'
The corners of the mouth furnifhed with a few flender hairs.
The middle toe connected to the outer as far as the firft
joint.
• In feveral from the South Seas the noftrils are in part covered with a membranous flap.
M THRUSH.
Tardus vifcivorus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 291. N° I.—Seep. ann. i.p. 132. N" 193.
—Brun. 6_. N° 231.—Kramer, p. 361. 6.—/V»yr~. pi. 25.
La Grofle Grive, Brif. em. ii. p. 200. N° 1.
La Draine, Buf. of. iii. p. 295. pl. 19, f. 1 — Pl. enl. 489.
Turdus vifcivorus major, Rail Syn. p. 64. A. 1.
Tordo, Olin. uccel. pl. in p. 25.
MiflelBird, or Shrite, Will. orn. p. 187—J?r. Zw/. i. N« IOC—dlbin.i.
pl. 33~-Ar8. Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf
eld
inches
'"THIS,   the largeft of the Thrufh kind,
length, and weighs near five ounces. The bill is above an
inch long; the colour dufky brown, with the bafe of the lower
mandible and the gape yellow : irides hazel: the upper parts
of the head, neck, and body, are of a greyifh brown, with a.
tinge of rufous on the lower part of the back and rump : the fides
of the head and throat are yellowifh white, fpotted with brown -,
from thence to the vent the fame, but marked with larger
roundifh fpots of dufky black: the lower of the wing coverts
tipped with white; the reft brown only: quills grey brown with
pale edges : tail the fame; the three outer feathers tipped with
white : the legs are yellow: claws black.
The female differs merely in not being of fo bright a colour
as the male.
This is a well-known bird, and inhabits England the whole
year, though in fome other parts of Europe is obferved to be
migratory *, and perhaps confined to Europe alone : on the one
hand, we hear of it in Sweden, Denmark, and the weftern parts of
* About Carlifle in Cumberland it is m
and it is not quite clear that it remain
Heyfham.
the Throfll:;
Rujfia; T   H   R   U   S   H,
Rujfiai on the other, Italy.   Comes into Burgundy in October and
November, from the mountains of Lorraine \  returning to them,   \
in order to breed, in March and April.
It builds the neft*, with us, in bufhes, or low trees j making it
of mofs, lichen, leaves, &c. lined with fine withered grafs within j
ftrengthening it on the outfide with twigs. The eggs are four or
five in number, of a dirty fiefh-coloUr, marked with bloody-
coloured fpots.
This bird has a very agreeable fong j which it frequently be*'
gins with the entrance of the new year, fitting on the top of a tree,
_ from whence it may be heard a great way off, varying its note
without end; but in melody is much inferior to the Throflle.
It has been a vulgar notion, that the Mtffeltoe could not be
propagated, unlefs the feed had palled the digeftive organs of this
bird. It is indeed a common method that nature takes to propagate this plant, which the fuperftition of ancient times has held
fo facred; but by no means a neceffary one, as experience proves
it will equally fucceed without -f.
It alfo feeds on other berries, fuch as holly, ivy, hawthorn; as
well as caterpillars and other infects j with which laft it feeds its
young. — It is pretty good eating, though not fo much efteemed
as the lefTer fpecies.
In the LeverianMufeum are two varieties: one of a reddifh Varieti«».
cream-colour, paleft beneath, and the belly white, fpotted with
cream-colour j the other white, fpotted with brown on the under parts.
• Twice in a year.   Albin.
t See a paper on the propagation of the Miffeltot, by the Reverend B, Btiml,
Phil, Tranf. vol. xxxiv. p. 215.
Vol. II. D Turdui THRUSH.
2. Turdus muficus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 292. N°4.—Scop. ann. i. N° 196.—Muller*.
4- THROSTLE. N. HO__Bru„, z^.—Kramer, p. 361. 8.—Frifch. pl. z7.—01in. pl.
in p. 25.
La petite Grive, Brif. orn. ii. p. 205- N° 2.
La Grive, Buf. oif. iii. p. 280.—iV. *»/. 406 *.
Mavis, Throftle, or Song Thrulh, Rail Syn. p. 64. A, 2.—Will, orn. p. 188..
—Br. Zool. Ntf 107.—ArS. Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf
Description. 'T'HIS is nine inches in length, thirteen and a half in breadth^,
and weighs three ounces. It is much lefs in fize than the
MififelThrufh, but correfponds much with it in colour: it differs,
however, in the fhape of the fpots in the under parts of the body;
for, as in the Miffel Thrufh, they are of an irregular fhape, in
this bird they are formed fomewhat like the heads of arrows, with
the points upwards..
Place and This is a well-known and much-efteemed bird in England, on
account of its fweet fong, confifting of a great variety of notes,
which it begins early in the fpring, and continues near nine
months.—We often fee this pleafing fongfter perched on fome
tall tree, fweetly beguiling the footfteps of the liftening traveller.
It begins to breed very early in fpring, hatching the firft
brood, for the moft part, the beginning of April, and not unfre-
quently bringing two others in May and June. The neft is
placed in fome low bufh, and is compofed of earth, mofs, and
ftraw intermixed,, lining it within with clay; on which it lays
five or fix eggs, of a blueifh green, marked with a few fpots of
black.
• Called by miftake Litome.
This
Man THRUSH.
This is a folitary fpecies, never uniting, with us, into flocks*
like the Fieldfare and Redwing; yet in France is faid to be migratory *, coming into the province of Burgundy twice in a year;
the firft time, when the grapes are ripe, and doing great damage
to the vineyards f, and difappearing with the firft frofts : they
appear again in April, and moft of them depart in May, leaving
a very few behind, which are obferved to breed £. In Sweden \\
only feen in fummer.
It is met with in many parts of Ruffia, efpecially where junipers grow ; moft frequent about the river Kama: but not in
Sibiria_.
A bird of this kind is mentioned by Aldrovand**, which differed
only in having the top of the head white; and another by
Swenckfield -f-f-, with a whitifh creft, and the neck encompaflfed
with a ring of the fame colour.
Birds of this kind are fometimes feen wholly of a white,
though for the moft part that white has more or lefs of a mixture of brown $_;   which  is  the  cafe with one now in the
• It probably fliifts its quarters in winter, in the north of England and Scotland,
as Dr. Htyfham of Carlifle (to whom we owe many obfervations on the birds
which are in thofe parts) has never been able to meet with one during the winter feafon ; and feems inclined to think, that it either leaves that country in
winter, or retires to the moft thick and folitary woods. At the latter end of February it is found there plentiful. — Mr. Ekmarck obferves, that incredible
quantities of the Song and Mijel Thrujhes, and Fieldfares, are obferved to pafs
through Livonia, Courland, and Pruffia, for a fortnight after Michaelmas, making
their way as far as the Alps,   Amain Acad. vol. iv. p. 578.
4 Hence called Grive de Vigne.    Hifl. des oif.
X It is met with at Aleppo.    Rujell.
I Amcen. Acad. :
1. p. 45.
tt Av. Silef.  p. 362.
§ Mr. Pennant, ** Av. ii. p. 6or.
XX Hifl. des «y.--See Frifch, pl, 33.
D 2 Leverian THRUSH.
Leverian Mufeum: but I likewife obferve one there which is of a
pure white.
GUIANA THR ^a ^"vc <*e *a G-iane> ■&_/« °'fi *"• p« 289.—PL enl, 398. f. 1.
Description.    T  ENGTH feven inches.    Bill reddifh: upper parts of the
body greenifh brown: edges of the coverts and quills paler :
beneath  dufky yellowifh  white,   longitudinally ftreaked  with
dufky : legs reddifh brown : under part of the tail white.
Piace. Inhabits Guiana.
JAMAICA
THR.
Description.
rlZE of our Black-bird. Bill flout* brown: head brown:
chin and fore part of the neck white, dafhed with ftreaks of
brown; the lower part of the neck plain white: breaft cinereous ; from thence to the vent white ^ upper parts of the body
dark afh-colour : quills and tail dufky : legs brown.
In the Britifh Mufeum,- where it is called the JamtotcA Thrufa?
bears much affinity, to the laft.
4- LITTLE
THR.
Le-Kfeuvis de le G_rtilin_y Bkff'.orh. ii. p. :
Le Grivette d'Ametftfiie, Buf. oif. iii. p. 2
Little Thru*';. Catefb. Car. pl. 31.—Edw. 2
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
r_. No 4.
T   ENGTH near feven- inches. Bill pale brown, briftly at the
bafe: round the eye a lightifh- ring: head, and all the upper
furface of the body, reddifh brown, or clay-colour :   breaft yellowifh., THRUSH*
' lowilh, marked with dufky fpots: chin, belly, thighs, and under
tail-covert, white : legs cinereous.
This fpecies is common in Philadelphia throughout the fum-
mer. They build their nefts in the fwamps and thick woods.
They come in April, atid retire into Carolina in Autumn, where
they winter.
Motacilla aurocapilla, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 334. N° 29.
Le Figuier a tete d'or de Penfilvanie, Brif. orn. iii. p. 504. N° 57.
La Grivelette de St. Domingue, Buf. oif. v. p. 317.—Pl. enl. 398. f. z.
Golden-crowned Thrufh, Edw. pl. 252.—Aril. Zool.
Br. Muf.
(JIZE of a Hedge Sparrow: length five inches and three
quarters. Bill brown, with a few weak hairsW the bale, which
is flefh-colour : the crown of the head is golden yellow : over
the eyes a black ftreak, tending to the hind-head : the upper
parts of the plumage brownifh green: fides of the head, and
under parts, white, fpotted as far as the belly with black, the
reft plain: quills and tail deep olive : legs yellowifh brown..
One of thefe, in the poffeffion of Major Davies, has the top of
the head buff-yellow : the forehead black, divaricating into two
ftreaks on each fide of the crown: fides of the head pale, fpotted
on each fide of the chin in the fhape of whifkers: the under parts-
marked with triangular fpots, except the middle of the belly.
This fpecimen is fix inches in length, and feems a trifling
variety.
It inhabits Penfylvaniai and New Tork in fummer ; builds
on the ground; lays five white eggs, fpotted with brown, chiefly
eoi the fauth fide of a hill.
Description,. THRUSH.
4- REDWING.
Turdus iliacus, Lin
Syfl. i. p. 292
N°3
. — Scop
. N« 19
6,—Mu!ler,p.
239. y__ Georg
Reife, p. 174.
—Kra
mer, p.
361.9,
— Frifch
pl. 28
Olina, pl. in
p. 25.
Le Mauvis, Brif. orn
ii. p. 208. Nc
3-pl-
20. f.
.—Hifl
des of. i
ii. p. 3c
—Pl. enl._i.
Redwing, Swinepipe
or Wind Thrufli, R
aii Syn.
p. 64.
A. 4.-
Will. 0.
p. lSg.—Albii
. pl. 35— Br.
Zool.
N° 108
—Arclic Zool.
Br. Muf.
Lev
Mtf.
'"PHIS is lefs than the Fieldfare: is in length near eight inches,
and weighs two ounces and a quarter. The bill is blackifh,
but the under mandible whitifh at the bafe : irides deep hazle :
the colour of the plumage is not very unlike that of the Throflle -,
but differs in having a white ftreak over the eye, almoft to the
hind-head ; and the fides of the body and under the wings reddifh
- orange: the legs are pale grey : the claws brown.
Thefe birds appear in this kingdom along with the Fieldfare,
in vaft flocks; and are faid to precede that bird a few days in its
arrival. W^a ;-
In general manners it likewife coincides with the Fieldfare.
This fpecies is faid to perch on high trees in the Maple forefts
in Sweden, and to have a fine note in fpring. The neft is placed
in fome low fhrub or hedge; and the female lays fix blue-green
eggs, fpotted with black *. It pretty generally accompanies the
Fieldfare in all its migrations, and is found with it in breeding-
time, in the moft northern parts of the continent. THRUSH.
23
Aoonalaftika Thrufh, Aid. Zool. 8.
AOONALASH-
KA THR.
CIZE of a Lark.    Crown and back brown, marked with ob-    Description-.
,- fcure dufky fpots : breaft yellow, fpotted with black :   wing
coverts, prime quills, and tail, dufky, edged with teftaceous.
Inhabits Aoonalafhka..   In Sir Jof. Banks's collection..
La Grive Baffeterre de Barbarie, Buff. oif. iii. p. 313,
Green Thrufh, Shaw's Trav. p. 253.
BARBARYTHR.
C I ZE of the MiffelThrufh.   Head, neck, and back,.fine light    D,
green : wings like thofe of a Lark: breaft white, and fpotted
Kke that of a Thrufh : rump of an elegant yellow : tail tipped
with the fame. The legs, are ftronger and fhorter than thofe of a
Thrufh.
Shaw fays, that he met with this bird in Barbary-, but it is not
common. The only time that it is feen is. about the time of figs,
In the fummer months.
■ESCRIPTION,
Le Merle olivatre de Barbarie; Buf. oif. iir. p. 404*.
CIZE of the laft. The bill reddifh brown: the upper past
of the body olive yellow: leffer wing coverts the fame, tinged
with brown; the greater, and quills, black : the under parts of
the body dirty white : the wings reach to the middle of the tail,
which is even at the end ; the feathers blackifh, with yellow tips:
the legs are fhort and lead-coloured.
TRIPOLI
THR. H   R   U
H.
Tardus pilaris, Lin. Syfl, i. p. 291,   N° 2. ~- Faun. Suec. 215. — $c»p. «n. U
p. 133. N° 194 Brun. 65, 232. — Muller, p. 29. N° 238. — Georgi
Reife, p. 173.—Frifch. t. z6.—Kram.el. p. 361. N°7.
La Litorne, ou Tourdelle, Brif. orn. ii. p. 214.   N° $.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 301.
pl. 19. f. 2.—PL en. 490 «.
Fieldfare, or Feldefare, £„«' Syn. p. 64. A, $.—WilI. orn. p. 188. pl. 37.—
Br. Zool. N° 106.—Albin. i. pl. 36—_frA Zool.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH ten inches: breadth feventeen: weight four
ounces. The bill is yellowifh, with a black tip; at the
gape of the mouth a few black briftles: the crown of the head,
and hind part of the neck, are cinereous olive ; the firft fpotted
with black: the upper furface of the body, and wings, chefnut
brown: rump afh-colour: quills cinereous, with pale edges: the
fore part of the neck and breaft yellowifh, inclined to rufous, each
feather being more or lefs brown in the middle : the belly,
ihighSj and vent, dufky white : tail black-brown : legs blackifh.
The male and female much alike.
This bird is migratory, paffing the winter in England, to
which it comes at the beginning of October; fooner'or later, according to the approaching rigour of the feafon in the place of
its fummer retreat, which is the more northern parts, viz. Ruffia,
Sibiria, Kamtfchatka, Sweden, and Norway: fometimes come into
England in prodigious flocks, but in mikl'Wdnteis'few or none are
feen. They migrate into France and Italy likewife, but do not
arrive at the firft till the beginning ^Decimber f.     This and
take. t Hifl. des oif,
9 the THRUSH.
the Redwing fuppofed to be the Turdi * of the Roman hiftorians,
which are faid to have been kept in fattening aviaries by thou-
fands together, and efteemed a dainty.
Linnaus tells us, that it builds in high trees in Sweden -j-, and
frequents the places where junipers grow. During its ftay with us,
it eats hawthorn, holly, and other berries. The flefh is tolerably
good, though apt to be bitter. — This bird is by fome called the
Pigeon Fieldfare.    I know only of three varieties.
La Litorne tachetee, Brif. orn. ii. p. 218. B.
Pied Fieldfare, Albin. ii. pl. 36.
HP HIS has a white head and neck;   the firft fpotted with
black, the laft with lead-colour.    Throat and breaft rufous,
fpotted with black :   back brown :   rump cinereous:  the under
parts white, fpotted with black.
La Litorne a tete blaache, Brif.om.ii. p. 217. A. Var. 1
THHIS has the head and upper part of the neck white : the reft
as in common.
• Br. Zool.—The poets mention them in many places, viz. Hor. Ep. xv. 1. 41.
—Perf. Sat. vi. 1. 24.— Mart. Ep. 1. xiii.  ep. 92.
t Faun. Suec. — A neft has been found at Paddington, near London, — See
Harl. Mfcel. ii. 561.—Barring. Mifc. p. 221.
Vol. II. a-
■THRUSH.
Lev. Muf.
rP H E third variety has the head and neck white: the reft of
the body white, mixed with brown in patches.
This was fhot in Derbyfhire, and is in the Leverian Mufeum.
-f-RED-
BREASTED
tM.
Tardus migratorius, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 292. N° 6.
La Grive de Canada, Brif. orn, ii. p. 225. N° g.^Pl. enl. 556. lr
La Litorne de Canada, Buf. oif. iii. p. 307.
Fieldfare of Carolina, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 29.
Robin Redbreaft, Kalm. Trav. ii. p. .90.
Ameriean Fieldfare, Phil. Tranf. Ixii. p. _gg.—Ara. Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Miffel Thrufh: length nine inches: breadth
twelve. Bill brown, with the bafe yellow : eye-lids white : the
upper parts of the body olive-brown; the under rufous : the tips
of many of the feathers of the breaft and belly very pale, or
whitifh : the throat whin?, marked with narrow dafhes of black:
tail black, edged with olive brown : legs brown. Male and/r-
male much alike.
This is a native of America. It is found in New York, Virginia, and Carolina the whole year; migrates in the more northern parts in fpring, in May; returning fouthward on the firft approach of fro ft. Found as far as Hudfon's Bay *. Thefe build in
trees, and Jay'fOur beautiful light-blue eggs. When at large, are
faid to fingfinely; but do not bear confinement in a cage. Their
* One of thefe was lately brought from Noetka Sound,
food
\memmm THRUSH.
food chiefly worms and infects. Are alfo very fond of the feeds
of Sajfafras; as well as Tupelo and Poke berries *.
This is not a fhy bird, as it is feen frequently hopping on the
ground, quite clofe to the houfes.
At Hudfon's Bay it is known by the name of Reibird: the
Indian name is Pee-pee-chue.
-7
SPOTTED THR.
I" ENGTH ten inches. Bill black; bafe of the under mandible yellowifh, and befet with a few briftles : head almoft
black: from the back part of the eye to the h.ind-head a ferruginous ftreak : the upper parts of the body dufky afh-colour:
the wing coverts afh-colour; the leiTer ones plain ; all the others
marked with a ferruginous triangular fpot at the tip : the prime
quills dufky; each feather marked with two ferruginous fpots on
the outer web, one near the bafe, the other about the middle j
the fecond quills have one of thefe marks near the end, but
paler: the tail is dufky afh-colour: the under parts of the body
rufty orange, palelt near the vent: acrofs the breaft a band of
black: legs yellow.
The female is of a dufky afh-colour above: throat and chin
the fame, but paler, a little mixed with white : breaft of a dull
red, growing nearly white toward* the vent, and not croffed with
a band of black, as in the male.
This fpecies was found by our late voyagers at George's Sound,
and is in the pofleffion of Sir Jfif. Banks.
• Phytolacca decandra, Lin. — It is did frequently to eat fo many of thefe, «t
the end of the. year, that the flefh itfelf appears of a purplifh colour. THRUSH.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fix inches. Bill dufky; tip black: the upper
parts of the plumage are pale brown : between the bill and
eye black, which is continued in a ftreak a little way under the
eye; over the eye a pale ftreak : the chin and throat of a beautiful pink-colour; the reft of the under parts of a brownifh
white: tail the colour of the back, and a little cuneiform in
fhape : legs dufky : claws black.
Inhabits Kamtfchatka.
Tawny Thrufh, Aril. Zool.
C IZ E of the Redwing. Head, back, and wing coverts, tawny,
brighteft on the head: cheeks brown, fpotted with white:
throat, breaft, and belly, white, marked with large black fpots.:
rump, primaries, and tail, plain brown: ends of the tail feathers-
fharp-pointed : legs pale brown.
Brown Thrufh, ArS. ZooL
SIZE   of the Redwing.    Head, neck, back,   cheeks, wins;
coverts, and tail, olive brown; primaries dufky: breaft and
belly dirty white, marked with great brown fpots: legs dufky.
The two laft inhabit New York *'. THRUSH.
Grive ire, Fern, Surin. if. p. 187-.
CIZE of a Lark.   Plumage mixed, yellow and grey, except
down the ridge of the back, which has a yellowifh ftripe.
YELLOW-
BACKED THR.
Grive 2de, Perm, Surin, ii. p. 187.
rj I Z E of the laft.   The upper parts of the plumage brown,
the under whitifh; all intermixed with whitifh and black
feathers, chiefly towards the head and tail1.
Both the above are found at Surinam; but, as Fermin gives fo
fhort an account of them, it is fcarcely clear whether they ase
diftinct, or referable to any known fpecies. He obferves, that
both feed on. worms and infects, and are good to eat.
VARIEGATED
THR.
Description.
La Litorne de Cayenne, Buf. of. iii. p. 306.
Grive de Cayenne, PL enl. 515.
CIZE of a Song Thrufh : length eight inches. Bill dufky:
the upper parts of the plumage cinereous, with white margins : throat dufky : breaft and belly dirty white ; the middle of
the feathers dufky : the vent white : greater wing coverts and
quills black, with ferruginous edges; the greater quills plain
black : tail cinereous : legs dufky»-
Inhabits Cayenne.
CAYENNE
THR. PAGODA TffR.
Description.
THRUSH.
Le Martin Rsame, Son. Voy.Jnd. ii, p. 189,
TJ ATHER bigger than the Houfe Sparrow. Bill black,
with the endtfralfyellow: irides blue: the feathers of the
head are black, long,, and narrow, and form a creft j thofe of the
throat, neck, breaft, and belly, are of the fame fhape, and each
has a line of white down the fhaft: the back, wing coverts, and
rump, are grey: the quills and iail black: under tail coverts
white:  legs and claws yellow.
This inhabits the coafts of Malabar and Coromandel, where it
is trailed Martin Brame, as it chiefly is .met with about the towers
<of the Pagodas.
Le'Martin vieillard de la G6te de Malabar, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 195.
TJ N D E R eight inche_.in length. The bill is black, inclining
to yellow at the tip: the head and neck .feathers are long
.,and Barrow, of a cinerous grey, with a ftreak of white down the
fhaft: the back, rump,<wing coverts, and tail, are cinereous grey:
quills black: the breaft, belly, and under tail covetfts, rufous
brown: the legs yellow,
inhabits the coaft of Malabar.
Bill black; tip curved : upper parts
RUFOUS-
TAILED THR.
^Description.     J ENGTH feven inches.
of the bird olive brown, beneath pale purplifh white : quills
.and tail dufky; all but the -two middle.feathers rufous for two-
thirds T   Ef   R   XI   $   H. 3,
thirds of tfcelr length: the upper tail coverts are alfo rufous ;
legs black.
From the Cape of Good Hope.    In the collection of Sir Jofeph Place.
Banks.
RED-TAILED
;   THR.
T ENGTH feven. inches.   Bill dufky, with a very few hairs at Description.
the bafe i upper parts of the plumage dufky olive green :
crown- of the head dufky : throat and breaft rufous : over the
eyes a ftreak of white; through the eyes another of black: quills,
and two middle tail feathers, dufky reddifh brown; the reft of
the tail feathers rufous : legs black.
From the Cape of Good Hope. Place;'
dark -ti-tr
/^ENERAL colour of the plumage brown :-the breaft inclined Description. *
to black; over the eyes a ftreak of white : the chin and
vent are alfo white.
This is a Sibirian fpecies, and found in the woods beyond
Lake Baikal.-  Its call is like the cry of a Kefiril*
Plac:
Turdus ruficollis, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 694.
RED-NECKED
THR.
HPHE upper parts of the body, and two middle tail feathers, Description.
are brown : the reft of the tail and neck rufous : breaft and •
belly white.
Inhabits the Larch forefts beyond the Lake Baikal. Place.
Turdus Sibiricus, Pall. Trav. iii. p. 694. || BROWEd'tHR.
T ESS than the laft.   The mouth yellow: general  colour of Description.
the plumage black: a ftreak over the eyes, and under the
wings, white.
Inhabits PALE THR.
Description,
THRUSH.
Inhabits the woods of -the northern parts of Ruffia : fing
well: fond of the fruit black-berried Heath *.
'"PHE body of this bird is yellowifh afh-colour: the under
parts whitifh, inclining to yellow on the neck: the tail is
cinereous brown : the outer feathers white at the tips.
Inhabits Sibiria; fotind only beyond Lake Baikal f.
Turdus arundinaceus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 296. N° 25.
La Roufferolle, ou Roucherolle, Brif orn. ii. p. 219. N° 6.—Buf. oif. iii.
p. 293. pl. 18.—PL enl. 513.
Rohrvogel, Kram. El, p. 375. N° 8.*
Junco i»» Aldrov. Rail Syn. p. 113. A. jl—WilJ.om. p. 311.  pl. 58.
Junco, or greater Reed Sparrow, Rail Syn. p. 47. N° 2-—Will, orn. p. 143.
T? ATHER bigger than a Lark: length feven inches. The upper
mandible brown ; the lower whitifh : the plumage is rufous
brown above, and of a dirty white beneath : chin nearly white :
quills brown, edged with rufous brown: tail the colour of the
back : legs grey.
This is an European bird, frequenting marfhy places, efpecially
where reeds grow, and is obferved to run up them as Woodpeckers
on a tree ; but is not found in England, as far as has come to our
knowledge. Said to be "common in the fouthern parts of Ruffia,
and in Poland J, frequenting the fmall iflands of the Viftula,
• Empetrum nigrum, Lin. f Mr. Pennant.
X M. Sonnerat is alfo faid to have met with this very fpecies in the Philippine
Jfands.    Hifl. des oif.
2 making THRUSH. -
making its neft on the mofiy hillocks among the reeds and rufhes*,
and laying five or fix ,eggs. The male is perpetually finging
while the female is fitting: hence has been by fome called the
Water Nightingale.
Lev. Muf. VaV.'a.
CIZE of the Nightingale : length fix inches and a half.    Bill  Description
pale brown : upper parts of the body pale teftaceous brown;
the under dufky white : over the eye a ftreak of the fame: quills
dufky, edged the colour of the back: rump and tail rufous; all
but the two middle feathers have a bar of black near the end,
which is fartheft from the end on the outer feather; from the
bar to the tip, three of the outer feathers are white; the fourth
white on the inner web only; and next to that the white is wanting : the legs are pale brown.
•    This inhabits Gibraltar. Place.
Turdus plumbeus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 294. N° 12.
Le Merle cendre d'Amerique. Brif. orn. ii. p. 288. N° 40.— PL enl. 569. 1
Le Tilly, ou la Grive cendree d'Amerique, Buf. oif. iii. p. 314,
Red-legged Thrufh, Catefb. Car. i. pl. _o.—Arc7. Zool,
RED-LEGGED
THR.
CIZE of the Redwing: length ten inches: weight two ounces Description.
and a half. Bill, eyelids, and irides, red: palate orange:
head, and upper parts of the body, deep afh-colour: between the
bill and eye a black fpot: throat white, fpotted with black; from
thence all the under parts are afh-colour, growing almoft white
towards the vent: quills blackifh, edged with grey : tail cunei-
* Kramer fays, that it fufpends the neft between three reeds fattened together.
Vol. II. F form, form, ami blackifh; the four outer feathers on each fide
tipped with white : legs red.
That defcribed by Catefby had the "bill, and whole of the
throat, black; and the reft of the body dufky blue.
The female is fmaller than the male.
Found in feveral parts of North America, frequently feen in
Carolina, and are faid to be moft common in the iflands of
Andros and Ilathera^
CIZE of the Mififel Thrufh: length nine inches. Bill three
quarters of an inch; very flout for the genus, and notched
near the tip; the coLur blackifh; at the bafe a few briftles:
irides pearl-coloured : the upper parts of the plumage are rufous
brown : fides of the head, and all the under parts, dufky brown,
- verging to afh-colour about the neck; each feather marked down-
the fhaft with a very pale rufous ftreak as far as the breaft, and
from thence with a white one : the quills, and two middle tail
feathers, are darker than the back; the reft of the feathers like
thofe of the Redftart's tail, but duller: the tail is even at the
end, and the feathers rather pointed at the tips : the legs-
dufky.
The female is wholly of a pale reddifh brown, lighteft beneath*
where it is dafhecr with white like the male: acrofs the wing
coverts two rufous bars-
This fpecies was met with in New Zealand, both in Dufky
Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound. Sir Jofeph Banks's drawings
inform me that it is known there by the name of Gold beoo.
9, SIZE ^u^^u.^u. RL*_M-i THRUSH.
CIZE of the Song Thrufh: length eight inches and a half.  Description.
Bill an inch and a quarter, notched at the tip, and of a reddifh
pearl-colour: general colour of the plumage rufous brown - quills
edged with dufky: tail rounded in fhape and dufky : legs dufky
black.
Inhabits Ulietea.    In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks. Place.
Turdus canorus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 293. N° 8-
Le Merle de Bengale, Brif orn. ii. p. 260. N6 z_.
Le Baniahbou de Bengale, Buf. oif. iii. p. 379.—Albin
Brown Indian Thrufh, Edw. pl. 184.
Crying Thrufh, Of. Voy. ii. p. 121.
CRYING THR.
• pi- IN
CIZE of a Blackbird : length nine inches and a half.    Bill and D
irides yellow: the upper parts of the body are brown; the
under the fame, but paler, almoft grey: quills and tail dufky
brown; the edges of the firft pale : the eyes are furrounded with
a narrow white line, extending a little way down on each fide:
legs reddifh.
The female is ferruginous, except three of the qui Hand
three of the tail feathers, which are in great part white.
This is common at Bengal and China, where it is known by
the name of Wa-mew. It is faid to fing very loud; and, on
account of its ftrong voice, may not unaptly be called the Crying
Thrufh.
The food is rice, moths, flies, flefh, Sec.
It is common at Canton, and there fold for apiaflre apiece *.
I Ofbeck.
F 2 I am
ESCRIPTION.
Place and
Manners. 36 THRUSH.
I am fatisfied that this bird is no more th*n our white-wreathed
Shrike, vol. i. p. 178 ; the more fo, fince Linnaus has quoted
the fame place in the Amcen. Acad, for both birds *.
Turdus Chinenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 295. N* 20.
Le Grive de ia Chine, Brif orn. ii. p. 221. N° 7. pl. 23. f. 1.
L'Hoamy de la Chine, Buf. oiflm. p, 316.
T ESS than a Redwing, but not unlike it: length eight inches
and three quarters. Bill one inch ; yellowifh : plumage above
rufous brown ; beneath the fame, but pale : the head and neck
are longitudinally ftriped with brOwn, each feather being fo in
the middle : above each eye a flender white line: tail brown,
tranfverfely crofTed with deeper brown bars, which are moft
vifible beneath : legs yellow, and pretty long. This was a
female*
In fome fine drawings from China, I faw a pair of thefe delineated : the female anfwered pretty nearly as above. The male
was rufous brown above, and rufous yellow beneath; middle of
the belly afh-colour : the ftreak over the eye more confpicuous,
and paffing farther behind : the tail rounded in fhape, and crofTed
with fix narrow bars of black.
This fpecies inhabits China, where it is called Hoamy.
* Some fine Chinefe drawings have lately come under my infpeftion, ia
which was this bird : it feemed clearly to be a Thrufh, and not a Shrike ; and
will in courfe render the whole which has been faid before under that head un-
necefl'ary.
LENGTH THRUSH.
37
CRESCENT
THR.
T ENGTH eleven inches.    Bill lead-coloured, pale at the tip: Description,
upper parts of the body reddifh brown : over the eye a white
line: lore and chin white: cheeks black, paffing in a crefcent
on the fore part of the neck : on the middle of the black part
behind the eye a patch of loofe white feathers : the hind part of
the neck, and the breaft, reddifh : belly reddifh white : vent plain
white: tail long, rounded at the end; near the ends black, the
tips white : the legs are lead-coloured : claws white.
Inhabits China. Place.
NEW HOLLAND THR.
TENGTH feven inches.    Bill ftrait, black : all the fore part Description..
of the head, taking in the eye, the chin,, and throat, are
black; the reft of the plumage of a pale blueifh lead-colour:
the quills and tail are dufky, edged with the general colour: all
the feathers of the laft, except the two middle ones, tipped with
white: legs black.
Found in Adventure Bay, Van Diemen's Land.   In the collection Pla.ce-
of Sir Jofeph Banks.
LACK-FACED
THR.
CIZE of a Blackbird.    Bill dufky; at the bafe of the upper Descru
mandible a fet of erect hairs, and a few ftraggling ones at
the gape : the head, lower part of the neck, breaft, and belly,
grey : back and wings greenifh brown : round the eyes, the chin,
and throat, black : on the ear a large fpot of white: legs brown :
fome fpecimens have the forehead likewife black.
This This inhabits China, where it is common in the woods, and
lives moftly on infects.    It is known there by the name of
La petite Grive des Philippines, Buf. oif. iii. p. 316.
Lev.  Muf.
CIZE of the laft.    Upper parts of the body olive brown:
neck and breaft rufous, fpotted with white: the belly and
vent yellowifh white.
Brought from the Philippine Ifles by M. Sonnerat.
Le Merle huppe de
T ENGTH eight inches.
and neck black : the feathers on the crown are Ion;
Voy. Ind. ii. p.  194.
Bill pale rufous : irides red : head
narrow,
and black, and fall on the neck: the breaft, belly, and under
tail  coverts, dirty grey : the  back  and rump  amber-colour: .
coverts deep changeable green ,• the fecondaries the fame;
the two next to the body dirty grey; and the greater quills
and tail black :  legs black.
Inhabits Sural.
T ENGTH five inches and a half. Bill dufky : upper parts of
the plumage afh-colour: fides of the head, under the eye,
and all the under parts, brownifh white: the fides of the neck
and breaft moft inclined to brown : between the bill and eye a
dufky ftreak: tail black; the tips of all the feathers white :
legs dufky.
From the Friendly Ifles. In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
LENGTH THRUSH. 39
40.
SANDWICH
THR.
T ENGTH five inches and a half.    Bill dufky :  the upper D.umitiok.
parts of the plumage pale brown: forehead and under parts
cinereous white : belly and lower part of the thighs pale brown:
tail even at the end : legs dufky.
Inhabits  Sandwich  Iflands.    In the collection of Sir Jofeph Place,
Banks.
Turdus rufks, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 293. N° 9. +- FERRUGI-
La Grive de la Caroline, Brif orn. ii. p. 223. N° 8. NOUS THR.
Le Moqueur Francois, Buf. oif. iii. p. 323.—PL enl. 64.5.
Fox-coloured Thrufh, Catefb. Car. i. pl. zS.—ArcJ. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
CIZE of a Fieldfare:   length eleven  inches.   Bill blackifh: Description..
irides yellow : the head and upper parts of the body are rufous j the under parts dirty white, marked with brown fpots :
the fecond and greater coverts tipped with white, making a
double white bar on each wing: quills brown, with rufous margins : tail wholly rufous, rounded, and above four inches long:
legs brovin.
This is found in various parts of America: in Virginia and Place;
Carolina it remains the whole year.
It feeds chiefly on the Bird Cherry, and has a great variety of
notes, but does not fing near fo fweetly as the next fpecies.
It is called in Virginia the French Mocking Bird. It is obferved to make a kind of hiffing noife on the approach of any
one. THRUSH.
MIMIC THR, Turdus polyglottus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 293. N° 10.
Le grand Moqueur, Brif. orn. ii. p. 266. N° 29.—Buf. of. iii.  p. 325.—
PL enl. 558. f. 1.
Singing Bird, Mocking Bird, or Nightingale, Raii Syn. p. 64. Na 5. p- 1*5.
31.—Sloan. Jam. ii. 306. N° 34.
The Mock Bird, Cateflb. Car. i. pl. 27.— Kalm. Trav. i. p. 217. ii.  p, 90.
pl. 3.—ArS. Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf
Description.       OIZE of a Blackbird, but more flender : length nine inches
and a half.    Bill black : irides dirty yellow : the plumage of
an uniform grey, but much paleft on the under parts : tail four
inches long : legs grey.—The female is like the male.
Place and This is common throughout America and Jamaica ; but changes
anner*. |ts p]ace jn tne fummer, being feen much more to the northward
than in winter. It is frequent in moift woods. The eggs are
of a pearl-colour, fpotted with brown. It builds both in bufhes
and trees : often makes the neft near plantations, in the fruit-
trees * ; but is as fhy as the Redftart in England; for if any one
look at the eggs, the bird will forfake the neft. The young may
be brought up, but it is with great difficulty, not one time in
ten fucceeding. If the young are taken in the neft, tne mother
will feed them for a few days, but is fure to defert them afterwards.
The food chiefly confifts of berries of feveral kinds, mulberries,
and infects; and the flefh is accounted very palatable.
This bird is faid to be the moft excellent fongfter in the world,
.the Nightingale of Europe not excepted; and like that frequently
\ Often in the ebony-tret,    Shane.
fine
mm*. T   H   R   U   S   H.
fings the greateft part of the night, perched on the fummit of
fome tall tree, or chimney top. Its natural note is truly fine,
and varied without end; but befides this, it has the faculty of
imitating the notes of others, which it even exceeds in melody.
Turdus orpheus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 293. N° 11.
Le Moqueur, Brif. orn. ii. p. 262. N° 27.— Buf. of. iii. p. 325.
Cencontlatolli, Rail Syn. p. 159.
Polyglott Bird, Will. om. p.  294.
LefTer Mocking Bird, Edw. pl. 78.—Brown. Jam. p. 469.
gOMEWHAT lefs than the laft: length eight inches and a D
half. Bill blackifh brown; the bafe befet with briftles:
through the eyes paffes a kind of wreath, from the gape to
the hind head, and over the eyes is a pale line : the upper part
of the body is brownifh afh-colour; the under very pale, nearly
white: tail a little cuneiform in fhape; of a dufky brown colour,
except the outer feathers, which are wholly white, and the fecond
white on the outer web: legs black.
This is a native of the warmer parts of America, Jamaica, Sec.
Like the laft, it has a fbng infinitely varied, and imitates likewife
that of all other birds.
MOCKING.
THR.
ESCRIPTION.
Le Moqueur varie, Brif om.
Tzaupan, Rail Syn. p. 160,
ii, p. 264.
-Will ern.
'J *HIS differs merely   in being variegated with black   and Description.
whitifh above; and having a mixture of black and cinereous, • fpotted with white, beneath.
.  Said to be found in New Spain. Place.
Vol. II. G Turdus THRUSH.
^- ST. DOMIN-      Turdus Dominicas, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 295. N°
GO THR. Le Merle de St. Domingue, Brif. 0
Buf. oif iii. p. 325.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
. p. 284. N° 38. pl. 27. f. 1.—
"CIZ E of the Redwing: length eight inches and three quarters.
Bill blackifh : upper parts grey brown; under white: the
greater wing coverts are blackifh, with the outer edges white j.
the outer ones white, with a blackifh dafh near the tip of
each r the quills half white, half dufky, with cinereous edges:
the tail pretty long ; the fix middle feathers blackifh; the others
white, except the outer edge of the third, which, is blackifh : the
legs are of this laft colour.
Inhabits St. Domingo and Jamaica.    I have received them from
the laft place-
45.
YELLOW-BEL*
LIED THR.
CIZE of the laft. Bill not much curved, except juft at the
end, where there is a fmall notch; colour black: the upper
parts of the plumage are black : the lower part of the back and
rump ferruginous : the under parts of the body of a pale rufty
yellow, paleft on the chin and fore part of the neck : the fides-
of the body crofTed with tranfverfe blackifh lines : acrofs the
middle of the wing a bar of white: tail flightly cuneiform in
fhape; the outer tail feather white; the fecond and third white
at the ends for an inch; the others juft fringed at the tip with the
fame : legs brown.
Said to come from Brafil.
Turdus m. u  N'
! t97.—
46.
4- BLACKBIRD.
330. pl. :
EO.—Pl,
—Albin. i
J PL 37.
THRUSH.
Turdus merula, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 295. N* zz.—Seop,
Muller, N° 29. N° 241.
Le Merle, Brif. orn.  ii. p. 227. N° 10.—Buf. oif. in. \
nl. ii.   555.
Schwartze amfel. Frifch. t. 29.—Kram. el. p. 360. 3.
Merla, Olin. uccel. p. 29.
The Blackbird, Rait Syn. p. 65. A. i.—Will. em. p. 191
—Br. Zool. i. N° 109. pl. 47.—ArS. Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.      j,^^,
'"THIS is awell-known bird: its length above ten inches. ]
The bill, infide of the mouth, and eye-lids, in the male, of
a fine orange yellow : the plumage univerfally black : the legs
black brown.
The female is moftly brown, inclining to rufous beneath, particularly on the breaft and belly. The bill is dufky black : and
the legs brown.
Young males, for the firft year, much refemble the females ;
not becomihg of a full black, nor gaining the yellow bill, till the
fecond year.
This fpecies feems pretty general throughout the temperate
parts of Europe, moft authors mentioning it. It is not common
in Ruffia, except in the weflern provinces; and in refpect to fome
parts of that empire is migratory, as it is feldom obferved at
Woronejch, on the river Don, till paft the middle of April *; and
as to Sibiria, it has never yet been found there f. ' It is faid
alfo to be frequent at Aleppo; but in any other part of Afia _{;, or
in Africa, I do not recollect to have heard of it.
43
* Deco,
XI
v. Ruff. i. p, 102. f Mr. Pennant.
indeed feen one very like it in fome Chinefe drawings, but the legs-
id the under parts of the plumage dufky : it
robablv a varietv of N° zn.
This
„ red, as well as the bi„, _.,_ i.,v.  .u... yai^ u. __,* j,.-,..,,
about the fame fize and fhape.   Probably a variety of N° 27. 46.
THRUSH.
This fpecies is not gregarious, preferring a folitary life; and
is a timorous, reftlefs bird: it frequents hedges, and is often feen
in gardens, and near habitations, in fummer-time; but in winter
takes fhelter in deep woods.
It builds generally in fome thicket, frequently in the hawthorn,
making the neft of ftraw, ntofs, and dried grafs, lining the infide
with clay, on /which is a layer of fine hay, dec. The eggs are of a
blueifh green, marked with dark fpots, and four or five in number.
The young birds are eafily brought up tame. The natural note
of this bird is very agreeable, but fo loud that it is only fufferable
at a diftance : it begins its fong very early in fpring, and continues
it great part of fummer: befides this, when tame it may be
taught to whiftle tunes, as well as to imitate the human voice.
In fome counties of England this bird is called the Ouzel.
Le Merle a tete blanche, Brif. om, ii. p. 230. A.
HEADED BL.    ^pHE Bill, legs, and irides, yellow : head white : the plumage-
black, except part of the wings, and behind the eyes fome
markings of white.
46.
"Vm. b.
PIED BL.
V
Le Merle varie, Brif em. ii. p. 231.
Pied Blackbird, Albin. ii. pl. 37.
Lev. Muf.
ARIEGATED with white and black.
46.    •
Var. C.
WHITE BL.
Le Merle blanc, Brif. em. ii. p. 232. C
Lev. Muf.
tX^HOLLY white.   Bill and legs yellowif THRUSH.
45
Le Merle de la Jamaique, Brif orn. ii. p. 277. N° 34.
. brun^de la Jamaique, Buf. oif iii. p. 391.
Le Merle, Fermin. Surin. ii. p. 182.
47-
*- WHITE-
CHINNED
THR,
The Thrufh, Sloan. Jam. p. 305. t. 256, f. 2.—Rail Syn. p. 185. N« 30,
Br. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird.   Bill orange, with a line of black near
the  end:   plumage   blackifh brown,   paleft beneath:   chin
Description.
and belly whitifh : legs orange.    Some fpecimens have a fpot of
white on the fecondaries.
Inhabits Jamaica, where it frequents the woody mountains,
and is thought to be good food.    The fat is orange-coloured.
A  Variety of this, wanting the white chin, was met with at
New Caledonia, in the South Seas.
JJP
TfERMIN alfo mentions a bird of Surinam *, which feems a
further variety.    The  bill and  legs both orange, and the
47-
Var. B.
colour of the male black.    The bill of the female dufky.
This is common.   Feeds on fruits and infects ; and makes the
neft of mofs, fmall twigs, and roots, firmly united together.
Le Merle d'Amerique, Brif. orn. ii. p. 308. N° 51.
47-
Var. C.
ClZE of a Blackbird.    Bill and legs yellow: plumage of a
fhining violet; black above,, and- dull beneath : quills rufous
Description.
at the tips.    The female grey.
* Defer, Surin. vol. ii. p. 182.
7                                                                                 This
''''''jlSSf' 4«
LABRADOR
THR.
Description.
49.
.(-RING
OUZEL.
THRUSH.
This is faid to inhabit Atnerica *
of the others.
and is probably a variety
[E NGTH eight inches and a half. Bill ftrait, a very little
notch at the tip; one inch long, and black : general colour
of the plumage a gloffy fhining black, with a variable blue
and green tinge: tail three inches three quarters in length : legs
black : hind toe long, and the claw very ftout.
From Labrador.   In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks.
Turdus torquatus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 296. N° 23.—Faun. Suec. 221.— Scop, ann.i.
p. ig8.—Muller N° 242.—_?>•»». N° 237.—Kram. p. 360, N° 4.—
Frifch. t. 30,
Le Merle a Collier, Brif. orn. ii. p. 235. N° 12.
-" a plaftron blanc, Buf. oif, iii. p. 340. pl. 31.—PL enl. 516.
Merulas congener, Rail Syn. p. 67. N° 12.—Will. om. p. 195.
Ring Ouzel, or Amfel, Rail Syn. p. 65. A. z.—Will.  om. p.  194.—Albin. i. pl. 3g.—Br, Zool. i. N° no. pl. ifi.—Are?, Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
T N fize this rather exceeds a Blackbird : length eleven inches.
Bill blackifh : infide of the mouth yellow: irides hazel. At a
diftance this bird appears of a dull black, but on infpection each
feather is found to be margined with grey or afh-colour: on the
breaft is a large patch of white, paffing a little backwards like a
collar: the legs are brown.
The female differs in having the white crefcent on the breaft
much lefs confpicuous, and in fome birds quite wanting; which
* Probably the warmer parts of it; as it was firft defcribed by Feuillee, whole
obfervations were confined to South America and the Weft Indies. See Feuill.
Obf Journ. p. 125. ed. 1725.
2 has THRUSH.
has occafioned authors to confider it as a different fpecies, under
the name of Rock Ouzel *.
This is not only a Britifh bird, but is likewife met with in
many parts of the old continent, both in the warmer as well as
colder regions -f-; alfo in Africa J and Afia §. It is however in
all thefe places noticed as migratory. They come into Burgundy
in France, the beginning of October, in fmall flocks, flaying only
two or three weeks; and are feen again in April or May: probably
only paffing and returning to other parts. This circumftance is
likewife obferved to happen in Hampfhire in this kingdom, at the
moft not flaying more than a fortnight at a time. They are
known to breed both in Wales, Cumberland, and Scotland; as
■alfo in Dartmoor in Devon/hire, where Mr. Pennant has obferved
them, and fays that they build on the fides of ftreams, in the
J_mnks, and that they are;_eery clamorous when difturbed.
•Others inform,us, that they make the neft on the ground, at
the foot of fome low bufhj and that it is formed like that of the
common Blackbird, and the eggs of the fame colour, and five
in number. Now and then one is met with in the more fouthern
parts. Such an ill-fated ftraggler was fhot near Dartford, about
four years fince, and is now in my collection.
The food of this bird.confifts of infects, berries, &c.; and when:
fat its flefh is in much eftimation.
Of this bird varieties have been noticed; fome quite white,
and others fpotted with white: as well as a third, which is
bigger than the common one, fpotted with white, and without
* Willitghby, p. 195. i
t Not in Ruffla nor Sibiria.   Pennant.
% Adanfon.
About the borders of the Cafpian Sea, wiring in Perflai,
the
47
Place and
Manners. ■48
THRUSH.
the crefcent on the breaft. This laft is faid to come into Lor-
rain at the end of autumn, remarkably fat. It feeds on Snails,
and is very adroit in breaking the fhells on a ftone, to get at the
contents; but in want of Snails feeds on ivy-berries. It is accounted good food *.
WATER-
OUZEL.
Sturnus cinclus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 290. N° 5.—Faun. Suec. N° 214.— Bmn.
N° 230.—Muller. p. 29. N° 236.
Motacilla cinclus, Scop. ann. i. N° 223.—Kram. el. p. 374. 3.
Le Merle d'Eau, Brif. om. v. p. 252. lg.— Buf. oif. viii. p. 134.pl. 11.—
Pl. enl. 940.
Water Ouzel, or Water Crake, Raii Syn. p. 66. A. 7.—Will, orn, p. 149.
pl. 24.—Albin, ii. pl. 39.—.Br. Zool. i. N° in Ar8. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
noN. ^PHI S is fomewhat lefs than a Blackbird : length feven inches
and a half. The bill is ten lines long, ftrait, or rather
bending upwards, and curved downwards at the tip; colour
black: the irides are hazel : eyelids white: the upper parts of
the head and neck deep brown ; the reft of the upper parts, the
belly, vent, and tail, are black; but the feathers of the back and
wings have brownifh edges: the chin, fore part of the neck, and
breaft, are pure white ; and between that and the black on the
belly the colour is rufous brown : the legs are black.
In young birds the belly is white.
D This fpecies is folitary, and is found in various parts of Eng
land, but chiefly fuch as are full of rivulets, and efpecially where
they are fituated between rocks; this bird frequenting fuch
places for the fake of its food, living chiefly on infects and
fmall .fifh, which it fearches for in a fingular manner, by not only
* Hifl. des of. ii
■ P- 347-
diving  I
W^^AuUtM™^. THRUSH.
diving under water for them, but flying and running after
them at the bottom in the fame manner as on land : how this is
effected we are not told, but the fact is averred for true *. It
makes its neft on the ground, on the banks, of hay and dried
fibres, lining it with dry oak-leaves, having a portico, or grand
entrance, of green mofs -f. The eggs are five in number, white,
tinged with a fine blufh of red. It is met with in many parts of
Europe, even the more northern %, as the cold alone will not
make it defert its ufual haunts; nothing lefs than the ftreams
being frozen up.
Lev. Muf.
T ESS than a Blackbird : length eight inches. Bill one inch long,
and of a lead-colour : plumage in general black : rump and
tail white, except the ends of the two middle feathers, which are
black for an inch and a half, and of all the others for about
half an inch : the thighs are alfo white: legs and claws yellowifh.
Inhabits Gibraltar.
WHITE-
TAILED THR.
P_. XXXVIII.
* Hifl. des oif.—Decouv. Ruff vol. i. p. ;
author mentions, that one of them had be
line and hook, which had been baited to
t Br. Zool.
X Met with at Kamtfchatka.    Ellis's Nat
07, 314.— Kramer, Sec. This laft
:n caught under water by means of a
atch fifh.
-. vol. ii. p. 43. 4- ROSE-COLOURED THR.
THRUSH.
Turdus rofeus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 294. N° 15.—Faun. Suec zig.—Nov.. Contt-
Ac.Petrop. xv. p. 478. t. 23. f. 1.
Sturnus rofeus, Scop. ann. i. p. 130. N° [91.
Turdus Seleu-cis, Faun. Arab. p. vi. a.—p. 5. N° 16.
Le Merle couleur deRofe. Brif. orn, ii. p. 250, N" zo.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 348..
pl. 22.—PL enl. 251.
Merula Rofea, Rail Syn. p, 67. 9.
Rofe or  carnation-coloured Ouzel,   Will.  orn.  p.   ig^.—Edw. pl.   20.—
Br. Zool. App. N° 5. pl. $.—Ara. Zool.
Lev.  Muf.
CIZE of a Starling: length near eight inches. Bill three
quarters of an inch, a little bent, of a flefh-colour,, with- the'
bafe blackifh:. irides pale: the feathers of the head are long,:
and form a creft: the head, neck, wings,, and tail, are black,,
with glories of blue,, purple,' and green, in different lights:
back, rump, breaft, belly, and leffer wing coverts,, pale rofe-
colour, with a few irregular dark fpots : legs pale red: claws
crooked, and brown.
The female differs merely in being paler. We have reafon to*
think that the teints of thefe birds differ much, as Ruffell * calls
our Rofe a flefh-colour, while the name given it in the Peterfburgh'
Tranf. \sfanguineous.
This bird is met with in. feveral parts of Europe, and in Afia.
It comes in great numbers about Aleppo, in July and Augufi, m
purfuit of the fwarms of locufis \ ;. whence it is held'facred by
the Turks, as great quantities are deflroyed by this means : it is
alfo feen in vaft flocks, every year, in the fouth of Ruffia, about
the river Don, and in Sibiria, about the Irtifch ; finding abundance
of locufls for food;, and convenience for breeding between th'e
rocks :   it  is  alfo common on the borders of the Cafpian Sea,
» Hifl, of Aleppo, p. 70.
t Hence called the Locufl Bird.   Ruf THRUSH.
about Aftrachan, and from thence all along the Volga *. We
hear of it in Switzerland and Lapland f, but is faid never to exceed the bounds of the latter.
It is a fcarce bird in refpect to England, one being only now and
then met with. Edwards mentions two inftances ; to which we
•can add one, that was fhot at Grantham, in Lincoln/hire, now in
poffeffion of Sir Jofeph Banks; as alfo the afTurance of one or
more being fhot almoft every feafon about Ormfkirk in Lancafhire.
It is more fretfuent in France, as it is often met with in Burgundy, in its paffage to other parts; and is mentioned as common
to Italy by AldroVandus J>
Turdus cyanus, Lin. Syfl,
Le Merle bleu,  Buf. oif.
Le Merle folitaire femefle dTtali(
Cyanos, feu Caerulea avis Betlonii.
Indian Mock-bird, id. p.
N62;
355- P1-2
(female).
Rail Syn. p. 66. N° 5.—-J
N° 6r
p. 282. N° 37.
Solitary Sparrow, Edw. pl. 18. (male).
Lev. Muf.
HP H I S is fomewhat lefs than a Blackbird : length eight
inches. Bill fourteen lines, hooked at the tip; colour of it
blackifh : the infide of the mouth and eye-lids orange : the irides
dull hazel: the plumage of a cinereous blue, but each feather is
marked near the end with a brown band, and the very tip white :
the quills and tail are dufky, edged with cinereous blue : the legs
dufky.
The female is likewife blue, but much inclined to afh-colour,
and beneath tranfverfely waved with this laft colour and
black.
* See Decouv. Ruff. vol. i.  157—ii. 146. &c.
t Linnatu.   See alfo Ameen, Acad, vol. iv. N° 594. % Hifl, des oif
H 2 This SOLITARY
THR.
P-SCRIPTION.
THRUSH.
This bird is found in the ifle of Candia, Dalmatia, and parts
between, moft of the Archipelagic ifles *, and perhaps thofe of the
Mediterranean, fince Edwards mentions its being found at Gibraltar % from whence alfo I have one now in my colledion.
Le Solitaire, Brif. om. ii. p. 268. N" 30.
Le Merle Solitaire, Buf. oif. iii. p. 358.
Paffera Solitaria, Olin. uccel. p. 14.
"Pafler Solitarius, Rati Syn. p. 66. 4.
Solitary Sparrow, Will. orn. p. 191. t. 36. 37™
Lev. Muf.
T E S S than a Blackbird : length eight or nine inches. Bill
brown, and bent at the tip : infide of the mouth yellow:
irides orange: the general colour of the plumage brown, marked
with fmall whitifh fpots: the fides of the head, throat, neck,
breaft, and upper wing coverts, have a tinge of blue : rump, and
under tail coverts, plain brown, as are the quills : the tail blackifh : legs brown.
The female is brown, without the leaft tinge of blue; and the
fpots, which are moft numerous on the breaft, are of a dirty yel-.
lowifh colour : quills and tail brown.
This is frequent in France, Italy, the ifles of the Mediterranean and Archipelago, and other parts ; where it is not only
efteemed for its fong, but held in veneration by moft people, fo
as to think it almoft facrilege to take the neft, or kill the
bird.
It frequents  mountainous  and rocky places, and  is always
* Kolben mentions a blue bird at the Cape of Good Hope, which is of the fize of
a Starling; but the bill, according to him, is between three and four inches in
length. I fhould therefore hefitate to pronounce this our Blue Thrufh; feem-
ing more allied to our Black-capped King-Fijher, i. p. 624, — See Hft. Cap..
ii. p. 152.
feen.
nywi THRUSH.
feen alone, except in breeding - time, when it frequently is
known to make the neft in old ruined edifices, church-
towers, and fuch - like places, (but not two pair near each
other) laying five or fix eggs. The young are eafily brought
up, and, befides that fweet fong which nature has furnifhed them
with, and for which they are fo much efteemed, may be taught
to whiftle, and articulate words. They are faid not only to fing
in the day, when kept in a cage, but alfo by candle-light, and to
live in this ftate eight or ten years.
The food confifts of infects, grapes, and other fruits.
It is not ftrictly a bird of paffage; but is obferved to change
place in different feafons ; coming into thefe parts where it is.
ufed to build, in April, and retiring in Augufl.
Le Solitaire deManille, Brif. orn. ii. p. 270. N° 31. pl. 33. f. 2.
Le Merle Solitaire de Manille, Buf. oif. iii. p. 363.—Pl. enl. 636. (the male).
—564. 2. (the female).
CIZE of the Rock Shrike : length eight inches. Bill one
inch; colour of it brown : the head, fore part of the neck,
and the back, are cinereous blue : the rump blue : fpotted with
yellow on the throat, fore part of the neck, and upper part of the
breaft : wing coverts fpotted with the fame, but not fo thick, and
mixed likewife with other white fpots: the under parts of the
body are orange, marked with blue and white curved fpots : the
quills and tail are blackifh, the laft margined with rufous : the
legs are blackifh.
The female is a plain bird, if compared with the male; has
neither blue nor orange about her, being wholly of a brownifh
colour, with fpots of deeper brown on the head, neck, and under
parts, which are paler than thofe above.
This was brought from Manilla, by M. Sonnerat.
Le
PENSIVE
THR. 5*
THRUSH.
.    56.
HERMIT '
Le Solitaire des Philippines, Brif orn
iii. p. 364.—Pl. enl. 339.
. p. 272. N°3. pl. 28.
-Buf oif.
t ENGTH feven inches and a half. Bill one inch, brown,
with a whitifh bafe : round the eyes whitifh : the crown of
the head is yellowifh olive : hind-head, upper parts of the neck,
and back, brown; each feather having a dufky band, near the
tip, which is whitifh : the fides of the head, and under parts of the
body, have each feather of a rufous white margined with brown,
and a dirty rufous white tip : the leffer wing coverts and rump
are cinereous : quills and tail brown, bordered with grey : legs
brown.
Inhabits the Philippine Ifles, and feems to have much affinity to
the laft.
'Merula fafcatilis, Rail Syn. p. 68. N° 3.
Greater Redftart, Will. orn. p. 197. pl. 36.
CIZE of a Thrufh. Bill pale brown, like that of a Thrufh,
and rather bent at the tip : the Upper parts of the plumage deep brown; moft of the feathers edged with cinereous
white : rump ferruginous, edged with the fame: the chin white :
throat as the upper parts, but much paler: the fore part of
the neck, and all the under parts, dirty orange-colour, waved
with brown and white : the two middle tail feathers brown, edged
with dirty orange; the others wholly of this laft colour: iegs.
dufky *.
■* Lmuch fufpect. it to'be a variety of the Rock Shrike, vol. i. p. 176, if not
the fame bird ; and if fo, it is clearly a Thrufh, and not a Shrike. It differs,
however, from that in the Pl. enl. as the bird there figured has the lower .part
>of the back and rump white.
3 The THRUSH.
The above defcription was taken from a well-done drawing
belonging to Mr. Pennant; who, I think, mentioned the bird to
have come from Gibraltar, and that it prefers rocky and mountainous fituations, being found in fuch places about the Altaic
Chain, and beyond the Lake Baikal frequent. It is a fhy bird,
and in courfe difficult to be fhot.
Willughby talks of it being met with at Florence, and fays it
learns to fpeak articulately, like the Stare.
Turdus morio, Lin. Syfl: i. p. 297. N° 26.
Le Merle du Cap de B. E, Brif. om. ii. p. 309. N° 52. pi. z%\ £ 2.—-PL
Loja,
■duCapd
Buf. oif. i
166.
AFRICAN THR.
CIZE of a Blackbird : length eleven inches. Bill ftrong and
black : the general colour of the plumage is a greenifh gloffy
black, except the greater quills, which are rufous; the three firft
of thefe have brown, and the others black tips : the legs are
trrown.
This is found at the Cape of Good Hope..
Le Podobe du Senegal, Bnf. of. iii, p. 368.—Pl.enl.__4,. -
CIZE of a Blackbird : length ten inches.    Bill brown : general colour of the plumage black :  wings rufous and fhort :
under tail coverts tipped with white : tail cuneiform, all but the
two middle feathers tipped with white : legs rufous.
Inhabits Senegal.
RUFOUS-
WINGED THR. SHINING THR.
THRUSH.
Turdus nitens, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 294. N° 13
Le Merle verd d'Angola, Brif. orn. ii. p.
311. N°53. pl. 30. f. 5
I Z E of a Blackbird : length nine inches.    Bill black: the
plumage is wholly of a gloffy fine green colour, except fome
of the leffer wing coverts, which are of a bright fteel-blue, forming a fpot on the fore part of the wing of this laft colour: legs
black.
Inhabits Angola and the Cape of Good Hope *.
Le Merle vert d'Angola, Buf. oif. i
Br. Muf.    Lev.
• P- 372
Muf.
-Pl. enl. 561.
CIZE of the laft. The upper parts of the head, neck, body,
and tail, are of a gloffy olive-green : the rump blue : on the
wings are here and there fome. dark fpots, and the back has a
tinge of blue in fome lights : throat blue: fore part of the neck
blue green : breaft, belly, thighs, and feathers covering the ears,
violet: vent olive yellow : legs black.
Found in the fame place as the laft.    Suppofed to be a variety
only.
* One.from this laft place is in the collection of Sir J, Banks. THRUSH.
£e Merle verd a longue queue du Senegal, Brif. orn. ii. p. 313. N° 54.    GLOSSY THR.
pl. 31. f. 1.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 369.—PL enl. 220.
Le Merle cuivre d'Afrique, Salem, em. p. 1S2.
CIZE larger than a Blackbird: length eighteen inches, of    Description.
which the tail makes eleven. The bill black : general colour
of the plumage gloffy green in different fhades : the head inclines
to blackifh, with a gold eaft: belly and thighs gloffed with copper : rump, and two middle tail feathers, incline to purple ; the
fhape of the laft greatly cuneiform, the outermoft feather being
very fhort: legs black.
Inhabits Senegal.    Buffon mentions one in the Cabinet du Roi, Piacs.
which had a much fhorter tail j but fuppofes it not to have been
juj a perfect ftate.
Le Merle violet du Royaume de Juida, Buf. oif. iii. p. 373.—Pl. enl. 540. 62.,
GILDED THR-
OI ZE of the laft.    Bill brown : irides yellow : the head, neck,    Description.
and under parts of the body, are violet: back and wings of
_; gilded green, with a band of blue on the inner edge: the upper
tail coverts and tail blue : legs reddifh brown.
Inhabits the kingdom ofWhidah, in Africa, and feems to bear Place.
much affinity to the two laft-defcribed.
Le Merle bleu de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. vol. i
. pl.
63.
VIOLET THR.
CIZE of our Blackbird.    Bill black: irides red; the whole
plumage of a changeable violet blue:  the feathers of the
head, neck, breaft, and wing coverts, have at the end a band of
Vol. IL I changeable
DESCRIPTION. T    H   R   U    S    H„
changeable violet-blue, which has the luftre of polifhed metal „
on the wing.coverts are two feathers which have a white band :
the thighs are white on. the infide, and deep blue without: legs,
black.
Inhabits China.
64*
WH1DAH THR.
Le Merle violet $ ventre blanc de Juida, Buf. oif. iii. p. 402.—Pl. enl. 648. f. 1.
C I Z E of a Lark, or rather lefs : the length fix inches and a
half. Bill afh-colour: the plumage in general is violet, excepting the belly, which-is white : the legs are afh-coloured : the:
quills are blackifh. The wings, ,wnen clofed, reach three-fourths-,
of the length of the tail".
Inhabits the kingdom of Whiddb, in Africa.
m
DOMINICAN
THR.
Le Merle Dominiquain des Philippines, Buf. oif. iii. p, 396.—Pl. enl. 627.
f. 2.
T E N G T H fix inches. Bill pale brown : the upper parts of"
the body are brown, marked here and there with a mixture
of violet, or polifhed fteel-colour : the bafe of the tail of this laft
colour, but towards the end greenifh : the head, and all the under
parts of the body, are very light;, or brownifh white: the legs,
pale brown: the wings are remarkably long in this bird, reaching,.,
when clofed, nearly to the end of the tail.
This was brought from the Philippine Ifles by M. Sonnerat.. THRUSH.
59
Le Merle Dominiquain de la Chine, Son. Voy, lad. vol.
p. 191.
66.
WHITE-HEAD.
ED THR,
^pHIS is a trifle lefs than our Blackbird. The bill is blackifh, with a tinge of red and yellow : irides the colour of yellow orpiment: the head and neck are white, and the feathers
long and narrow : the hind part of the neck deep cinereous grey :
the back and rump, breaft and belly, the fame, but paler-: wing
Coverts and leffer quills copper green, gloffed with violet; on the
firft, a white fpot or two: the quills black : the tail like the
wing coverts; the under coverts of it white: legs yellow.
The female has the head grey, like the reft of the body, and
the copper glofs on the wings lefs brilliant.
Thefe birds are found in China, where they are called Petites ■
Galinotes.
F_MAi«.
Place.
Le petit Merle de L'Ifle de Panay, Son. Voy. p. 115. pl. 73.
oIZE of the Pettichaps.    Irides red: the head., neck, back,
and wing coverts, are of a greenifh black, with a glofs of both
blue and violet: the feathers on the head and neck differ from the
reft, in being' -longer and narrower: quills and tail black.
This is very common at Manilla, Panay, and almoft all the
Philippine iflands; being often feen in flocks of thoufands together. It makes the neft frequently in pigein-.houfes, like'-thf#
-Starling; whence it has obtained that name by many. It has a
^fine fong, and fo agreeably -variegated, that it has obtained :t-he
^iiame of Muftcian.
%'
SONGSTER
THR.
Descr.i-pt*<mi.
_ 4
LENGTH 6o
68.
BLACK-
JNECKED THR.
Description,
T   H   R   U   S   H.
T ENGTH nine inches. Bill dufky: irides brown s head,,
chin, and nape, white : at the bafe of the bill begins a yellowifh ftreak, which paffes beneath, and takes in the eye, but
does not appear above it: the neck is black : the upper part of
the. back and feapulars ferruginous brown ; the-lower-of a. dufky
black, inclining to ferruginous on the rump:- under parts of the
body brown, except the breaft and thighs, which are yellowifh:
all the quills are black, but the fecondaries have white tips:
tail cuneiform; of a deep lead-colour; almoft black: legs-
dufky.
This appears to be a very beautiful bird, and is fuppofed to inhabit China.. The defcription taken from a fine drawing, in-the-
poffefiion of Captain Broadley.
69.
YELLOW-
FRONTED
THR.
Description.
Le petit Merle de la 0.6te de Malabar, Son. Voy. Hid. vol. ii. p.. igz<
C IZ E of the Houfe Sparrow, but more elongated.    The bill
is- black :. irides yellow :. general colour of the plumage a fine*
fhining green:   the forehead yellow : throat black : at the lower,
mandible, is a.ftreak of ultramarine, blue: the wing coverts are of "
^changeable light blue colour : legs black.
The female is fmaller: the. general colour is of a pleafing
green, inclining to yellow on the belly : the throat pale fky-
blue.
Found on the coaft of Malabar. THRUSH.
Le Boubil de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind, vol. ii. p, 193.
T E S S than our Blackbird.    Bill yellowifh grey : irides brownifh : general colour of the plumage that of umber: behind
6he eye a longitudinal black band, which extends half way down
the neck : legs yellowifh grey.
This is met with in the fouthern provinces of China, and is
faid to be the only bird of this vaft empire which has any thing
like a fong; whence it has gained the name of Nightingale. It is
called at Canton, BoubiL
CHANTING
THR.
Le Merle de la Chine, Buf. oif. iii. p. _62.—Pl. enL 604*
A Trifle bigger than a Blackbird : length eight inches and
a half. Bill blackifh: upper parts of the body greenifh
grey: head and neck cinereous,, inclining. to brown, on the
breaft :. forehead black,, paffing round,' and beneath each eye, not
unlike a pair of fpedlacles: upper parts of the body and two
middle tail feathers greenifh brown: the fide feathers much
darker brown, in fhape a little cuneiform: breaft and belly dirty
yellowifh white: legs yellow.
Inhabits-China* T   H   R   U   S   H.
- CEYLON
THR.
Turdus Zeylonus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 297. N° 28.
Le Merle a Collier du Cap de B. Efp. Brif. orn. ii. .p. 299. N° 46.   pl. 30,
f. i— Pl.enl. 272.
Le Plaftron Noir de Ceilan, Buf. of. iii. p. 374.
■Green Pye of the Ifle of Ceylon, Edw. pl. 321.
Br. Muf   Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Blackbird: length feven inches and a half. Bill
black: the crown of the head is cinereous olive; from
'thence to the tail fine olive green : over the eye a ftreak of yellow: chin and throat yellow : from the noftrils through the eye,
'bending forvvards to the fore pcfft of the neck, is a ftreak of
black, which blends itfelf with a deep crefcent of the fame ort
the breaft : belly, vent, and thighs, yellow : the tail is cuneiform*
and three inches and a half long; the two middle feathers are
like the back; the others are black, with yellow tips: the legs
are blackifh.
The female wants both the black ftreak which paffes through
•the eye of the male, as well as the collar on the breaft: the upper
parts are greenifh yellow : the throat grey : and the breaft and
'belly greenifh yellow; but paler than the upper parts.
The native place of this bird is fuppofed to be Ceylon; but is
likewife frequently received from the Cape of Good Hope*; whether indigenous likewife to that place is uncertain. The female
has much refemblance to the following fpecies.
* Two, from that place, are in the collection of Charles Boddam, Efq-
they are named Babakery ; in one of them there is only a patch of black on the
throat, not a crefcent. THRUSH.
63
L'dranvert; ou Merle
I Pl. enl. 358.
tre-orange du Senegal, Buf of. i
ORANC
LIED
CIZE of a Blackbird, or rather fmaller: length eight inches. Bill Descrip
brown : the head, chin, throat, and upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail, are green, with a fine reflection of orange in particular lights: a few of the quills have the outer webs white; the
under parts, from the throat to the vent,, bright orange : the
legs are brown-
Inhabits Senegal. pLj
L'oranbleu, Buf of. iii. p. 377. Var. A
Merle du Cap de Bonne Efperance, PL enl. 221.
'THE upper parts of this bird verge much to blue: each fea- Descripth
ther deepeft coloured on the margins: all the under parts
orange.
Suppofed to be a variety of the laft-mentioned.
Le Merle jaune de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind, vol. ii. p. 193. YEL
CIZE  of the  Blackbird.    Bill red :   irides grey : general des<
colour of the plumage deep yellow ; paleft beneath :
fhafts of the feathers white : the eye is furrounded with white
. feathers : from the upper mandible fprings a band of black,
which finifhes in a point a little behind the eye: the legs are
red *.
* This feems not far different from our Golden Oriole, vol. :
tail is not laid to be tipped with yellow. H   R   U   S   H.
Le Merle brun du Cap de Bon Efperance, Buf. oif. iii. .p. 37$.
CIZE of a Blackbird: length ten inches. General colour brown,
with a reflection of dull green in fome lights : the belly and
rump white :  the wings reach   to about the middle of the
il.
This was brought from the Cape by M. Sonnerat.
Ire de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. ii. p. 291. pl, 25.
380.—Pl. enl. 557. f. 2.
T ENGTH eight inches and a, half- Bill narrow, marked near
the end with brown, and befet with briftles at the bafe: the
general colour of the plumage is cinereous, very dark, and inclined
to greenifh black on the crown : the reft of the head, neck,
breaft, upper parts of the body> and leffer wing coverts, incline
to olive green : greater wing coverts, quills, and tail, dark afh-"
colour : belly and vent yellowifh : legs brown.
Inhabits Madagafcar, where it is called Ourovong,
Colombiers, Buf. of. iii. p. 381.
CIZE of a  Throftle:  general colour green, which is very
changeable in different reflections of light.    Some of thefe
birds are lefs than others, and have a white rump and vent; but
whether young birds, or different in fex, is not known.
Thefe are met with in the Philippine Ifles, where they are called
Pigeon Starlings ■, as they frequently, like the Starlings in Europe,
build in p geon-houfes.
7 Xt THRUSH.
Le Merle a gorge noire de St. Domingue, Buf, oif. iii. p. 3
'    78.
BLACK-
rHROA'i ED
THR.
CIZE of a Throftle: length feven inches and  a half.    Bill   Descru
black : the forehead, between the bill and eye, the chin,
throat, and as far as the breaft, are black; this is bordered by
rufous, extending to the crown, which is of the fame colour :
hind part of the neck, back, and wing coverts, grey brown, more
or lefs fhaded with brown: greater coverts and quills, blackifh
brown, edged with light grey: rump, and under parts of the
body, greenifh yellow, marked with fome large fcattered black
fpots on the breaft and belly : tail three inches long, rounded in
fhape ; the colour the fame as the back ; all but the middle feathers margined with blackifh : legs black.
Inhabits St. Domingo. Pl
CMALLER than the Fieldfare: length feven inches. Bill
black, beneath yellowifh, tip brown : head, neck, and upper
parts of the body, greyifh green: over the eyes a white ftreak j
beneath them a white fpot: throat grey, fpotted with white:
breaft and fides pale rufous: belly and vent white : thighs mixed,
cinereous and white : fome of the quills brown', others grey : tail
even at the end: legs and claws yellowifh.
Georgi * defcribes this fpecies from one kept in a cage,- which
was fuppofed to have come from China; and adds, that it fung
well, and was fond of wetting itfelf with water, like the Starling.
GREEN THR.
Description.
Vol. II.
* See Refe, p. 505.
K 66
THRUSH.
Turdus olivaceus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 292. N° 5.—Mantiff. 1771. P> 526.
Le Merle olive du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brf. om. ii. p. 294. N8 43.
pl. 22. f. $.—Buf. of. iii. p. 381,
CIZE of the Redwing: length eight inches and a quarter. Bill
brown: the upper parts of the plumage olive brown ; the
under yellow: the throat yellow brown, fpotted with brown:
legs and claws brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
In the Mantiffa, Linnaus adds, that the lore is black: upper
part of the body brownifh grey : all beneath, and the rump, ferruginous : the two middle tail feathers brown; the others ferruginous.    In one fpecimen the head was hoary.
INDIAN THR        **e -^er*e °.^ve ^es ^R^es' ___V' orn' "• P« 29%' N° 45. pl. 31. £> 2.-—
Buf. of. iii. p. 384.—iV. enl. 564. f. 1.
Br. Muf.
Description. T ESS than the Redwing : length eight inches. Bill blackifh :
theupper parts of the body are deep olive green; the under
parts the fame, but paler, and inclined to yellow : the quills
have the inner webs brown, the outer olive green, with the
edge for two-thirds from the bafe yellowifh : the tail olive green:
legs blackifh.
Piace. Inhabits the Eaft Indies. That in the Br. Muf. is rather fmaller,
and has the chin dufky black. THRUSH.
Le Merle c&ndre des Indes, Brif, om.
oif. iii. p. 385.
. p. 286. N° 39. pl. 25. f. 3,—Buf.
T ESS than a Redwing: length feven inches and three quarters.
.Bift black, with a few briftles at the bafe: the plumage of a
deep afh-corour, paleft beneath: the greater wing coverts black,
with grey edges : quill's the fame, but the white is broader
on the fecondaries than the greater ones; the fecondaries have
alfo part of the inner webs white: the two middle tail feathers
are like the back; the next on each fide is black, with the
^margins and tips afh-colour ; the reft of the outer ones bteek:
the legs black.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
ASH-COLOURED THR.
Description.
Le Merle gris de Gingi, Son. Voy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 193. GREY TH1
T  ESS than a Blackbird.    Bill yellowifh white : the top of the Description,
head, and hind part, of the neck, are whitifh: the throat,
fore part of the neck, back, wings, and tail, deep grey: the
breaft, belly,, thighs, and vent, very pale reddifh grey : legs yellowifh.
Inhabits the coaft of Coromandel: chiefly feen on the ground,        Place.
where it is perpetually hopping after worms and infects, which it
finds in the dung of animals, whence it has gained the name of
Fouille-merde.
Lev.   Muf
J^ENGTH nine inches and a half.    Bill an inch and a half
long, moderately bent, and of a brownifh flefh-colour; near
the tip an almoft obfolete notch; at the gape a few black weak
K a hairs :
84.
LONG-BILLED
THR. THRUSH.
hairs : the tongue half the length of the bill, and jagged at the
end : the feathers on the head fhort and pointed : the plumage on
the upper parts of the body pale olive brown : over the eye a
pale yellowifh ftreak : wing coverts and quills margined with pale
yellow : the rump much inclined to yellow: all the under parts
of the body pale brimftone : the tail much rounded in fhape; the
two middle feathers are brown, with pale ends; the others
dufky yellow, with pale fhafts : the legs are dufky flefh-colour :
the toes long; the hind claw large.
This inhabits the ifland of Eimeo.
Some of thefe birds, in the poffeffion of Sir Jofeph Banks, faid
to have come from Tork Ifland, had a greater mixture of palifh
buffon the wing coverts, and were alfo mottled with dufky and
buff throughout. It is moft likely that thefe were young'
birds.
Le Merle du Senegal, Brif. orn. ii. p. 261
Le Merle brun du Senegal, Buf. oif. iii. p.
. N° 26. pl. 22. f. 2.
385.—iV. enl.563. f. 2.
J  ESS than a Redwing : length eight inches.    Bill brown : the'
general  colour  of the plumage  grey brown;   except the
belly,   fides,  thighs,   and under tail coverts,   which are dirty
white: quills, tail, and legs, brown.
Inhabits Senegal.
MADAGASCAR
THR.
Le Merle de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. ii. p. 274. N° 33. pi. 23. f. I.—D° ou
leTanaombe, Buf. oif. iii. p. _%6~.—Pl. enl. 557. f, J.
T   ESS than the Redwing : length feven inches and a quarter.
Bill black; bafe befet with briftles : head, neck, back, and
feapulars, brown : rump greenifh brown: breaft and fides rufous
brown ;
11 THRUSH.
brown : belly, thighs, and vent, white : quills blackifh ; from the
fecond to the fixth, part white part violet on the outer webs;
the fecondaries black mixed with violet and green, and fome of
the inner ones gloffed with a gilded rufous-colour: the two
middle tail feathers green gold ; the others dufky, with the outer
margins green gold : the outermoft feather is white on the exterior margin, and the two next fringed with white : the fhape of
the tail fomewhat forked : legs black.
This inhabits Madagafcar, and is called Tanaombe.
Le Merle de Mindanao, Buf. oif. iii. p. 387.— Pl. enl. 627. f. 1.
T  ENGTH feven inches.    Bill lead-colour: head, neck, upper 1
parts, and tail, fteel blue : the breaft, and under parts,
white: on the wing, near the edge, is a longitudinal band of
white; the greater coverts and part of the fecondaries being of
that colour: the tail is fomewhat cuneiform in fhape : the legs
are brown.
Brought from Mindanao by M. Sonnerat.
A bird of this kind had the greater quills tipped with deep
changeable green, and fome fpots of gloffy variable violet in feveral parts of the body, efpecially at the hind part of the
head.
60
87.
MINDANAO
THR.
Xe Merle vert de l'Ifle de France, Buf. of. iii. p. 388.—PA enl. 648. f. 2.
T  ESS than the Redwing: length feven inches.    Bill afh-co-  ;
loured :   the plumage is wholly of a  deep  greenifh  blue
throughout: the feathers of the head and neck are narrow,  and
longer than the others: the legs are lead-coloured.
Inhabits the Ifle of France.
Turdus
MAURITIUS
THR. THRUSH.
Turdus atricapiUtes, Lin. Syfi. i, p. zgp N° i8.
Le Merle a tete noire du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. em, $t_ipl. J>. _J.
N° 66. pi. 3. f. z.—Buf. of. iii. p. 388—PL enl. 3gz.
CIZE of the Redwing: length nine inches. Bill black: the
head and part of the neck are of a gloffy black : back and
feapulars deep brown : rump and upper tail coverts rufous: the
under parts, from the throat to the vent, are very pale rufous:
the fides croffed with tranfverfe dufky lines : the wing coverts are
brown, fome of them margined with rufous, and others with
white: the quills are deep brown; the nine firft are white at the
bafe, but in the two firft the white only occupies the hatrer wefo$
when the. wing is clofed, a white fpot appears : the tail is wedge-
£hapecL, and of a blackifh colour ; all but the two middle feathers
have white tips, the white part occupying moft fpace in the
outer feathers :• legs brown: claws black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
Turdus capenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 295. N° 17.
Le Merle brun du Cap de Bonne Efperance; Brif. orn. ii. p. 259. N° 25.
pL2.f. 3.
Le Brunet du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf. oif iii.  p. 390.
CIZE of a Lark : length feven inches and a quarter. Bill
black : head, neck, and upper parts of the body, brown; under
parts the fame, but paler : the belly and thighs have a yellowifh
hue ; and. the under tail coverts are quite yellow : quills and tail
deep brown: legs hlack.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. THRUSH.
m
Merle _ Cul. jaune du Cap, Buf. oif. iii. p. 390.—?/. enl. 317. V,
*"pHIS differs from the laft in being fomewhat larger.    The Descr
head and throat are black; the reft of the plumage of the
fame colour with the laft.    The bill feems ftronger at the bafe,
and is fomewhat more curved than ufual in this genus.
This is moft likely a mere variety of the other.
T ENGTH almoft feven inches. Bill of a deep lead-colour,
with a few briftles at the bafe : on the forehead a white fpot:
head, neck, and upper parts of the body, very deep lead-colour,
almoft black: under parts dirty yellowifh buff-colour : legs
brown.
Met with in Dufky Bay, New Zealand; alfo common in Charlotte
Sound, called by the natives Gba-toitoi. In the collection of Sir
J* Banks.
WHITE-
FRONTED
THR.
Lev. Muf.
JJE N G T H fix inches.    Bill black ; bafe of it fu-rnifhed with ]
briftles : the plumage on the upper part of the body is black :
on each fide of the forehead, at the noftrils, a fpot of white:
beneath, from the breaft to vent, white : tail black; all the feathers
a little pointed at the end ; under part of it afh-colour. One of
thefe birds was black on the middle of the belly, which perhaps-
was of a different fex.
Thefe are in the Leverian Mufeum, and appear to be varieties
of the laft-defcribed. They came likewife from the South Seas,
but the place uncertain.
Turdus THRUSH.
CAPE THR. Turd»s cafer, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 295. N° 16.
Le Merle hupe du Cap de  Bonne Efperance, Brif. om. ii. p. 257
f***#?4?i* P1- 2°-   f- *—%£ of. iii. p. 393—Pl- enl. 563   f. 1.
Le  Gobe-mouche a tete  noire de  la  Chine,  Son, Voy. Lnd. ii.
Desc
'"DIGGER than the crefted Lark : length eight inches. Bill
one inch, blackifh: the head a little crefted: head and creft
violet black: the upper parts of the body are brown : the margins of the feathers grey : fore part of the neck and breaft
brown, gloffed with violet: belly brown, the feathers edged with
grey : thighs, rump, and lower belly, white : vent, and under tail
coverts, red : the quills and tail are brown ; the feathers of the
firft edged with grey; the fhape of the laft is cuneiform, the bafe
is brown, and the tip white: legs black.
Var. A.
Descripti
qIZE of a Lark: length eight inches. Bill three quarters of an
inch, a trifle bent, black : the head and chin are black : the upper parts of the body and wings are brownifh afh-colour, ftreaked
with pale brown; beneath, cinereous white : the vent crimfon :
quills and tail brown, the laft a little cuneiform; three of the
outer feathers tipped with white : legs black.
In the mufeum of the late Dr. Hunter.
___J     93-
LONG-TAILED
THR
Pl. XXXIX.
DlSCRIPTION.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Lark:   length eleven   inches and a half.    Bill
flightly notched near the tip ; colour black : head, neck, back,
and wing coverts, gloffy purplifh black : rump white: the under
5 parts ^J^-Ax^MnU:  THRUSH.
parts, from the breaft, ferruginous orange: quills dufky clack : the
tail is greatly cuneiform in fhape, the two middle feathers being
fix inches and a half long, and the outer ones only two inches and
a half; the four middle feathers are wholly black; the next on
each fide, half black half white; and the three outer ones wholly
white : legs pale yellow : claws black.
Inhabits Pulo Condore. Sonnerat defcribes one very like this
from the coaft of Malabar *. The four middle tail feathers in
his bird were black; the others half black half white.
Le Merle d'Amboine, Brif. orn. ii. p. 244. N° 16.—Buf. oif. iii. p, 394..
Avicula Amboinenfis cinerea, Seba, vol. i, p. 99, t. 62. f. 4.
CIZE bigger than a Lark.    The head, neck, and upper parts   Des<
of the body, are reddifh brown : breaft and under parts light
yellow : the prime quills are reddifh brown; the leffer ones the
fame, half their length from the tip, but from the middle to the
bafe pale yellow : tail, above, reddifh brown; beneath, golden
yellow ; the fhape cuneiform.
This inhabits Amboina, and is faid to fing very finely. It is
alfo remarkable for flirting up its tail quite on the back in the
breeding feafon.
Le Merle de LTfle de Bourbon, Brif. em. ii. p. 293. N° 4. pl. 24. f. 3.—
Buf. oif. iii. p. 395.
CI Z E of the laft : length near eight inches.    Bill yellowifh :   Descr
crown of the head black; the reft of the head, neck, and
* Le Gobe-mouche a longue queue de Gingi, Son. Voy. Ind. ii. p. 196.
Vol. II. L breaft,
BOURBON
THR, THRUSH.
breaft, upper parts of the body, and leffer. wing coverts, cinereous-
olive : belly, fides, and vent, olive yellow : middle of the belly
whitifh: greater wing coverts brown, mixed with pale rufouaS
flpwHs brown, edged with pale rufous, except three of the middle
ones, which are plain brown : tail brown, with two tranfvterfo
brown bands near the end, one of them paler than the other: the
legs are yellowifh.
Inhabits the Ifle of Bourbtin.
YELLOW-
CROWNED
THR.
P_.
Ma*
Yellow-crowned Thrufh, J
sllluh
. p. so. pl. 22.
CI Z E of the common Thrufh. < Bill black: crown of the head
and cheeks pale yellow : lower part of the laft bounded by a
black line, extending from the bill: breaft and belly cinereous;
the firft marked with white and dufky fagittal lines: greater
quills, tail, and legs, dull green.
Inhabits Ceylon and Java, where it is called Tfutju crawan. Is
frequently kept in cages, as it imitates, in a very lively manner,
almoft every note that is whittled to it.
ASH-RUMPED
THR.
e Merle des Indes, Brif. o,
iii. p. 397.—Pl. enl. :
r8.   N° ip.  pl. ;
CIZE a trifle bigger than a Lark: length fix inches and a
half. Bill black : upper parts of the head, neck, and back,
black ; lower part of the back and rump afh-colour : fides of the
head, and all beneath, white: thighs grey : from the bill through
the eyes paffes a ftreak of black: the wing coverts are of a
10 blackifh THRUSH.
blackifh chefnut, but the greater ones are margined with white:
quills blackifh; the greater are white from the bafe to the middle., on the inner webs; the fecondaries white on the outer webs :
the tail is fomewhat cuneiform, but not flrictly fo ; the fix middle feathers are even, the others fhorten as they are more outward ; the colour of them black, with a little white at the bafe;
the three outer ones white on each fide; the fourth white only on
the margin at the tip: the legs are blackifh.
This inhabits the Eaft Indies, where it is called Terat-boulan.
Le Merle dore de Madagafca
Buf. oif. iii. p. 398.-
V  Brif. orn. i
■Pl. enl. 539.
p. 247. N° .8. pl. 24. f. 2>
'<■•  MJAtJ£-•1
CHEEKED
THR.
C I Z E of a Lark:  length five inches and three quarters.    Bill     Description.
black : the fides of the head and the throat are velvet black:
the general colour the fame; but each feather margined with
yellow: quills and tail black; the laft only fixteen lines in
length : the legs black.
This is found at Madagafcar, where it is known by the name Place.
of Saui-jala.
Le Merle olive de St. Domingue,;Brif. orn. ii.  p. 296. N° 44. pl. z_>i-iT2
—Buf. oif. iii. p. 403.—PL enl. Z7_. f. 1.
^TPHIS is a fmall fpecies : length fix inches. Bill grey brown :
the plumage for the moft part is olive above, and grey
mixed with olive beneath; but the greater wing coverts and
xjoilis incline to brown, and have the outer edges olive, the inner
Whitifh : the tail brown; but the two middle feathers, and outer
L 2 margins
JHISPANIOLA
THR. 100.
SURINAM
Turdus Surinamus, Lin. Syfl. i
p. 297. N° 27.
THR.
Le Merle d« Surinam,   Brif. or
Buf. oif. iii. p. 399.
n.   Suppl. p. 46.    N
Turdus niger, &c. N. C. Petr.
xi. p. 439. pl. 16. f.
THRUSH.
margins of all the  others,  are olive; the inner whitifh: legs
grey brown.
This inhabits Saint Domingo, and is like one found in Cayenne *, except the upper parts being more brown, and the under
of a paler grey.
25.  pl." 3.
CIZE of a Lark: length fix inches and a half. Bill blackifh : the general colour of the plumage is gloffy black, except
the crown of the head, which is of a beautiful yellow : on
each fide of the breaft a pale fulvous yellow fpot: the rump of
the fame colour: the leffer inner wing coverts are white, forming a fpot of the fame on the wing; the under wing coverts all
white : the quills are blackifh, and all of them, except the two
outer ones, and that neareft the body, are yellow at the bafe on
the inner web : the legs are brown.
This is met with at Surinam.
Turdus palmarum, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 295. N° 19.
Le  Palmifte,   Brif.  orn.  ii. p.  301. N° 47. pl. 29. f.   i. — Buf.   of. iii
p. 400.—Pl. enl. 539. f. 1.
CIZE of a Lark : leng.
crown of the head, the neck, breaft, and under parts, cine-
* Merle olive de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 558.
1 fix inches and a half.    The bill, the
,   ... neck, breaft, and under parts, cinereous :   forehead and  cheeks black, marked with three white
fpots THR    U   S   H.
fpots on each fide, viz. one on each fide of the forehead, one
above, and another under each eye : the chin is white, extending beneath each cheek: upper part of the body and wings
olive green : quills brown, with olive green edges: tail of this
laft colour: legs cinereous.
This is found at Cayenne,  and is moft frequent  among the
palm-trees.
Le Palmifle a tete noire, Brif. om. ii. p. 303. N° 48. pl. 29. f. 2. 10
Var.
?T* HIS fcarcely differs from the former, except in the head,     Dkscri
which is wholly black, but marked with the fame kind of
white fpots. It is found in the fame places, and may be con-
fidered as differing merely in fex, and moft likely may prove
the male.
LeMoloxita, ou la religieufe d'Abyffinie, Buf. oif. iii. p. 400,
g I Z E of a Blackbird. The bill reddifh: the head is black,
which defcends on the throat, and finifhes in a point on the
breaft: the upper parts of the body are yellow, more or lefs
tinged with brown; the under parts pale yellow : the wing coverts and feathers of the tail are brown, bordered with yellow,
and the quills blackifh, bordered with light grey : the legs
cinereous.
This inhabits the woods of Abyflinia, and feeds on berries and
fruits ; is frequently found in fuch trees as grow on the edges of
precipices, which both renders it difficult to fhoot, and to get at
when killed.
NUN THR.^
Description. 78
THRUSH.
ETHIOPIAN
THR.
Le Merle noir & blanc d'Abyflinie, Buf. of. iii. p. 406.
CIZE of a Redwing.   Bill black: the upper parts of the body
are black;   the under white, and a band of white acrofs the
wing:   the tail is rounded in fhape, and the feathers fomewhat
fquare at the ends :  the legs are black.
Found in the woods of Abyffinia, and has a note not unlike
a Cuckow. It keeps among the thickeft part of the foliage : and
feeds on berries and fruits.
104.
ABYSSINIAN
THR.
Description.
Le Merle brun d'AbyfEnie^ Bssf. of. iii. p. 407.
CIZE of the laft.    The upper parts brown : quills and tail
deeper brown, bordered with paler:   throat pale brown: under parts fulvous yellow : legs black.
Found in Abyfitn^a^ and is faid to feed on the flower of a particular kind of palm-tree, where it is met with in fmall numbers.
Befides this, it feeds on grapes in the feafon.
YELIOW-
BREASTED
THR.
Le  petit Merle brun a gorge roufTe de Cayenne,  Buf. of. iii. p. 403.—
Pl. enl. 644. f. 2.
CIZE of a Goldfinch: length five inches. Bill of a dufky
afh-colour : general colour of the plumage brown, with a lit—
llftpjixfuis of a paler brown between the wings: the chin, throat,
and breaft, rufou,8cy£UPW : the tail one inch and a half in length :
legs greenjft^ yellow. >
Inhabits Cayenne.
Le THRUSH.
£* Verdin de la Cochin Chine, Buf. of. iii. p. 409.— Pl. enl. 643. f. 3.
CIZE of a Goldfinch. General colour green, inclining to blue
towards the tail, and outer edges of the quills : the fpace
between the bill and eye, the chin and throat, are black : on
the fides at the root of the bill are two fmall blue fpots : the
black on the throat is furrounded with yellow, which is very
broad beneath, forming a crefcent on the breaft: the bill and the
legs are dufky.
From Cochin China.
BLACK-
CH1NNED
THR.
Le Merle a Cravate de Cayenne, Buf. of. iii. p. 392.—Pl, enl. 560. f. 2.
'"PHIS fpecies is lefs than a Redwing: length about feven
inches. The bill black, and curved at the point: the upper
parts of this bird, the quills, and tail, are cinnamon-colour: belly,
thighs, and vent, the fame, but paler: the chin, fides of the
head, under the eyes, the throat, and breaft, are black, bordered
all round with white, which is a little clouded with dufky on the
breaft: wing coverts black; the leffer ones tipped with white ;
the middle and greater ones with rufous : the tail is about two
inches in length : the legs black.
I have feen feveral of thefe which had the black cravat mottled
with white, which I took for young birds, as they were fomewhat
lefs in fize.
Inhabits Cayenne.
107.
BL^felt-
BREASTED
THR.
Description. THRUSH.
RUFOUS THR. Le Merlc roux -e Cayenne» Buf- W* m- P- ^z.—Pl. enl. 644. f. 1.
Description, t N flze this is rather fmaller than a Lark, and is fix inches and
a half in length. The bill is nearly ftrait, except juft at
the tip, and of a blackifh colour: the top of the head, and all
the upper parts of the body, quills, and tail, are brown; but the
wing coverts are black bordered with yellow: the forehead,
fides, above the eye, and all the under parts, from the chin to the
vent, are rufous: the under tail coverts are white; and the tail,
which is two inches and a quarter in length, afh-colour : the legs
afe cinereous.
Place. Inhabits Cayenne.
Place and
Manners.
L'arada, Buf. oif. iv.
Le Muficien de Caye:
p. 480.
ne, Pl. enl. 706.
T ENGTH four inches. Bill nearly ftrait, except a flight
curve at the tip ; colour black : the top of the head, and all
the upper parts of the body, the wings, tail, and thighs, are
rufous brown, tranfverfely ftriated with dufky or blackifh : the
chin, fides under the eye, and throat, are rufous orange : on
each fide of the neck, beneath the eye, a broad patch of black
fpotted with white : the breaft, belly, and vent, dufky white : the
tail one inch long :   the legs are yellowifh.
This inhabits Cayenne, where it feeds on ants, and other infects.
It is a folitary bird, moft frequently being found perched fingly
on a tree, never defcending but for the fake of its food. It is
much regarded for its fong, which is fo fine as to entitle it to the
name of Mufician among the inhabitants* It is faid firft to repeat
feven THRUSH.
feven notes of the octave; after which it whiftles feveral airs of
different tones and accents, much refembling a flute; and is by
fome thought fuperior to the Nightingale. At other times its
note is much like one man whiffling to another, fo as to deceive
any perfon.
It is feldom obferved near inhabited places ; frequenting deep
forefts for the fake of folitude.
Another bird, by the name of Arada, is likewife mentioned,
which differs in having the tip of the bill more bent; a white
breaft, with a half collar of black beneath it, and the upper fur-
face of the plumage uniformly rufous, without the brown lines.
This alfo is found at Cayenne.
Le Coraya
M.efiv.
CIZE of a Nightingale: le
like that of a Thrufh :   th
p. 484.
igth five in
b top of the
\nl. 701. f. 1
and a half,
id is black, which
defcends on each fide of the neck, where it gradually leffens, and
ends in a point ; in the middle of this the eye is placed, and beneath the eye are feveral flender fhort white ftreaks : the chin and
throat are white, inclining to cinereous on the breaft : the upper
parts of the body, the. wings, breaft, belly, and thighs, are rufous
brown, but paleft beneath: the under tail coverts, and tail, are
grey, marked with feveral flender blackifh bars : the fhape of the
tail is cuneiform, two inches in length : legs pale yellow.
BARRED-TAIL
THR.
Bill       DESCR
BUFF-WINGED
THR.
T   ENGTH fix inches and a half.    Bill one inch, flout, and
notched at the tip : crown of the head black: the upper
parts of the body, wings, and tail, dark afh-colour: wing coverts
Vol. II. M barred 17 2.
WHITE-
BACKED THR.
THRUSH.
barred with buff: quills brown : under parts of the body dull
rufous : tail two inches and a half in length ; fhape of it fomewhat
(^herforVn: legs brown.
Suppofed to come from Cayenne.    Seen, among others, in a
collection from that place.
L'Alapi de Cayei
Buf. oif. iv. p. 485.-—PL enl. 701. f. 2.
A
Trifle bigger than the laft : length fix inches. The
throat, fore part of neck, and breaft, are black; the reft of
the under parts afh-colour: the upper part of the head, 'neck,
and back, are olive brown : the wings deep cinereous brown: on
the middle of the back is a white fpot; and the wing coverts are
marked with fmall fpots of the fame: the tail is cuneiform and
blackifh : the legs pale yellow.
The female wants the white fpot on the back: the chin is
white : the reft of the under parts incline to rufous : the fides of
the vent, and under tail coverts, greyifh afh ; and the tips of the
wing coverts pale rufous. It has alfo the upper parts of the
body paler than in the male. Befides this, it is obferved that the
colours of both male and female differ from variety.
Thefe two laft are found in the thick woods of Guiana, where
they are found in vafl troops running on the ground, and leaping
at times on the low branches of trees, but fly very feldom to
any diftance ; are very agile birds ; feed on ants; and have a quavering kind of note, followed by a fharp cry, often repeated,
when anfweringone another. THRUSH.
Le Fourmilier huppe, Buf. of. iv. p. 476,
THE length of this fpecies is fix inches. The irides are
black : the top of the head is furnifhed with a creft of long
black feathers, which can be erected at pleafure: the throat is
black and white mixed: fore part of the neck and breaft black;
the reft of the plumage greyifh afh-colour : the wing coverts are
tipped with white: the tail is two inches and a third in length,
the fhape cuneiform, margined and tipped with white: in fome
individuals the wing coverts are of a plain afh-colour.
The female has the creft as well as the male, but in her it is
rufous. There is alfo a rufous tinge throughout the grey in the
reft of the plumage.
Thefe inhabit Cayenne, where they breed feveral times in a
year, and lay three eggs at a time. Their cry is like that of a
young chicken.    Feed on ants, as the laft.
Le Carrilloneur,  Buf. of. iv. p. 478.—PL enl. 700. f. 2.
T ENGTH four inches. The bill is black above and white
beneath; not remarkably flout: the top and fides of the
head are white, fpotted with black: over the eye paffes a broad
black ftreak, and a narrow one from behind the eye, blending it-
felf with the former at the loweft part: the chin is white : the
breaft flefh-colour, marked with fmall black fpots: the back,
wings, and tail, are brown, but deepeft on the back: the wing
coverts fpotted with white : the rump, belly, and vent, are rufous
orange :  the thighs cinereous: legs dufky.
M 1 This
CHIMING THR. THRUSH.
This inhabits Cayenne and the-deep forefts of Guiana ; and has
the general habits of the reft : but befides thefe, fome peculiar to
itfelf. It never mixes with the others, though the fame food fuf-
fices it; being met with in fmall flocks of half a dozen, and has
a Angular cry; all together giving an idea of a chime of three
bells of different tones, and very loud. It is fuppofed that each
bird has thefe three tones in itfelf, and not that they are different
in each bird; but this is not certain. This cry they make often
for whole hours without ceafing.
I do not find that the bird is found in very great plenty ;. perhaps on account of the difficulty of accefs to the place of its
refort.
Le Bambla, Buf. of. iv. p. tfg.—PL enl. 703. f. 2.
CIZE of a Sparrow : length five inches and a half. Bill
ftrait, except at the tip, where it is a little curved"; the colour
black: the upper part of the head,-body, and rump, are mottled*
rufous brown: the under parts pale afh-colour, mottled with
dufky : the wings are black, with a white band acrofs them : the
tail is half an inch only in length, and dufky:. the legs, are
blackifh brown.
This is found at Cayenne, where it is very rare.    The manners
are unknown.
Le Fourmilier a oreilles blanches, Buf. oif. iv. 477.—Pl. enl. 832.-
C I Z E of a Sparrow: length four inches and three quarters-
The bill is dufky, almoft three quarters of an inch in length,
and rather flout: the top of the head is rufous brown, communi-
1 o gating THRUSH.
eating with a collar of the fame, half an inch broad, on the
breaft: the chin and throat are black: from behind the eye de-
fcends on each fide the neck a gloffy white ftreak, compofed of
elongated feathers, and broader than the reft : the lower part of
the neck, the back, wings, and tail, are mixed rufous olive brown:
the belly, thighs, and vent, are white : the legs are dufky : the
tail is an inch and a quarter long, and the wings reach to the end
of it.
The female has the head and upper parts like the male: from
the gape a greenifh band paffes through the eye, under the white
ear feathers :. the chin and throat are white, and the rufous band
on the breaft is much broader: the reft of the under parts and
legs as in the male.
Thefe inhabit Cayenne with the others, and have, like them,
the general manners of the whole race of Ant-eaters.
Le Colma, Buf. of. iv. p. 475.—Pl. enl. 703. f. 1
RUFOUS-NAP-
ED THR.
T  ENGTH near feven inches.    Bill nearly blackifh : the upper Descriptio
parts of the body, wings,, and tail, are rufous brown, with a
collar of rufous.at the back part of the neck juft below the hind-
head : at the bafe of the noftrils is a fpot of white : the chin
and throat are white; the laft mottled with black : the breaft is
greyifh brown; and the belly, thighs, and'vent, cinereous : the tail
is fhort, abou^t an inch and a quarter long : the legs reddifh
brown.
Some of thefe differ in. wanting the rufous mark.at the. nape of
the neck.
Inhabits Cayenne. PlaCE* ALARUM THR.
THRUSH.
Le Tetema, Buf, oif. vol. iv. p. 475—Pl. enl. 821.
CIZE of the laft; from whichit differs in that the whole of the
under parts, as well as thofe above, are of a daik brown . but
the back part of the head and neck are of a deep rufous.    The
bill is partly the fame ; but the legs are paler in colour.
This is found with the laft; and Buffon fuppofes this to be the
male and the former the female.
Le Grand Befroi,  Buf, oif. iv. p. 470. pl. 22.—Pl. enl. 706. f. 1.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH fix inches and a half. Bill black above, white beneath, and rather flout, fomewhat bent near the end : the
colour of the plumage is brown above, and white beneath, marbled
with dufky on the breaft: the tail is fixteen lines long, and even
at the end : legs pale lead-colour, and an inch and a half in
length.
The female is bigger than the male, and the individuals differ
much in colour from one another.
This bird inhabits Cayenne; and has a remarkable cry, to be
heard morning and evening, very loud and piercing, like the
lafum of a clock, for about an hour each time. This perhaps
may be thought the call of love, which in the colder climates is
obferved in the breeding feafon ; but, as Buffon juftly remarks,
will not be confined to times or feafons in the warmer regions,
being lefs fixed than in colder ones; whence their having this note
at all times of the year may be accounted for. This is efteemed
good food. THRUSH.
Le petit Befroi, Buf. oif. iv. p. 472.
Fourmiher grivele de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 823. f. 1.
SPECKLED
THR.
'TPHIS is lefs than the laft, meafuring in length only five inches Description.
and an half. The bill is brown : the upper parts of the
body olive brown; as are the rump, belly, and vent, but paler:
the chin and throat are white : the breaft and belly the fame,
fpeckled with fmall numerous brown fpots: fides of the neck,
from the eye to the wings, daftied with flender white lines, and
fome of the wing coverts fpotted with pale rufous or buff: the
legs are pale brown.
This is found in the fame places as the laft.    Buffon feems to Place.
think them varieties ; but on comparifon this laft feems to have a
flenderer bill in proportion, and the tail longer, than in the former
fpecies.
Le Palikour, ouFourmilier, Buf. of. iv. p. 473.— Pl. enl 700. f. 1.
'"T'HIS is of the fize of a Lark: length fix inches.    The bill is   rjE,
one inch long, black, and ftrait except at the end, where
it is a trifle hent : the irides are reddifh, and the eye placed in a
blue fkin: the upper parts of the bird are rufous brown, margined with rufous : the tail is very fhort, not one inch in length,
and wholly rufous : on the middle of the back is a patch of black :.
the wings are black; moft of the coverts tipped with rufous
yellow : the baftard wing white: fome of the leffer quills have
brown ends, and the outer edges of others are wh'ite : the chin,
throat, and breaft, are black, wholly furrounded by a mixture of
black and white from the noftrils, paffing all round on each fide-
6 efi" THRUSH.
of the neck to the breaft, taking in the eye, under which it is
broadeft : the belly, thighs, and vent, are afh-colour : the legs
blueifh.
This bird is found with the others, and is faid to have a tremulous note, ending in a fharp fhort cry. The neft is made of
mofs; and the eggs are brown, the fize of thofe of a Sparrow,
marked with fpots of a deeper colour at the larger end.
Thefe are lively birds, but feldom fly to any diftance; and are
often feen running up the trees like the Creeper and Woodpecker,
fupporting themfelves by the tail. Are fubject to variety. In
fome fpecimens the chin and throat are rufous, bounded with
black, inflead of being wholly black ; the ends of the tail-
feathers black ; and a bed of white between the fhoulders.
In others, the middle of the chin and throat is nearly white ;
and in all of them the belly and vent are cinereous, and the thighs
in fome few rufous brown.
L'Avurin, Buf. oif. iii. p. 410. iv. p. 470.
Merle de la Guiane, Pl. enl. 355.
'"PHIS exceeds a Blackbird in fize, and is eight inches and a
half in length. Bill one inch, brown : the top of the head
to the nape is black : from the noftrils, over the eye, paffes an
orange band, meeting at the neck behind : from the gape fprings
a broad ftripe of black, taking in the eye, and paffing on each
fide the neck to the back: the chin and throat are pale yellow:
on the breaft is a broad band of blue : the back, feapulars, and adjoining wing coverts, reddifh brown; but thofe next the outer
part and quills are black, except the greater wing coverts, which
have  a white  tip,  forming  an oblique indented band   on the
wing:
i THRUSH.
wing': the tail is two inches and a half only in length, cuneiform,
and of a blue colour : all the under parts of the body, from the
breaft to the vent, are tranfverfely ftriped with blue and yellow
alternate : the legs are brown.
This inhabits Guiana, and is a.rare fpecies: It feems to ftand
between the Crow genus and that of the Thrufh, properly belonging to neither, and placed by us at the heels of the laft, from
many characterises denoting its near alliance.
%9
Le Roi des Fourmilliers, Buf. oif. iv. p. J_.6S.-Pl. enl. 702.
rT*HIS is as large in the body as the Miffel Thrufh, yet from the
fhortnefs of the tail is only feven inches and a half in
length. The bill is brown, and meafures lefs than an inch and a
quarter; is flout at the bafe, and bent towards the point; and,
were the noftrils covered with reflected briftles, would pafs for one
of the Crow genus; the bafe is befet with a few briftles : the
plumage on the upper parts of the body is rufous brown, darkeft
on the back and wing coverts, each feather of which has a pale
fhaft: the quills are dufky : the back part of the head is lead-
colour : the forehead, to the middle of the crown, is mixed white
and brown : the under parts of the body are paler rufous brown,
changing to whitifh towards the vent, and clouded with buff on
the breaft : from the fide of the under jaw is a ftreak of white,
and on the middle of the breaft is a triangular patch of the fame :
the tail is very fhort, only fourteen lines long, juft peeping from
the rump: the legs are long, of a reddifh colour, and bare above
the knee, but the thighs are fhort: the claws are pale. The
female bigger than the male.
Vol. II.
N
This THRUSH.
This bird inhabits South America, chiefly Guiana and Brafil,
in the neighbourhood of large ant-hills, on the inhabitants of
which it chiefly feeds, as do feveral other fpecies; many forts of
which unite together into bands : but what is obfervable in this
fpecies, it is feldom feen except one in a flock of the others, or
at moft a pair.
Thefe birds for the moft part keep on the ground, and appear
lefs active than thofe which it keeps company with. The flefh
is accounted very good to eat.
This, like the laft, is an intermediate fpecies between the two
genera before-mentioned, but on inflection is neareft that of the
Crow ; and had we then been lucky enough to have feen the real
bird, which has been the cafe fince, it would have been placed at
the end of tjhat genus*
Genus I  91   3
Genus  XXXII.   CHATTERER.
N° 6. Pompadour Ch.
Var. A. GreyCh.
7. RedCh.
8. Carunculated Ch.
9. Variegated Ch.
N6i. Waxen Ch.
Var. A. Carolina Ch.
a. Purple-breafted Ch.
3. Purple-throated Ch.
4. Blue-breafted Ch.
5. Silky Ch.
BILL ftrait, convex, bending towards the point; near the end
of the upper mandible a fmall notch.
Noftrils hid in the briftles.
Middle toe connected to the outer at the bafe *.
All of this genus are natives of America, except the firft-de-
fcribed.
p. 299. i.—Faun. Suec. N° %z.—Muller,p. 30.
-Frifch. pl. 32.
t. ii. p. 333. 63.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 429. pl. 26.
.f.g.
Ampelis Garrulus, Lin. Syfl,
—Kram. el. p. 363.
Lanius Garrulus, Scop, ann
Le Jafeur de Boheme, Brf.
—PL enl. 261.
Silk Tail, Rait Syn. p. 8$. A.—Phil, tranf vol. xv. p. 1165. pl
Bohemian Chatterer, Will. orn. p. 132. pl. 20.—Albin. ii. pl. 26,
Waxen Chatterer, Br. Zool. N° 112.pl. 48.—Aril. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
ClZE of a large Lark? length eight inches.    Bill black, irides
reddifh : the feathers on the crown of the head elongated into
a creft: the head and upper parts of the bird are of a reddifh'
- WAXEN CH.
» Gen. of Birds.
N a
afh- CHATTERER.
afh-colour, inclining much to the laft on the rump: from the
noftrils, over each eye, paffes a ftreak of black to the hind head :
chin black : forehead chefnut: the breaft and belly pale purplifh
chefnut, growing white towards the vent: the leffer wing coverts
are brown ; the greater, farthefl from the body, black, with white
tips, forming a bar : the quills are black, the third and fourth
tipped on the outer margins with white, the five following with
yellow; the fecondaries are afh-colour, tipped on the outer edge
with white ; befides which, as far as eight of thefe feathers have
the end of the fhafts continued into a flat horny appendage, of the
colour of fine red fealing-wax : the tail is black, tipped with
yellow: legs black.
It is faid that the females want the red appendages at the end
of the fecond quills *, as well as the yellow marks on the
wings f.
This is ranked among the Britifh birds, but is only feen with
us at uncertain times; fuppofed to breed in Bohemia, and other
parts of Germany, but probably its fummer refidence is more
northward \. Thefe birds are indeed common in Germany every
year, but moft fo once in feven.    With us,  obferved to be moft
* This is probable, fince it is certainly fo in the American fpecies. But thefe
birds vary much in this charafiteriftic; for I have obferved fo few as five in fome
fpecimens ; and Buffon mentions having feen a bird with feven on one wing, and
five on the other, as well as others with three only-
f This is not clear to me. • The American, or next fpecies, has no yellow on
the wings in either fex.    I have never met with one of thefe without.
% It is feen in plenty both at St. Peterfburgh and Mofcovx, in the winter ; but
comes from the north, and departs again to the Arelic circle in fpring; nor is it
ever known to breed in Ruffla. It is fcarce in Sibiria, and has not been obferved beyond the river Lena.   Mr. Pennant.
plenty CHATTERER.
plenty in the northern parts of the ifland, vifiting annually the
neighbourhood of Edinburgh during winter; and feeds on the
berries of the mountain afh; difappearing in fpring *. They have
alfo been killed in Northumberland and Torkfhire frequently, as
well as now and then as far fouth as our metropolis f, and are not
unfrequently met with both in France and Italy. From our little
knowledge of the native place of thefe birds, little can be faid of
the neft, further than that it is faid to make it in the holes of
rocks _{:. The general food is berries of all kinds, and in the feafon
grapes, of which they are faid to be fond. In countries where they
are plenty, are efteemed good food.
Ampelis Garrulus, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 299. I. 8.
Le Jafeurde la Caroline, Brif. orn. ii. p. 337.
LGatjoautototl, Rail Syn. p. 174.
Chatterer of Carolina,  Edw. pl. 2i_z.—Catefb. Car.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
,—Buf. oif. iii. p. 441.
pl. 46.—Arff. Zool.
■kVar. A.
CAROLINA
CH.
'TpHIS is lefs than the European fpecies, and is much like it,  D
but   the  belly is of a  pale yellow inftead   of red : both
fexes have the wings of a plain colour.
The female has no appendages at the ends of the fecond quills;
and the plumage is lefs lively than in the male.
This fpecies is found in America, from the more northern parts
to Carolina  and Mexico \ ; but authors do not inform us of the
escriptio:
• Br. Zool.    Flor. Scot,
t Phil, tranf.—One of thefe was fhot at Eltham, in the winter 1781, and is
bow in my col.edt.ion.
t In Tartary.    Frifch.
I) And that it frequents the mountains (Fernandez).   Buffon alfo has met with
one which came from Cayenne,
5 manners C H A T T ER E R,
manners or incubation, any more than of the laft-mentioned.
At Quebec it is called the Recollecl +, in Carolina, the Chatterer.
Our late voyagers met with this bird at Aoonalafhka ^.
Ampelis Cotinga, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 298. 4.
Le Cotinga, Brif. om. ii. p. 340. pl. 34. f. I.
Le Cotinga du Brefil, PL enl. 188. the male, 186. th-female,
. Le Cordon bleu, Buf, of. iv. p. 442. pl  21.
Purple-breafledblueManakin, Edw. pl. 241.
Cock purple-breafled Manakin, Edw. pl. 340.—-Gen. of Birds, p. 63. pl. 9.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Song Thrufh: length eight inches three quarters.
The bill is black : the head,* all the upper parts of the body, and
wing coverts, are of a rich gloffy blue : the greater coverts, quills,
and tail, black: the throat, andfore part of the neck, purple, marked
with three or four patches of bright fcarlet, irregularly placed:
acrofs the breaft a belt of blue ; and beneath another of fcarlet ||;
the reft of the under parts of a fine blue : legs blackifh.
The female has the upper parts of a fine blue, and the under,
as far as the breaft, purple: belly and vent blue; the blue in fome
parts clouded with a little black : quills, tail, and legs, as in the
other.
Inhabits Brafil.
t Perhaps from the fimilarity of the creft 0
of friers.
% Mts's Voy. ii. p. 15.
;|| This is wanting in many fpecimens.
plumage to the habit of this order
Ampelis CHATTERER.
95
Ampelis Cayana, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 2g8. 6.
Le Cotinga de Cayenne, Brif. om
Le Quereiva, Buf. oif iv. p. 444.
Lev. Muf.
p. 344. 3. pi. 34. f. 3.—?/. enl. 624;
PURPLE-
THROATED
CH.
qIZE of the Redwing: length eight inches and a quarter.
Bill black: the general colour of the plumage blue green,
with a mixture of black, the feathers being of this laft colour, with
the tips only blue green, fo that the colours feem mixed: the
chin, throat, and fore part of the neck, of a moft beautiful purplifh
crimfon : the greater wimg coverts are black, edged with blue:
the quills black, fringed with blue : the tail and legs black-
Inhabits Cayenne.
Description.
Ampelis terfa, Lin. Syfl". i. p. 29S
La Terfine, Buf. oif. iv. p. 446.
BLUE-BREASTED CH.
'"PHIS fpecies has the upper part of the head,  the fhoulders,      Des<
quills, and tail, black 1 the outer edge of the quills blueifh :
the throat, breaft, lower part of the back, and a band on the
wing coverts, of a pale blue : the belly yellowifh- white, deepeft
on the fides.
Linmeus does not mention its native place; it may be feme
part of South America. Buffon thinks it likely to prove a female;.
if fo* perhaps of the laft fpecies. CHATTERER.
Ampelis Maynana, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 298. 5.
Cotinga des Maynas, Brif. om. ii. p. 341. z.—Pl. enl. 229.
Le Cotinga a Plumes Soyeufes, Buf. oif. iv. p. 447.
Lev. Muf.
'TPHE length feven inches  and  a quarter.     Bill brown:   the
feathers of the head and hind part of the neck are long and
narrow, and of a fine blue; the bafe of them brown : the chin and
throat deep purple: the back and rump, fore part of the neck,
.and from thence to the vent, of the fame blue as the head; but
the feathers are white at the bafe, and blue only at the tips, the
intermediate part being of a violet purple; fo that, except the
feathers lie exactly over each other, this laft colour feems mixed
with the blue:   the thighs are brown:   the quills  and tail  are
blackifh brown; the outer margins and ends blue; but the outer
ones only brown: the legs are black.    The feathers of this bird
have the appearance of filky hairs, ferving to diftinguifh it from I
the others ; and the blue in fome lights appears green.
This  beautiful  fpecies  inhabits  the province  of Maynas,  in
South America.
Ampelis Pompadora, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 298. 2.
Le Cotinga Pourpre, Brif. orn. ii. p. 347. 5. pl. 33. f. I.—PL enl. 279.
Le Pacapac, ou Pompadour, Buf. oif. iv. p. 448.
The Pompadour, Edw. pl. 341.
Lev. Muf.
T   ENGTH feven inches and a half.    Bill brown : the plumage
in general is of a fine gloffy purple : the leffer wing coverts
the fame; but the greater ones are narrow, long, and hollowed
beneath, the upper furface appearing ridged, and the tips bare of
webs; CHATTERER.
webs; fome of thefe are two inches in length, and hang in an elegant manner over the quills; the fhafts of them are white : the
quills are all white, except juft the tips of fome of the greater
ones, which are brown: the legs are black.
Le Cotinga gris-pourpre,
rif. om. ii. p. 349. 6. pl. 35. f. 2
-Lev. Muf.
-Buf. oif. i
Var. A.
GREY CH.
HPHIS is rather fmaller, aud variegated with brown along with De«cr;
the purple : the under tail coverts rofe-colour, and the tail itfelf brown.
This is moft certainly a young bird, not in full plumage.
I have alfo feen one wholly grey brown, in a collection fent from
Cayenne, which moft likely was a female. Buffon mentions one of
this fort wholly grey.
This fpecies frequents Cayenne and Guiana; at the laft place it
appears about the inhabited parts twice in a year, in Marsh and
September, and fhifts its quarters to other parts in the intermediate
feafons: it feeds on fruits, and moftly frequents the borders
of rivers, making the neft on the higheft branches of trees; but is
never met with in the woods. The natives of Guiana call it
Facapac.
Place akb
Manners.
Ampelis carnifex, Lin. Syfl. i.p. 298. 3.
Le Cotinga rouge, Brif. orn. ii. p. 351, 7.-
 i ou L'Ouette, Buf. of. i
'Sled Bird from Surinam, Edw. pl. _g.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
■Pl. enl. 378.
-. p. 452.
CIZE of the Grofbeak: length feven inches.   Bill dull red: the    Desc:
feathers of the head are long, and may be erected into a creft
Vol. II. O at CHATTERER.
at will: this part, the lower part of the back, rump, lower part of
the belly, thighs, and vent, are of a bright crimfon : the feathers-
on the reft of the body of a dullifh red, with dufky tips : the tail
crimfon, with the ends black : the legs dirty yellow, and the hititM
part of them hairy.
The female is of a red brown throughout, but the wings and
tail marked at the ends as in the male.
This bird is found at Cayenne, Guiana, and other parts of South
America, and has much the fame manners as the Pompadour, but is-
more common.   It is called by the Creoles Ouette,. from its cry..
Le Cotinga blanc, Brif. orn. ii. p. '356. 1©.
 , ou Guirapanga, Buf. oif. iv. p. 454.—P/_ enl, 793. 794.
'THE length of this elegant fpecies is twelve inches. The bill
an inch and a half long* and black; at the bafe is a flefhy
caruncle,, hanging over it, like that of a Turkey Cock, being more
or lefs dilatable, as far as two inches in length,, and may be even
erected quite upright: the whole plumage of the male is of a pure
white, except a flight tinge of yellow on the rump, quills, and
tail:: the legs are black.
The female is furnifhed with the fame caruncle as the male: the
upper parts of the plumage olive grey: forehead and cheeks
white : throat grey, edged with olive: breaft and upper part of
the belly the fame, tipped with, yellow : lower part of the belly,,
and vent,.pale yellow : the two middle tail-feathers like the back;,
the others grey, edged with yellow.
Thefe birds inhabit Cayenne and Brafil,. and are faid to have a
very loud-voice, to be heard half a league off, which is compofed
merely of two fyllables, in,-an, uttered in a draw&hg kind oftefiessi
x. though. duw~^y eAoA^w.  CHATTERER.
though fome have compared it to the found of a bell.
.Jilian name is Guira^panga, or Quira-panga.
99
Le Cotinga tachete, Brif. orn. ii
L'Averano, Buf. oif, iv. p. 457.
Guira-punga, Rati Syn..p. \66.-1
». 354. 9.
-Will, orn
p. r99. pl. 38.
VARIEGATED
CH.
rpHIS is much larger than our Miffel Thrufh. The bill is an
inch long, and black; the gape very wide : irides blue
black : under the throat, and on the fore part of the neck, are
t>lack flefhy wattles, an inch long, hanging down before, of the figure of the point of a fpear: down the middle of the breaft the
■feathers divide, giving the appearance of a furrow : the head is
covered with dark brown feathers : the neck, breaft, belly, h^clc.,
•and thighs, are afh-coloured, having a mixture of black on the
'back, and of green on the rump : the leffer wing coverts are
black; the greater, black and dull green mixed : quills blackifh :
■tail afh-coloured, mixed with blackifh and green : legs blackifh.
The female is lefs than the male: the plumage wholly of a
blackifh colour, with a mixture of brown and green9 verging moft
to brown on the back, and to green beneath: the wattles on the
sthroat and neck are wanting in this fex.
This fpecies inhabits Brafil, and has a loud voice, which may he
heard a great way off-; but this is only for about fix weeks, in the
^height of fummer*, in December and January: it is of two kinds;
one like that of a hammer ftriking a wedge, the other fimilar to
the noife of a cracked belk During the reft of the year, it is
wholly filent.
r "Hence cajled by the Portuguefe Ave de V>erant
*'»lrd. [   ioo   J
Genus    XXXIII.    COLY.
N° 4. Radiated C.
5. Panayan C..
N° 1. Cape C.
2. Senegal C,
3. White-backed C
BILL convex  above,, ftrait beneath, fhort, and thick;  the
upper mandible curved downwards..
Noftrils fmall, placed at the bafe,  and almoft hid by the
feathers-
Tongue not the length of the bill, laciniated at the end.
Toes divided to the origin.
Of this race of Birds Linnaus knew but two ,- one of which he
placed with his Shrikes, the other with the Grofbeaks, contrary to
the fentiments of Briffon, who had put them in a genus by themfelves. Mr. Pennant has judicioufly united them again into one,
and we here think right to follow his example; as, on inveftiga-
tion, there is not a doubt of not only thofe, but all the following*,
being of one and the fame genus.
Loxia Colius, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 301. N° 12 *.
Le Colioiidu Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. orn. iii. p. 304. pl. 16. f. 2.
—Buf. oif. iv. p. 404.—Pl. enl. 282. f. 1.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Chaffinch: length ten inches and a quarter.    Bill*
grey, with a dufky black tip : the head and neck are vina-
* So far as Linnaeus gives us a fpecific diftin&ion of fpecies, the fynonym
right; but in the end he defcribes fome other bird by miftake; which he fays   C       O       L       Y.
ceous afh-colour: back, rump, feapulars, and upper wing coverts, afh-colour : upper tail coverts purplifh chefnut: breaft vi-
naceous : from thence to the vent, dirty white: under wing
coverts black: tail afh-colour, greatly cuneiform in fhape; the
outer feathers not more than ten lines in length, and white on
the outer web : legs grey: claws dufky black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
Lanius macrourus, Lin. Syfl. i. p.
Le Coliou huppe de Senegal, Brif.
oif. iv. p. 404, pl. 1
34.N°S.
p. 306, pi. 16. f. 3.—Buf.
PL enl. 282. f. 2,
CIZE of the laft: length twelve inches and a half.    The bill    Description.
grey at the bafe, and black at the tip : general colour of the
plumage a pale grey, which has a vinaceous tinge on the head,
neck, and breaft : the feathers on the top and hind part of the
head are of a fea-green colour, and longer than the reft, forming
a creft: quills and tail grey brown, the laft inclining to blue, and
the fhaft brown ; the feathers of unequal length, the middle ones
being near eight inches long, and fhorten by degrees to the outer
ones, which are lefs than one inch.
Inhabits SenegaL. Place.
-t-WHITE-
T ENGTH twelve inches.    The upper mandible white at the     BACKED C.
bafe, and black the reft of its length ;. the under white : ge-        P:" XLI*
neral colour of the plumage blueifh afh-colour:   the head is
is cinereous, fpotted with grey: beneath brown, marked with round white
fpots, a purple head, and a forked black tail. I cannot fay that I recoiled fuch
a bird.
S- greatly C       O       L       Y.
greatly crefted, fome of the feathers longer than the head itfelf,
and when erected fland quite upright, and are pointed in fhape :
the under parts, from the breaft, are dirty white; near the vent
quite white: the lower part of the back, the rump, and upper
tail coverts, are purple, with a ftripe of pure white the whole
way down the middle: the tail is very long, and cuneiform, as in
the two others, and the fhafts chefnut; the two outer feathers
have the outer webs white, and are only an inch and a half in
length : the legs are very flout, of a fine red colour, and all the
four toes placed forward, as iu the Swift: the claws are likewife
large, hooked, and dufky.
I received two fpecimens of the above from the Cape of
Good Hope, and it is perhaps only a variety of the others; but
the Angularity of all the toes being placed forwards is ftriking,
and it would be well to obferve whether it is fo in the others before defcribed: to know this, the birds fhould be obferved upon
the fpot, or at leaft before they are placed in attitude, left the
operator, who cannot be fuppofed to pay regard to what he may
call trivial diftinctions, may deceive the eye of the naturalift.
RADIATED Le Coliou raye, Buf. oif. iv. p. 405.
C.
©escr-iption. T ENGTH thirteen inches. Bill black above, whitifh beneath: the plumage above is of a dull grey, with a light
tinge of lilac, which inclines to red on the rump and tail: the
breaft is rufous grey, and the belly rufous; both tranfverfely
ffriped with brown: the tail is green, and greatly cuneiform,
like that of the others ; the two middle feathers are eight inches
and a half in length.
>?t^e_. Found ia the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope.
L« Y.
Le Colio-; dltL'I_^odeiPa_ay, Buf. oif.br, p. 406,—fynjt. voy, p. 116. pi; 74.
'THE bill of this fpecies is black: the head crefted: the head,
neck, and upper parts of the body, are cinereous grey, with a
yellowifh tinge: breaft the fame, croffed with tranfverfe lines of
black; the lower part of the belly, and upper part of the tail,
are rufous : the wings reach very little beyond the bafe of the
tail, which is greatly cuneiform, like the others: the legs are of
a pale flefh-colour.
Inhabits Panay, one of the Philippine Iflands,
PANAYAN C.
Description. [    io4   3
Genus   XXXIV.     GROSBEAK,
WITH      FOUR      TOES.
I
0 i. Common Crofsbill.
N' 21
Sibirian Gr.
2. White-winged D°.
22
Yellow-bellied Gr.
3. Parrot-billed Grofbeak.
23
Crefted Gr.
4. Hawfinch.       i^^^
24
Red-breafted Gr.
5. Pine Grofbeak.
25.
Spotted Gr.
6. Caucafian Gr.
26
Dufky Gr.
7. Cape Gr.
27.
Canada Gr.
Var. A.
Var. A.
8. Long-tailed Gr.
28.
Fan-tailed Gr.
9. Gold-backed Gr.
29.
Java Gr.
10. White-throated Gr.
3°-
Philippine Gr.
11. BlueGr.
31-
Abyflinian Gr.
12. Purple Gr.
3^
Penfile Gr.
Var. A.     Var. B.
33-
Bengal Gr.
13. Cardinal Gr.
34-
Nun Gr.
14. Indian Gr.
Var. A.
15. Madagafcar Gr.
35-
Grey Gr.
16. Grenadier Gr.
36.
Green Gr.
Var. A.
37-
Chinefe Gr.
17. Mexican Gr.
38.
Yellow-fronted Gr.
18. Brafilian Gr.
39-
St. Domingo Gr.
19. Paradife Gr.
40.
African Gr.
3.0. Dominican Gr.
41.
Brimftone Gr.
Var. A. Crefted D°.
42.
Yellow-bellied Gr.
Var. B. Pope Gr.
Var. A.
43. M tios  3
N" 43. Marigold Gr.
N° 66.
Black-headed Gr.
44. Yellow Gr.
67.
Black-crefted Gr.
45. Yellow-rumped Gr.
68.
White-headed Gr.
46. Yellow-headed Gr.
69.
Red-billed Gr.
47. Malacca Gr.
70.
Blue-fhouldered Gr.
Var. A.
71.
Wax-bill Gr. V
48. Molucca Gr.
Var.  A.  Red-rumped
49. Striated Gr.
Gr.
50. Cowry Gr.
Var. B. White-rumped
51. Bulfinch.
Gr.
Var. A.
72.
White-tailed Gr.
52. White-winged Gr.
73-
Cinereous Gr.
$3. Angola Gr.
74.
Malabar Gr.
54. Brown-headed Gr.
75-
Black-bellied Gr.
$$. Grey-necked Gr.
76.
Afiatic Gr.
56. Orange Gr.
77-
Brown-cheeked Gr.
57. White-billed Gr.
78.
Radiated Gr.
58. Brown Gr.
79-
Pearled Gr.
59. Northern Gr.
80.
Fafciated Gr.
60. Black Gr.
81.
Warbling Gr.
61. Thick-billed Gr.
82.
Orange-bellied Gr.
62. Black-breafted Gr.
Var. A.
63. Lineated Gr.
§3-
Minute Gr.
64. Hamburg Gr.
84.
Dwarf Gr.
65. Gambia Gr.
* *   WITH
THREE
TOE..
85. Three-toed G
r.
Vol. II.
P
THE GROSBEAK.
THE bill in this genus is ftrong» convex above and below>,
and very thick at the bafe.
Noftrils fmall and round.
Tongue as if cut off at the end.
Toes placed three * before and one behind*
*  With   FOUR   TOES.
+- COMMON
CROSSBILL-
Loxia curviroftra, Lin. Syfh i. p. 299. N° i.—Faun. Suec. 224.—Scop
ann. i. p. 200.—Kram. el. 365. N° 2.—Brun. p. 66. N° 238.—Muller.
N° 244.—Frifch. t. 11.—Georgi Reife, p. 174.
Le B_ec-croife, Brif. orn. iii. p. 329. N° 1. pl. 17. f. 3.
p. 449. pi. 27. f. 2.—PL enl. 218.
Sheld-apple, or Crofs-bill, Rail fyn. p. 86. A.—Will. om.
—Albin. i. pl. 6\.—Edw. pl. 303.—Br. Z00L i. N°
Ara.Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
Buf. oif. :
48. t. 45..
pl. 49.—
T^HIS bird is about the-fize of a Lark, and is fix inches and
three quarters long. It is known by the Angularity of its
bill, both mandibles of which curve oppofite ways, and crofs each
other; the colour of the upper blackifh, the under grey:-irides
cinereous hazel: the colours of the plumage are apt to vary : the
male is in general of a red-lead, inclining to rofe-colour, and
more or lefs mixed with brown ; the under parts are considerably
paler, and growing almoft white at the vent: the wings and tail-
are brown; the laft a trifle forked: the legs.black.
The female is of a green colour, more or lefs mixed with;
brown in thofe parts where -the male is red.    The young males-
* The laft fpecies excepted,,which has only two toes before,. GROSBEAK.
^are like the females at firft, changing by degrees into the fine red
-colour; but the adult female feldom gets any other tinge than
olive green; however, this rule is not conftant, as both fexes appear very different, even at different times of the year.
This fpecies is a conftant inhabitant of Sweden, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Ruffia, and Sibiria, where it breeds; but migrates
fometimes in vaft flocks into other countries, as is now and then
the cafe in refpect to England; for though in fome years a few are
met with, yet in others it has been known to vifit us by
thoufandsj fixing on fuch fpots as are planted with pines, for the
fake of the feeds, which are its natural food: it is obferved to
hold the cone in one claw, like the Parrot, and to have all the
actions of that bird when kept in a cage, which I have known
done for many years *. It is alfo found in North America and
Groenland, and is faid to make the neft in the higheft parts
of the fir-trees, fattening it to the branch with the refinous matter
which exudes from the trees; and that it breeds fo early as
January or February, the young being fit to take in March f.
I never heard of its breeding in England, but know one inftance
of its being fhot at large in the middle of fummer. I have been
told that they have done great damage in orchards, by tearing
the apples topieces for the fake of the feeds, the only part they
delight in J.
107
* Frifch obferves, that if this bird is  fed on hemp-feed, the red coloai
the Houfe Sparrow and Goldfinch,
out the whole jplumage.
will come the <fooner.   It is quite diffei
as the fame food occafions a blacknefs th;
+ Frifch.
% This experiment does not fucceed
in along with the bird, who has fullered them to remain untouched,
ring. Mifc. p. 223.
P 2 Brtffb
1 a cage, -_s apples have been put 10*
?A JUST II
+- "WHITE-
WINGED
CROSSBILL.
GROSBEAK.
Briffon mentions a variety., which differed in having the
plumage of a blackifh r_ufous colour, with a red head.
Mr. Pennant alfo fpeaks of two forts, a larger and fmaller;
but fays that thofe figured in Edwards are the fmaller: he cannot
therefore mean the following, which I do not find fpoken of by
any one.
*T*HE fize of this fmall fpecies is about that of a Goldfinch,
and meafures only five inches and three quarters in length.
The bill, like the other, of a dufky horn-colour: noftrils covered
with reflected briftles, of a pale buff-colour; at the bafe of the
bill, from eye to eye, a ftreak of brown: the feathers on the
head, neck, back, and under parts, are whitifh, deeply margined
with crimfon; and, as fome part of the white appears not fully
covered with the crimfon, gives the bird a mottled appearance i-
the rump is pale crimfon: the vent dirty white.: the wing
is black, marked with a bar of white from the .moulder, paffing
obliquely backwards, and a fecond bar, or rather fpot, of the
fame below that, but only in the inner half: the fecond quills are;
each of them tipped with white : the tail black: legs brown. -
I have received this both from Httdfm's Bay and New jTorJL
+- PARROT-
BlLEED GR.
P_. XLIL
Dksckutiok.
g I Z E of the Hedge Sparrow: length feven inches.    The bill
fafbioned much; like that of a Parrot, the upper mandible being elongated and curved at the point, the under one fhort >
bill pal
and part <%rrot-M</ OrnJeajL.  GROSBE-AK.
the neck in the male are yellow: the reft of the plumage a
greenifh olive brown, paleft beneath: the edges of the quills and
tail yellowifh; the laft even at the ends: legs pale brown.
The plumage in the female is not unlike that of the male, except the head, which is the fame as the other parts of the body,
with a mixture of yellowifh grey about the fides of the head.
Inhabits the Sandwich Iflands.
Loxia coccothrauftes, Lin. Syfl. i, p. 299. N° 2.—Faun. Suec. 222.—Scop.
ann.  i.  N° 201.—Kram. el. p.  364. N°  1—Brun. in app.—Muller,
N° 245.—Frifch. t. 4, M. & F.—Olin. uccel. pl. in pl. 37.
Le Gros-bec, Brif. orn. iii. p. 219. N° 1—Buf. oif. iii. p. 444. pl. 27. f. 1.
—Pl. enl. gg, 100.
Groffebeak or Hawfinch, Rail Syn.  p. 85. A. j.—Will. orn. p. 244. pi. 44.
—Albin. i.   pl.   16.—Edw.  pl.   188.—Br.   Zool.  i. N°   113 Aril.
Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
'T'HIS is in length fix inches three'quarters. The bill three
quarters of an inch in length, and not much lefs in depth at
the bafe; in fhape conical, and in courfe prodigioufly ftrong :
the colour in fome black, in others horn-colour : irides afh-
colour : between the bill and eye, round the noftrils, and on the
chin, the feathers are blacks the crown of the head rufous chefnut; fides of it the fame, but paler: hind part of the neck afh-
colour : the back and leffer wing coverts chefnut, inclining to
grey on the rump : the greater wing coverts grey: the under
parts are pale rufous bloffom-colour, growing almoft white
towards the vent: the quills are all black, except fome neareft
the body of the fecondaries, which are brown; the four outer ones
feem to be cut off at the tips, and are befides bent at the end,
giving GROSBEAK;
giving an odd appearance : the prime quills have each of them a
fpot of white about the middle of the inner web: the tail is alfo
black, but the two middle feathers incline to cinereous near the
end, and all the outer ones have the end half white on the inner
webs and tip : the legs are pale brown.
The female is lefs bright in colour: the part between the bill
and eye is grey inftead of black.
This may ferve for a general defcription, but the colours vary
•much : the head in fome has the top whitifh^ furrounded with
rufous; in others wholly black : the band of the wings in fome
is almoft white, in others grey, and again wholly wanting.
Specimens have alfo been feen with the body wholly black': the
breaft and belly fpotted with rufous ; and the upper mandible
the longeft: and fome have been met with which were wholly
white, the quills excepted *.
This fpecies is ranked among the Britifh birds; but only
'vifits thefe kingdoms occafionally, and for the moft part in winter, and never known to breed here \. It is more plenty In
France, coming into Burgundy in fmall flocks, about the beginning of April; and foon after makes the neft, which is placed
between the bifurcation of the branches of trees, about twelve
feet from the ground: it is compofed of fmall dry fibres, intermixed with liverwort, and lined with 'finer materials. The
eggs are of a roundifh fhape, of a blueifh green fpotted with
©live brown, with a few irregular black markings interfperfed.  It
* ScopoH.
f  I once" received   a
within a few miles of me,
which was fhot in the fummer months
ill GROSBEAK.
is alfo common in Italy, Germany, Sweden *, and the weft and.
fbuthern parts of Ruffia, where the wild fruits grow; in the reft of
the empire fcarce, except beyond Lake Baikal* where they arrive
from the fouth in great plenty, to feed on the berries of a tree
peculiar to that country f.
From the great ftrength of the bill, it cracks the ftones of
the fruit, of the haws, cherries, &c. with the greateft eafe. I do
not recollect ever feeing it kept in a cage; but if fo, it muft be.
from its lingular appearance,, as I cannot find it recorded by any
author for its fong.
Loxia enucleator, Lin, Syft. i.
2_g.—Muller, N° 246.
Gros-bec de Canada, Brif  0,
135-
N° 3.—Faun.
N°
Suee, 223.—Brun. N<*
15, pl. 12. f. 3.—Pl. enl.
Le Dur-bec, Buf. of. iii. p. 457.
Greateft Bulfinch, Edw. pl. 123, 124. M. & F.
Pine Grofbeak, Br. Zool. i. N° 114. pl. 49. f 2.—Arc!. Zool.
Br. Muf.     Lev. Muf.
'"PHIS  is a larger bird  than the laft,
length,  and two ounces in weight.
being nine inches in
The bill is half an
inch long, and dufky; it is flout at the bafe, and the upper
mandible hooked at the tip : the noftrils are covered with recumbent brown feathers : the head, neck, breaft, and rump,, are of a
ipfe-coloured crimfon : the back and leffer wing coverts black,
edged with reddifh; the greater wing coverts the fame, tipped
with white,  forming two bars   on the wings :   the quills are
* Sometimes builds in the province of Scania,    See Lt. Scan.   332, Amxn,
Acad. iv. p. 594. N° 122.
f Pyrus baccaia. Lin.    Mr. Pennants
black;, GROSBEAK.
black; the fecondaries have the outer border white, and the
primaries grey margins: the belly and Vent are afh-coloured:
the tail is a little forked, marked as the quills : legs brown.
The female is moftly of a greenifh brown colour, with here
and there a reddifh or yellowifh tinge, but chiefly at the top of
the head.
This fpecies frequents the moft northern parts of this kingdom,
being only met with in Scotland, and efpecially the Highlands,
where it breeds, and inhabits the pine-forefls, feeding on the feeds,
like the Crofs-bill. It is alfo found in all the pine-forefls of
Sibiria, Lapland, and the northern parts of Ruffia -, common
about St. Peterfburgh in autumn, and is caught in great plenty
at that time for the ufe of the table, returning north in fpring *.
They are likewife common to the northern parts of America;
appear at Hudfon's Bay in May, to which place they are faid to
come from the fouth, and are obferved to feed on the buds of
willow. The fouthern fettlements are inhabited by them throughout the year, but the northern only in the fummer feafon. Our
laft voyagers met with this bird in Norton Sound; it was alfo
found at Aoonalafhka f.
. rubicilla, N C. Pet,
Gueldenftaedt.
vol. xix. p. 463. N° 1. pl.  12.  AucL   A. J.-
T  ENGTH eight inches.    The upper mandible brown, the
under whitifh: eyes brown : the upper part of the head and
body, the fore part of the neck and breaft, deep crimfon, marked
with triangular fpots of white : belly and vent pale rofe-colour,
* Mr. Pennant f Ellis's Narr. vol. ii. p. 15. GROSBEAK.
undulated with whitifh : under tail coverts rofe-coloured brown:
thighs hoary: bafe of all the feathers deep afh-colour^ giving an
undulated appearance throughout: prime coverts and quills
brown, edged with rofe-colour: tail three inches and a half
long, even, of a gloffy black, the outer feathers margined with
whitifh, the reft with rofe-colour : legs and claws black: the
wings are an inch fhorter than the tail.
The female differs very little, except in having the colours
more dull.
This fpecies inhabits the coldeft parts of the Caucafian mountains, efpecially the gravelly hollows; and lives on the fea buckthorn * berries, which grow there plentifully, and is the means
of propagating it, the feeds paffing through them: often fly in
vaft flocks; the note not unlike that of a Bulfinch.
171. N° 45. pl. 16.
Loxia Capenfis, Lin. Syfl. i, p. 306. N° 39.
Le Pincon du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. 1
f. 1.
Le Pinfon noir & jaune, Buf. of. iv. p. 142.
Le Gros-bec de Coromandel, Buf. oif. iii. p. 456.—Pl. enl. 101. f. 1.
Loxia atra, Uropygio flavo, N. C. Petr. xi. 438. t. 16. f. 9.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Chaffinch: length almoft fix inches and a quarter.
Bill very flout, and of a dufky colour : the head, neck, upper
part of the back, and under parts of the body and tail, are of a
deep black : the feathers of the head fhort, like plufh or velvet:
the fhoulders of the wings, and lower part of the back and rump,
of a fine deep yellow ; the reft of the wing reddifh brown, edged
* Hippopha? rhai
oides.    Lin.
Q LONG-TAILED
GR.
GROSBEAK.
with grey, but the greater quills with yellow : the feathers
round the knee are pale brown; and the legs dufky. I have obferved in fome fpecimens, that the whole of the upper part of the
back was yellow.
This fpecies inhabits the coafts of Coromandel, and is alfo frequently brought from the Cape of Good Hope. Buffon has made
two fpecies of this bird, as quoted above; but I am clear that
both may be comprehended under the above-defcribed.
Gros-bec tachete du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf, of. iii. p. 473.—PL enl.
659. f.  1.
HP HIS is brownifh above, each feather fpotted in the middle
with black : the fides of the head, under parts of the body,
and wing coverts, dufky white, dafhed with black : fhoulders of
the wings, and rump, pale yellow : quills and tail black, the laft
edged with grey : bill and legs pale.
This is faid to be a variety of the former, or, what is more
likely, a young bird in its firft plumage, or a female; this cir-
cumftance being not uncommon in black birds, to be greatly
mottled, in a variety of light fhades, before they arrive at a certain age *.
Le Pere noir a longue queue, Buf. oif. iii. p. 487.
Moineau deRoyaume de Juida, PL enl. 183. f. 1.
Gros-bec noir, Salem, orn. p. 278. 17.
O IZ E of a Houfe Sparrow, but meafures more, as the tail is
pretty long; the whole bird is full feven inches in length :
the general colour of the plumage is black, with a bar of rufous
* Inftanced in the Red-winged Oriole.   See vol, i. p. 428.
yellow GROSBEAK.
yellow quite acrofs the back and wing coverts: the tail is cuneiform in fhape, and nearly half the length of the bird: bill and
legs dufky.
Inhabits Whidah in Africa ; and, if the bird above referred
to in Salerne *, is fometimes met with in Senegal.
Golden-backed Finch, Brown's III. pl. 25.
T ENGTH fix inches.    Bill, head, and neck, deep black;
the feathers not velvety, as in the Cape Grofbeak: back of a
rich golden yellow : wing coverts of a light brown, fpotted with
black : breaft and belly black : legs blueifh.
Inhabits Benguelo. This bird is in the mufeum of M. Tunftal,
Efq. On further examination, I find that the whole back,
rump, and upper tail coverts, are yellow; the ends of the two
laft fringed with dufky; and all the tail feathers, except the two
middle ones, very pale at the edges.
Loxia grofla, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 307. N° 44.
Le Gros-bec bleu d'Amerique, Brif. orn.  ap_
iii. p. 456.—PL enl, 154. (Female.)
Br. Muf.
p. 89. pl. 5. f, 1.—Buf. oif. WHITE
__M        3 THROATED
T  ENGTH feven inches and a half.   Bill very flout, and red:      De|
the general colour of the plumage deep blue: the bill is
furrounded with black, which paffes downwards before, and covers the fore part of the neck; in the middle of this, on the
• This author fays, that the tail is as long as the body; the middle feathers
one-third longer than the outer ones : that the head and neck are like velvet;
and the colour of the upper part of the back of a deep yellow.
Q__a chin GROSBEAK.
chin and throat, is a large patch of white : the legs of a dufky
blueiih colour.
The female has lefs of the white on the chin, and this is not
furrounded with black, as in the male. The bills in both have
a procefs on each fide of the upper mandible, about the middle
of the edges; which circumftance is not noticed in Buffon, and
is more considerable than in that figured by Briffon.
The above fpecimens are in the Britifh Mufeum, and are faid
to have come from Surinam; they are named Corn-bitters. Brif-
fon's bird is merely faid to inhabit America, but what part is not
mentioned.
Loxia casrulea, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 306. N° 41.
Le Bouvreuil bleu de le Caroline, Brif. orn. iii. p. 323. 'N° 7.
Le Bec-rond ou Bouvreuil bleu d'Amerique, Buf, oif. iv. 392.
Blue Finch of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. p. 179 ?
Blue Grolbeak, Catefb. Car.i. pl. 3g.—Arc7. Zool.
CIZE of the Bullfinch : length fix inches. Bill half an inch,
flout, brown ; the bafe of it furrounded with black feathers,
which reach on each fide as far as the eye: the whole plumage
befides is of a deep blue, except the quills and tail, which are
brown, with a mixture of green, and acrofs the wing coverts a
band of red : the legs are dufky.
The female is brown, with a very little mixture of blue.
I fufpect this to be Bancroft's bird, which he fays is fky-blue,
with the outer edges of the quills and tail crimfon; and the more
fo, as I have lately met with one from Cayenne which had the
chin, as well as round the bill, black, and both the fhoulders,
fome of the wing coverts, and edges of the fecondaries, marked
with reddifh. GROSBEAK.
117
Le Bouvreuil bleu du Brefil, Brif. 0
. 321. N°6. pl. 17. f. s
ipHIS differs in being wholly blue, except a black fpot between the bill and eye.
Inhabits Brafil.  I make no doubt of its being a mere variety.
Var. A.
Descriptk
Loxia Cyanea, Lin. Syfl.i. p. 303. N° 22.—Amaen. Acad. iv. p. 244.
Le Gros-bec bleu d'Angola, Brif orn. app. p. 88.  19.
Blue Grofs-beak from Angola, Edw. pl, 125.
Lev. Muf.
C I Z E of the laft.    Bill lead-colour : irides dark hazel: general colour of a fine deep blue, except the quills and tail,
which are black : legs black.
This was brought from Lifbon, and fuppofed to inhabit Angola,
but is full as likely to have been brought from fome of the
Brafilian fettlements. It is certainly a mere variety of the
others.    The Portugueze give it the name of Azulam.
Loxia violacea, Lin. Syfl- i. p. _\>6. N° 43.
Le Bouvreuil violet de Bahama, Brif. orn. iii. p. 326. N° 9. +. PURPLE G
,   ou Bee rond violet a gorge & fourcils rouges, Buf. oif. iv. p.
39<5-
Black Sparrow, Rail Syn. p. 188.—Sloan. Jam. ii. p. 311..
Purple Grolbeak, Catefb. Car. pl. 40.—Ara. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
QlZE of a Sparrow : length five inches three quarters.    Bill       D_scri_»tic
black: plumage-violet black, except the irides, a ftreak
over the eye, the chin, and the vent, which are red: legs dufky
grey.
The GROSBEAK.
vhB. The female is brown where the male is black, and the red not
fo bright.
Place. Inhabits the Bahama Iflands, Jamaica, and the warmer parts of
America.
- CARDINAL        Loxia cardinalis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 300, N° 5.—Amatn, Acad. iv. p.  242.—
Scop. ann. i. N° 20_.—Frifch. t. 4.
Le Gros-bec de Virginie, Brif. om. iii. p. 253. N° 17.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 458.
pl. 28.-P/. enl. 37.
Virginian Nightingale, Rail Syn. p. 85. A. _.—Will. orn. p. 245. pl. 44.
Red Grofbeak, Albin. i. pl. 57. (the male.) iii. pl. 61. (the female).
Red Bird, Kalm. trav. ii.  p. 72.
Cardinal, Browns Jam. p. 047.—Hifl. Louif. ii. p. \_g.—Ara. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
"piIIS is near eight inches in length. The bill is flout, and
of a pale red-colour: irides hazel : the head is greatly
crefted, the feathers rifing up to a point when erect: round
the bill, and on the throat, black ; the reft of the bird of
a fine red : the quills and tail are duller than the reft, and
brownifh within :  the legs are the colour of the bill.
The female differs from the male, being moftly of a reddifh
brown. This fpecies is met with in feveral parts of North America, and has attained the name of Nightingale defervedly, being
of a remarkable fine fong, the note much like that after which
it is named. In fpring, and moft part^ of the fummer, fits On
the tops of the hii
loud  as  almoft to
which it fings throughout the year; fometimes quite mute for
time, and again reftlefs, hopping from perch to perch, and ringing alternately.    It is fond of maize and buck-wheat, and will get
6 together
left trees,  finging early in the morning, fo
ierce the ears : frequently kept in cages,, in GROSBEAK.
together great hoards of thefe, often as much as a bufhel, which
it artfully covers-with leaves and fmall twigs, leaving only a
fmall hole for its entrance into the magazine * ; is alfo fond of
bees. It comes the beginning of April into New York and the
. Jerfeys, and frequents the Magnolia fwamps during the fummer i
in autumn departs towards Carolina. Is pretty tame, frequently
hopping along the road before the traveller. It is not gregarious,
fcarce ever more than three or four being met with together.
From their being familiar birds, attempts have been made to
breed them in cages, but it has been without fuccefs -f-.
Le Gros-bec des Indes, Brif. o
Pfitt. crift. ruber, minor ex inf
, iii. p. 2J2. N° 16.
i Boetenfi, Seba, i. t.
, f.4.
T> I G GER than the Hawfinch : length eight inches.    Bill one
inch, and yellow :   the head is crefted :   the whole plumage
fine red:  the bafe of the bill, and wing coverts, more dull than
the reft : legs yellow : toes long : claws fharp and bent.
Inhabits India.
Loxia Madagafcarienfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 300. N° 6.
Le Cardinal de Madagafcar, Brif. orn. p. 112. N° 20. pl. 6. f. 2
Le Foudis, Buf. of. iii. p. 495.
Moineau de Madagafcar, Pl. enl. 134. f. 2.
MADAGASCAR.
GR.
CIZE of a Houfe Sparrow: length five inches and a third.     Dbscr
Bill dufky : through the eye a ftreak of black J : general co-
' HSft. de la Louif.       f Albin. GROSBEAK.
lour of the plumage red, but the middle of each on the back is
black : quills and tail brown, margined with olive green: leg-
grey brown.
The young birds at firft are olive, and do not arrive at the red
colour but by degrees.
It is called at Madagafcar, Foudi lahe mena. .
■ i Loxia orix, Lin, Mant, 1771. p. 527. — Emberiza orix, Lin. Syft.i. p. 309.
*- GRENADIER N° 7-
GR.    ' Le Cardinal du Cap deBonne Efperance, Brif. om. iii. p. 114. N° it. pl. 6>.
f. _.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 496.—PA enl. vi. f. 2. (the male?)   134. f. 1.
(the female.)
Grenadier, Edw. pl. 178. —Phih tranf. vol. lxvi. p. 278. —Miller's Plates,
N° 1.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
Description.   C I Z E of the laft.    The forehead, fides of the head, and chin,
are black : the breaft and belly the fame :   the wings brown,
with pale edges ;  and the reft of the body of a beautiful red colour : round the knee pale brown: legs pale.
Some of thefe birds want the black on the chin, and may not
unaptly be taken for females.
Place. Thefe are inhabitants of Saint Helena, and are alfo in plenty
at the Cape of Good Hope, where they frequent watery places
where reeds grow, among which they are fuppofed to make the
neft *.    After defcribing thefe birds, Mr. Mafon obferves that
the
* If this be the fame with Kolben's Finch, he fays that it is of a peculiar contrivance,   made with fmall twigs,  interwoven very clofely and tightly with
cotton, and divided into two apartments and but one entrance (the upper for
the male, the lower for the female) and is fo tight as not to be penetrated by
any GROSBEAK. i
the appearance of thefe among the green reeds has a wonderful effect; for, from the brightnefs of their colours, they appear
like fo many fcarlet lilies.
Le Rouge noir, Buf. oif. iii. p. 461. i6«
Gros-bec de Cayenne, Pl.enl. 309, z;
HPH I S feems to be a trifle larger;   but otherwife differs but    Descriptio
very little: the colours are the fame, and diftributed in the
fame manner; but has the tail of the fame colour as the
wings, and the knees not differing in colour: however, I think
the two laft to be the fame birds, efpecially as I have one in my
poffeffion, and have feen many, from the Cape of Good Hope, with
the tail as defcribed in this bird.
Loxia Mexican a, Lin. Syfl. i, p. 300. N° 7. 17.
Le Gros-bec au Mexique, Brif. om. iii. p. 256. N° 18. MEXICAN GR.
Avis Mexicana, grandis, rubra ;   Pafferis fpecies, Seba, i. p. 101. pl. 65.
C O MEW HAT larger than the Hawfinch :   length fix inches Description
and three quarters. The whole body covered with feathers
of a blood-red colour: upper tail coverts blackifh, with a mixture of red : quills and tail blackifh : the wings reach the middle
of the tail.
Inhabits Mexico. Place.
any weather".    Moft plenty about Mofhel Bank.    He adds, that the bird is fear- $*M
let only in fummer, being in the winter wholly alh-coloured.      Hifl. Cap.
vol. ii. p. 153.
■   Vol. II. R Le GROSBEAK.
Le Grivelin, Buf. of. iii. p. 461. pl. 30.     liW^tl
Gros-bec du Brefil, Pl, enl. 309. f. 1.
Lev. Muf.
|" ENGTH five inches and three quar-tefls. Bill fhort,
thick, and of a flefh-co'lour: the whole head and chin are
red: beneath this a ring of white, not quite meeting, on the?
fore part: back and wing coverts brown : quills and tail black ;
the coverts and fecondaries have pale reddifh tips; end of the
tail white : the breaft, belly, and fides, reddifh white, marked
with round fpots of white, more or lefs encircled with black:
middle of the belly red : rump dufky.
Inhabits Brafil, and is a moft beautiful fpecies.
Loxia Erythrocephala, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 391. N° 10.
PARADISE GR. Le Cardinald'Angola, Brif. om. Supp. p. 78. N° 69.
Sparrow of Paradife, Edw. pl. 180.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH almoft fix inches. Bill flefh-colour: head and'
chin red : hind part of the neck, the back, rump, and wing
coverts, blueifh afh-colour: upper tail coverts margined with
grey : the under parts white, marked with curved fpots of black
on the fides: the wing coverts tipped with white, forming two
bars of the fame on the wing: quills and tail deep blue afh,
tipped with grey : the legs flefh-colour..
This fpecies inhabits Angola. GROSBEAK.
Loxia Domhrfcafla, Lin, Syfl. i. p. 301. N° 8. — Amain, acad. iv. p. 242.
N° 14.
Le Gros-bec du Brefil, Brif. om. iii. p. 246. N° 13.
Rubicilla Americana,  Rail Syn. p. 86.
American Bulfinch, Will, om, p. 147. § n.
Dominican Cardinal, Edw. pl. 127.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
DOMINICAN
GR,
CIZE of a Lark. Upper mandible brown; under> pale flefh-
colour : eyes blueifh : the head, throat, and fore part of the
neck, are deep red ; hind part of the neck blackifh, with a flight
mixture of white : wing coverts, back, rump, upper tail coverts,
and feapulars, grey mixed with a few black fpots : fides of the
neck, breaft, belly, thighs, and vent, whitifh : quills black, edged
with white: tail black : legs cinereous.
Inhabits Brafih
Le Cardinal Dominiquai
Crefted Cardinal, Browi
t hupe, Buf, oif. iii. p. 501. —Pl, enl. i
's III. p. 24. pl. 23.—Miller's Plates, 2.
CRESTED DOMINICAN GR.
I_T E A D much crefted, ending in a point like  the Virginian
Grofbeak: head, and fore part of neck, red; beneath, white :
back and wings cinereous:   tail longifh; two middle feathers
cinereous, the reft dufky.
Inhabits Brafil, and appears a mere variety of the laft,,
Description,
R 2 GROSBEAK.
. Var. B.
Le Cardinal  Dominicain,
POPE GR.
Pl. enl. 55. f. 2.
Le Paroare, Buf. oif. iii. p.
Tije  Guacu  Paroara,    Ra
pl. 41.4c.
Pope Grofbeak, Ara. Zool.
ti6. N° 22. pl^S.^f.4. •
joo. pl. 31.
1 Syn.   p.  8g.  N° 9.
p.   256.
CIZE of the laft : length fix inches and three quarters. Bill
as the laft : the head, as far as the crown, the cheeks, and
throat, are of a fine red colour, ending in a point on the fore part
, of the neck : the hind part of the head and neck, and all the under parts, from the breaft, are white ; but down the middle of the
neck behind is a ftripe of black: back, feapulars, and rump, cinereous ; but fome of the. feathers of the firft have black margins : wing coverts black; acrofs the larger a ftripe of white:
quills black, edged with white, and fome of the fecondaries
tipped with white: tail as the wings, and a trifle forked: legs"
and claws grey brown.
The female has the fore part of the head yellow orange, dotted
with red : in other things like the male.
Inhabits Brafil, and fome parts of North America, and appears
to be a variety of the others.
SIBIREAN GR.
, Pall.Tr. vol. ii. p. 711. N° 24.
C I Z E of a Linnet, but fuller of feathers. Bill a trifle longer
- than in the Bulfinch; round the bafe of it the feathers of a
deep purple : head and back in fome birds of a deep vermilion ;
in others rofe-colour, marked with brown as in the Linnet : the
under parts paler, and not fpotted : the feathers about the head
6 have GROSBEAK.
have the tips of a polifhed white, appearing very vivid in fome
lights: bafe of the wings white; coverts the fame, with black
tips, forming a double oblique bar on the wings: quills edged
with white : tail longer than the body; nearly even ; the outer
feathers white; the others black, with pale margins.
The female and young birds are the colour of a Linnet, with a
tinge of red on the belly and rump.
This is a moft beautiful fpecies, and inhabits the bufhy fhrubs
about the rivers and torrents of the fouthern mountains of Si-
biria, and particularly about the Lake Baikal: fond of the feeds
of the blueifh and other Mugworts *: is a refllefs bird, and in
"winter unites into fmall flocks, and keeps in the warmer fitua-
tions among the fhrubs.
Yellow-bellied Grofbeak, Ara. Zool.
YELLOW-BE1-
LIED GR.
T_> I L L yellow : head red: nape olive brown : hind part of the   Description.
neck, and under parts, of a fine red : belly yellow: the
wings, the lower part of the back, and tail, olive, except the two
middle feathers of the laft, which are red.
Inhabits Virginia f. Place,
Loxia Criftata, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 301. N°9. 23.
CRESTED GR.
CIZE large:   general colour whitifh :   the forehead crefted :   Description,
the creft, breaft, and rump, red : the tail cinereous ;   the two
middle feathers twice as long as the reft : the legs red.
The creft and breaft in the female are white.
Inhabits Ethiopia. Placb.
* Artemifia carulefcens, integrifoli
t Mr. Penn GROSBEAK.
RED-BREASTED GR.
LomLudoviciana,. Lit
Gros-bec de la Louifiai
f. 2.
Le Rofe Gorge, Buf. oif. iii. p. 460,
Red-breafted Grofbeak, ArS. Zool.
Br. Muf.
Syfl. i. p. 3o5. N° 38.
, Brif. orn. iii. p. 247. pl. 12. f. 2. —• Pl. enl. 153.
Lev. Muf.
T E N G T H fix inches and three quarters. Bill, like that of
a Bulfinch, brown: head, upper parts of the body, and bafe
half of the tail, black : breaft, and under wing coverts, light
purple : belly, thighs, vent, and rump, white, varied on the belly
with a few purple fpots : on the wings are three white marks ; one
acrofs the coverts, a fecond parallel to the edge of the wing, and
a third on the tip of the feapulars: the lower half of the three
outer tail feathers is white, and the inner web, at the tip of the
fourth, of the fame colour :  legs brown.
One of thefe, in the Leverian Mufeum, differs in having the
fides of the breaft, and over the thighs, of a ferruginqus brown
colour : vent very pale yellow.
That defcribed by Buffon had a rofe-coloured breaft, and is fo
coloured in the Planches Enluminees.
Inhabits Louifiana.
SPOTTED  GR.
Description.
Lev.  Muf.
CIZE of a Yellow-hammer. B 11 pale, moderately flout, with
a dufky tip : the plumage on the upper parts dufky : every
feather, except the greater coverts aad quills, fpotted at the end
with white: the under parts dirty white, marked with dufky
ftreaks: over the eye a paje ftreak : the outer tail feather has
10 the GROSBEAK.
the outer web white almoft to the tip, and a white fpot on the
inner web near the tip ;   the next feather nearly fo, but lefs con-
fpicuous: both quills and tail fringed on the outer web with
dofky white : legs pale brown.
Suppofed to come from North America,
Dufliy Grofbeak, Ara. Zool.
z6.
DUSKY GR.
T_T E A D, neck,  and. back, dufky, edged with pale brown :    Descriptio.
wing coverts dufky, croffed with two bars of white : quills-
green: middle of the throat white : fides of the breaft, and fides-
©f the belly, white, fpotted with brown.
Found at New Tork, in the month of June*. Place..
Loxia Canadenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 304.
Le Gros-bec de Cayenne, Brif om. iii
N° 29.
!29. pi. 11. f. _.—Pl. enl. 152.
, Buf. oif. iii. p. 462.
Br. Muf
CIZE of a Houfe Sparrow : length fix. inches and three quarters. Bill afh-colour, and: the edges of it fomewhat projecting
in the middle: the upper parts of the plumage olive green ;. the
under paler, and inclining to yellow : the feathers round the bafe
of the bill, and the chin, black : the legs are grey.
Inhabits Cayenne, and, we may fuppofe, Canada likewife, occa-
fionally, as Linnaeus has given it that name.
* Mr. Pennant..
CANADA GR. GROSBEAK.
T Have feen a variety of this, which had the upper parts of a
blue grey inftead of olive green, and the under parts pale
grey inftead of yellowifh.
The female of a cinereous brown where the male was blue-
grey, and of a much paler colour in general.
Thefe came from Cayenne, and are mere varieties.
La Queue en Eventail, Buf. oif. iii. p. 463.—Pl. enl. 38c
Fan-tailed Grofbeak, ArZ. Zool.
C I Z E of a Sparrow : length about five inches. Bill flout,
and dufky: the upper parts of the body are reddifh brown,
paleft on the rump: the under the fame, but paler, and more
inclined to red : quills, tail, and legs, dufky.
One of thefe birds, fuppofed the other fex, had a grey breaft
and belly.
Thefe inhabit Virginia, where they are called Fan-tails; and
continually carry the tail fpread in an horizontal direction.
* By miftake of the draughtfman, the upper bird is engraved with fourteen
tail feathers, whereas no bird of this Genus, or even Order, has more than
twelve. GROSBEAK.
129
Loxia Oryzivora, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 302. N° 14. — Amcen. acad. iv. p. 243.
N" 16.
Le Gros-bec cendre de la Chine, Brif. om. iii. p. 244. pl. 11. f. 2, — PL
enl. 152. f. 1.
Le Padda ou L'Oifeau de Riz, Buf. oif. iii. p. 463.
Padda, or Rice Bird, Edw. pl. 41. 42.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Sparrow : length five inches. The bill is flout and
red: eye-lids of the fame colour: the head and throat black :
fides of the head under the eyes white : upper parts of the body,
neck, and breaft, pale afh-colour: belly and thighs pale rofe-
colour : the vent and under tail coverts nearly white: the tail
black- legs flefh-coloured.
The female has the bill and eye-lids very pale red, and wants
the white on the cheeks 4 but the edge of the wing is white as
well as the under tail coverts.
This fpecies is met with at Java and the Cape of Good Hope,
where it does much damage to the rice-grounds. Chiefly known
by the name of Java Sparrow.
it is moft likely a Chinefe bird likewife, as we often meet with
it in paper-hangings from that country. I think this the more
likely, as I have feen it among fome Chinefe paintings; where it
bore the name of Hung-tzoy.
JAVA GR.
Description.
Loxia Philippina, Lin. Syft.i. p. 305. N° 36.
Le Gros-bec des Philippines, Brif. orn. iii. p. 232
pl. 18. f. 1. 2. (the neft)—PA enl. 135. f. 2
Le Toucnam-couri, Buf. oif iii. p. 465.
pi.
(the male.)
_       , , . ,      PHILIPPINE
f. 1. (the male) GR>
CIZE of a Sparrow: length five inches and a quarter.    The    De;
bill is brown; round the bafe of it, fides of the head, under
Vol. II. S the Place a
Manne;
GROSBEAK.
the eyes, and the chin, of the fame colour: the top of the head is
yellow: the hind part of the neck and back, and feapulars, the
fame ; the middle of the feathers brown : lower part of the back
brown, with whitifh margins: fore part of the neck and breaft
yellow; from thence to the vent yellowifh white : wing coverts
brown, edged with white : the quills brown, with pale rufous or
whitifh edges : tail as the quills : legs yellowifh.
The female has the upper parts brown, margined with rufous :
rump of this laft colour : under parts pale rufous : quills and tail
margined with pale rufous : legs yellowifh.
Thefe inhabit the Philippine Iflands, and are noted for making
a moft curious neft, in form of a long cylinder, fwelling out into
a globofe form in the middle. This is compofed of the fine
fibres of leaves, See. and fattened by the upper part to the extreme branch of a tree. The entrance is from beneath; and, after
afcending the cylinder as far as the globular cavity, the true neft
is placed on one fide of it; where this little architect lays her
eggs, and hatches her brood in perfect fecurity.
Le Baglafecht, Buf. of. iii. p. 469.
'T< HIS does not differ confiderably from the laft.    The iirid_a>J
yellow:   the black on the fides of the head rifes above the
eyes : the mixture of brown and black on the back is lefs diftinct;
and the greater wing coverts, quills, and tail, greenifh brown,,
edged with yellow: the wings reach to the middle of the tail.
Inhabits Abyffinia.
This may be confidered as a mere variety, not only on account
of the plumage, but manners, as it makes a very curious neft like
the GROSBEAK.
the other, but a little different in fhape; and is faid to have
fomewhat of a fpiral fhape, not unlike that of a Nautilus. It fuf-
pends it, like the other, on the extreme twig of fome tree, chiefly
one that hangs over fome ftill-water; and always turns the opening towards that quarter from whence leaft rain may be expected.
Gros-bec d'Abyflinie, Buf. oif. iii. p. 470.
CIZE of the Hawfinch. Bill about the fame fize, and black :
irides red: top and fides of the head, throat, and breaft,
- Hack : the upper parts of the body, belly, and thighs, pale yellow, inclining to brown where the two colours divide : the feapulars blackifh : wing coverts brown, bordered with grey : quills
and tail brown, edged with yellow :  legs reddifh grey.
This bird alfo makes a curious neft, and is found in Abyffinia.
It is of a pyramidal fhape, and is fufpended from the ends of
branches, like the others. The opening is on one fide, facing the
eaft ; the cavity feparated in the middle by a partition, up
which the bird rifes perpendicularly about half-way, when de-
fcending, the neft is within the cavity on one fide. By this means
the brood is defended from fnakes, fquirrels, rnonkies, and other
mifchievous animals, befides being fecure from rain, which in'
that country fometimes lafts for fix months together.
Inhabits 'Abyffinia.
ABYSSINIAN
GR.
Le Nelicourvi de Madagafcar, Son. Voy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 200. pi, 112.
CIZE of the Houfe Sparrow.    Bill black : irides yellow : the
.   head, throat, and fore part of the neck, of the laft colour :
S _ from
PENSILE GR. GROSBEAK.
from the noftrils fprings a dull green ftripe, which paffes through
the eye and beyond it, where it is broader: the hind part of the
head and neck, the back, rump, and wing coverts, the fame : the
quills black, edged with green : the belly deep grey : the vent
of a rufous red : the tail and legs black.
This fpecies is found at Madagafcar, and fabricates a neft of
a curious conftruction, compofed of ftraw and reeds interwoven
in fhape of a bag, the opening beneath. It is faftened above to
a twig of fome tree; moftly to thofe growing on the borders of
ftreams. One one fide of this, within, is the true neft. The bird
does not form a new neft every year, but faftens a hew one to the
end of the laft *; and often as far as five in number, one hanging
from another. Thefe build in fociety, like Rooks; often five or
fix hundred being feen on one tree. They have three young at
each hatch f.
* Perhaps one of the nefts in Will. om. pl. 77. may be meant to reprcfentr
this circumftance.
t Kampfer mentions a bird fimilar to this, if not the fame, which makes the
neft, near Siam, on a tree with narrow leaves and fpreading branches, the fine of
an apple-tree : the neft in the fhape of a purfe, with a long neck, made of dry
grafs and other materials, and fufpended at the ends of the branches ; the opening always to the north-wejl. He counted fifty on one tree only; and defcribes.
the bird itfelf as being like a Canary-bird, of a dark yellow, and chirps like a
Sparrow. Hifl of Japan, p. 35.
Fryer alfo talks of the ingenuity of the Toddy Bird, making a neft " like a-
" fleeple, with winding meanders," and tying it by a flender thread to the bough
of a tree.    " Hundreds of thefe pendulous nefts may be feen on thefe trees."
They are faid alfo to build on the tree called Brabb, ••        Account of India and' I
Perfia, 1698, p. 76. GROSBEAK.
LoxiaBengalenfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 305. N°32. BENG'aL GR
Le Moineau de Bengale, Brif orn. iii. p. 95. N° II.
L'Orchef, Buf. oif. iii. p. 466.
Gros-bec des Indes, PL enl. 393. f. 2.
Bengal Sparrow, Albin. ii. pl- 52.
Yellow-headed Indian Sparrow, Edw. pl. 189,
A Trifle bigger than a Houfe Sparrow : length five inches and. Description.
* a half. Bill flefh-colour: irides whitifh : the top of the
head of a golden yellow : the upper parts of the body brown,,
with paler edges: fides of the head and under parts rufous
white : acrofs the breaft a brown band, uniting to, and of the fame
colour with, the upper parts of the body: legs pale yellow :
claws grey.
The female is like the male in all things; but the colours are        Femaie..'
much lefs vivid.
Inhabits Bengal, Place.
Loxia Collaria, L
p. 305. N° 31.
_.«*._ v.w.ai,*,. -...-..vyy,.  1.   _J.  _V_.   1-,      vjl.
Le Gros-bec Nonette, Buf. eif. iii. p. 446.—PL enl, 393. f. 3.
C T Z E of the Blue Titmoufe, and not unlike it in appearance:
length four inches and a half. The bill black :. the forehead
bare: top of the head, and upper part of the body, greenifh
blue: temples black: under parts and rump rufous white:
round the neck a collar of the fame: acrofs the breaft a mottled black band : wings rufous yellow and black, mixed: tail
black : legs pale brown.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies,. GROSBEAK.
Le Gritreiirt »Cravate, Buf,~vifi.M. p. 473.
Gros-bec d'Angola, PL #d.6$g. f. 2,
HP H I S feems to be a mere variety, if not a different fex, of
the fame bird. It differs merely in having the spper parts
of a darker colour: the white collar round the neck, as well as
the mottled band on the breaft, much broader than in the former bird. There is alfo a fpot of white at the bafe of the quills,
near the edge of the wing; and the under parts more inclined
to rufous.
Inhabits Angola.
Le Grifalbin, Buf. oif. iii. p. 467.
Gros-bec de Virginie, Pl. enl. 393. f. 1.
Grey Grofbeak, Ara. Zool.
C I Z E of the Blue Titmoufe :  length four inches.    Bill dark
brown : neck, and fore part of the head, white :   the reft of
the body blue grey: legs reddifh : claws brown.
Inhabits Virginia.
Loxia Chloris, Lin. Syfl, i. p. 304. N° 27. — Faun. Suec. 226.—Scop. ann. i.
N° zoS.—Muller, N° 248.—Kramer, p. 367. N° 5. —Frifch.  t. ii.—
0/7*. uc. 26.
Le Verdier, Brif. orn. iii. p. 190. N° 54. — Buf. oif. iv. p. 172. pl. 15.—
PL enl. 267. f. 2.
Greenfinch,  Rail Syn. p. 85. A. 4. — Will. om. p. 246. pl. 44. — Albin. i...
pl. j8.—Br. Zool. i. N" 217.—A,a. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
r~V HIS is a well-known bird :  the general colour yellowifh
green, paleft on the rump and breaft, and inclining to white
9 on G   R   O   S
E    A   K.
on the belly : the quills are edged with yellow, and the four
outer tail feathers are yellow from the middle to the bafe : the
bill is pale brown, and flout;   and the legs flefh-colour.
The female inclines more to brown. Female.
The Greenfinch is pretty common in Great Britain, and makes Place and
the neft in fome low bufh or hedge, compofed of dry grafs, and
lined with hair, wool, &c. laying five or fix greenifh eggs,,
marked at the larger end with red brown; and is fo careful of her
charge during incubation, that fhe is now and then taken on the
neft. The male takes his turn in fitting. This fpecies foon
becomes tame; even old birds are familiar almoft as foon as
caught: is apt to grow blind, if expofed to the fun, like the-
Chaffinch: flies in troops in winter : lives five or fix years *.
It is alfo pretty common every where on the continent of
Europe; not very frequent in Ruffia; and not at all in Sibiria f ;
which gives reafon to fuppofe that it fhifts its quarters according
to the feafon. It is fufficiently common both in Cumberland and
-Siotiand; yet in the firft, it is fcarce ever obferved in the winter
feafon; but the laft week in March becomes plentiful, and
breeds as in other parts of England _{;.
In the Leverian Mufeum is one quite white..
Le Verdkr de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 202. CHTNKSF PR
"XTOT unlike the laft.    The bill greenifh yellow:   the head     Description^
and neck greenifh grey :   back,  and wing  coverts,  light
brown ; thofe on the edge of the wing black :  the fecond quills
* Olhta,
f It has however been met with in i
t Dr. Heyfham, GROSBEAK.
are black within, and grey on the outer edge:   the prime quills
are yellow half-way from the bafe, black the reft of their length,
tipped with grey :   the belly dirty rufous:   vent yellow :   tail
black, tipped with white: legs greenifh yellow.
Inhabits China.
38.
YELLOW-
FRONTED GR.
Loxia Butyracea, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 304. 28.
C I Z E of a Sifkin. The forehead is yellow : above the eyes a
yellow line : temples the fame colour: the general colour
of the reft of the plumage is green, fpotted with brown above ;
beneath, wholly yellow: the tail is blackifh, a little forked,
tipped with white.
Inhabits India, and is, I believe, the female to the following,
which I faw among fome drawings from that place, viz. Size the
■fame. Bill black: irides brown: plumage above, green: the
head and back fpotted with black : over each eye a yellow line
•arifing at the bafe of the bill, and a fecond fpringing from, the
ifame, diverging below the eye, but not touching it: all the under parts yellow : quills, tail, and legs, black.
With this was another, fuppofed to be the female, correfpond-
ing with Linnaus's bird. In this the bill was pale : the vent inclined to white: quills dufky, with yellow edges, and pale towards the tips, the outer one excepted : leffer wing covertsw
black, edged with green; the greater ones black, edged with
pale brown-, tail black, tipped with white : legs pale.
Both thefe came from the Cape of Good Hope : the firft fang
prettily ; the laft was filent. GROSBEAK.
*37
Le Verderin, Buf. oif. iv. p» 18c.
Verdier de St. Domingue, Pl, enl, 341. f, z.
CIZE of the Greenfinch : length five inches and three quarters. Bill reddifh : the eyes placed in a bed of white : the
upper parts of the plumage green brown, the edges of the feathers paleft: the under parts dull rufous, fpotted with brown :
lower belly and vent white : the quills are black : tail and legs
dufky brown.
Inhabits Saint Domingo.
ST.
39-
DOMINGO
GR.
D
-SCR.IPTION.
Le Verdier _ans v
Buf. oif. iv. p. 186.
T E N G T H fix inches and a third. The upper parts in this
bird are greenifh brown and grey, mixed, inclining to rufous on the rump : upper wing coverts rufous: fecond quills
edged with the fame : the greater quills, and fide feathers of the
tail, edged with rufous white, and the outer feather of the laft
marked with a fpot of white: the under parts of the body are
white, varied with brown on the breaft.
This was brought from the Cape of Good Hope by M. Sonnerat.
Buffon thinks it to have the greateft affinity to the Greenfinch,
'though fo different in colour.
AFRICAN GR.
Description.
Loxia Sulphurata, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 305. N° 30.
Le Gros-bec du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif, orn. iii. p. 225. N° 2. pl. 1
f. 1
CIZE of the Brambling : length five inches and three quarters.   Bill feven lines long, flout, and of a horn-colour : head,
Vol. II. T neck,
BRIMSTONE
GR. GROSBEAK.
neck, breaft, and upper parts of the body, olive green : throat,
belly, and vent, yellow : over the eye a yellow ftreak : quills
brown, edged with olive green: tail the fame, except the two
middle feathers, which are wholly olive green : legs brownifh
grey.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
Le Gros-bec jat
pl. ii. f
e du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif. om. iii. p. 227.  N°
CO ME WHAT lefs than the laft.    Bill the fame colour:
head, hind part of the neck, and back, olive green, dafhed
with brown :   rump plain olive green : under parts of the body
full yellow:   on each fide of the head a band of yellow, which
paffes over the eye :   quills and tail  brown, with olive green,
edges; the laft fomewhat forked : legs grey.
The female is lefs brilliant in colour.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
T   ENGTH five inches.    Crown of the head, breaft, and upper parts of the body, of a bright olive green, paleft on the
rump :   hind part of the neck afh-colour, paffing forwards on
each' fide to the chin, where it ends in a point: the belly and
vent yellow :   between the legs white: quills black, edged with
yellow.:   tail dufky green, with the outer edges of the feathers
yellow, and down the  fhafts black ;   the fhape forked:   legs
rey brown.
This feems a variety of the laft.    I received it from the Cape
of Good Hope,
Le -GROSBEAK.
Buf. of. i
CIZE of a Sparrow: length feven inches. The bill blackifh,
fhort, ftrong, and convex; the- under mandible paleft : the
noftrils are round, placed at the bafe, and perforated : the head,
and upper part of the neck, are blue; of the body blackifh : the
throat, fore part of the neck, and breaft, of the colour of a Marigold : the belly, and vent, brimftone-colour: quills, and tail,
blackifh, edged with blue: legs reddifh : the middle and outer
toe united as far as the firft joint: the hind claw largeft; all of
them 'fharp, bent, and channelled;
Inhabits Buenos- Ayres; found there in September; frequents
cultivated places and gardens; feen only by pairs. The male and
female much attached to each other. Feeds both on grafs and
feeds.
Loxia Flavicans, Lin. Syft. i. p. 303. N° 19.—Amcen. acad. iv.  p. 24.4.
CIZE of a Canary-bird. Bill fhort and thick, the bafe going
. far back on the forehead : head, neck, breaft, belly, and vent,
yellow: top of the head-the fame, but paler : back, wings, and
tail, greenifh yellow; bend of the wing deep yellow: quills
and tail margined with yellowifh : legs pale : hind claw
ftrongeft.
Inhabits Afia. - YELLOW-
RUMPED GR.
Description.
GROSBEAK.
Loxia hordeaca, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 303. N° 19.—Muf Ad. Fr. ii. p. 29.
CIZE of the White Wagtail.   The head, neck, and rump,
fulvous : temples white :  from thence to the bill, the breaft,
wings, and tail, black : /fhoulders, thighs, vent, and margins of
the tail feathers, grey.
Inhabits India.
Loxia Mexicana, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 304. z6.
Le Moineau du Mexique, Brif. orn. iii. p. 97.
LaLinotte a tete jaune, Buf. oif. iv. p. 83.
Yellow-headed Linnet, Edw. pl. 44.
CIZE of the Mountain Finch : length five inches three-
quarters. Bill pale flefh-colour: irides hazel: the upper
parts of the body dull brown,, fpotted with black ; beneath, pale
brown, with fpots of dull brown : the fore part of the head;,
cheeks, and throat, are yellow; behind the eyes a brown band,
which paffes towards the back : quills and tail blackifh: legs dulL
brownifh horn-colour.
Inhabits Mexica.
''■ vtioifia Malacca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 302. N° 16.
Le Gros-bec de Java, Brif. orn. iii. p. 237. pl. 13. f. 1..
Le Jacobin, Buf. oif. iii. p. 468.—Pl. enl. 139. f. 3.
White-breafted Indian Sparrow, Edw. pl. 355.—Alb. ii. pl. 53.—Ofb. Voy.
ii. p. 329. N° 4.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
T  ENGTH four inches and a quarter.    Bill blueifh afh-colour: irides black: the head, neck, middle of the belly,
thighs, GROSBt-AK. H«
thighs, and under tail coverts, black: breaft, and fides of the
belly* white : back, wings,, and tail, chefnut: legs brown.
The female has the thighs chefnut, and the colours are lefs        Femaxe.
vivid.
Inhabits Java.. Place.
Loxia Malacca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 302. N° 16. B. 47*
Le Gros-bec de la Chine, Brif. orn. iii. p. 235. N° 7. Var- A*
Ghinefe Sparrows, Edw, pl. 43.
C I Z E of the laft.. Head, throat, and fore part of the neck,    Description.
black: the reft of the plumage chefnut: bill and legs cinereous.
The female has the top of the head, and upper parts, cinereous        Female,.
brown : fides of the head, and under parts, reddifh white: quills
and tail blackifh : legs flefh-colour.
Inhabits China. Place.
Loxia Molucca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 302.
Le Gros-bec des Moluques, Brif. or*
f. 2.
0 i7- 48.
ii. p. 241.pl. 13. f. 3.—Pl. enl. 139.  MOLUCCA GR.
T  ENGTH four inches.    Bill dufky : the fore part of the   Descriptio
head, and fides and fore part of the neck, black : hind part
of the head,, and upper parts,. brown : rump, and under parts,,
from the breaft, tranfverfely barred with black and white: the
upper tail coverts, and tail, black: the quills deep brown.: legs?;
brown.
Inhabits the Molucca Ifles. Place.
Loxi* BEAK.
Loxia ftriata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 306. N° 37.
Le Gros-bec de l'Ifle de Bourbon, Brif. or
PL enl. 153. f. 1.
243. N° 11, pl. 13. f. 4.—
7\7 O T  rnuch bigger than a Wren: length three inches two-
thirds.    Bill dufky:   head,  and upper part of the body,,
brown, with adafh of paler rufous brown down each fhaft: throat,
and fore part of the neck, blackifh : from the breaft to the vent
white : quills and tail blackifh brown : legs blackifh.
Found in the Ifle of Bourbon.
Loxia punftularia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 302. N° 18.
Le Gros-bec tachete de Java, Brif. orn. iii.  p. 238. N° 9. pl. 13. f. 2.—Pl.
enl. 139. f. 1.
Chinefe Sparrow, Albin. ii. pl, 53.
Gowry Bird, Edw. pl. 40.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH four inches and a quarter. Bill dufky: fore
part of the head, and fides, throat, and fore part of the
neck, chefnut: hind part of the head, and reft of the upper
parts, rufous brown ; the rump feathers edged with grey : breaft
and fides dufky, marked with cordated white fpots : middle of
the belly, and vent, white : legs dufky.
Inhabits the ifland of Java.
The five laft defcribed, are by Buf on fuppofed to belong to each
other, either as varieties or fexual differences; but how, he does
not determine; he thinks it however probable, that the males
are thofe whofe bellies are fpotted, and the females the plain-
bellied ones. GROSBEAK.
Loxia pyrrhula, Lin. Syfl. i.   p. 300. N° 4.—Faun.  Suec.  zz_.—Scop. an. i.
N° 202.—Brun. 240, 241.—Muller, p. 30. N° 247—Kram. el. 3%.
N° 3.—Frifch. r. pl. 2.—0„„. »c. pl. in p. 40—GeorgiReife, p. 174.
Le Bouvreuil, Brif. om. iii. p. 308. N° i.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 372. pl.   17.—
Pl. enl. 143.
Bulfinch, Alp, or Nope, Rail Syn. p.  86. A.—Will. orn.  247. pl. 44.—
Albin. i. pl. _g, 60.—Br. Zool. i. N° 116.—Ar3. Zool.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
'TPHIS   bird is fo generally known, that it needs only to fay,  ]
that the head, wings, and tail, are black : breaft and belly
red : the upper tail coverts and vent white: and the breaft afh-
colour.
The female differs in having the under parts of a reddifh
brown.
This fpecies is pretty common in England; and makes the neft
in the bufhes, five or fix feet from the ground; it is compofed
chiefly of mofs; and the eggs, which are five or fix in number,
are dirty blueifh white, marked at the large end with dark
fpots. The time of breeding about the end of May or beginning.
of June.
In the fummer it moflly frequents woods, and the more retired places; in winter approaches gardens and orchards, making
havoc among the buds of trees.
Both male and female may be taught to whittle many tunes ;
but in their wild ftate have only a plain note, two or three times
repeated, and at times the words tui, tui, both far from difagree-
able; in neither cafe what may be called a fong. It will frequently learn to articulate feveral words ; but I find this to be
taught in Germany, from whence fuch birds are annually imported into London, From the account of authors, it feems to
9 be
4- BULFINCH GROSBEAK.
be common in moft parts of the continent of Europe, and
throughout Ruffia and Sibiria, at which laft places it is caught
for the table *.
Bouvreuil noir, Brif. t
rn. iii. p. 313-
-Buf. oif.
ackBulfinch, Albin, ii
1. pl. 69.
lev. Muf,
Description.     'T'HIS variety is wholly black, often met with fo naturally,
at other times changing in confinement in a cage f.
Le Bouvreuil blanc, Brif. orn, iii. p. 313.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 383.
Lev. Muf.
>Tp HIS variety is white, except a few fpots of black on the
back. One in the Leverian Mufeum is wholly white. Befides
which are two other varieties : the firft is a male, and has the
top and fides of the head of a beautiful white, with a tinge of
bloffom-colour; the under parts pure white : quills and tail
black. The other a female, with the crown, wing coverts,
rump, and vent, white : in other things as in common.
WHITE-
WINGED GR.
Loxia panicivora, Lin. Syft. i. p. 302. N° 15.
Le Bouvreuil noir d'Afrique, Brif. orn. iii.p. 317. N° 4.-
9«/.^iv. p.385.
CIZE of the Hawfinch : length feven inches and a quarter.
Bill half an inch,   grey :   the eyes black,  as is  the whole
plumage, except a fpot of white on the wing coverts : the legs
are afh-coloured.
Inhabits Africa.
* Mr. Pennant. *{• Efpecially if fed with hemp-feed.
Loxia GROSBEAK. 145
Loxia Angolenfis, Lin. Syft. i, p, 303. N° 24,
Black Grofbeak* Edw. pl. 352. f. 2. ANC
CIZ E of our Bulfinch : length five inches.   Bill dufky : eyes    De
dark : the general colour of the. plumage black, except from
the breaft to the vent* where it is of a dull red, and a fpot of
white on the middle of the wing near the edge; the ridge of
the wing is alfo white: legs of a purplifh flefh-colour.
Inhabits Angola.
Place.
BROWN-
HEADED GR.
T ENGTH fix inches.   Bill ftout, and horn-coloured, one   Description.
inch long: head and chin dufky brown: back .and wing-
coverts black, the feathers deeply margined with yellow: breaft
deep ferruginous 5 from thence to> the vent ruffiy yellow, very
pale at the vent: quills and tail dufky, edged with yeHow -y the
laft ever* at the end : legs pale.
In the mufeum of M. Tunftal, Efq.
Le Gros-bec de la Chine, Sou. Voy. Inf. vol. ii. p. 199. GREY-NI
GR.
ECKED
CIZE of the Hawfinch. Bill and irides yellow : the head
black : hind part of the neck dirty brown, the fore part
grey: wing coverts blueifh black ; about the middle a fpot of
white: the fecond quills black, bordered with white on the
inner web: the prime quills black for two-thirds, and white
from thence to> the end : the rump grey: the tail black: the
belly pale rufous: vent white:, legs yellow-
Vol. II. U The i\6
G   R   O   S
E   A   K.
The female has the head grey, and the quills black,, bordered,
only with white : in. other things like the male.
Inhabits China.
S6.
ORANGE GR.
Le Bouver
Buf. of. iv. p. 387.—-?/. enl. 204. f. 1, 2.
LENGTH four i
the head black:
and a half. Bill dufky : the top of
the wings and tail dufky black,, edged with
orange, and fome of the inner quills with white; the reft of the
bird a fine orange: legs pale red.
The female has the whole head, and fore part of the neck,
black:- the under part of the body white; the reft of, the body
©range, but lefs bright: and the quills edged with grey.
Inhabits the Ifle of Bourbon-,, the laft has been brought from-
the Cape of Good Hope.
WHITE-BILLED
GR.
Le Bouvreuil a bee blanc, Buf. oif. iv. p, 388;
Loxia torrida, Scop. ann. i. N° 204.
(T^- ENER A T. colour black : breaft and belly chefnut . the
two middle tail feathers the longeft.
This was fent from South America by Qh Jacquin, and was defcribed from the living bird by Scopoli.    That mg^jtioned by
Buffon had a white bill,, and came from Guiana. GROSBEAK.
Loxia fufca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 307. N° ifi.—Ameen. acad. iv. p. 245—Ofb. Voy. ii.
p. 329.
Le petit Bouvreuil noir d'Afrique, Brif. em. iii. p. 319. pl. 17. f. i*.
CI Z E of a Canary-bird. Bill fhort and thick, and of a lead-
colour : the head and upper parts of the body brown: the
under of a pale afh-colour : vent pure white : the quills dufky
black: the bafe of eight of the middle quills white : tail the
colour of the quills, with palifh ends : legs pale.
Inhabits Africa ; alfo met with at Bengal.
Loxia atra, Brun, orn, N° 244.—Muller, p. 30. N° 249.
NORTHERN
GR.
'THE colour of this bird is wholly black, except a foot of     De:
white on the wing.
Inhabits the northern parts of Europe, 5
Loxia nigra, Lin. Syft. i. p. 306. N° 40.
Le Bouvreuil noir du Mexique, Brif. or
P- 394-
Little Black Bulfinch,   Catefb. Car. i. ]
Guian. p. 179.
'3.—Buf. oif.iv.
, pl. 69.—Banff.
60.
BLACK GR.
CIZE of a Canary-bird :   length five inches  and a quarter.
Bill black, flout, and deeply notched in the middle of the
* The bird defcribed by Briffon was of a greenifh black above, and had three
white fpots on the head ; one from the forehead to the crown, and one on each
fide beneath the eye ; and only fix of the middle quills white. A bird
likewife in Pl. enlum. 319. f. 1. anfwers pretty well to the above defcription,
..but the feathers on the belly feem long and frizzled.    This came from Brafil.
U   2
uppe- G   R   0   S   8   I   A   K>
upper mandible : plumage black, except a little white on the
fore part of the wing, and bafe of the two firft quills: legs
black,
Inhabits Mexico.
THICK-BILLED
GR.
Description.
CIZE of a Bulfinch : length five inches three quarters. The
bill is of a large fize, and deeper than it is long, being
three quarters of an inch from the bafe on the forehead to that
of the under jaw: the bafe of the upper mandible paffes
backward fome way on the forehead; about one-third from the
tip is a deep notch; the colour of the bill a pale yellow: the
plumage is wholly black, except the bottoms of the quills, which
are white, forming a fpot on the wing: tail two inches long;
bafe of the middle feathers white: legs whitifh.
In Mr. Tmfial's collection.   Native place uncertain.
62.
BLACK-
BREASTED GR.
Description. O IZ E of the leaft Titmoufe : length fcarcely four inches. Bill
black: the plumage on the upper parts in general black:
beneath white, except a band of black acrofs the breaft; above
which the white paffes in a narrow crefcent almoft round the
neck; on the wings are two bands of white: tail rounded, and
black; the feathers rather fharp at the ends : legs brown.
This is in the Britifh Mufeum, and I believe came from fome
part of America. GROSBEAK.
Loxia lineola, Lin. Syft. i. p. 304. 2;.
149
LINEATED GR,
CIZE of a Titmoufe.   Bill black, gibbous;  at the bafe of    Description
the upper mandible a fpot of white, and a white line from
the forehead to the crown: the plumage on the upper parts is
gloffy blue-black ; beneath white: the quills black ; bafe of the
prime ones white, forming a fpot of white on the wing: tail
black, bifurcated.
Inhabits Afiia. Place.
Le Bouvreuil d' Hamburg, Brif, orn. iii; p. 314. N° 2.
Le Hambouvreux, Buf. oif. iv. p. 398.
Hamburg Tree Creeper, Albin. iii. pl. 24.
CIZE of a Bulfinch : length five inches three quarters. Bill
black : irides yellow: upper part of the head and neck reddifh brown, with a purplifh tinge: throat brown: fore part of
the neck white, acrofs the middle of it a brown band : breaft,
back, rump, feapulars, and upper tail coverts, yellowifh brown,
marked with black: belly, fides, thighs, and vent, white : on
the wing coverts two white bands; quills yellowifh brown : tail
dull brown, andjounded in fhape.
This is faid to be found  about Hamburg,   running up and
down the trees like a Creeper or Titmoufe, and to feed on infects.
Loxia melanocephala, Lin. Syft. i. p. 305. N° 34;
Le Gros-bec de Gambie, Brif. orn. iii. p. 230. N° J.
Grofbeak from Gambia, Albin. iii. pl. 62.
TE N G T H fix inches and a quarter.   Bill cinereous: irides
black : head, throat, and fore part of the rieck, black : reft
7 of
64.
HAMBURG
GR.
Descriptiok
GAMBIA GR BLACK-
HEADED GR.
Pl. XLIII.
GROSBEAK.
of the body yellow, mixed with green : legs blueifh afh-colour.
Place. From Gambia in Africa.
Lev. Muf.
J ENGTH nine inches. Bill very flout, one inch long, and
black; at the middle of the edge of the upper mandible a
fharp procefs, and a notch on the under one partly correfponding
with it; the bafe white : the head and throat black: general
colour of the plumage deep crimfon, inclining to pink on the
under parts : quills and tail of a dufky red ; the fhape of the
laft rounded, and the feathers a little pointed at the ends : legs
brown.
The female has the head and throat black : the upper part of
the body a greenifh orange, with a mixture here and there of
red : fides of the neck of a deep orange red : from the breaft to
the vent orange yellow : quills olive green, with the outer edges
of fome of them rufous.
Inhabits Cayenne.
Le Bouvreuil huppe d'Amerique, Brif. orn. iii. p. 327. N° 10.
Le Huppe noire, Buf. oif. iv. p. 397.
Avis Americana, Rubicilla, &c. Seba, vol. i. pl. 102. f. 3.
"DIGGER than our Bulfinch : length near fix inches.    Bill
white, half an inch long: on the head is a black creft : the
upper parts of the body, wings';" and tail, are fcarlet: the under
blue : on the middle of the fore part of the neck a black fpot.
Inhabits America.
3 Loxia • -!$M^&^eA'&<*S™j£:  GROSBEAK.
. N°u.-
• iii- p-
voy. ii. p. 328.
68.
*H5- pl. g. i. 2.—PL enl
WHITE-
HEADED GR.
Loxia Maia, Lin, Syft. i. p. $0
Le Maia de la Chine, Brif. or
pl. 109. f. i>
Le Maian, Buf. oif. iv. p. 107. pl. 3. (lowed figure-)
Malacca Grofbeak, Edw, pl. 306. f. 1.
T ENGTH four inches.    Bill grey brown, paleft beneath:
head and neck dirty white: upper parts of the body, wings,
and  tail, chefnut brown :   breaft pale brown : belly and vent
blackifh : the fecond and fourth quills white : legs grey.
Inhabits Malacca and China.    Buffon's fpecimen had the breaft
as well as the belly black, and the bill lead-colour.
Loxia fanguiroftris, Lin. Syft. i
—Oft. voy. ii. p. 329.
Brafilian Sparrow, Edw. 271. J
p. 303. N° 20.—'Am.ee-,
-. p. 243.
CIZE of a Sifkin.   .Bill thick, bare far back at the bafe, and
of a deep blood red: forehead above the eye, and. round to
the chin,.black: reft of the head, neck, back, and wings, grey
brown: breaft, belly, and bend of the wjng, yellowifh white:
quills and tail brown: legs pale red.
Inhabits Africa and Afia.
The middle of the feathers were hfeckifh in Edwards's bird,
and the eye-lids red.
L'oxia.,virens, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 303. N° 23.-.
HP H E general colour of this bird is green; but the wing coverts on the fhoulders are blue::the quills and.tail black,
with greenifh margins.
Inhabits Surinam..
Loxia
Description
BLUE-SHOULDERED GR.
Description. 152
GROSBEAK.
-,, Loxia aftrild, Lin. Syft. i. p. 303. N° 21.
4- WAX-BILL Le Senegali raye, Brif. om. iii. p/iio. N° 64. pl. 10. f. $.'—Buf. eif. iv-
GR- p. 101. pl. 2. f. 2.—P/. enl. 157. f. _.
Waxbill, Edw. pl. 179. 354.
2.r. Muf.    Lets. Muf
Description. 'T* HIS is fcarce bigger than a Wren: length four inches and
a third. The bill is fomewhat gibbous at the bafe, and of a
deep red colour: a ftreak of red paffes through the eye; and the/;
middle of the breaft and belly of the fame colour: the upper
parts of the body are brown, the under reddifh grey, crofTed
every where with tranfverfe blackifh lines: the quills and tail I
brown : the laft cuneiform* brown, croffed with lines of darker
brown: legs brown.
In fome birds the tail is plain brown, and the vent and under
tail coverts black*, which is the cafe in a fpecimen in my
poffeffion. I have alfo feen others, which varied much from?
cither,, efpecially in regard to the having more or lefs of the black
lines.
Place. Thefe inhabit the Canary Iflands, Madeira jr, Senegal, Angolay
the Cape of Goad Hope_ and India $_  -*
* This pats me in n
black vent, the female
\ Forft. Voy. p. 26.
% To which Linnaus adds. America, Surinam,
ii e-f the- Bearded Ttrmeufi; the male of which Has at
>t.    May not this mark diftinguifh the fexes r GROSBEAK.
Le Serevan, Buf. oif. iv. p. 103.
Moineau du Senegal, Pl. enl 230. f. 3.
Red-rumped Wax-bill Finch, Brown's III. p. 70. pl. 29.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH four inches. Bill like red fealing-wax: head, and
back part of the neck, cinereous: back and wing coverts
brown: greater quills dufky: belly and breaft dirty white:
upper tail coverts crimfon, and a bar of the fame acrofs the vent:
the tail is dufky : legs dark grey.
Inhabits Benguela and Senegal, in Africa.
The under parts in fome fpecimens incline to yellow, and have
the fides of the rump and wing coverts fpotted with white : the
bafe of the bill bordered with black. Such an one was brought
from the Ifle of France, by M. Sonnerat.—Others have the under
parts of a pale yellow : neither the bill nor rump red: the legs yellowifh, and totally without white fpots: perhaps of a different fex.
There is alfo in fome birds a tinge of red on the breaft, and fore
part of the neck; and the tail fomewhat longer in proportion:
thefe fuppofed to come from the Cape of Good Hope.
Le Petit Moineau du Senegal, Buf. oif. iv. p. 104.—Pl. enl. 230. f. z>
CIZE of the laft. Bill red : through the eyes a ftreak of the
fame : throat, and fides of the neck, blueifh white : the reft
of the under parts of the body, and rump, rofe-coloured white,
more or lefs deep: the top of the head, neck, and back, blue,
lighteft on the head: wings brown: tail blackifh : legs red.
Inhabits Senegal.
RED-RUMPED
GR.
Var. B.
WHITE-
RUMPED GR.
Vol. II.
X G   R   O   S
E   A   K.
White-tailed Wax-bill Finch, Brown** III. p. 77. pl. 29.
J^ENGTH three inches.    Bill like red fealing-wax: head and
wing coverts cinereous: back of a rich yellow: breaft and
belly pale yellow:   tail white;   the two outer feathje"S§. black:
legs, flefh-colour.
Inhabits Brafil.
Loxia cana, Lin
i. p. 305. 35,
Le Pmcon cendre des Indes, Brif. <
La Linotte Gris-de-Fer, Buf oif. iv
Grey Finch, Edw. pl. 179. f. 1.
hMA- p* \
p. 82.
CIZE of a Linnet. Bill dull afh-colour; bafe of the under
mandible furrounded with white : eyes blackifh : round the
eyes pale : plumage on the upper parts deep afh-colour, growing
paler towards the rump: beneath pale blueifh afh-colour: greater
quills white at the bafe, and blackifh at the ends : tail blackifh,,
margined with pale afh-colour: legs dull flefh-colour.
Inhabits Afia.
Loxia Malabarica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 305. 33.
CIZE and fhape of a Titmoufe.    Bill black : throat white J
body cinereous : quills and tail black : vent whitifh*
Inhabits the Eaft Indies, Malabar. GROSBEAK.
15$
Black-bellied Grofbeak, Bro
's III. p. 58. pl. 24.
"DILL black: head, fides, and coverts of the tail, of a rich yellow, mixed in fome places with light brown: chin, breaft,
and belly, black: wings and tail of a brownifh colour.
Inhabits Africa.     Is  faid   to  change   to  a  light brown  in
winter.
7S-
BLACK-
BELLIED GR.
Description.
76.
ASIATIC GR.
CIZE of a Bulfinch.   Bill flout, yellow : head black: plumage
on the upper parts of a reddifh afh-colour: beneath, cinereous : belly pale red: the greater wing coverts, quills, and tips
of the tail, black; the laft forked in fhape : legs red.
Inhabits China, where it is called Lap-tzoy.    I faw the above
well painted among fome fine drawings from China.   -
Brown-cheeked Grofbeak, Brown's III. p. _6. pl. 24. BROWN-
CHEEKED   GR.
CIZE   of the  Titmoufe.    Bill   flout,  thick,   dufky:   cheeks     Description.
brown, furrounded by a border of yellow, reaching beyond the
ears, and beginning at the throat: the reft of the head, back,
wings, and tail, pale dirty green: breaft and belly cinereous:
legs whitifh.
Inhabits Mexico.    Defcribed from the living bird, in the col- Place.
ledYion of M. Tunftal, Efq.    It has a foft and fine note, and is
called by fome Tomtelio. GROSBEAK.
RADIATED GR.
CIZE of a Linnet:  length four in
white:  head, neck,  breaft,  leffer
:hes. Bill flout, thick,
ving coverts, and tail,
black: fecondaries, fides of the body, and bafe half of the prime
quills, ftriated black and white; the end half of the laft black:
belly and vent white: tail three quarters of an inch in length :
legs dufky.
In the living collection of her Grace the Dutchefs Dowager of
Portland.
Gros-bec gris perle", Salern. orn. p. 278. 16.
CIZE of a Wren. Head, and upper parts of the body, black :
beneath brown : with an agreeable mixture of black and
white towards the thighs and tail.
Inhabits Whidah in Africa, lives on grain, and has an agreeable
note.
This feems not far different from the laft.
Fafciated Grofbeak, Brown's III. p. 64. pl. 27.
Lev. Muf.
T^ENGTH four inches and a half. Bill blueifh grey:
crown, hind part of the neck, the back, and leffer wing coverts, pale brown, marked-with femicircular lines of black : cheeks
plain brown, bounded beneath with a rich crimfon band, under
which is a black line: breaft and belly pale brown, flightly
marked with femicircular lines: quills and tail brown: legs flefh-
colour.
Inhabits Africa f
Brown GROSBEAK,
»S7
Brown Grofbeak, Brown's III p. <S6Vpl. 27.
Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH four inches. Bill dufky: plumage on the upper
parts brown, obfcurely marked with narrow dufky lines :
belly white : tail deep brown, cuneiform : legs blueifh.
Several of thefe birds are in the Leverian Mufeum: fome
anfwer to the above defcription ; others are of a pale yellow beneath, and mottled on the chin and fides of the body with dufky
and white.
Inhabits Africa: frequently brought from thence in numbers
by our traders to that part, and are faid to fing well; but are not
long-lived in this climate.
WARBLING
GR.
Loxia bicolor, Lin, Syft. i. p. 307. N° 48.
Le petit Pincon rouge, Brif. orn. iii. p. 164. N° 40.
Le Brunor, Buf. oif. iv. p. 137.
Little brown Bulfinch, Edw. pl. 83. f. 1.
ORANGE-
BELLIED GR.
CCARCE bigger than a Wren: length three inches and a    Dbscriptk
quarter.    Bill fhort, thick, and whitifh: upper parts of the
body brown : under parts of a dull reddifh orange : legs brown.
Inhabits India. Place.
CIZE of the laft.    Bill fhort, thick, black: upper parts pale
brown: beneath white, inclined to ferruginous on the chin:
tail rounded: legs blueifh.
This I obferved in fome Chinefe drawings, and feema the other
fex of the laft, if not a variety. GROSBEAK.
Loxia minuta, Lin. Syft. i. p. 307. 47,
Le Bec-rond a. ventre roux, Buf. oifiv. p. 390.
Bouvreuil a ventre roux de Cayenne, PL enl. 319. f. 2.
Grey Loxia, Bancr. Guian. p. 17g.
Br. Muf.
g IZ E of a Wren. Bill flout, thick, fhort, brown: upper
parts of the plumage grey brown: the under parts and rump
ferruginous chefnut: the fourth, fifth, and fixth quills white at
the bafe * : legs brown.
Inhabits Surinam and Cayenne.
This bird is faid to keep paired to its mate the whole year;
and is a lively, and not very tame bird: frequents habitations,
efpecially lands which have lain for fome time uncultivated :
lives both on fruits and feeds: cries like a Sparrow, but fharper:
makes a roundifh neft, the hollow of which is two inches in
diameter, compofed of a reddifh herb, and placed on the trees
which it frequents.    The female lays three or four eggs.
Loxia mintma, Lin. Syft. i. p. 307. 45.
CIZE of a Wren. Bill very fhort and thick : the upper parts
of the plumage are brown : rump and under parts teftaceous :
prime quills white at the bafe; fecondaries white on the infide,
towards the bafe : tail even ; the feathers fomewhat fharp at the
tip, where they are of a pale colour.
Inhabits Surinam.
* Mem. In the PL enl. the white fpot, which would appear from the bafe of the -
quills, is not exprefled.
10 I have GROSBEAK.
I have feen a bird of this kind which came from Cayenne:
it had the bill and legs brown, and the under parts rufous; but
I did not obferve the leaft white in the wings. The length was
almoft four inches.
*59
**With   THREE    TOES.
Le Guifso Balito, Buf. oif iii. p. 471.
HP H E bill is toothed on the edges : the head, throat, and fore
part of the neck,-of a beautiful red, which is prolonged in a
narrow band quite to the vent: the upper part of the neck,
back, and tail, black: the wing coverts brown, edged with
white : quills brown, with greenifh edges: legs dull red : the
wings reach halfway on the tail: the toes three only, two before
and one behind.
This inhabits Abyffinia: frequents woods, and is a folitary
fpecies : feeds on kernels of feeds, which it breaks with eafe with
its bill. The name in its native place is Guifso batito dimmo-won
jerck.    From Mr. Bruce's drawings.
THREE-TOED
GR. [  rfo  ]
Genus   XXXV.     BUNTING.
i. Snow Bunting.
N" 18. Variegated B.
Var. A. Spotted B.
19. Shaft-tailed B.
Var. B. Black-breafted
20. Orange-fhouldered B.
B.
2t. Panayan B.
Var. C. Pied B,
22. Angola B.
2. Tawny B.
23. Cape B.
3. Mountain B.
Var. A.
4. Black B.
Var. B.
5. Ortolan B.
Var. C.
Var. A.
24. Barred-tail B.
Var. B.
25. Rice B.
Var. C.
Var. A.'
Var. D.
26. Cirl B.
6. Chinefe B.
27. Foolifh B.
7. Yellow B.
28. Black-faced B.
8. Common B.
Var. A.
9. ReedB.
29. Weaver B.
Var. A.
30. Crimfon B.
0. Muftachoe B.
31. Familiar B.
1. Lefbian B.
32. Yellow-faced B.
2. Lorrain B.
33. Amazon's B.
3. Louifiane B.
34. Olive B.
4. Pfittaceous B.
35. Pafferine B.
0$: WhidahB.
36. Rufty B.
6. Dominican B.
37. Black-throated B.
7. Long-tailed B.
38. Brafilian B.
N°3Q. C   rfi   ]
1
N9 39. Mexican B.                     N° 52. Blue B.
40. Military B.                              53. Indigo B.
41. Black-headed B.                      54. Painted B.
42. Brumal B.                               55. Red-rumped B.
43. Towhe B.                               56. Blue-faced B.
44. White-crowned B.                 57. Green B.
45. Wreathed B.                           58. Plata B.
lift
46. Yellow-breafted B.                 59. Bourbon B.
47. Sandwich B.                            60. Red-eyed B.
48. Aoonalafhka B.                      61. Green-headed B.
49. Black-crowned B.                  62. Grey B.
50. Pine B.                                   6_\. Surinam B.
51. Cinereous B.
TT_J IR D S of this genus have the bill ftrong, conic, the fides
J__# of each mandible bending inwards;   in the roof of the
upper mandible a hard knob, of ufe to break and comminute
hard feeds *.
Emberiza nivalis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 308. i.—Faun. Suec. N° 227. pl. 1.—                  _.
Scop.  ann.  i.  N" 2i4.-_W N° z^.-Muller,   z5o.-Kram.  el.          _5_S_?Jr^
p. 372.  7,— Georgi Reife,   p.   174.—Frifch.  pl. 6,—Phipps's Voy.          SUjN lUNl*.
p. 188.—Faun. Groenl. N° 81—Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixii. p. 4.03. 11.
L'Ortolan de Neige, Brif. om. iii. p. z8_.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 329.—PL enl.
497. f. 1.
Pied Mountain Finch, Albin. iii. pl. 71.
Snow Bunting, Br. Zool. i. p. 122. pl. 50.—Flor. Scot. i. p. 26.—Ara. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
*i|P,
CIZE of the Chaffinch.   Bill black: forehead and crown white,    Description.:
I
mixed with black on the hind part of the he.ad: back black :
* Gen. of Birds.
Vol. II.                                         Y                              rump
wt B    U     K.
I     N     G.
rump white: baftard wing, and ends of the greater coverts,
white : quills black; bafe of them white: fecondaries white, with
a black fpot on their inner webs: middle feathers of the tail
black; the three outer ones white, with a dufky fpot near
the ends: from chin to tail pure white : legs black.
This is found in the northern parts of Great Britain, and is
called in Scotland Snowflake, appearing in great flocks in the
fnowy feafon, and fuppofed to be the certain forerunner of hard
weather. A few breed in the fame places with the Ptarmigans,
but the major part come from the ftill colder regions: they are
found in all the northern latitudes, without exception, as far as
our navigators have been able to penetrate; being not only
found on the land of Spitzbetgen, but alfo upon the ice adjacent
to it, in large flocks; what can be found there for food is difficult to determine, as they are granivorous birds, and the only
fpecies of the genus found in that climate *. In America they
advance no farther to the fouth than Nova Scotia, never being
found at New Tork. I believe the more northward they are
found, the whiter the plumage becomes, fomewhat in the manner
of the Ptarmigan, whofe fummer and winter drefs is quite
different. I have one from Hudfon's Bay, and have feen others, in
which the whole head, neck, rump, and under parts, were white:
back black, fringed with white: wings and tail black and white
mixed, like that figured in the PL enluminees: while thofe found
in Scotland have fome blackifh markings about the head and
neck, like that figured in the Britifh Zoology. In the Faun.
Groenl. the female is faid to be dufky where the male is black,
except the breaft and belly, which are white: the temples tefta-
* Phipps's Voy. BUNTING.
ceous: in other parts of a dirty white where the male is of a pure
white.
163
L'Ortolan de Neige tachete, Brif. om. iii. p. 288. A.
Weifs Fleckige Ammer, Frifch. pl. 6.
SPOTTED B.
**pHlS differs from the firft, in having the whole of the white    Descriptk
parts tinged with yellow: the throat and fore part of the
neck marked with very fmall brown fpots.
L'Ortolan de Neige a poitrine noire, Brif. 0
Fringilla fublutea et fubnigra, Aldrov. av. i
t. iii. p. 289. B.
, pl. in p. 818.
T N this bird almoft the whole of the head, the upper part of the
neck, back, rump, upper tail coverts, feapulars, and wing coverts, are yellowifh white:   round the bill, and all the under
parts, blackifh : wings and tail black and white mixed.
BLACK-
BREASTED B.
L'Ortolan de Neige a Collier, Brif. t
pl. 54.
. iii. p. 290. D.—Buf. oif. iv.
P- 335-
Pied Chaffinch, Alb,
rpHE bill is reddifh, with a blueifh longitudinal ftreak: the
eye-lids are black, the irides white: the head, throat, and
neck, white; but at the lower part of the neck are three circles,
the upper one of a lead-coloured blue, the next white, and the
loweft blue : reft of the body reddifh brown, mixed with greenifh
yellow: on the breaft is a denticulated blueifh mark, tending
towards the belly: wing coverts and quills white, with a mixture
of greenifh yellow in feme places, and black in others: the
Y 2 eight BUNT
N
eight middle tail feathers, and outermoft one, are White; the
outermoft but one black : legs and claws reddifh flefh-colour..
This variety was found in the county ofEffex.
Emberiza nivalis, Faun. Suec. 227. B.
Great Pied Mountain Finch, Brambling, or
Will. orn. p. 255• pl. 77.
Pled Mountain Finch, Albin. iii. pl. 71 ?
Tawny Bunting, Br. Zool. i. N° 121.
Lev. Muf.
Sea Lark, Rail Syn. p.
T E N G T H fix inches and three quarters. Bill fhort, yellow, point black: crown of the head tawny; forehead
darkeft : neck the fame, but paler : throat almoft white, changing to a dull yellow near the breaft, which, with the under parts,
is white dafhed with yellowifh marks * : the back and feapular
feathers are black, edged with pale reddifh brown : rump, and
upper tail coverts, half white half yellow :. the firft fix quill feathers dufky, the lower parts of them white; on the feven following ones the white gradually gains on the dufky parts, fo that
the laft of them is wholly white, except a dufky fpot; the two
next quills wholly white; the reft of the quills, the baftard wing,
and feapulars, are black, edged with pale red : the outer fecondaries the fame colour as the quills, but the reft of them white,,
forming a bed of white on the wing : the four middle tail feathers are dufky black, fringed with white ; the three outer ones
on each fide white, marked with a dufky fpot on the outer web;
• This is not conftant, my fpecimens of M. and F. have the under part-
wholly white.
but BUN
I     N     G.
i65
but the third on both webs at the tip: legs black:  hind claw
very long.
This fpecies is now and then met with in the northern parts of Place-.
England; but I believe no where very common.
Leffer Pied Mountain Finch, or Brambling,  Will, t
North, p. 423.   pl. 13. f. 1.
Mountain Bunting, Br. Zool. i. N° 123.
. p. 255. — Morton.   MOUNTAIN B,
Mp H E bill is fhort, thick, and ftrong, black at the point; the
reft yellow : forehead of a dark chefnut: hind part of the
head and cheeks lighter: hind part of the neck, and back, afh-
coloured, the latter more fpotted with black : the throat white t
breaft and belly waved with flame-colour : at the fetting-on of
the wing grey; the five firft feathers blackifh brown, the reft
white, the point of each dafhed with brown : the three outer tail
feathers white, the reft dark brown : feet black : the hind claw
as long again as the others.: the breaft of the female is of a
darker colour than that of the male.
This is faid to. be found in Torkfhire and Northampton/hire, and
to be ftill a different fpecies from the others *_.
* Linnaus has comprized the whole of the foregoing under one fpecies, our
firft-mentioned, fnppofing all the others either in the fummer drefs, or in their
approaches towards it. Mr. Pennant is of a different opinion, from his own ob-
fervations ; and we have not hefitated a moment to depend on fo good
authority. i66
BUN
I     N     G,
•    Emberiza hyemalis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 308. 2.
L'Ortolan de neige noir, Brif. orn. iii. p. 289. C.
L'Ortolan Jacobin, Buf. oif. iv. p. 335.
Snow Bird, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 36.—Kalm. Trav. ii. p. 51. 81 •—Arfi. Zool.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
"DILL white : head, throat, neck, back, feapulars, rump, and
upper tail coverts, black, inclining in fome parts to lead-
colour : from the breaft to the vent white : quills and tail black :
legs grey.
Thofe in the Britifh and Leverian Mufeums have the tip of the
bill black : the fore part of the neck lead-coloured, and the two
outer tail feathers with ferruginous margins.
Seen in Virginia and Carolina in winter only, chiefly in fnowy
weather : called by fome the Chuck Bird.
Emberiza hortulana,   Lit.
pl. _.—Muller, N'
L'Ortolan, Brif. orn. iii. p
247. f.i.—Olin  u
Hortulane, Rail Syn. p. 94. 6.—Will, orn
Ortolan, Albin. iii. pl. 50.—Ara. Zool.
Lev. Muf.
Syft. J.  p. 309. 4. — Faun, Suec. zzg. — Frifch.
'S3-
269. 4. — Buf. oif. iv. p. 305. pl. 14. — Pl. enl.
p. 270. pl. 40.
COMEWHAT lefs than the Yellow-hammer: length fix
inches and a quarter. Bill yellowifh : the head and neck are
cinereous olive: round the eyes yellowifh : throat the fame, bordered on each fide with a cinereous line under the jaw : back, and
feapulars, brownifh chefnut, mixed with black in the middle of
the feathers, but inclines moft to chefnut towards the rump : the
under parts very pale rufous, lighteft towards the vent: wing feathers BUN
N     G.
167
thers brown, deepeft in the middle; fome of them have rufous
and others grey edges : tail deep brown, with rufous edges, except the outer feather, which is edged with white, and the inner
part of the next to it tipped with white; though in fome birds the
outer feather is marked obliquely with white near the end, with
a brown tip :  legs yellowifh.
The female differs in having the head and neck inclining to
afh-colour, marked with fmall blackifh lines down the fhaft of
each feather : otherwife like the male.
Thefe birds are found in feveral parts of Europe, but are not
met with in England; are common in France and Italy, and fome
parts of Germany * and Sweden -f, migrating from one to the
other in fpring and autumn; and in their paflage are caught in
numbers, in order to fatten for the table.. This is done eafily,
by including the birds in a dark room, fetting before them plenty
'of oats and millet, which they foon grow fo fat with, that they
would die from that caufe alone, did not their feeders kill them
firft, for the fake of emolument from the fale of them. Their
flefh is thought to be one of the moft exquifite morfels yet
known, being as it were a lump of rich fat; and the birds arrived at this ftate will often weigh three ounces each-—It is alfo
very common in the fouth of Ruffia, and in Sibiria, as far as the
river Ob;. but never goes much to the north J-
This fpecies will fometimes fing very prettily, and has been
kept for that purpofe. The fong is not unlike that of our Tel-
low-hammer, but finer and fweeter.
In fome parts it makes the neft in a low hedge; in others, on
\ Hifl. des oif. i68
Var. C
Dsscript
1
BUNT
N     G.
the ground *. It is carelefly conftrucled, not unlike that of thd
Lark. The female lays four or five greyifh eggs, and in general
has two broods in a year. Sometimes frequents oat-fields, of
which it feems very fond, foon growing exceeding fat; and is
thought fufficiently fo for the table : but never reckoned fo delicious as when fattened artificially.
- L'Ortolan jaune, Brif. orn. iii. p. 272. A.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 312.
Var. A. Aldrovandus's firft fort of Yellow-hammer,   Will. orn.  p. 270. l.—Raii
Syn.p.g^. N° 1.
Description.     HPHI S is the fize of the laft, and is all over of a ftraw-colour,
except the edge of the wing and the quills, which are
white : the bill, and legs, reddifh.
L'Ortolan blanc, Brif. om. iii. p. 373, B.—Btf. oif. iv. p. 313.
Hortulanus albus, Aldrov. Rail. Syn. p. 94. N° 2.—Will. orn. p. 270. N° 2.
Description.    'T1 H I S is wholly white, as pure as that of the Swan.
L'Ortolan a Queue blanche, Brif. om. iii. p. 273. C.—Buf. oif iv. p. 314,
Hortulanus, N° 5. Rati Syn. p. g^.—Will. orn. p. 270. N° 5.
'T'HIS differs  little from the common, except in the tail,
which is almoft wholly white.
• In Lorraine among the wheat.   Hifl. des oif. L'Ortolan noir, Brif. orn. iii.  p. 274. D.—Buf. of. iv. p. 313.
Hortulanus, N°4. Rail Syn. p. 94.—Will. orn. p. 270.
rV H E whole body of this bird is blackifh, except the head    Dbscriptio:
and neck, which incline to green :   the bill red :   the legs
cinereous.
Buffon alfo mentions a further variety, which had the throat
yellow mixed with grey, a grey breaft, and a rufous belly.
L'Ortolan de la Chine, Son. Voy. Lid. vol, ii. p. 201.
"DILL pale rufous : irides yellow : top of the head, and all
the upper parts of the body, of a reddifh rufous colour, with
yellowifh edges : the leffer wing coverts very light yellow; the
fecond quills deep brown, edged with rufous grey; the prime'
quills umber-colour, edged with dull yellow : the throat, breaft,
belly, and vent, fine yellow : down the middle of the belly a longitudinal ftreak of brown : the tail of this laft colour, edged
with grey ; the legs pale rufous.
This inhabits the fouthern provinces of China, in the months of
OUober, November, and December.
6.
CHINESE BUNTING.
1
Emberiza citrinella, Lin. Syft. i. p. 309. e.—Faun. Suec. N° 230. — Scep-^
ann. i, N" 209.—Muller, p. 252.—Frifch. pl. 5.—Olin. uc. pl. in p. 50.
Kram, el. p. 370. 1.—Georgi Reife, p. 174.
Le Bruant, Brif. orn. iii. p. 258. 1 Buf. oif. iv. p. 342. pl. 8.—P1. enl.
30. f. 1.
Yellow-hammer, Rail Syn. p. 93. A. 2.—Will. om. p. 268. pl. 40, —Albin.
i. pl. 66.—Br. Zool. N° 119. pi. _o.—Ara. Zool.
Br. Muf     Lev. Muf
T ENGTH fix inches and a quarter. Bill dufky: irides-
hazel : crown of the head of a beautiful pale, and in fome
birds of a full yellow * : nape greenifh : cheeks yellow : over thc
eyes a brownifh ftripe, paffing backwards: the hind part of the
neck, and upper parts of the body, are blackifh down the fhaft,
rufous on the fides, and fringed with grey : rump pale tawny:
chin, and under parts, yellow, inclining to reddifh on the breaft,
and dafhed with dufky on the fides : the wings are reddifh
brown, olive, or dufky, mixed, and edged chiefly with grey : the
tail brown, a little forked ; the two middle feathers edged with-
grey, the others outwardly with olive, except at the ends, where
the margin is grey ; the outermoft of all edged with white ; and
a fpot of white on the two outer ones, juft at the tip : the legs
are yellowifh brown.
The female is much duller in colour, and has very little yellow
about the head.
I believe this to be full as common as any of our Britifh birds,
and known by every fchool-boy to make a neft compofed of hay,
* In fome birds the crown is dafhed with brown, and in others I have feen it
quite browh, furrounded with a wreath of deep yellow.
ftraw BUN
I     N     G.
ftraw mixed with a little mofs, dried leaves, and ftalks, very
ill put together, and lined with hair or wool; generally on the
ground, though now and then in a very low bufh. The eggs in
general four or five in number, marked with brown or blackifh
irregular ftreaks, with here and there a blotch. This bird has
more than one brood in a year.
It is a tame, filly fpecies, and reckoned of little value; its note
trifling, not often more than a fcream or two, and is therefore
never kept in a cage; though in fpring the male has a fort of fong,
confifting of feven notes; fix of the firft are of equal tones, and
pretty quick; the laft fharper than the others, and continued to
the length at leaft of three of the firft.
I believe this bird is found throughout Europe, and feeds both
on grain and infects. The flefh, for the table, does not deferve
commendation, when caught at large, as it is apt to prove bitter;
but how it might improve if fatted like the Ortolan, I am not
certain. I have been informed, that in Italy, where they eat all
fmall birds without diftinclion, they are thought to be very
good.
Emberiza miliaria, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 308. 3.—Faun. Suec. N° 228.—Iter Scan.       COMMON
292. pl. 4. — Brun. 247. — Muller, N° 251. — Kfam. el. p. 371. 6.—
Frifch. pl. 6.—Olin. uc. pl. in p. 44.
LeProyer, Brif. orn. iii. p. 292. 10.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 355. pl. 16.—Pl. enl.
253-
Bunting, Rail Syn. p. 93. — Will. orn. p. 267. pl.40. — Albin. ii. pl. 50.—
Br. Zool. i. N« 118.—Ara  Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
CIZE of the Yellow-hammer, but ftourer in the body.    Bill    Description
pale brown : general colour of the plumage pale olive brown, BUN
X    N     G.
with a blackifh dafh down the. fhaft of each-feather, which is
fringed on the edge with rufous: under parts plain yellowifh
white, dafhed on the fides with dufky : quills dufky, with yellow*-
ifh edges: tail feathers much the fame, and a trifle forked :. legs
pale brown.
The female differs little, except In palenefs of colour, from the
male.
This is common In England, but much lefs fo than the laft;
and in winter unites into large flocks. The female builds the
neft three or four Inches from the ground, on fome tuft of decayed herbage or dead plant, and lays five or fix eggs. During
the time of the hen's fitting, the male is feen entertaining her
'with his fcream, for I will not call it fong, fitting on fome bare,
and often projecting part of the branch of an adjacent tall tree i
where he may be obferved, all of a heap, every now and then uttering a tremulous kind of fhriek, three or four times repeated.
At the latter end of harveft unite into flocks, and remain fo for
the moft part during the winter,, where they are fhot in numbers,
or caught In nets ; and, from their fimilar plumage, are fold for.
Larks to the ignorant; and indeed by the better informed often.
pafs by the name of Bunting Larks.
Though thefe birds remain the whole year in England, yet we-
find them named as migratory on the Continent. In France they
are rarely feen in winter, departing with the Swallow *; and are
faid to be more plenty about Rome f than elfewhere. They are
common throughout Germany, the fouthern parts of Ruff a, Sweden, and Denmark, but not in Sibiria%..
* Hifl. du of. Embe
riza fchceniclus,
Lin
Syft.
■P- 3*
1. 17.-
-Faun
. Suee.
N°23
.—_?>-_».
251. — Muller,
N»
254.-
-Kram
. ,/. p.
37»-
^5-
-_>»/«_
pl. 7—
Georgi Refe, p.
174
L'Ort
olan de Rofeaux
Br
if. orn
111.  p
274.-
-_?«/.
„/. iv.
P- 3*5
—Pl. enl.
247. f. 2. (the
male
)497-
2. (female)
Great
er Reed Sparrow
, P.
tit Syn
P-93-
A-3-
-Will
orn,p
. 269.—
-Albin, ii.
pl. 51.—Br. Zool. i
N°u
Q.f—Ara. Zooi
Br.Muf   Lev.Muf.
CIZE of the Yellow Bunting r  length five inches and three   Description.
quarters. Bill brown : irides hazel: the head, throat, fore
part of the neck, and breaft, black :• on each fide of the neck a
pale ftreak, which paffes backward, encirling the back part of the
neck, as a ring: the upper parts of the body and wings brownifh
red,, with- a ftreak of black down the fhafts : the lower part of
the breaft and belly white, ftreaked with dufky on the fides : the
eight middle tail feathers black; the two middle ones edged
with rufous; the others only fo on the outer margins; the laft
but one white, except from the bafe to the middle of the inner
web, which is black, and the.fhaft wholly black; the outer one-
is alfo white, except at the bafe and tip, where it is dufky; all of'
them fharpifh at the ends :  the legs pale brown.
In young-birds the black on the head is mixed with brown *.
The female has the head and neck partly of the fame colour as        Female. .
the upper parts of the body ;  otherwife is marked much like the
male, though more dull.
This fpecies frequents marfhy grounds in England, efpecially.     fj*08 AND
* •' At the approach' of winter the head changes to hoary, buton return of
' fpring refumes its priftinp jettynefs."    Br. Zool. 1
BUN
N
where reeds grow; between four of which it faftens the neft *,
two or three feet above the water. It is compofed of dry grafs-
ftalks, and lined within with the foft down of the reed: the eggs
are four or five in number, of a blueifh white, marked with irregular purplifh veins, moft.confpicuous at the large end.
I have now and then feen this bird in hedges on the high
roads; but its refort is for the moft part near the water,- and it
is moft likely that it feeds on the feeds of the reed, like the
Bearded Titmoufe -j-, as I have found the feeds in its flomach.
They are fufficiently plenty; but I do not find that they form
themfelves into flocks of more than fix or eight together.
With us they remain the whole year; but in fome parts of the
continent feem migratory. In the province of Lorrain numbers
are feen paffing on their paffage to other parts, both in fpring;
and autumn J, though fome few flay there the whole year. The
extreme limits of their peregrination are between Sweden and
Italy.
In fpring the male fits perched on a reed, and has a pleafing
kind of warbling fong. It is frequently heard to fing in the
night, as well as day-time.
Buffon mentions a bird by the name of Coqueluche ||, which came
from Sibiria; but I do not find any thing in the defcription differing from our Reed Sparrow, except that it has only a fhort
* Not at equal diilances, but two and two on each fide, pretty near eacl
other, the reft of the neft hanging free.
t In Auflria faid to be fond of millet. — " Viilitat feminibus, prafertin
" milio."   Kramer.
% Hifl. des oif. || Id. vol. iv. p. 320. BUNTING. 175
ftripe of white near the gape of the bill, inftead of paffing downwards on each fide of the neck, as in the laft-named bird.
TEN G T H five inches and a half.   Bill orange brown : head    Description.
and neck dufky black : upper parts of the body brown :
wing coverts incline to afh-colour: prime quills dufky, edged
with cinereous; fecondaries dufky, the outer webs brown : the
fix middle tail feathers dufky; the next on each fide the fame,
but white from the bafe to within a little of the end «n the inner
web; the two outer ones wholly white, except the end of the
outermoft, which is fringed with dufky near the tip : under parts
of the body pale *- legs orange brown.
In Sir Jofeph Banks's collection, from the Cape of Good Hope. Place;
Le Gavoue de Provence, Buf. oif iv. p. 321V—Pl. enl. 656. 1. MUSTACHOE
B.
J yENGTH four inches and two thirds.    Bill dufky : upper    dESCRiPTIok,
parts not unlike our Reed Sparrow : through the eye a
ftreak of white, paffing on each fide of the neck: under the eye a
large patch of black : chin white : on each fide the throat, from
the under jaw, a ftreak of black: breaft, and fides, pale brown,
fpotted with black; the reft of the under parts white : acrofs the
middle of the wings a bar of white : quills and tail dufky, edged
with rufous: legs pale brown.
Inhabits Provence :   feeds on grain : perches often.    In April Place,
is faid to fing agreeably.    Is called there Chic-gavotte, and -Chic-
tnouftache. vj6
I     N     G.
Le Mitilene de Provence, Buf. oif. iv. p. 322.—PL enl. 656. 2.
HP HI S is fomewhat like the laft, but has not the black fpot
under the eye; having, inftead of it, only, three narrow
black bands, the fpaces between which are white : it is alfo white
round the eye: the breaft, rump, and fides, are not fpotted with
dufky : the tail feathers are white, or edged with it, except the
two middle, which are dufky, edged with rufous.
This alfo is found in Proven'ce, and differs in not being in fong
till June; is more rare than the laft, and very wild; and, fetting
up a feream on the approach of any of the birds of prey *, it is
called Chic, or Chic de Mitilene.
L'Ortolan de Lorraine, Buf. oif. iv. p. 323.—PL t
Ortolan de pafiage, Pl. enl. 511. f. 2. (female)
. (male).
J E N G T H fix inches and a half. Bill brownifh flefh-colour :
the upper parts of the head, neck, and body, are rufous,
dafhed with black: fides of the head pale: through the eye a
ftreak of black : from the bafe of the lower mandible, and round
the chin, rifing to the ears, another ftreak of black : the under
parts, as far as the 'breaft, pale afh-colour, dotted with Mack;
* The Greeks in the ifland of Leftes, or Metelin, are faid to ufe this inftinft to
their advantage, by placing one of thefe birds among their poultry in their
yards, in a ftrong cage; by which means the fowls there kept are fooner ad-
vifed of the approach of the Hawk, or any bird of prey, than by any other
method.—#//?. des oif.
from BUNTING.
from thence to the vent deep rufous: leffer wing coverts plain
afh-colour; the others rufous and black mixed: the two middle
tail feathers rufous; the others part black and part white; but
the outer ones have moft white in them.: legs pale red brown.
The female is only five inches and three quarters long. The
bill black at the point: upper parts much like the male: no
black ftreaks on the fide of the head; but inftead, a whitifh trace
over the eye, and a patch of rufous beneath it: the under parts
are white, which paffes backwards a little on each fide of the
neck, like a half-collar: legs black: the tail, in the figure, feems
to be quite white beneath, except juft at the tips of the outer
feathers, which have a dufky ftreak.
Inhabits Lorrain.
»7T
Emberiza Ludovicia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 3
L'Ortolan de la Louifiane, Brif om. i
—Pl. enl. 158. f. l.—Ara. Zool.
. p. 278. 6.-Buf. oif. i
LOUISIANE B.
CIZE of the Yellow-hammer: length five inches and a
quarter. Bill ,rufous, fpotted with black: the head, throat,
and fore part of the neck, pale rufous: the top of the head
is furrounded with a wreathed irregular ftreak of black, fomewhat
like an horfe-fhoe: beneath the eye is a ftreak, and feveral
leffer markings of black: the upper parts of the body rufous,
dafhed with black: the lower part of the back, the rump, and
upper tail coverts, black : breaft and fides rufous : belly, thighs,
and under the tail, rufous white: greater wing coverts black,
with rufous edges: quills the fame: tail a little cuneiform, and
black: legs afh-colour.
Inhabits Louifiana.
Vol. II.
Aa
Emberiza 173
I     N     G.
14. Emberiza Pfittaeea, Lin. Syft. i. p. $iz. 18,
PSITTACEOUS La Linotte a longue queue du Brefil, Brif. orn. iii. p. 147. 35.
La Veuve eteinte, Buf. oif. iv. p. 168.
Fringilla Brafilienfis, Seba, i. p. 103. pl. 66. f. 5.
Description.   CI Z E of a Sparrow : length eleven inches and a half.    General colour a dull greyifh afh : the bafe of the bill furrounded
with pale red: wings yellow and pale red mixed: the tail the
colour of the body; the two middle feathers much longer * than.
the others, and tipped with chefnut.
Pi ace. Inhabits Brafil.
15. Emberiza Paradifaea, Lin, Syft. i. p. 312. 19.—-Scop. ann. i. N° 216 f»
4-WHIDAHB. La Veuve, Brif. om. iii. p. 120. 25. pl. 8. f. 1.
La Veuve a collier d'or, Buf. oif. iv. p. 155. pl. 6,
Grande Veuve d'Angola, PL enl. 194 \\
£$H»s        Another Indian long-tailed Sparrow, Will. orn. p. 25.1. §,. II.—Rail Syn±
p. 87, 10.—Petiv. Gaz. pl. 55. f. I,
Red-breafted long-tailed Finch, Edw. pl. 8-6..
Lev. Muf.
Description.    TD ATHER lefs than a Hedge Sparrow: length to the fide
tail feathers five inches and a half.    The bill lead-colour::
irides hazel || : the head, chin, and fore part of the neck,, back,.
* Three times the length of the body.    Hifl. des oif.
■f Scopoli thinks that this does not differ from the laft.
J Both in this,, and the plate of the Hij% des of. the figures are- thofe of the-
Whidah Bird, which is what Buffon would have us. underftand to be his Veuve?
a collier d'or. This is clear from his references: there muft be therefore fome_
aniftake in this matter.    The grande Veuve is a different bird.
I Chefnut, Buffon..
wings* U     N
I      N      G.
wings, and tail, black: neck behind pale orange : breaft, and
upper part of the belly, a full orange: lower belly, and thighs,
white: vent black : the two middle tail feathers are four inches
in length, very broad, and ending in a long thread; the two next
are thirteen, or more, inches in length, very broad in the middle,
narrower at the end, and rather pointed; from the middle of the
fhaft of this laft arifes another long thread; the reft of the tail
feathers are only two inches and a quarter long; the two middle
long ones are placed fomewhat vertically, and appear undulated
acrofs, and are more gloffy than the others : the legs flefh-
colour.
The female is wholly of a deep brown, almoft black; but does
not gain the full   plumage  under  three years.
This fpecies moults twice in a year. The male wants the long
tail feathers fix months out of twelve: it moults in' November,
when it firft lofes them, and the plumage is of a mixed black and
reddifh colour, and the head ftreaked black and white: it moults
again late in fpring, when it gets the fummer plumage; but the
tail feathers are fcarce complete till June, and fall again in November, as before mentioned.
The females, when young, are nearly like the males in their
winter drefs.
This is pretty common at Angola, and other parts of Africa;
and is called la Veuve, or Widow Bird, from the colour *. They
are often brought into Europe, where they frequently live many
years, and are in general lively active birds.
* Willughby :—But Edwards gives another reafon for the name—being a corruption of Whidah, a fort in Africa, in the neighbourhood of which they are common.    Whidah Bird, and Widow Bird, are founds very fimilar.
A a _ DOMINICAN B.
BUN
Emberiza ferena, Lin. Syft, i. p. 31:
La petite Veuve, Brif. orn. iii. p. 1
La Veuve Dominicaine, Buf. oif iv
26. pi. 8. f. z.
. 160.—PL enl. i
DATHER lefs than the laft: total length fix inches and
three quarters. Bill red:- upper part of the head black; the
crown rufous white: the back part of the neck, beneath the
head, is rufous white, which paffes forwards to join with the under parts, all of which, from the chin, and beneath the eyes, are
alfo rufous white*: the hind part of the neck, and back, are
black, edged with dirty white : inner wing coverts white; reft of
the wing black; the quills edged with white: the tail is black;
the two middle feathers are "pointed at the ends, and are more
than two inches longer than the others, all of which leffen in
length as they are placed outwardly;, three of them, next to the
middle feathers, have white tips; and the two outer ones are
white on the infide, and pale rufous without: the legs are
grey.
The female is of an uniform brown colour; and the feathers,
of the tail are all. of equal lengths, the two middle ones not being
longer than the others.
This fpecies moults twice in the year, like the laft; and, like
that, lofes its long tail feathers.
* The parts defcribed as rufous white by 2
and in Buffbn's account ofthe bird..
, are white in the Pl. e. Emberiza vidua, Lin. Syft. i. p. 312. 21.
La grande Veuve, Brif. om. iii. p. 127.
Long-tailed Sparrow with a fcarlet bill,
Syn. p. 87. 9.—Pet. Gaz. pl. 55, f.
:7.-Buf. oif. iv. p. 162.
Will. orn. p. 251. pl. 45.—Rail
T ESS than a Sparrow. Bill red: head, and all the upper
parts, of a greenifh black: fides of the head, and under
parts, dirty white, the black coming forwards on each fide of the
neck, like an half collar: acrofs the wing coverts a band of
white; the quills are fringed with brown: the tail feathers are
twelve in number; four of the middle ones are very long, the
two middle ones being ten inches and a half in length, and the
next on each fide nine inches; the others even; the long ones
are wholly black; the others black on the outer webs, and white
within; the two colours obliquely divided, having moft white on
the outer feathers : legs black, or brown: claws pale. This is
.the defcription of one in my poffeffion; but Briffon mentions a
fecond band, of a yellowifh colour, beneath the white one; and.
that the legs are fpotted with black and white.
Inhabits India..
+- LONG-
TAILED B.
Description.
-    Emberiza principalis, Lin. Syft. i, p. 313. 22,.
La Veuve d'Angola, Brif. om. app. p. 80,
La Veuve mouchetee, Buf of. iv. p. 165.
Long-tailed Sparrow, Edw. pl. 270. JPh|j_N.-'
CIZE of the Whidah Bird.    Bill red: the upper parts of the
head and body are black and rufous mixed, the black occupying the middle of each feather : the fides of the head, and under
parts, are white, except the breaft, which is of a pale rufous:
the
VARIEGATED
Description, U     N
I     N     G.
the leffer wing coverts are white, the greater black, with rufous
edges; quills of this laft colour: the tail is compofed of twelve
feathers; the two middle ones exceed the others by five inches
and a half; the next on each fide are one inch fhorter, thefe are
deep black; the others, which are fhort, and of equal length, are
of a dull brown-colour, margined with pale brown, and marked
each with a white fpot at the inner web : legs flefh-colour.
I have a great fufpicion that the two laft birds are one and the
fame, though the marks of the upper part may be different, as
we know that all the Whidah Birds vary exceedingly, both in
different times of the year, as well as age : whoever obferves the
figures referred to in the fynonyms, will be of my opinion.
Buffon thinks, that both this and the laft bird have twelve feathers in the tail, like others of this clafs, and that the four long
feathers are fupernumerary ones, as in the Peacock; but I can
affure him, that in the long-tailed there are only twelve in
all; and in the prefent one, had they been otherwife, fo accurate
a defcriber as Edwards could not have failed mentioning if
This laft author obferves, that the bird foon gains again the long
•feathers after moulting, contrary to the Whidah Bird, which is
often half a year without them.
This fpecies is found at Angola. The laft is faid to come from
India ; but I have feen fpecimens of the laft, which were faid to
come likewife from Angola, and is an additional reafon for my
thinking them the fame bird. .mberiza regia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 313. 23.
La Veuve de la Cote d'Afrique, Brif 0
enl. 8. f. 1.
n. iii. p.
_e Veuve a quatre brins, Buf. oif. iv. p.
158. pl
Br. Muf.   Le
v. Muf.
129. 28. pl. 9. f. i— Pl.       __ SHAFT-
- * TAILED B.
CIZE of a Linnet: length to the fhorter tail feather nearfour
inches and a half. Bill red : the upper parts of the plumage
are black : fides of the head even with the eyes, the under parts,
and round the neck, are rufous ; the hind part of the neck
fpotted with black : lower part of the thighs and vent black : the
four middle tail feathers are nine or ten inches long, and are
webbed only for about two inches- at the ends; the reft of them
are fimple fhafts, with fcarcely the leaft perceivable rudiment of
a web; the others are even, fhort, and black: legs red.
The female is brown, and has not the long tail feathers.
Thefe birds- moult twice in a year, and in the winter moult
the male becomes very little fuperior to a, Linnet in colour,,
having the plumage nearly like it, only, the grey a little
brighter.
Inhabits Africa, from the coaft's of which thefe birds are imported into England; but is a much fcarcer fpecies than the
Whidah one.
I have one of thefe birds in my collection ; but the upper parts-
of the plumage are not black, confifting only of two kinds of
ferown,, the darkeft occupying the middle of the feather, not
greatly unlike the back of a hen Houfe Sparrow :. the tail dufky,,
iwith pale rufous margins-
La U     N
La Veuve a epaulettes, Buf. oif. iv. p. 164.—/V. enl. 635.
Cape Sparrow, Kolb. Cap. ii. p. 159. p!. 7. f. 7.
'WBM?     Yellow-fhouldered Oriole, Brown's Illuft. pl. 11.
Loxia longicauda, J. F. Miller, pl. _.. A.
Br. Muf.     Lev. Muf.
CIZ E of a Song Thrufh : total length twenty inches; from the
bill to the fetting on of the tail only five. The bill is
ftrong and dufky ; the noftrils nearly hid in the feathers : tongue
fharp : the general colour of the plumage deep gloffy black:
the leffer wing coverts are crimfon, below this a bed of white;
fome of the quills are white, at the bafe, but hid when the wing
is clofed ; the fecond quills are as long as the prime ones : the
tail is compofed of twelve feathers, which hang fideways, like
thofe on the fides of a Cock's tail; fix of the middle ones are
very long, but unequal in themfelves, the two longeft are fifteen
inches long, the next on each fide fourteen inches, and the
next only eleven inches and a half; the others much fhorter-
the legs are brown, of the fize of thofe of a Thrufh: all the
claws long and hooked.
This is indigenous to the Cape of Good Hope.
La Veuve en feu, Buf. oif. iv. p. 167.
La Veuve a poitrine rouge, Pl. enl. 647.
  de l'Ifle de Panay, Son. Voy. p. 117. pi. 76.
CIZE  of the  Whidah Bird: length  twelve  inches:   colour
wholly black, except a large fpot of a bright red colour on
the  breaft:   four of the tail  feathers  are very long, pointed,'
hanging BUN
N     G.
Iianging downward, like thofe of the Whidah Bird, and are all
of a length : legs black.
Inhabits the Ifle of Panay^
Gros-bec a poitrine conleur de fen, Sttkrn. p. 277. 14;
§ I Z E of a Finch-. Bill fhort, like that of a Bulfinch : top of
the head and neck yellow; reft of the body black : tail
long-.
This is all the defcription which the author gives of it; but
his calling the breaft fire-coloured, in his fpecific defcription of it,
inclines us to think that it may have fome reference to the laft
fpecies.
Inhabits Angola.
Emberiza Capenfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 310
L' Ortolan du Cap de Bonne Efperance,
-Buf. oif. iv. p. 328.-.P/. enl. :
'..fLi4.fi, 4.
CIZE of the laft: length five inches three quarters. Bill
dufky, upper part rufous yellow, varied with black: top of
the head and neck dirty grey and black mixed : fides of the head
and chin dirty White, croffed with two ftreaks of black, the one
through the eyes, the other beneath them: the under parts
•dirty yellowifh white: the leffer wing coverts rufous ; the greatest
ones, quills, and tail, dufky, with rufous edges •: legs blackifh. •
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hopd
'Jesciuption.
B b BUN
I     N
L'Ojtolan a ventre jaune du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Buf. oif. iii. p. 326.—
PL enl. 664. f. 2. (the male), f. 1. (the female, or a young bird).
J^ENGTH fix inches and a quarter. Bill dufky : top of the
head and fides yellowifh white : over the eye from the noftrils
an arched ftripe of black ; behind the eye a fecond; and from
the lower mandible another, quite irregular, paffing in the direction of the jaw, and uniting at the back part with the two
others, wholly furrounding the fide of the head : at the nape is
a patch of the fame colour: the lower part of the neck and
back are brown; the feathers margined with paler brown: the
rump grey : all the under parts yellow, inclining to red on the
breaft, and verging to white at the chin and vent: the leffer
wing coverts cinereous ; the middle ones white ; and the greater
black, with rufous margins: quills black, bordered with white,
but thofenext the body have the edges rufous: the tail appears
forked, and each of the bifurcations is cuneiform in itfelf,
as the outer and inner feathers of both parts are fomewhat
fhorter than the others; the two middle feathers are dufky
brown, the others dufky with pale edges, and fome of the outer
ones are tipped with white: the legs are pale flefh-colour. This
is fuppofed to be the male.
THE other figure has the upper parts rufous brown: the
middle of the feathers dufky : the rump afh-colour: the mid-
J&t of the wing rufous longitudinally the whole way from the
bend : the under parts of the body dirty white: the head is not
black, but only two black ftreaks on the fides, the one behind
the BUNTING.
the eye and beneath it,  the other in the direction of the under
jaw: the tail wholly brown, edged with rufous.
187
T Likewife obferve a third figured in the Planches Enluminees *,
which has great refemblance to the laft. The top of the
head has a mixture of black and grey, and two ftreaks of black
in the fame places as in the laft bird, but rather broader; the
upper parts more inclined to rufous : fides of the head grey:
under parts of the body dirty white, marked with a mixture of
cinereous on the fore part of the neck: fides of the body pale
rufous : tail as in the laft bird ; the under part of it cinereous :
legs pale yellow.
This bird, Buffon fays, is common alfo at Cayenne, where it
is called Bonjour-commandeur f, from its cuftom of finging at
day-break; and is very common about inhabited places; has a
note almoft like a Sparrow; found often on the ground, and for
the moft part two and two together.
I cannot confider the three laft-defcribed but as mere varieties,
and, in all probability, of the Cape fpecies likewife ; but nothing
more than conjecture can be had about them, as their manners
are not known.
CIZE of a Bunting.   Kll flefh-coloured : noftrils covered with ,
fmall tufts of feathers : on the cheeks, and beneath the bill,
other tufts: head pale brown : back, wings, and breaft, the fame,
fpotted with darker brown: belly white: quills and tail brown,
barred with deep brown : legs rofe-colour: hind claw long, and
fcarcely curved.
• N° 386. f. 2. f Hifl. des oif. iv. p. 369.
Bb 2, Inhabits
BARRED-TAIL %>    U     N
N" Gr
'    Inhabits-China,   I faw the figure of this among fome Chinefe
drawings.
Emberiza oryzivora, Lin. Syfl. i p. 311. 16.
L'Ortolan de la Caroline, Brif orn. iii. p. 282, 8. pl. iy. f. _,—H enl: j88i
f, 1.
L'Agripenne, ou L'Ortolan de Riz, Buf. oif. iv. p. 337.
Rice Birds, Caufb. Car. i. pl. 14.— Edw. pl. 2g\.—ArcJ. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf,
ffi^ZE of a Sparrow : length, fix, inches three quarters. Bill?
dufky. ? tjbe_.foiie p\ant and fides.of the head,. al$ the under parts,,
and the back, are black : the feathers on the head, back, and
thighs, have rufous margins : the back part of the head and
neck are pM# rufous* but pale, or rather buff-colour : feapulars,,
and leffer wing and upper tail coverts d-y»6y white : the reft of
*&? BftSaiiB-thers black, edged: with brown : the quills edged
with yellowifh grey: the tail is black; in fhape rather forked ; all
the feathers ending in a fharp point; the tips of them brownifh :
the legs brown.
The fe$a_# i$, q£ tjhe fame fize and fhape, but the general colour rufous, here and there verging to brown.
This fpecies is migratory, but does not exceed the bounds of
America. Found in Cuba in flocks about September, and from}
thence take their departure for Carolina, and fo on to other parts,
flaying in each only fo long as the rice continues green; for when
ripe they will not touch it. Gome into Rhode Ifland and New
York at the end of April, or the fecond week in May, frequenting
the borders of fields, and live on infects, &c. till the maize is
fit for their palate; when they begin by pecking holes in the
fides of the hulks, and after fatiating themfelves go on to another i BUNTING.
ther; which leaves room for the rain to get in, and effectually
fpoils the plants. They continue ithere during the fummer, and
breed, returning.,, as autumn approaches, to the fouthward. They
^■•.frequently found mixed with the Red-winged Oriole, though
not one to ten of the latter ; and are alfo feen with the Blue
Jaysr The males and females do not arrive together, the females
come firft *.
This fpecies is known in the country by the names of Bob Lincoln and Conquedle ; likewife called by fome the White-backed
Maize-thief; faid to have a fine note f, and is now and then
kept in a cage for the fake of it.
Agripenne, ou Ortolan de la Louifiane, Buf. of.iv.p. 339.—Pl. enl. 38?-
f. 2.
CIZE of the laft. The upper parts of the head, neck, body,
and upper wing coverts, are olive brown: the under parts
pale yellow, paleft near the vent : the rump and upper tail
coverts yellow, crofTed with fine lines of brown :. the greater
wing coverts are black, edged with white : quills the fame, but
thofe in the middle have a great portion of white : the tail feathers black, and pointed at the ends, as in the laft bird; the
two middle ones are edged with yellow,, the others with yellowifh
white: the bill, and legs paler than in the laft-defcribed.
This is found in Louifiana, and is no doubt a mere variety of?
the laft fpecies.
• Amarn- Acad, iv. p, 576*
t Kalm, i$o
BUN
N     G.
Place and
Manners.
Emberiza Cirlus, Lin. Syft. i.
Le Bruant de Haye, Brif. om.
653. f. 1. 2.
Cirlus, or Zivolo, Rail Syn. p. 93. 4.—Will.
p. co.
1. 12.—Olin. uc. pl. in p. 50.
p. 263. z.—Buf. oif iv. p. 347.--Pl. e
. p. 269. 3.—Olin. uc. pl.
OI Z E of a Yellow-hammer: length fix inches and a quarter.
Bill cinereous brown : the head olive green, with a dufky
line down the fhaft of each feather: fide of the head yellow,
with a dafh of black between the bill and eye, and fome markings of black on the ears : the chin is alfo black, paffing a little
backwards: the hind part of the neck, back, and rump, brown ;
the feathers dufky in the middle : the under parts, from the chint,
are yellow; the breaft inclining to brown, and a few dufky ftreaks
on the fides of the body : acrofs the throat a yellow Band : the
tail is brown, edged with grey, the outer feather with white, and
has alfo a fpot of white on the inner web for half the length ; the
outermoft but one has alfo a fpot of white in the fame place,
but of a much fmaller fize; the fhape a little forked: the legs;
yellowifh.
The female is not unlike the male on the upper parts : the
under are yellow, ftreaked with dufky, and inclining to white at
the chin and vent: in fome the breaft inclines to green.
Thefe birds are found only in the warmer parts of France and
Italy, and frequent newly ploughed lands, feeding on grain,
worms, and infects, which they pick out of the ground : are often
found among flocks of Chaffinches, and their note is a little like
thofe birds, not unlike the words zi, zi; are eafily tamed, and
now and then kept in cages.   Said to live fix years *. IGI
Emberiza Cia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 310. 11.—Kram. el. p. 371. 3.
Emberiza barbata, Scop. ann. i. p. 210.
Le Bruant de Pres, Brif. om. iii. p. 266. 3.—Pl. enl. 30. f. 2.
Le Bruant fou, Buf. oif. iv. p. 351.
I Cirlus ftultus,  Raii Syn. p. 94, 5.—Will. orn. 271.
PafTeribus congener Aldr. Raii Syn. p. 87. 2 ?
AWmall bird a-kin to the Sparrow, Will, or
p. 250 ?
CIZE of the others. Bill dufky : head afh-coloured, fpotted
with black; the reft of the upper parts rufous grey, with a
blackifh fpot down the fhaft of each, feather, inclining moft to
rufous on the rump : fides of the head grey: over the eyes a
white ftreak : through the eyes, from the bill, a black one : from
the bafe of the under jaw another, paffing in the direction of the
jaw, and bending upwards: the under parts- of the body more
or lefs of a rufous-colour, almoft white on the throat: breaft
inclining to cinereous : quills dufky, edged with white: tail
black; the two outer feathers beyond the middle white; the
fhafts black; the two middle ones brown, margined with rufous.
The female, defcribed by LinnaUs, has a cinereous line on the
crown, varied on the fides with ferruginous and black : on the
temples a white line, and a black one from the eyes to the bafe
of the jaws : fore part of the neck cinereous : breaft and belly
ferruginous: back reddifh, variegated with black : wings afh-
coloured at the bafe: tail blackifh; the two middle feathers
brown ; the two outfide feathers half white.
Scopoli fays, that the bird defcribed by him is the male, and
that of Linnaus the female; and that the male has the ftreaks
or beards on each fide of the jaw, and the female not.
Bri{fon\: a#z
BUN
I     N     G.
Briffon's bird is ftreaked with black beneath, which I do not
fee in the Pl. enl.; and in this laft figure there is a line of black
through the eyes.
This fpecies frequents the warmer parts of Europe, and is found
chiefly in the mountainous parts *, where it is folitary : it is pretty
^common, and defervedly has gained the name of Foolifh Sparrow,
from its being ib foolifhly tame as to be caught by any fnare j
and its note is trifling, not better than our Yellow B. and not
unlike it, pronouncing the words zi, zi, or zip, zip f. It is met
with on the rocky mountains in the fouth of Sibiria, from theft
river Jeneife to the lake Baikal, but neither in Ruffia nor the weft
of Sibiria %.
, 19.pl. 6. f. 1.—
s.8. Emberiza quelea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 310. 8.
BLACK-FACED        j__ Moineau a bee rouge de Senegal, Brif. orn. iii
B' Buf. oif. iv. p. 485.—PL enl. 183. f. _.
Lev. Muf.
-_, CIZE of the Houfe Sparrow : length four inches three quar-
Uescription.      ^ re ~1
ters. The bill flout and thick, like that of the Grofbeak
genus, but the formation is truly that of the Bunting; the colour of it red : the forehead, throat, and cheeks, are black :. the
reft of the head and upper parts rufous grey : the middle of the
feathers on the back and upper parts dufky : the under parts pale
rufous, and plain, inclining to white on the breaft and belly:
quills and tail fekckifb, with cinereous margins: legs flefh-co-
loured,
* Kramer fays, in the fields, low fhrubs, and borders of woods.
f It is called Cia felvatica, or Cia montanina, by the Geneefe.—Willughbyi
% Mr. Pennant. BUN
I      N
The female * wants the black about the head, otherwife like Female',
the male.
Inhabits Africa.    That figured in the Pl. enl. has the fore part Place.
-of the neck red.
Moineau du Senegal, Buf. of. iv. p. 4^4.—Pl. enl. 223. f. 1.
rYK HIS  has the head, neck, and under parts red, inclining to
rufous : the upper parts  brown and dufky mixed, like our
Houfe Sparrow :   the forehead, between  the bill and eye, and •
round the throat, black: the bill is red : the legs brown.
This inhabits Senegal, and appears to be the laft fpecies in full
plumage, if not of a different fex.
B
* This
rif orn.
appears to
iii. p. 108
be Le Moi
pl. 5. f. 4
Vol.
II.
WEAVJiR B,
CIZE of a Houfe Sparrow.    Bill horn-colour: the plumage    D^
above reddifh brown; the middle of the feathers darkeft:
over each eye, and down the middle of the crown, a ftreak of
yellow : fides of the head mottled yellow and black : rump and
under parts yellow: down the middle -of the breaft a black
ftreak, broad, and a little divaricated on the fides: tail dufky;
•legs pale.
In winter the yellow colour difappears, and the bird is wholly
of a brownifh colour, like a Sparrow.
In the poffeffion of the Dutchefs Dowager of Portland; and I
have likewife heard of it in another collection. This bird, like
the Weaver Oriole, vol. i. p. 435, had the difpofition to interweave filk between the wires of its cage.
11 a bee rouge du Cap de Bonne Efperance, BUN
I     N     G.
Description.
Female.
Place.
It is probable that the three laft-defcribed may belong to, or
have the fame manners as each other, as I obferve a neft, compofed of two leaves fewed together, in the cafe with the firft, faid
to have been done by that bird.
Moineau de l'Ifle de France, Pl. enl 665. f. 1,2.
CIZE of the laft. The bill dufky : the head, breaft, rump,
upper tail coverts, and thighs, crimfon : hind part of the neck
and back blackifh and olive mixed, with here and there a dafh of
crimfon : wings blackifh, with pale edges : quills and tail black,.
edged with greyifh green: lower part of the breaft, belly, and
vent, afh-colour : legs pale flefh-colour.
The female is olive green, paleft beneath: the reft as in the
male.
Thefe came from the Ifle of France.
31-
FAMILIAR B.
Emberiza familiaris, Lin. Syft. i. 13.
Le Bruant familier, Buf. oif. iv. p. 367.
Motacilla familiaris, Ofb. Voy. i. p. 157.
CIZE of a Sifkin. The bill pointed, ftrait, narrow, and
black : head, neck, and breaft, afh-coloured: the upper
parts of the body afh-coloured, fpotted with brown: the lower
parts of the back, under the wings, and towards the tail, yellow :
tail coverts white:  the tail tipped with white.
This was met with at Java by Mr. Ofbeck, and was exceedingly
familiar; for if the cage-door was opened, it would jump upon
the firft perfon's hand that was offered; if -any one whiftled to
it, it fang very fweetly in return; if it faw a difh of water, it
went immediately and bathed itfelf therein. It was fed with rice.
6 Emberiza BUN
Emberiza flaveola, Lin. Syft. i. p. 311, 14.
La Flaveole, Buf. oif. iv. p. 363.
Emberiza Amazona, L
L'Amazone, Buf. of. i
t. Syfl. i. ]
. p. 364.
YELLOW-
FACED B.
C IZ E of a Sifkin : forehead and throat yellow: general colour     Dmchptk
grey.
Native place uncertain ; Linnaus fays merely, that it inhabits Place.
warm countries.
AMAZON'S ]
OI Z E of a Titmoufe : general colour brown : the crown of
the  head  yellow:   bafe  of the  wings beneath, and vent,
whitifh.
Inhabits Surinam.
Emberiza olivacea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 309. 6.
Le Bruant de St. Domingue, Brif. orn. iii.
L'Olive, Buf. of. iv. p. 463.
p. 300. 14. pl. 13. f. 3. the male.
np HIS fpecies is fcarce bigger than a Wren, the length
only three inches three quarters. The bill grey brown:
the head and upper parts of the body are olive green: throat
orange: between the bill and eye a fpot of yellow, ftretfihjiBg
over the eyes: fore part of the neck, and upper part of the
breaft, black : the reft of the under parts olive grey: edge of
the wing yellow : quills brown, edged with olive green : tail of
this laft colour : legs grey brown.
The female has the colours lefs brilliant, though marked in
C c 2 general 196
B     U
N
r   n    g.
general like the male: it has not the orange yellow on the head
and throat, nor the black on the fore part of the neck and
breaft: all the under parts are grey, with a flight mixture of
olive.
Inhabits St. Domingo.
PASSERINE ]
Description
Emberiza pafferina, PallasTrav. vol. i. p. 456. N° 10.
CI Z E of a Reed Sparrow. Head dirty, ferruginous, afh-colour j.
fome of the feathers on the crown black :. behind the eye a
pale ftreak, and on each from the chin a white line : back grey
brown ; the middle of each feather black : the fore part of the
neck black, with the margins of the feathers pale ; the reft ©f
the under parts cinereous white, blotched with pale ferruginous
on the fides: wings, for the moft part, ferruginous, with yellowifh margins : tail a little forked, black; the two middle
"feathers margined with ferruginous; the two outer ones are
obliquely black and white, divided longitudinally, the outer feathers almoft to the bafe, and the laft but one only to the middle,
but the fhafts are black in both, and dilated towards the tip ]
legs pale brown.
The female is like the male, but wants the black head and
chin.
Inhabits Ruffia.    Seen in great plenty along the Jaick in au- I
tumn, migrating in pairs to the fouth 3 is pretty tame; the flefh
accounted excellent.   I     N     G.
JSmberiza rutila, Pall. Trai
Rally Bunting, ArB, Zool.
ii. p. 698. 23 .
HP HE head,  neck, breaft, and fides of this bird  are ruft-    D_scrh>tiok.
coloured: belly white: wings ferruginous, with two white
marks on the prime quills : tail the fame.
Inhabits Ruffia. Place.   •
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Yellow-hammer. Bill pale brown: the upper
parts of the plumage cinereous, ftreaked with brown on the
back : over the eye a ftreak of yellow ; from the gape another,
paffing under the eye : chin white: on the throat a large triangular fpot of black : breaft, and middle of the belly, yellow 1
fides, over the thighs, ftreaked with dufky : the greater wing coverts tawny: quills and tail dufky, with pale edges : legs
brown.
The female is like the male above; but has no black fpot on
the throat, nor ftreaks above the eye: beneath the eye is a dufky
ftreak, in the direction of the jaw : between the bill and eye
white : the belly and fides as in the male.
Inhabits America.
BLACK-
THROATED  :
Pl. XLIV.
Description.
Le Bruant du Brefil, Brif. orn. iii. p. 299. 13.—PL enl. 321. f. i
Le Guirnegat, Buf. oif. iv. p. 361.
Guiranheemgatu, Raii Syn. p. 89. 2.—Will. orn. p. 253.
CIZE of a Sparrow.    Bill and eyes black i the crown, throat,    Drscript
neck, and under parts, yellow: back, feapulars, wings, and
tail, varied with greenifh, yellow, and brown: legs brown.
x The U     N
N
The female has not the gaudy colours of the male, bei
plain, like a Sparrow, and has a note like it.
Thefe inhabit Brafil.    The male has an agreeable note.
La Therefe jaune, Buf. of. iv. p, 362.
Bruant du Mexique, Pl. enl. 386. f. 1.
T ENGTH fix inches and a half. Bill pale: head, as far as
the crown, fides of the head, throat, and fore part of the
neck, yellow: the upper parts, like the Yellow B. of a brownifh
colour, the brown on the fides of the neck tending upwards to
the eye in a point: the under parts dirty white, fpotted with
brown : quills and tail edged with pale brown : legs pale.
Inhabits Mexico.
Emberiza militaris, Haffelq. voy. p. 285. 48.
OEAD and back yellowifh brown : breaft, and lower part of
the back, yellow : fhoulders greenifh : belly white : quills and
tail brown ; the outer edges yellowifh at the tips: belly white.
Found near Malta.
Emberiza melanocephala, Scop. ann. i. p. 208.
CIZE of a Yellow-hammer. Head black, extending to the
middle of the neck : the back rufous: throat, breaft, belly,
thighs, and rump, yellow: fides of the breaft inclined to rufous:
quills brown, with whitifh margins: tail plain brown, but paler
than the quills. B     U     N     T     I     N
Emberiza brumalis, Scop. ,
CIZE oftheSifkin.    Forehead, and round the eyes, yellow:
hind head, neck, and fides, cinereous: back yellow brown:
the under parts of the body, and vent, yellow : thighs-whitifh :
quills brown, with yellow edges.
This fpecies is common about the county of Tyrol, in Auftria,
where it is called Citrinello: is frequently caught in November,
with bird-lime ; and may be kept in a cage, and fed with hemp-
feed.
Fringilla erythropthalma, Lin. Syft. i. p. 318. 6.
Le Pinfon de la Caroline, Brif. orn. iii. p. 169. 44.
 noir aux Yeux rouges, Buf. oif. iv. p. 141.
Towhe Bird, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 34.—Ara. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
T ENGTH eight inches. Bill brown: irides red: head,
throat, neck, back, wing coverts, and rump, black: breaft,
belly, fides, thighs, and under tail coverts, dull red: middle
of the belly white: quills and tail black; the firft edged with
white ; the laft a little forked : legs brown.
The female is wholly brown, except on the breaft, which has a
flight tinge of red.
This fpecies inhabits Carolina, and frequents the moft fhady
woods : is feldom feen except in pairs : comes into New York in
fpring: has no fong, but a kind of twittering note: is a reftlefs
bird.    By fome called the American Bulfinch. N     G.
Emberiza leucopnrys, Phil. Tranf. vol. ixii. p. 403.
White-crowned Bunting, Ara. Zool.
CIZE of a Chaffinch: length feven inches and a quarter:
weight three quarters of an ounce. Bill flefh-colour : on the
crown a white ftripe, which does not quite reach the bill: on
each fide of this is a ftripe of black: over the eyes a line of
white, which paffes to the vertical ftripe behind: neck cinereous, paleft on the breaft : back ferruginous brown: rump cinereous brown: the feathers edged with cinereous: wings
brown; the outer edge of the prime quills very pale; the infides
cinereous: acrofs the wings two bands of white: the baftard
wing white: the under parts are white : the breaft afh-colour:
vent and thighs yellow: tail brown, even at the end: legs flefh-
colour.
The female is like the male.
This fpecies inhabits Canada, and vifits Severn Settlement in
June: it is alfo met with at Albany Fort in May; where it flays
the fummer, and departs in September. It makes the neft in the
bottom of willows, and lays three chocolate-coloured eggs: the
chief food is feeds of graj's, worms, grubs, &c.
WBEATfiED B.
Description.
Emberiza luSuofa, Scop. ann. i. N° 215.
CIZE of the greater Titmoufe. Bill black : a white line begins at the forehead, and goes on to the nape, where it ends:
an the middle of each wing is a white fpot: the forehead, bread,
belly, rump, and vent, are alfo white: the reft of the bird
is black.
This BUNTING.
This defcription is taken from the living bird, by Scopoli; but
from whence it came not mentioned.
Emberiza fuperne rufa, fubtus flava, fafcia peftorali tranfverfe ferruginea,
JV. C. Petr. xv. p. 485. N° 1. (Ana. J. Lepechin.)
Emberiza aureola, Pall. Trav. ii. p. 711. N° 23.—Georgi Reife, p. 174.
Yellow-breafted Bunting, Ar&. Zool.
YELLOW-
BREASTED 1
"DILL pale; tranfparent, except at the edge of the upper   Description.
mandible, where it is blackifh: forehead blackifh, with a
fhade of the fame on the crown: hind head, nape, and between
the wings, rufous; the feathers fringed with grey at the tips:
back and rump the fame, but more hoary, and fome of the fhafts
blotched with black: feapulars white: outer webs of the fecond
wing coverts rufous; the edges of them whitifh, forming a dafh
of the fame on the wing: quills brown, with white edges: fecondaries brown; within ferruginous: cheeks and throat black:
breaft and belly yellow; acrofs the breaft a ferruginous crefcent:
under tail coverts white : tail a little forked, brown; the two
outer feathers have a longitudinal ftripe of white on the inner
web : legs dirty white.
The female has the crown blacker, and the margins of the        Female.
feathers on the back more hoary; otherwife like the male.
Inhabits the pine forefts of Catharinefburgh.    Alfo met with on Place.
the poplars and willows in the iflands of the Irtifh, and other
rivers in Sibiria.    Found alfo in Kamt/chatka.
The fong is much like that of the Reed Sparrow. SANDWICH B.
Description.
U     N
N     G.
Aoonalafhka Bunting, Ara. Zool.
T E N G T H fix inches. Bill dufky : the upper parts- of the-
body brown ; each feather dafhed down the fhaft with darker
brown: at the noftrils arifes a.ftreak of yellow, which paffes over-
the eyes to the hind head; and from the gape is a dark one,.
paffing under the eye: fides of the head,.between the ftreaks,.,
dufky: the under parts of the body dufky white, dafhed with
brown: the middle of the belly plain dufky white: quills dufky
brown, with paler edges : tail brown : legs dufky.
This was met with at Aoonalafhka, and Sandwich Sound, by our
late voyagers-. A; fpecimen is now in the collection of Sir JofepB./
Banks.
T   ENGTH feven inches.. Upper-parts of the body, and*
tail,.plain brown, with a rufous tinge: the under parts dufky.
white, dafhed with blackifh, #s in the laft-defcribed: the middle -
of the belly plain dufky white.
Brought from Aoonalafhka with the laft'.
Lev. Muf
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill rather fhort, dufky: crown^
of the head of a fine yellow : forehead, and through the eye,,
black, paffing to the hind head, which is afh-coloured : the upper
parts of the body are reddifh bfown, marked down the middle of.
each feather with dark brown : coverts and quills fringed on the
edges with a paler colour: rump pale olive brown: chin dirty
white:   BUN
I     N     G.
white: throat, breaft, and belly, afh-colour, marked down the
^middle of the laft with pale yellowiih buff-colour: tail even at
?the end, and of a plain brown : legs brown: claws dufky.
Inhabits the Sandwich Iflands. I have feen alfo a bird not
-very unlike that, which was met with in Nootka Sound. This,
had the crown black, and a fpot of yellow on the fore part only :
41 double line of white on the wings: the belly in that bird was
alfo white.    I take this to differ only in fex from the fitft.
.Alia Emberiza; fpecies, &c. JV, C. Petr. -xv. p. 486. pl. 25. f. _. (J. Le-
pechin) the male.
Emberiza leucocephala, N. C. Petr. xv. p. 480. pl. 23. f. 3, (Gmelin.)
<Emberi_a pithyornus, Pall, Trav. vol. ii. p. 710.
CIZE of the Yellow-hammer. Bill dirty white : head faf-
ciated; firft a broadifh hoary ftreak down the middle, on each
fide a black one meeting at the hind head ; below this the nape is
hoary ; through the eyes a rufous ftripe; below it, on the
cheeks, a triangular fpot of white, and on the temples one of
black of the fame figure : fides of the neck, and throat, ferruginous : on the breaft a triangular large fpot: middle of the belly
hoary : fides rufous : vent whitifh : back, and rump, rufous; the
fhafts of the firft dufky : the coverts, and fecond quills, brown,
edged with rufous : greater quills, and tail, blackifh, with whitifh
margins, the laft forked, and the two outer feathers marked with
white from the middle to the ttip on the inner web: legs dirty
white : claws dufky. «
The female is wholly varied with grey and pale rufous :  the
D d 1 ihafts BUNTING.
fliafts of the feathers dufky; beneath, more inclined to rufous:
bottom of the belly dirty white : the reft as in the male.
Gmtiin met with this at Aftrachan, and on the fhores of the
river Don, among the reeds.
I believe it to be the fame bird mentioned in Pallas* Travels,
above-quoted; but in the defcription of the laft, the patch of
black on the temples is not mentioned. This is alfo found in the
pine forefts of Sibiria, even the moft northern parts. Has the
note of a Reed Sparrow.
It is found throughout Sibiria, from the Uralian chain quite to
the Lena, pretty common ; but is not in Ruffia, though fometimes found in winter about the Cafpian Sea *„
-t- CINEREOUS
Le Bruant de Canada, Brif. orn. iii. p. 296'. 11. pi. 14, E 1..
Le Cul-rouiTet, Buf. of. iv. p. _68.—Ara. Z00L
Br. Muf.     Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Yellow-hammer : length five inches and a half.
Bill pale brown :. the upper part of the head chefnut, with a
dafh of brown down the middle of each feather:- the reft of the
upper parts .the fame, but more inclined to grey: the rump-
wholly grey: upper and under tail coverts rufous white : the under parts of the body are dirty white,, marked with chefnut fpots a
quills, and tail, brown, edged with reddifh grey:. legs pale-
brown.
The female is more inclined to grey..
Inhabits BUNT
N     G.
Inhabits America. Comes from the north into New York, in
Marsh, and frequents the bottoms of the Red. Cedars. Seldom
feen above a foot from the ground.
aos
- Le Bruant bleu de Canada, Brif. o,
L'Azuroux, Buf. oif. iv. p. 369.
. pi. 14. f. i
CMALLER than the laft: length four inches and a quarter.
Bill pale brown : crown dull rufous : the upper parts of the
neck, and body, mixed dull rufous and blue; beneath, the fame,
but the rufous colour pale: greater coverts, quills, and tail,
brown, with the outer edges rufous: legs pale brown.
Inhabits Canada.
Le Tartgara bleu de la Caroline, Brif. orn. iii. p. 13, 6.
Le Miniftre, Buf oif. iv. p. 86.
Blue Linnet, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 45.—Ara, Zool.
Lev, Muf.
CIZE of a Sifkin : length five inches.    Bill deep lead-colour:
the whole of the plumage of fine blue; the top of the head
deepeft :   greater quills brown, edged with blue :   tail brown,
with a light tinge of blue: legs brown.
The female differs from the male, as it is much like the Linnet
in colour. The male is like the female in moulting-time, and is
only blue when in full plumage. It may alfo at that time be
known, from the female, as the edge of the wing is of a deep
brownifh. blue, whereas in the female it is greeH-ifh brown.
This-,
+. INDIGO B. B     U     N
•N
This inhabits Carolina, where it is called by fome The Parfon *;
by others The Bifihop f.    It is chiefly found in the inner parts, :|9
hundred and fifty miles from the fea, and frequents the mountains.    Is faid to fing like our Linnet.    The Spaniards at Mexico
call it Azul lexos, or far-fetched Blue-bird.    It feeds v>n millet.
It is common at New York: comes the beginningof April, and
frequents orchards when in bloom.
Eraberiza Ciris, Lin, Syft, \. p. 313. 24. (the male.) A3. Stockb. 1750, p.
278. pl. 7. f. 1.
Tanagra Cyanea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 316.6. (the female).
Fringilla maripofa,  Scop. asm. i. N° 222;
Le Verdier de la Louifiane (dit le Pape) Brif. orn. iii. p. 200. 53. App.
p. 74. — Buf. oif. iv. p. 176. pl. 9. — Pl, enl. 159. f. 1.2. (male and
female).
China Bulfinch, Albin. iii. pl. 68.
.Painted Finch, Cateft. Car. i. pl. 44. {the male).—Blue Linnet, pi. 45. (female).— Edw. pl. 130. (male).  273. (female).—Ar£t\, Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Hedge Sparrow: length five inches and a third.
Bill grey brown : irides hazel: »the head and neck are violet:
•round the eyes red: upper part of the back, and feapulars, yellow
green : the lower part, rump, and all beneath, red : the leffer
wing.coverts violet brown, wkh a tinge of red.; the greater of a
dull greenifh colour: quills brown, with the edges of fome
greenifh, of others red : the tail is brown ; the two middle feathers incline to red, and the others margined outwardly with
the fame ; legs brown.
1 Le Miniflre, Hifl. des of.
f L'Eveque, id. U     N
N     G.-
207
The female is dull green above, and beneath yellow green :'
quills brown, fringed with green: the tail is alfo brown and
green mixed.
This bird varies exceedingly: neither fex gets the full plumage till the third year. In the firft, both male and female are
brown : the male has the blue head the fecond, but the reft of
the plumage blue green : the wings, and tail, brown, edged with -
blue green. The female, at that time, inclines greatly to blue.
Befides this, ..they moult twice in a year. Hence it is not wonderful, that fcarce any two birds are quite alike.   -
Thefe birds inhabit the warmer parts of Canada, and all the
parts between that and Mexico, Brafil, Guiana *, &c. At Carolina none are feen - near inhabited parts, nor nearer than
an hundred and-fifty miles from the fea. They build on the
orange and other trees, but-are-feen there only in fummer. May^
be fed on millet, fuccory, and other feeds;, and frequently are to
be met with in cages in England.
The Dutch find means to breed thefe birds in Holland, like
Canary, and other birds; but Fnever heard of this being done in
England.
One variety of this bird has the under parts yellowifh, except
Place
Makk
talks of a bird called Kifhee Ktfhee, at Guiana, which he fays exceeds all the feathered tribe. The feathers are a confufed afTemblage of all -
the moft lively and beautiful colours in nature. Among thefe, yellow, fcarlet,
green, and a blackifh purple, or indigo colour, have the greateft fhare. Befides thefe, there are white, black, and blue.—Thefe birds are brought by the
Accawan Indians from the inland parts of the country ; and the common price
is two piftoles a pair ; but he adds, that many ineffiaual attempts have been '
made to convey them to Holland,—If it is not the bird in queftion, I know not <
what elfe it can be.
a fmall ■■ BUN
I     N     G.
^ fmall fpot of red on the breaft, which only lafts for a time.
The following moult it difappears, and, inftead of it, the whole
under fide is whitifh ; and the male greatly refembles the
female.
It is perhaps this variety, or one greatly refembling it, which
caufed Linnaus to fay that the female is blue all over, except the
belly, which is white.
The Spaniards call thefe birds by the name of Maripofa; the
Englifh, Nonpareil.    Will frequently live eight or ten years.
SED-RUMPED
B.
Le quadricolor, Buf. of. iii, p. 467. N° 15.
Gros-bec de Java, Pl. enl. 101. f. 2,
"DAT HER lefs than the laft : length five inches. Bill dufky:
the head, and neck, blue : back, wings, and end of the tail,
green : upper part of the tail, and its coverts, and the middle of
the belly, red : the breaft, and lower part of the belly, pale
brown :   legs pale flefh-colour.
Inhabits Java. Buffon draws Albitfs Chinefe Sparrow, and the
Gros-bec de Java of Briffon, as fynonyms to this bird ; but thefe
belong to the Malacca Grofbeak. The bird here in queftion
feems much to coincide with the Painted B *. We therefore fuppofe fome mi flake to have happened, in refpect to the notes of
this author.
• In the Planches Enlumimes the crown of the head, and back, are grey : the
neck blue; from thence to the vent pale brown, except a broad bar of red on
the belly juft before the thighs : the upper tail coverts, and bafe of the tail, are
_,lfo red ; the reft of the tail pale brown.; the fhape of it a little cuneiform.
Le BUN
I     N     G.
Le Verdier de Java, Brif. e.
Le Toupet bleu, Buf. oif. h
. 57. pl. 7. f. 4.
56.
BLUE-FACED
HP H I S is fomewhat lefs than the Hedge Sparrow : length
four inches. Bill lead-colour: the plumage on the upper
parts green : lower part of the back, and rump, rufous: upper
tail coverts red : the forehead, cheeks, and throat, of a fine blue,
gradually changing into rufous towards the breaft, which, with
the belly, thighs, and fides, are of this laft colour ; but the middle
of the bejly is red : the quills are brown, with green edges : the
tail featfiers brown, except the two middle feathers, which are
green, arid all of them fringed with red : legs grey.
TKTs inhabits Java, and feems to have great affinity to the laft-
defcribed.
Le petit Verdier des Indes, Brif. 0
Le Parement bleu, Buf. of. iv. p.
, p. 197. 56.
CIZE of our Greenfinch. Bill greenifh brown: upper parts
of the bird green; the under, white : quills and tail blue,
with white fhafts : legs black.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
I have feen one very like this among fome Chinefe drawings.
The bill was black : the upper parts of the body green : the
chin, and rump, greenifh, but very pale: the under parts dufky
white: legs dufky. Length in the painting only three inches
and a half. And in another fet of drawings, where the throat
and vent were yellow : rump greenifh : breaft, and belly,
white.
VOL. II. E e L'Epberife I     N
58.
PLATA B,
L'Emberife a cinq couleurs, Buf. oif. iv, p. 364.
T ENGTH eight inches. Bill cinereous, convex, and
pointed; the edges of the under mandible bend inwards :
irides chefnut: the upper parts of the plumage greenifh brown
verging to yellow, dulleft on the head and rump, and marked
with a few traces of black on the back: the edge of the wing
bright yellow : quills, and outer tail feathers, edged with the
fame : the under parts of the body cinereous white : legs lead-
colour.
This inhabits Buenos Ayres, on the river Plata, in South America.
Le Mordore, Buf. oif. iv. p. 366.
Bruant de L'Ifle de Bourbon, PL enl. 321. f. 2.
Description
'"jpHIS is the fize of a Yellow-hammer :   length five inches
and a half.   Bill brown : the whole plumage of an high rufous red-colour, except the wings and tail, which are dufky red:
legs the fame, but tinged with yellow.
Inhabits the Ifle of Bourbon.
60.
RED-EYED B.
Le Calfat, Buf. oif. iv. p. 371.
CIZE between a Linnet and a Sparrow.    Bill, irides,  and
legs, rofe-colour:   head black:   all the upper parts of the
body, wings, and tail, blueifh afh-colour;  the laft edged with
black :  the throat black:   breaft, and belly, vinaceous: round
the U     N
I
N~
the eyes naked, and of a rofe-colour: from the gape of the
mouth to the hind head a white ftripe: the under tail coverts
white.
This inhabits the Ifle of France, where it is called Galfat, or Place.
Calf at.
Green-headed Bunting, Brown's III. p. 74. pl. 30.
"DILL brown : head and neck, as far as the breaft, dull olive
green :   back, and wing coverts, dufky brown mixed with
black, paleft on the rump: the reft of the wings, breaft, and
belly, deep brown: tail brown, forked : legs yellowifh.
In the collection of M. Tunfial, Efquire. That figured in
Brown's Work, was caught in Mary-le-Bon Fields, by a bird-
catcher.
GREEN-
HEADED B.
Description.
Le Bruant de Surinam, Brif. orn. iii. p. 302. 15.
LeGonambouch, Buf. oif. iv. p. 366.—Seba,i. p. 174. pl. no. f. 6.
CIZE of a Lark: length five inches. The head grey : the
reft of the body pale grey ; but the upper wing coverts and
breaft are mixed with reddifh: the quills are white within;
without, grey mixed with red : the tail is not much unlike the
quills.
Inhabits Surinam, where it is common ; and is faid to fing as
fine as a Nightingale. Is fond of maize. The natives call it
Gonambucho.
Ee a BUN
I     N     G.
63.
SURINAM B.
Le Proyer, Fern. Surin. ii. p. 200.
Description.    "DIGGER than a Lark, but like it in colour.    Bill rather
large, with a knob on the upper mandible, and the fides of
the lower one are higher than ufual, and angular:   the chin,
breaft, and belly, are of a whitifh yellow, fpotted with oblong;
black fpots on the breaft.
Place. Inhabits Surinam. [   «j   3
Genus   XXXVI.     T A N A G E R.
N° x. Red-breafted T.
N° 20. Spotted T.
2. Brafilian T.
21. Red-capped T.
Var. A.
22. Green T.
Var. B.
23. Chinefe T.
3. Red T.
24. Black and blue T.
Var. A.
Var. A.
4. Olive T.
25. Grey-headed T.
5. Miffiffipi T.
26. Rufous-headed T.
Var. A. Variegated T.
Var. A.                                       ''     '
Var. B. Mexican T.
27. Red-headed T.
6. Summer T.
28. Blue T.
7. Grand T.
29. Variable T.
8. Crefted T.
30. Green-headed T.
9. Violet T.
Var. A.
10. Black-faced T-
31. Grey T.                                                                      .
11. Hooded T.
32. Paradife T.
ia. Black-crowned T.
^2- Black-throated T.
13. Black-headed T.
34. Jacarini T.""
14. Furrow-clawed T.
3$. Golden T.
15. Guiana T.
Var. A.
16. Turquoife T.
36. Negro T.
17. St. Domingo T.
37. Rufous-throatedT.
18. BifhopT.
38. Black T.
19. Sayacu T.
39. White-bellied T.
6
40, Military N° 40. Military T.
41. White-headed T.
42. Yellow T.
"I
N° 43. Amboina T.
44. Cerulean T.
ILL conoid, a little inclining towards the point: upper
* mandible flightly ridged, and notched near the end *.
4-RED-
Tanagra jacapa, Lin
.Syft.
KASTED T.
Le Cardinal pourpre
,Brif.
orn. iii. p. 49, 29. pl. 3. f, 2. 3. ? — PL enl. 128.
f. 1.2.
Le Bee d'argent, Buf. oif. iv. p. 259.
Red-breafted Blackbird, Edw. pl. 267.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Sparrow : length fix inches and a half. Bill ftout
and black, except the bafe of the lower mandible, which is
fingularly rounded at the back part, and broad, and of a fine
white filver polifh : irides brown : the plumage in general is
black, with a purplifh glofs, except the chin, throat, and breaft,
which are of a deep crimfon : the fore part of the head is alfo
crimfon in fome fpecimens, in others not.
The female has not this confpicuous character of the under
mandible marked fo ftrongly as in the male; and the colour of
the plumage is dull purplifh brown; beneath, reddifh: wings,
and tail, brown :  legs in both brown.
This fpecies is common in Cayenne, Guiana, Mexico, and other
parts of America, where it lives on various kinds of fruits only,
and comes frequently near habitations, and into the gardens; and
in general feen inmirs.
* Genera of Birds.
_ The N
R.
215
The female makes the neft of a cylindrical form, a trifle
curved; fix inches long, and four and a quarter in diameter; compofed of dried fibres and leaves, and lined with large pieces of the
fame leaves within. This is fattened to the horizontal branch of
fome low tree, the opening beneath. The eggs only two in
.number, white, marked with fmall pale red fpots, chiefly at the
large end.
• Buffon * mentions a bird of this kind, which is of a pale rofe-
colour mixed with grey, which he thinks may be this fpecies not
in full plumage, or moulting. Perhaps it may belong to the following, as both have the fame kind of bill.
The want of the characteriftic in the under mandible in Briffon's
plate, and that of the Planches Enluminees, may miflead ; but
Buffon apologizes for the laft; and the defcription fo well
."aufwers to the firft, that there is no doubt of the matter.
Edwards's figure expreffes the bird perfectly. As to the reference to Briffon's Mufcicapa, by Linnaus, it is not the fame
bird. That of Briffon's is above twice the fize, and a true Flycatcher \.
Tanagra Brafilia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 314. 2.
Le Cardinal, Brif. om. iii. p. 42. 24. pl. 3. f. 1.—PL enl. 127. f. t. 156. I.
Tijepiranga, Will. orn. p. 251.
Lev. Muf.
BRASILIAN T.
HP HIS bird is a trifle bigger than a Houfe Sparrow: length   Descriptiow.
fix inches and a quarter.   Bill three quarters of an inch in
* Hifl des oif iv. p. 262. f See Purple-throated Fly-catcher, in this. Work.
length, N
R.
length, and black, except the under mandible, which is white
half-way from the bafe: the whole body is of a fine crimfon, except the thighs, which are black: the leffer wing coverts black
mixed with crimfon : the reft of the wing coverts, quills, under
wing coverts, tail, and legs, of a full black : the bafe of all the
feathers is alfo black, only the ends being crimfon.
This is the defcription of Briffon.
In the birds that have fallen under my infpection, I find the
colour of the plumage to be brilliant, and the feathers about the
head and neck of a velvety texture; the bafe of the under mandible continued backwards quite under the eyes, as in the former
fpecies.
This bird inhabits Mexico, Brafil, and other parts of South
America, and, according to our opinion, never yet was feen in Canada, though Buffon is of a contrary opinion. It is rare in our cabinets, in comparifon with the following fpecies, or RedTanager.
Le Cardinal tachete, Brif. orn. iii. p. 44.
"DILL black;  under mandible white half-way from the bafe:
general colour crimfon: breaft, and upper part of the back,
marked with lunated greenifh  fpots:   wings, tail, and  legs,
black.
Inhabits Brafil.
Cardinal a Col
Rumplefs blue
, Brif.c
2 iii. p. 45. N°
c Indian Sparrow
DILL black : near the forehead white: general colour
fon, with two femi-lunar blue fpots on the fides of the N
R.
wings, and tail *, black :   leffer coverts, and margins of the firft,
blue : legs fhort and black.
Inhabits Brafil. Place,
Tanagra rubra, Lin. Syft: i. p
Cardinal de Canada, Brif. orn
3*4- 3-
iii. p. 48. pl.
f.S.
CIZE of the Sparrow: length fix inches and a quarter. Bill
horn-colour : the general colour of the plumage Is pale red :
, wing coverts black : quills brown, with the margins of the inner
webs white for three quarters of their length from the bafe; the
two neareft the body black: tail black, a trifle forked, the feathers tipped with white at the ends : legs black.
Inhabits Canada.
\
Merula Brafilienfis, Raii Syn. p. 66. 2.—Will, t
Le Scarlat, Buf. of. iv. p. 245.
Scarlet Sparrow, Edw. pl. 343.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
'T1 HIS, if not the fame, is a mere variety of the laft-defcribed,     Description.^
as it anfwers the defcription, except in wanting the white
tips to the tail feathers. I obferve that the edge of the upper
mandible is furnifhed with a fharp procefs about the middle/
• Briffon obferves, that it is moft probable that it has a tail, and that it is
black.
Ff
Tlpe 213
Fema
N
G     E
The female * is of the fame fize, but wholly of a green colour
paleft beneath, and inclined to yellow.
Inhabits North America.
L'Oliv.
Olive 1
Buf. oif. iv. p. 269.
iger, Ar3. Zool.
t-I E A D, upper parts of the body, and wing coverts, olive
green, fading into cinereous towards the rump : quills, and
tail, brown, edged with white : throat, and breaft, of a fine yellow : belly white : legs brown.
The female has the wings, and tail, dufky, edged with olive :
under fides of the body pale yellow.
Inhabits Cayenne.  Found alfo at New York f, in North America.
MISSISSIPI T.
Le Tangara du lV_iffi_ipi, Buf. oif iv. p. 252—Pl. enl. 741.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
*~V- H I S is fomewhat bigger than the Scarlet Tanager. The
bill larger in proportion, of a brown colour, and both mandibles fomewhat curved inwards. It differs likewife from that
bird, in having the wings and tail of the fame red colour as the
reft of the plumage, though" rather deeper: legs reddifh. ,
* In the collection of Major Davies.
t Mr. Pennant. — From their being found at this laft place, and my having
&«h authority for defcribing both fexes, I muft conclude that the fpecies is dif-
tinct; otherwife I fhould- have fufpefted it to have been the female of the Iaft-
defcribed. -
This   This is found in the neighbourhood of the river Miffiffipi, and
is faid to fing very agreeably, though much louder than the Scarlet Tanager. It is faid to collect againft winter a quantity of
maize; and is fo careful of its hoard, as feldom to ftir from the
place where it has ftored it up, except to drink : and the quantity has been known to equal a bufhel. It fecures this winter-
magazine by covering it with dry leaves, only leaving a hole for
itfelf to enter *.
Br. Muf.
O I Z E of the laft. Bill brown : the whole plumage variegated
with crimfon and greenifh buff-colour; the laft occupying in
patches the nape of the neck, the whole of the wing, lower part
of the back, and middle of the belly : the tail is half crimfon and
half greenifh buff: legs pale brown.
This and the former feem to be the fame bird in different periods of age. It is moft likely that the laft-defcribed is the
young bird, though the circumftance has not yet been confirmed
by obfervation. Wf s^nj
Var. A.
VARIEGATED
Plate XLVI.
Description,
Le Cardinal du Mexique, Brif. om.iii. p. 46. 27.
T± I L L wholly cinereous : irides white :  head, wings, and tail,
the colour of an amethyft : hind part of the neck green ;  under part, and rump, crimfon : beginning of the wings green and
red, mixed : feapulars yellowifh: each wing feather encompaffed
* Du Pratz.
F f 2 with
Var. B.
MEXICAN N
R.
with a greenifh line, which runs down from the middle *.  tail
paleft towards the tip : legs cinereous, inclining to violeu
Inhabits Mexico, and is probably a further variety.
Mufcicapa rubra, Lin. Syft. i. p. 236. N» 8.
Le Gobe-mouche rouge de la Caroline, Brif. orn. ii. p. 432. $7.
Le Preneur des mouches rouge, Buf. oif. iv. p. 585.
Summer Red Bird, Catefb. Car. i. pi. 56.—Edw. pl. z_g.—Ara. Zool.
A Little bigger than an Houfe Sparrow : length fix inches and
three quarters. Bill yellowifh, and»rather flouts eyes large,
and black : the whole bird of a beautiful red, or fcarlet, except
the tips of the quills, which are of a dufky red: legs, dufky-
The female is brown, tinged with yellow..
Inhabits-Carolina and Virginia in the fummetv
Le grand Tangara, Buf. of. iv. p. 239. pl. II.
Tangara des grands Bois de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 205V
Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Thrufh : length eight inches and a half. Bill three
quarters of an inch long, flout, brown: upper parts of the
body olive brown : forehead and fides of the head blue: over the
eye a ftreak of white : on each fide of the under mandible
a black ftreak, like a whifker : throat red ; in the middle of the
red a fpot of white: the reft of the under parts pale red: vent
and thighs as deep as the throat: quills and tail like the upper
parts, but paler on the edges; the laft three inches in length:
legs blue.
This inhabits the thick woods about Cayenne and Guiana, and
fometimes approaches inhabited and more open fpots, perching N
R.
on the bufhes. The male and female are generally together, and
are very like in colour : they live on fmall fruits and infects:
are called Qlive Birds at Cayenne.
I obferve one of thefe in the Leverian Mufeum,. which was of a
dark afh-colour on the breaft.
Tanagra criftata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 317
Le Tangara noir hupe de Cayenne,
m
La Houppette, Buf. of. iv. p. 240.—PL
if. om. Supp. p. 65. N° 33. pl. 4.
d. 7. 4z. Sc3oi.£.z.
CRESTED T.
CIZE of a Houfe Sparrow: length fix inches and a quarter.
Bill black: the head crefted; the creft orange-colour : chin,
lower part of the back, and rump, pale buff-colour: edge of the
wing, for one inch from the bend, white: a ftreak of white on
the feapulars : the reft of the plumage black : legs lead-colour.
This fpecies feems to vary. That in the Pl. enl. 301. has the
creft erected, and appears ftriped with orange and black: it
wants the buff fpot On the chin : the outer edge of the wing yellow inftead of white;. and the white on the feapulars is not a
line, but a large fpot on the upper part of them : the fides of the
vent are ferruginous : the bill and legs brown : otherwife like the
firft.
In a fpecimen at Major Davies's, the vent is white, and the fpot
under the chin wanting.
Inhabits Guiana, where it is common, and lives on the leffer
kinds of fruits : the note like that of a Chaffinch: it is found only
m the more open places.
1
f Le Tangavio, Buf. of. iv. p. 241.—Pl. enl. 710.
LENGTH eight inches. Bill flout, dufky black: colour
of the plumage a deep violet, with a greenifh eaft on the
wings and tail; but on firft inflection the bird appears black:
the legs are blackifh; and thexrlaws ftrong and large.
The female has a black head, with a glofs like that of polifhed
fteel: the reft of the plumage dull brown, with a flight glofs of
black on the upper parts of the body and rump.
Inhabits Buenos-Ayres, in South America.
BLACK-FACED
Le Camail ou la Cravate, Buf. oif. iv. p. zc^.
Tangara a Cravate noire de Cayenne, PL enl. 714. f. 2.
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill three quarters of an inch,
moderately ftrong, and black; the upper mandible whitifh
at the bafe: all the fore part of the head, fides, chin, and fore
part of the neck, black, ending in a point on the breaft: the reft
of the plumage afh-colour, paleft beneath; quills and tail
deepeft; the laft rounded in fhape: legs dufky.
The female has the head and fore parts brown, where the other
is black; and the upper parts are of a pale yellowifh afh-colour:
beneath rather paler than the upper parts *.
Inhabits Guiana, where it frequents the open parts, but is not
common.
* I am indebted, for the defcription of the female, to a collection of bird*
lately from Cayenne, where the pairs were tied together, fo that I could not hefi-
tate a moment in pronouncing the laft-defcribed to be the other fex. Buffon
only mentions the male.
_ La 223
La Coiffe noire, Buf. of. iv. p. 284.
Le Tangara a Coiffe noire de Cayenne, Pl. enl, 720, f. 2,
Lev. Muf.
CI Z E of a Hedge Sparrow. Bill dufky: top of the head, and
fides, black; this colour goes downwards on each fide of the
neck, and ends in a point near the wings: between the bill and
eye a fpot of white: the reft of the upper parts of the neck,
body, wings, and tail, are of a blueifh afh-colour; deepeft on the
two laft: all the under parts, from the chin to the vent, are
of a greyifh or filvery white: legs dufky.
HOODED T.
The Male.
Le Tangan
Tijep
iga, Raii Syn. p. 89. 1
rif. orn.
-Will, t
:. p. 251. §. 9. (fecond fpecies.)
CIZE of the laft, but wants the black on the head; the upper
parts being wholly of a blueifh afh-colour,  and the under
white.    This is fuppofed to be the female of the laft.
Both are found in Guiana and Brafil.
Tanagra melaniftera, Nov. Com. Petr. vol. xix. p. 466. pl. 13. 14.
CIZE of the common Bunting: length feven inches and a
half. Bill of a livid colour; the fides of the under mandible
bent inwards, and the end of the upper one a trifle margined;
the bafe furnifhed -with a few hairs : irides brown : the top of the
head, and fides, beneath the eye, black : hind part of the neck
and back ferruginous brown, changing to a ruft-colour on the
rump : under parts of the body deep yellow : the wings reach to
the middle of the tail, and are marked with longitudinal whitifh
ftreaks: NAG
R.
ftreaks: quills brown, with whitifh margins: the tail a trifle
forked, brown, edged with yellowifh white : legs dufky flefh-colour : claws brown.
The female is of a dirty ferruginous olive on the upper parts,
fpotted with brown : and beneath of a whitifh yellow.
This fpecies is found in the neighbourhood of the Caucafian
mountains, and Teflis in Georgia: it frequents the ChrifVs-
thorn *, and makes the neft on the branches of it, which being
well defended with fharp fpines, fecures the brood from birds of
prey. The food chiefly confifts of the feeds of the fame plant.
It is a folitary bird, and the voice not greatly different from that
of the greater Titmoufe.
Le Mordore, Buf. oif, iv. p. 253.
Tangara jaune a tete noire de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 809. f. 2.
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill flout, dufky black : the head,
wings, and tail, are of a fine gloffy black; on the inner edge
of the wing a dafh of white : the reft of the body of a fine reddifh
rufous colour, deepeft on the fore part of the neck and breaft:
the tail is rounded: the legs brown.
Inhabits Guiana, where it is rare.
FURROW-
CLAWED T.
L'Onglet, Buf. oif. iv. p. 256.
T   ENGTH feven inches.    The head is ftriped with black
and blue: the upper part of the back blackifh, the lower
* Rhamnus paliurus, Lin,
6 N
R.
bright orange : the upper tail coverts olive brown: upper wing
coverts, quills, and tail, black, edged with blue : the under parts
yellow.    A Angularity belongs to this bird; which is, that each
claw has a furrow on the fides, parallel to the edge.
Suppofed to inhabit fome part of South America.
Tangara noir, & Tangara rouxi Buf. of. iv. p. 257.
Tangara noir d'Amerique, PL enl. '179. f. 2. (the male.)
Le Tangaroux de Cayenne, PL enl. 711. (the female.)
T ENGTH from fix inches and a half to feven inches. The
male is wholly black, except a fpot of white at the inner
bend of the wing.
The female is wholly rufous, inclining to afh-colour beneath *:
the bill dufky : legs yellowifh.
Thefe are common at Guiana, in the more open fpots : live on
fmall fruits and infects, like the reft of the genus: have a fhrill
voice, but not what may be called a fong: generally feen in
pairs, two and two together, and never in flocks.
Tanagra Brafilienfis, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 316. 15.
Le Tangara bleu du Brefil, Brif. orn. iii. p. 9. 4. pi.
Le Turquin, Buf. oif. iv. p. 258.
Guirajenoia, Raii Syn. p. 170.—Will. orn. p. 241,
, f.  4.—PL
§ I Z E of a Chaffinch: length fix inches.    Bill blackifh : the
head, fore part of the neck, and lower part of the back, cinereous blue : the hind part of the neck, upper part of the back,
* The tail feems much longer in this laft, than in the male.
Vol. II. G g
and 22-.
N
R.
and round the bill, black: on the breaft there is a foot of the
fame : the tail and legs are alfo black.
Some of thefe birds have the under parts white, which was the f
cafe in that from which Briffon took his defcription,.
Inhabits Brafil.
SSF. DOMINGO
T.
Tanagra Dominica, Lin. Syft. i-p. 316. N° 16.
Le Tangara de St. Domingue, Brif. orn. iii, p. 37. Na:
PL enl. ic6, f. 2.
L'Efelave, Buf. oif. iv. p. 263.
r P1- 2- f' 4-—
CIZE of a Sparrow : length fix inches and a half. Bill flout,
and of a greyifh brown: the upper parts of the head and
body olive brown : the under dirty white, with a dafh of brown
down the middle of each feather : quills brown, edged with
olive : tail cinereous brown, a trifle forked; the two middle feathers are olive brown, and others have the outer margins inclined!
to olive : the legs brown.
This inhabits the ifland of St. Domingo, where it is called '
UEfclave.
Tanagra epifcopus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 316. N° 19.
L'Evefque, Brif. om. iii. p. 40. p. 23. pl. 1. f.   z.—Pl. enl. 17&. £ 1, 2~—-
Hifl. dela Louf. vol. ii. p. 140.—Salem, am. p. 277. pl. 19. f. 3.
Le Bluet, Buf. oif iv. p. 265. pl. 12.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Brambling : length fix inches and a quarter. Bill;
moderate in fize ; black; the under mandible inclined to
grey: the general colour of the bird greyifh Woe, inclining to
10 green T     A     N     A     G     E     R.
green in fome parts, and verging to grey in others : the leffer
wing coverts are moft inclined to blue: the legs are cinereous.
The female has the head, neck, and breaft, blue green: belly
grey: back and wing coverts brown : acrofs the laft an oblique greyifh bar: quills and tail black ; the laft is fomewhat
forked.
This fpecies inhabits Cayenne, efpecially about the fkirts of the
forefts, and feeds on the leffer kind of fruits : fometimes found
in large flocks, but obferved to keep two and two together:
roofts of nights on the palm-leaves : and has little or no fong,
except a fharp and difagreeable voice may be called fuch. It is,
called by the inhabitants of Cayenne, L'Eveque.
Tanagra fayaca, Lin. Syft. i. p. 316. N° 20.
Le Tangara varie du Brefil, Brif. orn. iii. p. 18. N° io.
Le Tangara tachete de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 301. f. 1.
Le Syacou, Buf. oif. iv. p. 288.—Raii Syn. p. 89. ^.—Will. em. p. 256.—
Salem, p. 273. N° 3.—Edw. pl. 351. f. 2 *.
Lev. Muf
T ESS than the laft.   Bill and eyes black: general colour of
the plumage cinereous,  mixed with fea-green, the upper
parts partaking moft of the laft colour; and the bird, if expofed
to the fun, appears very gloffy.
Inhabits Cayenne with the former, but is more rare. It is
called by the inhabitants Sayacou.
* I am not clear th&t Edwards means our Sayacou, here defcribed; as his figure
meafures fix inches and a half, whereas that in the PL enl. is only four inches
and a half.
SAYACU T.-
Descriptiok.
Place.
G g 2
Tanagra Tanagra punctata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 316. N° 21,
Le Tangara verd piquete des Indes, Brif om. iii. p. 19, N° 11, pl. 4, f. 2.
Le Syacou, Buf. oif. iv. p. 288.
Spotted green Titmoufe, Edw. pl. 262.
Br. Muf
CIZE of a Linnet: length four inches and a half. Bill
brown : the upper parts are green, mixed with brown : rump
wholly green: chin and throat brown, with the margins of the
feathers whitifh : breaft the fame, mixed with yellowifh: from
thence to the vent yellowifh white, with a tinge of green : quills
and tail brown, edged with green : fegs brown.
This is found alfo at Cayenne with the laft, and is moft probably a young bird, if not the female, but whether of the laft
fpecies is not certain.
RED-HEADED
Tanagra gularis, Lin, Syft. i. p. 316. N* 13-.
Le Cardinal d'Amerique, Brif. om. Suppl. p. 67. N° 34. pi. 4. f. j
Tangara brun d'Amerique, PL enl. 155. f. 2.
Le Rouge Cap, Buf. of. iv. p. 267.
T E N G T H feven inches. Bill brown: the head *, chin, and
throat, are crimfon, which tends to a point at the laft part,
and is there alfo fpotted with purple: the upper parts of the
body, wings, and tail, fine gloffy black, the fhape of the laft
fomewhat rounded, and three inches long: the under parts pure
white : legs dufky.
• In Linn*us's defcription, the head is called black, "capite nigro ;" but I
apprehend this to be a iniftake, as he defcribes from Briffon alone, whofe bird
has the head crimfon.
That N
R.
That figured in the Pl. enl. has the upper parts brown, which
Buffon fuppofes to have arifen from the painting being taken
from a dead fpecimen; but this is not the reafon merely, fince
the defcription above was alfo taken from the dead bird. I am
inclined therefore to think that the brown one is a mere fexual
difference, if it does not arife from age.
Inhabits Guiana and Cayenne, but is not very common.
229
Tanagra virens, Lin. Syft. i. p. 317. N° 22.
Le Tangara Verd du Brefil, Brif orn. iii. p. 2$.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 268.
A Trifle bigger than a Houfe Sparrow : length fix inches and
a quarter. Bill dufky: head and upper parts green : between
the bill and eyes a black fpot, beneath which is a deep blue
band, which extends the whole length of the under mandible :
the throat of a fine black: fore part of the neck yellow : the reft
of the under parts yellowifh green: the upper leffer wing coverts.
gloffy fea-green ; the others green : the quills dufky, with blueifh
edges: the tail much the fame, but the two middle feathers
greenifh : the legs brown.
This inhabits Mexico, Peru, and Brafil. In Linnaeus, the cheeks
of the bird are faid to be black; but I do not find it fo defcribed
in Briffon.
C I Z E of an Houfe Sparrow: length five inches and a half.
Bill red brown, with a yellow tip: the upper parts of the
plumage olive green : between the bill and eye a yellowifh white
fpot: all the under parts yellow, growing pale on the belly and
vent: quills dufky, edged with yellow, inclined to ferruginous
near
CHINESE T.
Description. 230
N
G     E     R.
near the bafe : tail the fame as the quills, and a trifle forked :
legs dufky.
Place. In  the collection of Major Davies, who received  it from
China.
BLACK-AND-
BLTJE T.
Tanagra Mexicana, Lin. Syft. i. p. 315. N° 10,
Le Tangara bleu de Cayenne, Brif. om. iii. p.
Tangara tachete de Cayenne, PL enl. zgo. Z.
■ diable-enrheume, Buf. oif. iv. p. 27.
Teoauhtototl, Raii Syn. p. 170.
Black and blue Titmoufe, Edw. pl. 330.
6. N°2. pl. I. f. 3.
length five inches*
"DATHER lefs than the Houfe Sparrow:
Bill black : the upper part and fides of the head, the throat,
neck, breaft, lower part of the back, and rump, fine blue:
the hind part of the head and neck, the upper part of the back,
and feapulars, black: the belly, thighs, and vent, yellowifh
white, fpotted with black and blue on the fides, and on the
thighs with black: the upper wing coverts are gloffy blue green;
the greater ones black edged with blue: quills black, fome of
them edged with green, and others with white: tail black : legs
black.
This inhabits Cayenne and Guiana, but is not very common.
The Creoles have given it the name adopted by Buffon. If this
be the Teoauhtototl above quoted, it is faid to frequent the
fields and mountainous parts of Mexico; to have an agreeable
fong; and is reckoned good to eat. 23,1
Le Tangara bleu des Barbades, Brif. orn. iii. p. 8. N°
2&2.—PI. enl. 155.  f. 1.
Pafier Americanus, Seba, vol. i. p. 104. pl. 67. N° 3.
Buf. oif. i
CIZE of an Houfe Sparrow: length five inches and a half.
Bill black: head, throat, fore part of the neck, and breaft,
blue: the feathers on the hind part of the neck, back, feapulars, and rump, black : the wing coverts black, edged with blue:
upper tail coverts green: belly, fides, thighs, and vent, white :
quills and tail black, with purplifh margins : legs black.
Inhabits Cayenne; Briffon fays Barbadoes.
Le Verderoux, Buf. oif. iv. p. 272.
T ENGTH five inches one-third. The general colour is
green, more or lefs dark in different parts, except the forehead, each fide of which is rufous; and above this, on each fide,
a band of the fame, which fprings from the forehead, and paffes
backwards to the nape of the neck: the head, excepting thefe
marks, is cinereous grey.
This fpecies inhabits the great forefts of Guiana, where it is
fomewhat rare.
r-HE/
GREY-HEADED
Tanagra Cayana, Lin. Syft. i. p. 315. N° &
Le Tangara vert de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iii. p. 21. N° 12. pl. 4. f. 3.
Le PafTe-vert, Buf. of. iii. p. 494 ;   iv. p. 273.
Moineau a tete rouffe de Cayenne, PL enl. 201. f. 2. (the male).
Tangara a tete rouffe de Cayenne, PL enl. 290, f. 1. (the female)..
Br. Muf.     Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Linnet.    Bill  dufky:  top ef the  head rufous:
fides of it black: the hind part of the neck, Jower part of
the
RUFOUS-
HEADED 1 m
N
R.
Pla.
Maj
the back, and rump, of a pale gilded yellow, with a tinge of
green in fome lights: the upper parts of the back, feapulars,
and upper tail coverts, green : beneath, the throat is blue
grey: the reft of the under parts confufedly mixed with pale
gilded yellow, rufous, and blue grey, each appearing in different
lights : the quills and tail are brown, edged with gilded green :
legs dufky.
The female has the crown rufous, as in the male : the upper
parts of the plumage plain green : the under of a dull yellow,
mixed with a tinge of green.
In fome fpecimens, the rufous part on the head extends farther
down than in others; and in fome birds this colour is alfo feen
on the breaft and belly, and again on the upper parts of the
body, and the green colour now and then changing into blue.
This fpecies is pretty well known at Cayenne, where the people
call it, Le Dauphinois. It frequents the open places, and now
and then approaches habitations : it feeds on fruits, and, among
others, is peculiarly fond of bananas and guavas; it falls alfo
on the r/ft?-fields, and deftroys great quantities of this grain:
though there muft be numbers to do this, yet they can fcarce
be faid to be in flocks, as they always keep two and two together, being only guided to one place by the common attraction of the food they are fond of.
I do not find that it has any other note than a fhort and fhrill
cry.
Le PaJTe-vert a tete bleue, Buf. oif. iv. p. 275.
'T'HIS is very like the laft, but the head is of a fine bright
blue colour : the back is greenifh yellow : fore part of the
neck, the breaft, and belly, of a gilded yellow : the wings and
tail plain green.
Tanagra Tanagra gyrola, Lin. Syft.i. p. 315. N° 7.
Le Tangara verd de Perou, Brif. orn. iii. p. 23. N° 13. pl. 4. f. i;
-—-——— de Perou, Pl. enl. 133. f. 2.
Le Rouverdin, Buf. oif. iv. p. 286.
Fringilla viridis, capite fpadiceo, &c. N. Com. Petr. vol. xiv. p. 432. 4.
pl. 15. f. 4. var.
Red-headed Greenfinch, Edw. pl. 23.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Linnet: length four inches three quarters. Bill
horn-colour: general colour fhining green: the whole head
rufous : breaft pale blue: on the upper part of the wing a fpot
of yellow : quills and tail brown, edged with green, and the
two middle feathers of the laft wholly green : legs pale brown.
Inhabits various parts of South America, Cayenne, Guiana, &c»
It is met with twice or three times in a year at this laft place,
frequenting large trees, which grow in the forefts in great numbers, to eat the fruit thereof; difappearing as often as fuch
fruits begin to fail them : they are feldom met with near the
inhabited places.
That defcribed in the Peterfb, Tranf. had the thighs of a pale
chefnut.
The head of that figured by Edwards was of a dull fcarlet,
I and the neck furrounded by a yellow ring, the breaft blue, and
i the reft of the body green : differences not fufficient to form two
fpecies.
Vol. II. Le Pafle bleu, Buf. oif. iii. p. 495.
Moineau bleu de Cayenne, Pl, enl, 203. f, 2.
C I Z E of a Sparrow : length five inches.    Bill dufky : general
colour of the plumage blue : legs reddifh brown.
Inhabits Cayenne.    Buffon feems to think it a variety of the
others, but it feems to be a larger bird.
Br. Muf.
CIZE of a Linnet: length four inches and a half. Bill horn-
colour : general colour of the plumage green, very gloffy and
variable, appearing in fome lights blue, and in others brown :.
between the fhoulders much darker than the reft; and towards-
the rump pale green: through the eyes a ftreak of black : quills,
and tail dufky, edged with green : legs pale.
In the Britifh Mufeum.    Native place not mentioned.
Le Tangara varie a tete verte de Cayenne, Brif, orn, Suppl. p. 59. pl. 4. f. ....
—PI. enl. 33. f. 1.
Le Tricolor, Buf. of. iv. p. 276.
CIZE of an Houfe Sparrow: length five inches and a quarter.
Bill black; the bafe of it furrounded with black featherst
general colour of the bird green : the head of a pale fea-green :
upper part and fides of the neck green gold : the chin the colour
of the head : on the throat. a large fpot of black : the upper
part of the back is alfo black: the lower, and rump, orange
2 yellow: N     A
E      R.
yellow : fore part of the neck and breaft fea-green, feparated
from the black on the throat by blue : belly, fides, thighs, and'
vent, bright yellowifh green : the leffer and middle wing coverts
violet blue : the greater coverts greenifh black, with the outer
margins green : quills much the fame : tail not unlike the quills,
marked with a fmall violet blue fpot on the outer margin near
the tip : the fhape of the tail a little forked : legs lead-colour.
Le Tangara varie a tete bleue de Cayenne, Brif. om. Suppl. p. 62. pl. 4, f, 2,
—PL enl. 33. f. 2.
Le Tricolor, Buf. oif. iv. p. 276.
G I Z E of the laft. Bill the fame, and furrounded in the fame
manner with black at the bafe : forehead of a pale green :
crown of the head and throat violet blue: fides of the head
orange red, paffing to the back part of the neck, which is of the
fame colour : the upper part of the back black: reft of the
body green : acrofs the wing coverts a ftripe of yellow : quills
and tail much as in the laft, but the coverts are not blue.
Thefe two birds are, without doubt, the fame, differing only
in fex; but which of them is the male is not afcertained.
Both of them came from Cayenne*, but the manners quite unknown .
* Buffon mentions, that one of the laft is in the cabinet of M. Aubri, and
■called Le Pape de Magellan; but it fcarce can be thought that the one came
from the lalUnaraed place, if the other be a native of Cayenne. Le Gris-oliva, Buf. of. iv. p. Z77.
Tangara olive de la Louifiane, PL enl. 714. f. 1.
C I Z E of the White Throat : length five inches.    Bill black r
the forehead and between the eyes grey : colour of the upper
parts greyifh olive; of the under, grey: wings dufky black, edged
with grey; the quills darkeft:   tail as  the quills : legs dufkjs
brown.
Inhabits Guiana, and is alfo found-in Louifiana.
Tanagra tatao, Lin. Syfl. 1. p. 3.15. N° 11.
Le Tangara, Brif orn. in. p. 3. N° 1. pi,  1. f.   1— Pl. enl. N9 7. f. 2.—
137. f. 2 Raii. Syn. p. 84. 13.—Will. orn. p. 243.
Le Septicolor, Buf. oif. iv. p. 279. pl. 13.   ,
Titmoufe of Paradife, Edw. pl. 349.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
COMEWHAT lefs than a Goldfinch : length near fix inches.
Bill black: the upper part and fides of the head yellowifh.
green ; the feathers final], and feem diftinct from each other : the
hind part of the head and neck,, the upper part of the back, and
feapulars, of a velvety black : the lower part of the back and
rump of a bright fire-colour, verging to orange towards the.
tail : the throat and fore part of the neck gloffy violet blue:
breaft, belly, fides, and vent, fea-green : thighs dull green :.
the leffer wing coverts green gold; the middle ones blue; and
the greater violet blue: the quills black, with blue margins 1.
the fecond quills, tail *, and legs, black.
* In Pl. enl. vii. f. 1. the tail is green and red ; but this was copied from a
fpecimen which had a falfe tail added to it, and is not therefore to be regarded.
Hifl. des oif
\o The T     A     N     A     G     E     R.
The females, and young males, differ from the above defcription, as they have not the fiery colour on the lower part of the
back : the male gains this at a mature age, but it is ever wanting
in the female, as that part is wholly of an orange-colour, and in
general the whole plumage is lefs brilliant; not but both males
and females vary much, as fome of them have been of a bright
red both on the back and rump, while others have thofe parts,
whoily of a golden yellow.
This moft beautiful fpecies is pretty common about the inhabited parts of Guiana. It appears in large flocks in the neighbourhood of Cayenne firft about September,, and frequents a
particular large tree, which is juft then in flower, and as foon as
the fruit fets, begins its depredations thereon ; it generally flays,
fix weeks,, and then paffes elfewhere,, but returns again in April
and May, at which time the fruit ripens : it is about this tree
alone that it is found, for it does not frequent others. Thefe.
birds may be kept in a cage; will feed on bread and meal; are
faid to have no fong, but only a fhort and fhrill. note.
Le Tangar
a gorge noire,  Buf. oif. iv. p. 28-3-.
olive a. gorge noire de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 720. f." 1
T ENGTH five inches. The upper mandible black; the
under grey: the head and upper parts of the body olive
green : the throat black r the breaft orange-colour : fides of the
neck* and all the under parts of the body, of a fine yellow : the
wing coverts, quills, and tail, brown, edged with olives the legs,
blackifh.
Inhabits Guiana..
33-
BLACK-
THROATED T.
Description..
" Tanagra 238
34-
JACARINI T.
Tanagra Jacarina, Lin. Syft. i. p. 314. N
Le Tangara noir du Brefil, Brif. orn. iii.
Le Jacarini, Buf. of. iv. p. zg_.
Moineau de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 224.
Jacarini, Will. om. p. 258.—Edw. pl. 306.
I
CIZE of a Goldfinch.    Bill thick, afh-coloured : general colour of the plumage black, with a polifhed glofs, and in fome
lights reflecting blue and green : the infide of the wings white:
tail rather forked : legs afh-colour.
The female is wholly grey : the male alfo becomes grey in the
time of moulting, and at times its plumage is part grey, part
black, fo as to give the appearance of a different fpecies.
Inhabits Brafil, where the natives call it Jacarini; by the
Portuguefe it is named Negretto. Is alfo very common at Guiana,
where it is moftly found on land which is newly cultivated, frequenting fmall trees, particularly coffee-trees ; and is remarkable
for hopping upwards frequently from the branch, firft alighting'
down on one foot and then the other, each leap being accompanied by a not unpleafing note, and fpreading out the tail at
the fame time*.
This leaping motion is only made by the male, the female behaving like other birds. The neft is hemifpherical in fhape, and^
about two inches in diameter, compofed of dried herbs, of a
grey-colour. The eggs are two in number, of a greenifh white,
marked with fmall numerous red fpots, deepeft and moft in
quantity at the large end.
* Hifl. des of
Tanagra Tanagra violacea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 314. N° 5.—Muf. Adolph. Fr. ii. p. 31.
Le Tangara noir & jaune du Brefil, Brif. orn. iii. p. 31. N° 18. pl. 2. f. 2.
Tangara du Brefil, Pl. enl. 114. f. 2.
Le Teite, Buf. of iv. p. 295.—i?«.7 Sy». p. 92. 12.
Teitei, Guiranhemgeta, Guraundi, Will. orn. p. 266.
Guranthe-engera, Fernet. Voy. i. p. 1,8.5. pl. 3. f. 3 ?
Paffer e violaceo nigricans, &c. N. C. Fetr. vol. xi. p. 431. 3. pl. 14. f. 3,
Golden Titmoufe, Edw. pl. 263. f. 1.
Lev. Muf.
GOLDEN T,
CIZE of a Canary-bird : length three inches and three quarters. Bill black : the forehead, and all the under parts, are
of a golden yellow; the reft of the plumage black, with the glofs
of polifhed fteel: the inner part of all the quills, except the three
firft, is white from the bafe for two thirds of the length, as are all
the tail feathers, except the two middle ones, which are wholly
black :  the legs are black..
The female differs greatly. The upper parts in her are olive
green : the forehead yellowifh-: on the chin a fpot of yellow ; the
reft of the throat cinereous : the under parts to the vent yellowifh, with a eaft of olive :: the two outer feathers of the tail white
on the inner margin : the legs brownifh.
The young of this appears often parti-coloured, blue mixed
with olive green, and the yellow on the forehead very dull; but
that onthe under parts pretty diftinct.
The female makes a neft not unlike that of the Jacarini, but
chufes leaves of another colour, being reddifh inftead of grey.
The fpecies is. very common at Cayenne, Surinam, and Brefil;
frequents the fime places with the Jacarini, and is often feen in
company with that bird ; and. indeed both together are found
very- T     A     N     A     G     E     R.
very deftructive to the rice plantations, as they fometimes vifit
them in vaft flocks; it feeds alfo on the plants called Paco and.
Mamao: is kept often-in cages, but not for its fong, as Willughby
obferves that it only chirps like a Redftart*': it is alfo faid, that
they delight to live together five or fix in a cage.
Tanagra chlorotica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 317. N923.
Le Tangara noir & jaune de Cayenne, Brif. orn. iii. p. 34. N° \g, pi. 2.
Tangara de Cayenne, Pl. enl. 114. f. 1.
Br. Muf.
Hp HIS feems to be only a mere variety of the laft, having
almoft the whole of the crown yellow, inftead of the forehead : the under parts are yellow, but only from the breaft, as the
whole chin and neck are black.
Tanagra Cayana, Lin. Syjl.'i. p. 316. N° 14.
Le Tangara noir de Cayenne, Brif. om. iii. p. 29.
Pl. enl. 114. £3.
Le Tangara negre, Buf. oif. iv. p. 297.
Br, Muf   Lev. Muf.
N° 17. pl. ;
Cl Z E of the others.    Bill and legs dufky : the whole plumage
black, with a reflection of blue in fome lights, except the
under part of the wings, and a fmall fpace on each fide of the
breaft at their infertioh, which are yellow, but this is fo much hid
* Pernetty fays, it imitates the fong of other birds; but perhaps he may not
ftriftly mean our bird, as the Brafilians call feveral others by the name of
Teiti.
When TAN
R.
when the wings are clofed, that the bird appears wholly black :
the inner webs of fome of the quills are white.
Inhabits Brafil, Mexico, and Guiana, but is not very common
at the laft place.
Br. Muf.
CIZE of a Lark: length five inches three quarters. Bill
black, not very flout, and a trifle curved towards the point:
general colour of the plumage of a deep indigo blue, inclining
to lead-colour: wings and tail dufky: on the throat .a large rufous patch : legs black.
Inhabits Jamaica.
Tanagra atrata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 315. N° 9.
JI Z E of a Thrufh : the colour of the plumage wholly black,
with a glofs of blue on the back: bill and legs black.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
Tanagraalbiroftris, Lin.Syft. i. p. 315. N" 12 ; 316. N° 18.—Muf. Adolph.
ii. p. 31.
CIZE of a Starling, or bigger.  Bill white, bare at the bafe;
pretty thick, as in the Grofbeak genus, but long as in the
Starling, though thicker: general colour of the plumage black :
the bottom of the feathers on the back white: the rump above
and  beneath fulvous  yellow:  on  the  wing coverts a  fulvous
Vol.II. I i fpot: TAN
R.
fpot: quills black : tail even,? yellow; the end half towards the
tip black : claws flout *.
Place; Inhabits America.
MILITARY T.
—Muf, Adolph Fr. ii. p. 3a
Tanagra militaris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 316.
Emberiza militaris, Amoen acad. iv. p. 2
Le Cardinal brun, Brif. om. iii. p. 51. N° 30.
Troupiale de Cayenne, PL enl. 236.
Greater Bulfinch, or Shirley, Edw. pl. 82. 342.—Bancroft Guiana, p.
Lev. Muf
CIZE of a Lark: length almoft fix inches. Bill pale: the
upper parts of the plumage brown : the throat, fore part of
the neck, and breaft, crimfon f : belly, thighs, and vent, dull
black brown : upper edge of the wings crimfon: legs pale-
brown.
Some birds have the margins of the brown feathers paler than
the reft of the feathers ; and fuch are fuppofed to be young birds
by Edwards.
This inhabits various parts of South America. By fome faid
alfo to be met with in China J.
* The fecond of Linmeus, or N° 18. is quoted from the fame authority ; but'
the patches of colour on the wings, rump, and tail, are faid to be white. It
muft therefore either be a variety, or double quotation by mere miftake ; and it
feems almoft clear to us,.thatitis the fame fpecies as one before-defcribed.—See
Black and yellow-Oriole, vol. i. p. 418. Rather, however, than obtrude our
opinion againft that of fo obfervant a naturalift as Linnaus, we fhall fuller it to-
a fpecies of Tanager.
f Bancroft calls-it Blood-colon
1 Ofieck Voy, i. p. 329. T     A     N     A     G     E     R.
I am in fome doubt whether this is really a diftinct fpecies
from the Guiana Oriole *, vol. i. p. 430. of this Work, as the
markings are pretty nearly the fame ; but the one here defcribed
is fhorter by almoft an inch and a half than that referred to, and
the bill is ftouter in proportion, and fomewhat curved at the tip,
efpecially in Edwards's figure. I have feen this bird, but cannot
at prefent charge my memory with a fufficient idea of the difference : let others, therefore, judge of this matter for themfelves.
One thing however I cannot allow, which is, that it is anywife
allied to the Red-winged Oriole f, as Buffon fuppofes j.. This laft
bird is never red on the under parts, and the red fpot is chiefly
on the inner leffer wing coverts; whereas in the bird at prefent
treated of, the ridge of the wing only is red.
Le Tangara a tete blanche du Brefil, Brif om. iii. p. 35. 20. 41.
Quatoztli, Seba, i. p. c8. pl. 36. f. 6. WHITE-
^ •    ,*    *™ HEADED T.
CIZE of the Golden Tanager : length four inches.    Bill yellow:     Description,
the forehead white : all the upper parts blackifh brown:
throat, and fore part of the neck, pale red: breaft, and wings,
.purplifh red: belly, and vent, pale yellow: tail blackifh brown:
legs yellow.
Inhabits Brafil, and frequents the mountainous parts. Place.
* Vol. i. p. 430.
t Hifl. des of. iv. p.
f Id. p. 428, YELLOW T.
AMBOINA T.
Le Tangara jaune du Brefil, Brif, em. ii
Guiraperea, Raii Syn. p. 89. 4.—Will. 0;
j p. 39- 2Z'
"• P- 256-
CIZE of a Lark. Bill fhort, thick, and black : all the upper
parts, and the lower belly, dark yellow, like wax : the fore
parts, to the breaft black : the belly fpotted with black: quills,
and tail, dufky, edged with fea-green : legs afh-colour.
Inhabits Brafil.
Buffon * thinks it more like a Finch. Perhaps it may be allied to the Yellow Finch of Bancroft f, which he fays has a bill
like the Blue Finch ; the body of a lively yellow; but the quills,
and tail, variegated with green.
In compliance with Briffon, I retain it among the Tanagert.
■Le Tangara bleu d'Amboine, Brif. orn. Hi. p. 12. r.
Avis Amboinenfis, Calatti dicla, Seba, i. p. 63. pl. 38. f. 6.
CIZE of a Lark : length fix inches and three quarters. Crown
of the head black: the reft of the upper parts variegated with
black and blue : rump, and upper tail coverts, pale blue green r
cheeks, and beneath to the breaft, blue: belly, thighs, and ventx
white : upper wing coverts blue, marked with a fpot of purple:
quills variegated with blue, black, and green: tail brown, tipped
with pale rufous, inclining to grey.
Inhabits Amboina^
i Hifl. des of. iv. p. 300.
f Hifl. of Guiana, p. i8< *45
Le Tangara bleg de la Nouvelle Efpagne, Brif. orn. iii. p, 15. 7
JHuhtototl, Fern. Hifl. N. Hfp. p. 13. ch. 120.
CIZE of the Houfe Sparrow. Bill brownifh: general colour
of the plumage blue, with a little mixture of fulvous : wings
partly blue partly fulvous, with a little mixture of black: tail
black, tipped with white: legs grey.
Inhabits New Spain,
It is called by fome Elotototl. Is faid to fing well, and accounted good food.
CERULEAN T. [   _46   ]
-Genus XXXVII.     FINCH.
1
i. Houfe Sparrow.
N°i8.
Crefcent F.
Var. A. White ditto.
19.
Beautiful F.
Var. B. Yellow ditto.
20.
Rufous-chinned F.
Var. C. Black ditto.
21.
Gloffy F.
2. Tree Sp.
Var. A.
3. Black-faced F.
22.
Black and orange F.
4. Ring Sp.
*3-
White-breafted F.
5. Foolifh Sp.
24.
Cowpen F.
6. Speckled Sp.
25.
Bonana F.
7. White-tailed Sp.
26.
Grey-headed F.
8. Short-tailed Sp.
27.
Savanna F.
9. Dalmatic Sp.
28.
Scarlet F.
10. Chaffinch.
29.
Crimfon-headed F.
Var. A.
3°-
Red-breafted F.
Var. B.
3*-
Ferruginous F.
Var. C.
32-
White-throated F.
11. Crimfon-crowned F.
33-
Fafciated F.
ia. ArdicF.
34-
Grafs F.
13. Brambling.
35-
Cinereous F.
Var. A.
36.
Norton F.
Var. B.
37-
Winter F.
14. Lapland F.
38.
Striped-headed F.
15. Snow F.
39-
Purple F.
16. Mountain F.
40.
Orange F.
17. Cap fa. F.
41.
Surinam F.
42. Lon I   247   J
r«4_.
Long-billed F.
N° 61.
Chinefe Sifkin.
43'
Chinefe F.
62.
Canary F.
44.
White-cheeked F.
Var. A. Mozambique F.
45-
Black-headed F.
63-
Serin F.
46.
Brown F.
64.
Citril F.
47-
Euftatian F.
6S.
Saffron-fronted F-
48.
Variegated F-
66.
Autumnal F.
49.
Frizzled F.
67.
Lepid F.
50.
Collared F-
68.
Yellow F.
51-
Goldfinch.
69.
Bahama F.
Var. A.
70.
Black-collared F-
Var. B.
71-
Ultramarine F.
Var. C
72.
Tripoline F.
Var. D.
73-
Linnet.
Var. E.
74-
Greater Redpole.
Var. F.
75-
Leffer ditto.
Var. G.
76.
Mountain Linnet*
Var. H.
Var. A. Twite-.
52.
Green Goldfinch.
77-
Strafburg F.
53-
Red-faced F.
78.
Angola F.
54-
Parrot F.
79-
Dufky F.
SS-
Red -headed F.
80.
Long-tailed F.
56.
Lulean F.
81.
Blue-bellied F.
57-
American Goldfinch.
82.
Amaduvade F.
58.
Sifkin.
Var. A.
Var. A.
83-
Senegal F.
Var. B.
84.
White-eared F.
Var. C.
85.
Cape F.
5.9
Mexican Sifkin.
86.
Cuba F.
60.
Black ditto.
&7.
Brafilian F.
2.
88v Ceylon. 248
88.
Ceylon F.
N°
93-
Azure-headed F.
8q.
Brown-throated. F.
94.
Blue-crowned F.
90.
Fire F.
95-
Lunar F.
91.
Blue-faced F.
06.
Green-rumped F.
92.
Blue-headed F.
BIRDS of this genus have the bill perfectly conic, flender
towards the end, and very fharp-pointed : differing from the
Grofbeaks; in which the bill is rounded from the bafe to the point
of each mandible.
HOUSE SPARROW.
Fringilla domeftica, Lin, Syft. i. p. 323. 36. — Faun. Suee. 242. —Scop. ann.
i, N° 220.—Brun. N° z6\.—Muller, N° 263.—Kram. el. p. 369. jo.
—Olin. uc. pl. in p. 42.—Frifch. pl. 8.—Georgi Reife, p. 174.
Le Moineau franc. Brif, em. iii. p. 72. 1. — Buf. oif. iii. p. 474. pl. 29.
f. 1.—PL enl. vi. f. 1. (the adult). 55. f. 1. (the young bird).
Houfe Sparrow, Raii Syn.  p. 86. — Will. orn. p. 249. pl. 44. — Albin. \.
p\.6z.—Br. Zool. N° 127. pl. 51—Arff. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
OIZ E well known : length five inches and three quarters. Bill
rather flout, dufky, the bafe yellowifh : irides hazel: the general colour on the upper parts reddifh brown mixed with black;
the under, pale dirty afh-colour : crown of the head afh-colour:
between the bill and eyes, and round the laft, black : chin,
and fore part of the neck, black, a little intermixed with grey E
wing coverts chefnut and black mixed,"with a paler bar acrofs
them : quills dufky, with rufous edges : tail deep brown edged?
with grey, and a little forked : legs grey brown.
The female, above, is of the fame colour as the male, but much
more I     N
H.
more obfcure: behind the eye a white ftreak : no black on the
throat: the under parts dingy white, or pale afh-colour.
This bird is well known, being everywhere common about our
houfes, where it builds in every place it can find admittance ; under the roof, corner of the brick-work, or hole in the
wall *. Makes a flovenly neft: generally a little hay, ill put together, and lined well with feathers. The eggs are five or fix in
number, of a reddifh white colour, fpotted with brown. Will
fometimes build in the neighbouring trees ; but in this cafe take
more pains with the neft; and will not unfrequently drive the
Martins from theirs, to fave the trouble of conftrufling one of
theii; own.    Has in general three broods in a year.
This fpecies, from frequenting only habitations, and parts adjacent -J", may be faid to be chiefly fed from human induftry ; for,
in fpite of every precaution, it will partake with the Pigeons,
Poultry, &c. in the food thrown out to them ; grain of all kinds
being the food beft adapted to its tafte J; not but it will eat
worms, and refufe from the kitchen of moft kinds. It is a familiar but crafty bird, and will not fo eafily come into a fnare as
many others.    In autumn often collect into flocks, and rooft in
Pla<
Ma,
* Many people have fmall pots fattened againfl their houfes, for thefe birds to
build in.
f It is found among the rocks beyond Lake Baikal, and in the fouthern
mountains ; but it is faid, that in the greateft part of Sibiria there were none,
before the Ruffians began to cultivate there.—Mr. Pennant.
It is an extreme fcarce bird in fome of the vales about the Kefwici mountains,
where there is little grain, and few inhabitants.—Dr. Heyjham.
X It has been calculated, that a Sparrow will confume twenty pounds of wheat
in a year.
Vol. II.
K k
numbers I     N
H.
numbers on the neighbouring trees, when they may be fhot by
dozens, or of night caught in great numbers by a bat fowling-
net. The flefh is accounted tolerable by many; but far lefs
efteemed than that of many other birds.
This Sparrow has no fong, only a chirp or two frequently repeated, and far from agreeable.
I believe this fpecies to fpread everywhere throughout Europe;
and is alfo met with in Egypt, Senegal, Syria *, and other parts of
Africa and Afiia. A
Vau. A.
+- WHITE
SPARROW.
Le Moineau blanc, Brif. orn. iii. p. 77. A.
Paffer albus, Aldrov. av. ii. pl, in p. 566.—Scop. ,
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
'"PHIS bird has a yellow bill and irides, and the plumage
wholly white.
White Sparrows are to be feen both in the Britifh and Leverian
Mufeums; but the laft contains many varieties approaching to
or mixed with white.
The firft, brown above;   beneath, dirty white.
Another, marked as in common, very pale, but fome of the
quills white.
A third, the upper parts very pale, almoft white: the under
parts as in common.
Fourth, everywhere of a pure white, except a rudiment of
black on the throat, fhewing it to have been a male.
* Found at Aleppo.—Ruffed's Alep. p. 70.
Fifth, N
H.
Fifth, pure white, with a fpot on the crown: the nape of the
neck, and the back, brown. One like this is alfo in the Britifh
Mufeum.
Le Moineau jaune, Brif. om. iii. p. 78.
PafTer flavus, Aldr. av. ii. p. 557, pl, in ditto.
Lev. Muf.
Var.B.
YELLOW
rP H I S   is  yellow,  with   a  tinge of chefnut on the  upper   Description,
parts.
That in the Leverian Mufeum is wholly of a yellow cream-
colour.
Br. Muf.     Lev. Muf.
T N the Leverian Mufeum is more than one fpecimen of a Black
Sparrow : the bill of a deep yellow in one of them.—I believe
that this variety is full as common as the white one; as I have
had three brought to me within thefe few years. All of them
were fhot at large, and therefore could not be the effect of keeping
in a cage, on improper food. I have likewife two fpecimens of
white ones, both fhot wild in the neighbourhood.
K k
Fringilla I     N
—Faun. Suec. 243.—Scop. ann. i
l" Z64.—Olin. uc. pl. in p. 48.-
Fringilla montana, Lin. Syft. i. p. 324. 37.
E F- N° 221—Brun. N° 267.—Muller, I
Kram. el. p. 370, II.—Frifch. pl. I.
Le Moineau deMontagne, Brif. orn. iii. p. jg. 2.
Le Friquet, Buf. oif. iii. p. 489. pl. 29. f. 2.—Pl. enl. 267. f. 1.
Paffer montanus, Raii Syn. p. 87. 15.
Mountain Sparrow, Will. orn. p. zez. pl. 45. — Albin, iii. pl. 66. — _5-w.
pl. 269. (male and female.)
Tree Sparrow, Br. Zool. i. N° 128. pl. _z,—Arcl. Zool,
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
tion. COMEWHAT lefs than our Houfe Sparrow : length five
inches and a half. Bill black: irides greyifh hazel: the
head, and nape, chefnut: the chin black : on each fide of the
head, behind the eye, a fpot of the fame: the upper parts of the
body rufous brown fpotted with black, inclining to greenifh towards the rump : fides of the neck, the breaft, and under parts,
dufky white : wing coverts rufous, edged with black, and croffed
with two bars of white : the greater coverts black, with ferruginous edges : quills blackifh, with rufous edges: tail even at the
end; colour rufous brown : legs pale yellow.
,__, The female is duller in colour, and wants the black on the
ears and throat.
and This fpecies is found in England, and is in tolerable plenty in
<£RS- Lancafhire, Lincolnfhire, and Yorkfhire, but not further to the
north of England, or Scotland. It is obferved always to build on
trees, and not in buildings like the Houfe Sparrow.
It is much more common on many parts of the Continent than
in England; Italy, France, Germany, Ruffia, and the eaftern part of
Sibiria. In the laft, much more plentiful than the Houfe Sparrow*
and in many parts even where the laft is not feen.
3 Dr. FINCH.
Dr. Forfter * mentions a bird of this kind, in Canada, fix inches
and a half in length, which has no black under the throat and
eyes, and no white collar: the bill and legs black. This arrives
at our fettlements at Severn in May, and goes further north to
breed, and returns in autumn.
*$3
Le Friquet huppe, Buf. oif. iii, p. 496.
Moineau de Cayenne, PL enl. 181. f. 1.
Black-faced Finch, Aril. Zool.
BLACK-FACED
rP HIS is as big as a Sparrow, and fix inches and a half in
length. The bill is red : the upper parts of the plumage,
' wings, and tail, reddifh brown: the under parts, and rump, crimfon : the top of the head is crefted, and of the fame colour : fides
of the head, under the creft, black : legs brown.
The fecond figure, or the female, has the top of the head,
round the eyes, and chin, black : neck, as far as the breaft,
crimfon : the rump is alfo crimfon : the upper parts of the body,
wings, and tail, as in the other, but pale : the quills black : on
the breaft a bar of black: the reft of the under parts white, mixed
with a little black at the thighs: legs brown.
Thefe inhabit Cayenne, and are alfo met with in Carolina.
* Phil. Tranf. vol. Ixii. p. 405.
Fringilla 254
I     N
Fringilla petronia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 322. N° 30.—Frifch. pl. iii.
Le Moineau de bois, Brif. orn. iii. p. 88. 6. pl. 5. f. 1.
La Soulcie, Buf. oif. iii. p. 498. pl. 30. f. 1.—Pl, enl. 225.
Pafler torquatus, Raii Syn. p. 87. 6. i
Ring Sparrow, Will. om. p. 250. ?
Petronia marina, feu Oenanthae congener, Will. om. p. 267.—Raii Syn. 80. 2.
HTHI S is bigger than the Houfe Sparrow : length five inches,
and three quarters. Bill ftrong; the upper mandible
brown, the other pale grey, with a brown tip : the head, and up- I
per part of the neck and back, dirty grey fpotted with brown :
rump the fame, but not fpotted : all beneath, dirty grey and
white mixed : the fore part of the neck yellow: round the head,
above the eyes, a ring of dirty white *: the wings not unlike the
back : fome of the coverts, and the fecond quills, white at the
ends: quills, and tail, dufky, edged with grey, and all the feathers, except the two middle ones, have a white fpot on the inner f web, near the tip.
This bird frequents Europe, chiefly Germany; in fome parts of
which it is pretty numerous.
It is alfo found . in Italy; and is migratory, except in the
warmer climates, where it frequents woods, and builds in the
holes of trees. Has one brood in a year, and lays four or five
eggs.    At the end of July collects into flocks, and remains fo
* In the Planches Enluminees, the whole head, above the eyes, is rufty cream-
colour, furrounded by a ring of black, and beneath that a ring of white.
t Linmeus fays, the fpot is on the outer webs, and the exterior margin of the
outer one white.
5 till I     N
H.
till fpring. In the. colder climates fcarce ever feen in numbers
together. Is a oender bird, often being found dead in the hollows of trees in hard winters. It lives both on feeds and
infects *.
One very like this was found in Norton Sound, by our late
circumnavigators.
Le Moineau fou, Brif ei
Paffer ftultus Bononienfu
Foolifh Sparrow, Will, m
ii. p. 87. 5.
Raii Syn. p.
. 1.—Olin. uc. pl. in p. 45.
FOOLISH  SP.
QIZE of the Houfe Sparrow.   Above, rufous grey fpotted w!th     Description.
ruft-colour : over the eye a white ftreak, and a yellow fpot
on the throat: beneath, yellowifh : two bands of white on the
wings; and a blackifh tail;, edged with rufous.
Le Moineau de Bologne, Brif. om. iii. p. 91. •
Paffer maculatus, Rait Syn. p. 87. 3.
Speckled Sparrow, Will. orn. p. 230. N° 4.
SPECKLED SP.
CIZE of the laft.    Bill yellow : irides white: head, and neck,
the fame,  marked with yellowifh fpots:   back,   and rump,
black, white, and yellowifh, mixed : under parts yellowifh white :
quills dufky : tail, and legs, yellowifh.
k Le Moine;
. iii. p. 82.
de Campagne, ou le Friquet, and le Moineau a Collie.
. feem not to differ effentiatly from this fpecies. 256
H.
WHITE-
TAILED SP.
Le Moineau de Bologne a queue blanche, Brif. 0
White-tailed  Sparrow of Aldrovand,   Will, or
. 111. p. 92. 8.
p. 250. 5. — Raii Syn."
HP HI S is yellowifh above, fpotted with chefnut, and ftreaked
with white.    Head, and under parts, yellowifh white :   tail
cinereous white.
SHORT-
TAILED SP.
Le petit Moineau de Bologne, Brif. orn. i
Short-tailed Italian Sparrow, Will. orn. zt
, p. 93. 9.
. 13.—Raii Syn. 87. 12,
Description.   HPHE whole body of this is yellowifh; the breaft, and belly,
paleft : the bill of a deeper yellow.
The four laft are found about Bologna.
DALMATIC SP. Le Moineau d'Efclavonie, Brif. em. iii. p. 94. 10.
Dalmatic Sparrow, Will. orn. p. 250.
Description.    HP H I S is bigger than the Houfe Sparrow.    Bill whitifh :
upper parts of the body reddifh; the under whitifh:
forked :  legs pale yellow.
Inhabits Dalmatia.
the
tail
The laft five have only been mentioned in brief, left they
fhould prove to be mere varieties of fome of the fpecies before
defcribed.
Pringilla 2$7
Fringilla ccelebs, Lin. Syft. i. p. 318. 3.
Fringilla fylvia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 318.
female.)—Scop. ann. i. N° 217.—Bt
Kram. el. p. 367. 4.—Frifch. pl. I.-
Le Pincon, Brif. orn. iii. p. 14S. 36.-
enl.
54.1
Chaffinch, Raii Syn. p. 88. 16. A.—Will.
pl. 63.—Br. Zool, i, N° 125.—Ara. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
.—Faun. Suec. 232. (the male.)
3. /3.—Faun. Suec. 232. B.  (the
CHAFFINCH,
run. N° 253. 4. — Mull. N° 255.—.
-Olin. uc. pl. in p., 31.
-Buf. oif. iv. p. 109. pl. 4—Pl.
ill. om. p. 253. pl. 4S.~Albin. «.
CIZE well known. Bill pale blue *; tip black : irides hazel:
forehead black: crown, nape, and fides of the neck, blueifh
aih-colour : fides of the head, throat, and fore part of the neck,
reddifh: back chefnut brown, inclining to green on the rump :
belly, thighs, and yent, rufous white: on the wing coverts a large
patch of white; and acrofs the greater coverts a bar of the fame :
-quills black, with yellowifh edges; the bafe of them white, forming, when clofed, a fecond bar acrofs the wing: tail black, a
little forked; the outer feather has a longitudinal ftreak placed
obliquely, and the next to it a fpot of white, near the tip of the
inner web : the legs are brown.
The colours of the female are dull, and incline to green ; the
vinaceous red colour is wanting: the breaft and belly dirty
white : the reft not much unlike the male.    ■
This in England is one of our moft common fpecies : makes
the neft in fome well-clothed bufh, not very high, and compofes
it of fibres of plants and mofs, lining it within with hair, wool,
feathers, &c.: the eggs are five or fix in number, of a pale reddifh
Place
Observ.
* In fpring and fii&mer; at other times almoft white.
Vol. II. L 1 grey, I     N
H.
grey, marked with blackifh fpots at the large end. The male is
feldom found far from the neft.
The male is accounted among our finging birds, and the note
is very pleafing to fome, but does not continue the whole year:
thofe of Effex are moft efteemed *. With us both fexes are feen
at all feafons ; but in Sweden the males only flay, the females "f
migrating fouthward, to return in fpring % : flocks of females
only have alfo been obferved in Hampfhire ||.
This fpecies is expanded throughout Europe, as far as Gibraltar; and is likewife met with on the coafts of Africa, the Cape
of Good Hope §, and other parts Jjp.
Several varieties of the Chaffinch are mentioned by authors.
Pincon  a Ailes  & queui
p. 121.   I.
noires, Brif. t
-Buf. oif. i
HP H E head and neck in this are afh-colour: cheeks brownifh:
back and feapulars the fame, inclining to afh: rump
greenifh: .the under parts brownifh flefh-colour: the leffer and
greater wing coverts white; the middle ones, quills, and tail,
black; the two outer ones half way white on the outer
margins.
* Barrington's Effays.
■f Not all of them; as Muller mentions one being fhot in January. P.
1 Amain. Acad. vol. iv. p. 395. N° 127.
|| Br. Zool.—The migration of one fex only is not Angular to this fj
other birds will be mentioned in this work, whofe manners are not un
this particular.
§ Hifl. des oif.
f Found alfo at Aleppo.   Ruffel, Alep. p. 70.   FINCH.
Le Pincon blanc, Brif. orn. iii. p. 154. G,
Ley. Muf.
^THOLLY white.
1SCRIPTION.
Le Pincon a Collier, Brif. om. iii. p. 155. D. 10.
Var. C
HP HIS  is of the common colour, except the crown of the    Descript
head, and a collar round the neck, both of which are white.
Added to thefe, are two others, which have come under my
inflection, viz. one with the fore parts white, the hinder ferruginous *; another with the back yellowifh, the under parts very
pale, and more white than ufual in the wings.
Fringilla flammea, Lin. Syft. i. p. 322. 26.—Faun. Suec. 238.
Le Pincon hupe, Brif. orn. iii. p. 155. E.
Linaria feu Luteola nigra, Klein, av. 93.
Br. Muf.   Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Redpole: length four inches. Bill pale brown :
the whole top of the head of a deep flame-colour, inclining
to crimfon : the feathers a trifle longer than the reft, not unlike
thofe of the Blue-backed Manakin in the fame part: the reft of
the plumage on the upper parts of the body brown : beneath,
pale crimfon, or rofe-colour, not unlike that of the Pine
Grofbeak, but much paler: the legs are pale brown.
CRIMSON-
CROWNED S.
Description.
► In Lev. Muf.
Ll 2
This *6o FINCH.
Place. This is faid by Linna-us to have come from Norland.- defcribed?
by him from Rudbeck's paintings. We believe this fpecies to be-
confined to the northern regions, though not afcertained by the
leaft hiftory, annexed to either of the fpecimens in the Brhifb of
Leverian Mufeums*
Fringilla flaviroftris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 322. N° 27.—Faun. Sueo. N° 239.—
Muller, N* 260.—Pall. Trav. ii. p. 710. N" 21.
Le Pinson brun, Brif. om. iii. p. 154, B.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 121.
Arctic Finch, Ara. Zool.
t)ILL yellow, like wax, with a brown tip: the male is wholly
of an obfcure footy brown colour, paleft beneath : the breaft
feathers have frequently the tips varied with garnet-colour I
quills and tail dufky, edged with grey; the laft fomewhat forked
in fhape: legs black.
The female inclines-to brown r otherwife like the male.
This fpecies is found in Norway *, and the north-eaft part of
Sibiria, very common : in Winter migrates to the fouthern parts,,
frequenting inhabited parts, and is feen about barns, being a.
tame fpecies : it is frequent about the Jenifei in the fevereft part
of the winter, and returns north earlier than the Snow Bunting.
Not feen in Ruffia.
* Muller.   He fays it is called in Nbr<toay, Graa-Irrifh; in Sweden, Rifha Fr
ngilla montifr
mSm
a, Lin.
Syft
i.  p. 318.  4.
— Faun. St
ec. 233.—
Stop,  a
in.  i
218
^-Bru
t.   2
-5. z_6.—Mulle
; N° 256.-
-&_*.. el.
P- 367-
3-—
Olin.
pl. in p. 32
-Friffb. pl. 3.
Le Pincon d'Ard
nnes
fejgf
rn. i
i. p.. 155. 37-—
Buf. of. iv.
p. 124.—
Pl. enl.
T4-*
. 2.
Br
ruble, Br
ambl
nR»
jr Mou
Main
Fineh, Raii Syn
. p. 88. A.-
-#7iZ. «-»■.
p. 254.
Zool.
pl.
4S'~
■Albin.
iii.
pl. 64 Br. Zool. i. N°
26,—Ara.
Br. Muf.
Lev. Muf.
- BRAMBLING.
T   ENGTH   fix inches and a quarter.    Bill yellowifh;   tip     Description.
black : the head, hind part of the neck, and back, are
black *, margined with rufous brown : rump white: throat, fore
part of the neck,- and breaft, pale rufous orange: lower part of
the breaft and belly white : lefTer wing coverts pale rufous; the
middle ones rufous white;, the greateft black,, tipped with white,
and thofe neareft the body with pale rufous : quills brown,, with
yellowifh' edges : tail a little forked : legs grey.
The female is plainer in colour, and is brown where the male        Female.
is black, and rufous grey where he is rufous.
This fpecies migrates into England at certain feafons, but does       Place and
not build here r. it is frequently found among Chaffinches, and anners.
fometimes comes in vaft flocks : I have had eighteen brought to
me at once-, which were killed at a fingle fhot. Thefe are
alfo feenr at certain times,, in vaft clouds in France f, infomuch
that the ground has been quite covered with their dung, and
more  than fix  hundred  dozen were killed each  night.    Said
* In fome the throat is black.
f Hi ft. des oif—Willugbby obferves, that they are common in the poulterers
fhops in winter. P. 254, I     N
H,
to be particularly fond of beech maft, and will alfo eat feeds of
many other kinds : their flefh is eaten by many, but is apt to
prove bitter. They are faid to breed about Luxemburg, making
the neft on the tall fir-trees, compofed of long mofs without, and
lined with wool and feathers within: the eggs are four or five in
number, yellowifh, and fpotted; and the young are fledged at the
, end of May f. It is believed that this fpecies is found more or
lefs throughout Europe; is common in the pine forefts of Ruffia
and Sibiria; but thofe of the laft are darker in colour, and lefs in
fize j.
Q, I Z E of the Brambling. Upper parts of the body the fame
as in that bird: over each eye a black ftreak, tending to the
hind head; acrofs the back part of the head another, meeting the
firft: on the wing coverts a bar of reddifh white, and a ferruginous one below it: throat and breaft tawny: belly and rump
white.
This was met with off the coaft of Japan, and is in the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks. It appears to be a variety of our
Brambling.
Le Pincon d'Ardennes a tete blanche, Brif. o
iii. p. 154. A.
Description.    rT% H IS is of a paler colour than the common Brambling, and
the head wholly white.
t Hifl. des oif—One of thefe was fhot near me, March 7, 1783.
J Mr. Pennant.
Fringilla _S<3
JPringillaLapponica, Lin. Syft. i, p. 317. 1.—Faun. Suec.N9z3_.—Faun-*
Groenl. p. 115. N° 82.
Fringilla calcarata, Pall. Trav. ii. p. 710. N° 20. t. E.
Le Pincon de Montagne, Brif orn. iii. p. 160  38.
Le grand Montain, Buf. of. iv. p. 134.
Greater Brambling, Atb. iii. pl. 63.
Lapland Finch, Ar3. Zool.
Lev. Muf.
HTHIS is bigger than the Chaffinch: length fix inches and
a half. Bill horn-colour, with a black tip: the head is
blackifh, fpotted with rufous, white : the upper part of the neck,
back, and body, rufous, fpotted with brown: behind each eye a
curved white fpot: throat, fore part of the neck, and breaft, pale
rufous : belly, thighs, and vent, white: leffer wing coverts pale
rufous ; middle ones black, edged with yellow, and tipped with
white, forming a bar on the wing: quills black, with pale yellowifh green edges : tall the fame, and a little forked in fhape :
legs black.
The female differs from the male, in being paler.
This fpecies is found at Hudfon's Bay, where it is called Tecu-
mafhifh *, but differs fomewhat in fize, meafuring only five inches.
The head is black; the curved mark behind the eye the fame :
breaft whitifh, with a longitudinal black ftreak down it: in other
things not greatly different. It is found in the neighbourhood
of Severn River, in winter only, appearing firft about November,
and is commonly found near juniper-trees. Some of the males
have more ferruginous about the head.    It is alfo met with in
I Phil. Tranf. vol. lxii. p, 404.   Dr. Forfler
Lap, 264
N
H.
Lapland, and the middle part of Sibiria*, being often found near
the Uralian chain. It breeds in the northern parts, and unites
into flocks : when it changes place, it runs like a Lark on the
ground: fings like a Linnet, frequently while vibrating in the
air, like the Lark.
This fpecies inhabits, though lefs frequent, the fields of the
■inner bays of Groenland, and makes the neft in June, of mofs and
grafs, lined with feathers: lays five or fix eggs, of a brownifh
flate, mixed with a duller colour: is fuppofed to migrate into
America in autumn.
iFringilla nivalis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 321. 2.
Le Pin5on _e Neige, ou la Nivewlle,,
Buf. oif. iv. p. 136.
i. p. 162. pl. 15. f. 1.—-
T   ENGTH feven inches,
of the neck, cinereous :
Bill black-. head, and hind part
back, feapulars, and rump, grey
brown; the margins paleft : upper tail coverts black : the thighs
pale afh-colour: all the under parts of the body as white as fnow,
as are the wing coverts and fecondary quills, except the two
neareft the bodyfl which are brown i the baftard wing and greater
quills black: the two middle feathers of the tail are black ; the
others white, tipped with black.
This fpecies inhabits various parts of the European continent,
particularly near Dmphiny, in Frame; alfo about the fnowy tops
of the Caucafian mountains, and thofe of Perfia, defcending from
thence into the plains in winter f.
* The Ruff an bird likewife varies a little, having _ cuneiform patch of white
on the outer tail feather, and the fides of the belly ftreaked longitudinally with
black.    Pallas.
t Mr. Pennant. H.
265
Le Moineau de Canada, Brif. orr,
Le Soulciet, Buf. oif. iii. p. 500.
Mountain Finch, Ara. Zool.
, p. 102. 15.—PL enl. 223. f. 2;
MOUNTAIN F.
CIZE of a Sparrow: length fix inches and a half. Bill reddifh :
the upper parts brown, mixed with darker brown; quills and
tail darkeft, edged with a paler colour: acrofs the wings two bars
of white: the crown of the head chefnut, mixed in the middle
with grey brown : fides of the head and neck, and all the under
parts, white: legs brown.
Inhabits Canada.
Le Dattier, ou Moineau de Datte, Buf. oif. i
Capfa Sparrow, Shaw's Trav. p. 253.
. p. 487.
r~p HIS has a fhort, thick bill; the upper mandible black, the
under yellowifh ; about the gape a few briftles: the fore
part of the head, and throat, are white : the reft of the head, the
neck, the upper and under parts of the body, grey, more or lefs
inclining to red, but moft fo on the breaft * : the wings and tail
are black; the laft rather forked ; the wings reach two-thirds on
the tail: legs yellowifh.
This bird is met with in Abyffinia, and is alfo found in Bar-
bary, to the fouth of Tunis: it flies in flocks, and is frequent
about granaries, &c. like our Sparrow: often feen in the date
villages to the weft of the Lake of Marks: has an exceeding fine
note, much better than that of a Canary-bird or Nightingale;
but will not bear tranfporting from its native place.
lighter, and fhines like th'j
Vol. II.
rer of a Lark-
of a Pigeon.    1
He fays
M m
cept the breaft,
sasbig'asaSpar. CRESCENT F.
INCH.
Le Moineau du Cap de Bonne Efperance, Brif o
f. l.—Pl.enl. 230. f. 1.
Le CroifTant, Buf. oif. iii. p. 501.
• p. 104. 16. pl. 1
CIZE of a Houfe Sparrow: length fix inches. Bill black :
the head, and neck before as far as the breaft, are alfo black:
at the eye begins a ftreak of white, which paffes down on each
fide of the neck, and, growing broader, paffes round the fore
part, like a crefcent; hind part of the neck pale brown: back,
feapulars, and leffer wing coverts, chefnut: the middle coverts
black, tipped with white ; the greateft, and quills, brown, edged
with grey : tail deep brown : legs brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
BEAUTIFUL  F.
Le beau Marquet
Buf. oif. iii. p. 497. pl. 30. f. 2
Br. Muf     Lev.  Muf.
-Pl. enl. 203. f. I
CIZE of the Houfe Sparrow: length five inches. Bill red, a
very little bending : forehead, all round the bill, and throat,
red: breaft yellow: hind part of the head and neck dufky afh-
colour : back and wings green; tip of the quills dufky: breaft,
belly, and fides, croffed with irregular lines of white fpots : the
lower belly, thighs, and vent, white: rump and tail red, inclining
to chefnut; the laft a little rounded : legs flefh-colour.
Inhabits Africa.
ringilla Fringilla noft
is,
Lin
Syft
Le Pere noir,
B
>f
—Pl. enl
f. I.
Yohualtototl,
R
aii &
yn. p
18.23.pl. 7.
.Muf.
Buf. oif. i
CIZE of a Sparrow: length four inches and three quarters.
Bill black: irides red : the whole plumage is black, except
the chin, juft under the bill, which is of a rufous orange-colour,
and a fpot of the fame between the bill and eye: the legs
blackifh.
This inhabits Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, and other parts of
South America.
Le Pere noir a bee rouge, Brif. orn. iii. p. 120. 24.
Moineau du Brefil, Buf. oif. iii. p. 486.—Pl. enl. 291. f.
Short-tailed Indian Sparrow  of Aldrov.   Will. an. p.
!52. — Raii Syn.
np H I S is rather lei
a half.    The bill
, than a Sparrow : length four inches and
flefh-colour : irides white : plumage
wholly blue black, with a polifhed fteel glofs: legs flefh-
colour.
The female has the feathers on the upper parts blackifh, margined with yellowifh brown : behind the eye a blackifh ftreak:
the rump grey: beneath dufky yellowifh brown: tail black,
edged with grey: legs reddifh.
M m 2 PP-**^
268
Moineau de Cayenne, Pl. enl. zz\. t. 3.
A Mere variety of the male of the laft. Wholly of a black colour: bill and legs dufky black..
Inhabits Cayenne.
BLACK-AND-
ORANGE  F.
Moineau.de Macao, Buf of. iii. p. 486.— Pl. enl. 224, f. 1.
A fmall black and orange-coloured bird, Raii Syn. p. 188. 5.1 ?—Sloan. Jamt
ii. p. 312. 50. r
CIZE of a Linnet: length four inches and a half.. Bill pale
brown : general colour of the plumage a. full black, except
the wings and tail, the edges of which are deeply margined
with ferruginous: on the belly a few fpots of white :. legs the
colour of the bill.
This is faid to come from Mdc4$, and if not the fame,, differs
very little from Shane's bird,, except the wings and tail being;
fringed with orange-colour inftead of ferruginous.. Shane's bird;
fed on ants..
WHITE-
BREA&TEp P;
Moineau de Java, Buf oif iii. p. 486.—-PL enl. 224. f. v.
CIZE of the laft: general colour black, except an irregular
bar of white acrofs- the  breaft:   bill  and legs  as- in the
laft. I     N
269
Le Pincon de Virginie, Brif. om. iii. p. 165. 41.
Le Brunet, Buf. oif. iv. p. 138.
Cowpen Bird, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 34.—„fr<2, Zool.
Lev, Muf,
COWPEN F
bigger than the Mountain Finch : length  fix
inches
Description
three quarters. Bill blackifh: the "general colour of the
plumage brown; lighteft on the under parts : tail a trifle forked :
legs brown.
This is found in the winter-time in Virginia and Carolina, along
with the Red-winged Oriole and Purple Grakle. It delights to
feed in the pens among cattle, whence the name,   'i
Fringilla Jamaica, Lin. Syft. i. p. 323. 33.
-  Emberiza rem. reflricibufque nigris, &c. Ameen. acad. vol. i. p. 497.
Le Pincon de la Jamaique, Brif. om. iii. p. 166. 42.
Le Bonana, Buf. oif iv. p. 139.
Bonana Bird, Raii Syn- p. 187. 46.—Sloan. Jam. p. 311. 47. pl. 257. f. 3.
Grey Grofbeak, Brown. Illufl. pl   26.
Lev, Muf.
CIZE of a Sifkin : length five inches. Bill black: the upper
parts of the plumage dull blue; the feathers very foft: the
under parts of a paler blue, inclining to yellow on the belly :
wing coverts greenifh blue: quills and tail the fame: legs
black.
Inhabits Jamaica, from whence I have received a pair.    The
male and female are much alike. H.
z6. Le Serin de la Jamaique, Brif. orn, iii. p. 189. 53.
GREY-HEADED      Serino affinis a cinereo, luteo & fufco varius, Raii Syn. p. i8S.  50.-
Jam. ii. p. 311. S°-
Dbscriptk
T ENGTH eight inches. Bill three quarters of an inch;
the upper mandible blueifh brown; the under paler: the
head and throat grey : the upper part of the neck, and body,
yellow brown : the under parts yellow.: vent white : wings and
tail dull brown, ftreaked with white lines : legs blueifh: claws
brown, fhort, and crooked.
This fpecies inhabits Jamaica.
2~ Le Moineau de la Jamaique, Brif. om
SAVANNA   F. Savanna Bird, Sloan. Jam, p. 306. pl.
159. f. 5.—Raii Syn. p. 188. N° 49.
28.
SCARLET I
T ENGTH four inches. Bill thick, fhort, and pointed;
colour brown : over the eye a yellow ftreak : crown, and upper
parts of the body, dull brown, mixed with whitifh and fillemot colour : beneath, as faras the breaft, pale yellowifh brown : belly
white: quills brown, tipped with white: tail brown: legs
whitifh.
Inhabits Jamaica; where Shane tells us, that (c it fits on the
" ground in the plains, and runs thereon after the manner of
(C Sky-larks, as low as they can, to avoid being difcovered ; and
" when raifed, fly not far nor high, but light again very near."
Lev.  Muf
T  ENGTH four inches and a half.-   Bill like that of a Goldfinch, but longer, and very fharp at the point; colour pale
brown: I
C      H.
brown:  general colour of the plumage a brilliant deep orange,
•verging to fcarlet:  wings and tail dufky ; the outer edges of the
' .quills fringed with orange, and the ends of the prime ones black.:
the tail even at the end : legs black.
Inhabits Sandwich Iflands.
a erythnna, N   C. I
(Aua. P. S. Pallas
. p.  587.   t.
.ev.Muf.
. Male  and Female.
QIZE of a Greenfinch,
inches :   weight five d
CRIMSON-
IE ADED F.
but the head fmaller: length near five
achms. Bill brownifh horn-colour :
between that and the eyes cinereous grey: head, neck, and
throat, red : lower part of the neck whitifh : the nape and back
cinereous, with a reddifh call•: wing coverts brown, edged with
reddifh : quills brown, margined with luteous : the under parts
white, tinged with red on the breaft and fides : tail rather forked;
brown fhafts,   and  margins  luteous:   legs   the   colour of the
bill. ^iJtek-
The female is wholly of a yellowifh afh-colour on the upper
parts, marked on the crown with yellowifh fpots : fides of the head
almoft white: chin white.: on the neck a few obfcure brown
•markings : tail cufky brown, margined with grey.
This inhabits the thick woods about the Volga and Samara,
where it is called the Red Sparrow, is a tame foolifh bird.
The female makes a neft of hay between the branches of trees..
__ found in fmall numbtrs in winter among the flocks of Snow-
flakes, and feeds on the feeds of plants. It is alfo met with in
Sibiria, about the river Tomfik.
§ If I     N
H.
30.
RED-
BREASTED F.
If I am not miftaken, the fame bird is alfo met with in
America, about New York, to which it comes about the end of
March, and frequents the red cedars. One of thefe is in the collection of Major Davies.
Red-breafted Finch, Ara. Zool.
"DILL  white: cheeks,   throat, fore   part  of the  neck, and
breaft, of a rich crimfon : crown, upper part of the neck,
back, wings, and tail,  black:   wing coverts croffed with two
lines of white : legs black.
Found at Sandy Hook, in the fpring.
FERRUGINOUS
F.
Little Sparrow, Edw. pi. 354. f. 2.
Ferruginous Finch, Ara. Zool.
CIZE of the Hedge Sparrow: length five inches and a half.
Bill dufky : upper parts of the plumage, quills, and tail,
dark brown, edged with reddifh brown : the under parts; from
the breaft, light-coloured, marked with dark long fpots on the
breaft : about the eyes white : legs brownifh flefh-colour.
Inhabits Penfylvania, and other parts of North America.
WHITE-
THROATED  F.
Le Moineau de Penfylvanie, Brif. orn. App. p. 77.
White-throated Sparrow, Edw. pl. 304.—Ara. Zool.
CIZE of the Tree Sparrow:   length  fix inches and  a   half.
Bill dufky :   irides hazle :   from the corner of the  mouth
through the eye a dufky ftreak,  and above the eye one of an
orange-colour :   the upper  parts  of the plumage are  reddifh
a brown: I     I     N .
H.
m-
ferown: the  throat white: cheeks, and the reft  of the undef
parts, cinereous white: edge of the upper part of the wing pale
yellow: legs flefh-colour.
Inhabits J'en/ylvania.
Fafciated Finch, Ara. ~Zool.
PSOWN, hind part of the neck, and back, ruft-coloured,
fpotted with black, the fpots largeft on the back: wings
.plain ruft-^colour: primaries dufky, edged with dirty white:
binder parts of the body white, marked'with ftreaks of black,
pointing downwards-: tai. brown, crofTed with numerous dufky
-bars.
Inhabits New York *.
<5rafs Finch, Ar&. Zool. 34*
GRASS F.
TjEAD, upper part of the neck, and back, cinereous, ruft-    D_6cri*t*o«.
coloured, and black-: cheeks brown: leffer wing coverts
fcright bay; the others black, edged with white : primaries
dufky, with white edges : lower part .of the neck and fides
white, marked with fmall-ftreaks : belly of a pure whiter tail
dufky.
Inhabits New York, where it ftays all winter, and is known by Placsv
the name of Grafs-bird *.
• Mr. Pennant.
Vol. IL
N n 274
CINEREOUS F.
Description..
Cinereous Finch, A>B. Zool.
T> I LL long and dufky : head, and upper parts of the bodyy
deep cinereous brown, edged with obfcure ruft-colour : at
the corner of the upper mandible a light grey line : on the
cheeks, beneath, a fecond band, bounded by a dufky one % throat
of a light grey: under fide of the neck pale afh-colour, varied
with whitifh marks : legs dufky.
Inhabits Aoonalafhka.    In the collection of Sir Jofeph Banks*
Norton Finch, Ara. Zool.
T_JEAD, upper part of the neck, and fecondaries, black,
edged with bright bay; the middle order croffed with a
white line i primaries dufky : belly and fides white : fides of the
neck, and fore part, fpotted down the middle of each feather
with ruft-colour: tail dufky, edged with dirty white : along the
middle of the outer feather a pure white line,, ending at the
tip.
Inhabits Norton Sound*.
Winter Finch, Ara. Zool^
T-IE A D, neck, and breaft, light brown, mottled with black:
fore part of the neck, breaft, and fides, white, marked with
fmall brown fpots : belly plain white: wing coverts and primaries brown, edged with white.
Found at New York, in the winter.
LENGTH FINCH. _7S
38.
STRIPED-
HEADED F.
T ENGTH five inches and a half. Bill lead-colour: between    Description,
that and the eye, and the forehead, yellow: on the head
three black ftripes: behind the eye another: fides of the head
whitifh : chin white : all the upper parts like the Linnet in colour ; middle of each feather very dark : wing coverts and tail
plain brown, and fomewhat cuneiform : quills dufky: the breaft
blue grey : belly very pale : legs pale brown.
One of thefe was fhot at New York, in May.  In the collection Place.
of Major Davies.
Le Bouvreuil violet de la Caroline, Brif. orn. iii. p. 324. N° 8.—Buf. oif. iv. 39-
J * * * J PURPLE  F.
P« 395-
PurpkEinch, Catefb. Car.i. pl. 41.—_4r<?. Zool.
QIZE of a Chaffinch: length five inches two-thirds: colour       DfiscRap-rioi
of the plumage violet-: the quills brown within: and the
belly white : the tail is a trifle forked.
The female  is all over brown, except the breaft,  which is F_ma__.
fpotted with white like a Thrufh.
Thefe are found in Carolina, appearing firft in November: af- Placb.
femble in fmall flights, and retire on the approach of winter:
-during their flay live on the Juniper-berries; they alfo deftroy
the buds of fruit-trees.
Fringilla 3#£
I     N     C     H.
Fringilla Zena, Lin, Syfl. i. p, 320. 13.
Le Pinfon de Bahama, Brif. orn. m. p. 168. 43.
, a tete noire & blanche, Buf, oif, iv, p. 140.
Bahama Finch, Cat eft. Car. i. pl; 42.
Orange Finch, Ara. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Chaffinch: length fix inches and a quarter. Bill
lead-colour :' irides pale : the head,, fore part of the neck,,
back, and feapulars,. black.: on each fide of the head two ftreaks
of white, the one above, the other beneath the eye: under the
chin a large-yellow fpot:. the hind part of the neck, rump,, and
upper tail coverts, dull red: breaft orange-coloured: belly,
thighs,, and vent, white : wings brown ; on the coverts a band
of white : tail brown : legs lead-colour.
In the female the colours are lefs vivid : the head and neck afh-
colour : the under parts of the body are paler than the upper,.,
and a tinge of afh-colour. runs through the whole of the
plumage..
This inhabits the Bahama Iflands, Jamaica,, and other parts;-
of the Weft Indies, and.South America.. The manners not known..
SURINAM F.
Eiringilla Surinama, Lin. Syft. i. p. 317. 2.
La Linotte.de. Surinam, Defer, de Surin. vol..
JDwcRipriOH.    rpHE BilL is fharp, and of a yellow colour: the hodygrey::
the belly whitifh : quills black; the prime ones-.-near the bafe
white; the fecondaries white both at.the bafe. and tips,: tail even,,
blackifh ; the firft and fecond feathers have a white fpot oh thee
infide; the third,, fourth,, and fixth^ white at the tips.
or Inhabits- r
h;
Inhabits Surinam. I believe it to be the fame bird as Fermin's
above-mentioned, which he fays is bigger than a Sparrow, of a
greyifh afh-colour, and the bill and throat yellowifh. This
author fays that its fong is very trifling, but the flefh is much
efteemed..
Le Pineon du Senegal, Brif. om.
 : a. long bee, Buf. oif. i:
• 173» 46. pl.
143-
S. f. z.
T> IGGER than the Chaffinch : length fix. inches and a quarter.
Bill long in proportion to the bird, being three quarters of
an inch in length; colour of it grey brown: the head and throat
black : round the neck a collar of chefnut: back, wing coverts,
feapulars, and rump, brown and yellow mixed: all the under
parts orange yellow: quills brown,, edged with olive without;
and with in,.for two-thirds from the bafe, fringed with yellow : the
outer edges of the fecondaries are alfo fringed with yellow : tail
olive; all the feathers, except the two middle ones, have the-
inner webs fringed with, yellow : legs grey brown..
Inhabits Senegal; --. __*
Fringilla finica, Lin. Syft: i. p. 321. 2a.-
Le. Pincon de la Chine, Brif. orn. iii. p.
L'Olivette, Buf. oif. iv. p. 144.
-Oft. Voy. ii. p. 329.
75. 47.pl. 7. f,2..
CrZ'E of a. Linnet r length five inches. Bill yellowifh : the
upper parts of the body olive brown, with a tinge of rufous
on the wing coverts which are neareft the body, the back, and
rump: round the bill;,the throat; and fore part of the neck,
olive, green s   the reft, of- the under parts rufous, tinged with
yellow. ■ayt
FIN
H.
•yellow on the belly: under tail coverts, and under wing coverts,
of a fine yellow : the greater wing coverts fartheft from the body
black: the quills are half yellow, half black, with the tips
whitifh: the tail a little forked; the colour black, but the bafe
of the feathers yellow, which colour reaches fartheft on the
feather, as it is moft outward : legs yellowifh.
The female differs in that the colours are lefs vivid.  This fpecies inhabits China.
WHITE-
CHEEKED F.
IwP
m,
BLACK-
HEADED F.
CIZE of a Sparrow: length five inches three quarters." Bill
half an inch; pale afh-colour : head, neck, and under parts,
the fame; marked on the upper parts and neck with dufky
ftreaks: under parts plain : back and wings pale rufous, with
dufky ftreaks : fides of the head white : through the eye a reddifh
ftreak, bounded on the under part with black : on the under
jaw a ftreak of black, which joins the black .above the eye at the
hinder part: tail dufky : legs black.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope,    From a drawing in the poffef-
fion of Sir Jofeph Banks.
T ENGTH four inches. Bill red : back, wings, and tail,
ferruginous brown : head, and fore part of the neck, black :
fides of the neck, and fides under the wings, a little ftreaked
with black : hind part of the neck and belly white : quills black :
legs lead-colour.
'BROWN F.
.Description.
COMEWHAT bigger than a Wren.    Bill dufky : upper parts
of the plumage brown; the feathers edged with dark brown :
under parts brownifh white : legs dufky.
This
— This and the laft were defcribed from Chinefe drawings, in trie
• poffeflTon of Captain Broadley*
Le Pincon de l'Ifle de S. Euftache, Brif. orn. iii. p. 177. 48.
Le Pinfon jaune & rouge, Buf. oif. iv. p. 145.
Paffer Africanus eximius, Seba, vol. ii. p. 67. pl. 65. f. 6.
CIZE of a Chaffinch: length five inches and  a. half.    Bi
red-: the head,: neck, and upper parts, of a fine yellow : c
each fide of the head, under the  eye, is a fpot of blue : ,tl
breaft and under parts are orange : wings, tail, and legs, red-
Inhabits the ifle of St. Euftatuu .
Le Pincon varie de la N. Efpagne, Brif. 0.
Le Tbuite, Buf. of. iv. p. 146.
. p. 178. 49..
48.
VARIEGATED
C IZ E of the laft : length Eve inches three quarters. Bill
yellowifh: the head of a. pale red, mixed with purple: the
breaft pale yellow,, fhaded with deeper: the body covered with
feathers, variegated and as it were marbled with red, yellow,,
blue, and white: quills and tail variegated like the back : the
tail is likewife margined with white at the tip : the legs are
red.
Inhabits New Spain, where it is known  by the name of
Tuite.
Description.-
Fringillai I     N
49- Fringilla crifpa, L,
FRIZZLED F.
Le Pincon frife, Brif. orn. App.
Black and Yellow frizzled Spar
-Buf. oif. i
lw.pl. 271.
,-p. 148. pl. 7. f. IN
CIZE of a Chaffinch.    Bill white : the head and neck black * -
the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, deep olive; the
under parts yellow- legs brown : the feathers of the body all
frizzled, as is fometimes feen in one of our breeds of poultry.
This fpecies inhabits Angola or BrafiL The Portuguefe call
it Beco de Prata. As we know it not except through Portugal,
its native place is not certain.
Le Pincon a. Collier des Indes, Brif. om. App. p. 85. 73.
 a double Collier, Buf. oif. br. p. 149.
Collared Finch, Edw. pl. 272.
CIZE of the Chaffinch. Bill and head black : round the
bill and eyes, and the throat, white, paffing round the neck
as a collar : on the lower part of the neck before, a black bar:
the reft of the under parts are rufous white: the upper parts I
cinereous brown, paleft on the rump : the wing coverts are
black, fringed with gloffy rufous : the fecondaries the fame :
greater quills black: tail and legs c_flereo_~t brbwcu -
Inhabits India.
* In the PL enlum. is a ftreak of- white from the forehead to the crown; a
curved patch of white beneath the eye ; and a fpot of white on the wings.
Fringilla | .Fringilla carduelis, Lin. Syft.i. p. 318. 7.—Faun. Suec. 236.—Scop, a
N° 211.—Brun. N° 257, 258.—AW.*/, p. 365. 1.—Frifch. pl,
0//». »r. pl. in p. 10.—Muller, ^258.
Le Chardonneret, Brif. orn. iii. p. 53,
Pl.enl.pl iv. f. 1.
Goldfinch, or Thiftlefinch.^a// Syn. p. t
Albin. i. pl. 64.—Br. Zool. i. N«
Br. Muf    Le
(-GOLDFINCH.
1.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 187, pl. 10—
1. A. 1.—Will. om. p. 256. pl. 46.—
124.—Ara. Zool.
: Muf.
fT" H E bill of this beautiful bird is white, tipped with black; *
the bafe furrounded with a ring of rich fcarlet feathers :
from the corner of the mouth is a black line : cheeks white :
top of the head black: the white on the cheeks bounded almoft
to the fore part of the neck with black: the hind head white :
back, rump, and breaft, pale tawny brown; the two laft lighteft :
belly white: wing coverts in the male black : quills black,
marked in their middle with a beautiful yellow; the tips white :
tail black, but moft of the feathers are marked near their ends
with a white fpot: legs white.
The female differs: in her the feathers at the end of the bill
are brown; in the male black: leffer wing coverts brown : and
the black and yellow on the wings lefs brilliant.
The young bird is grey on the head, and by the bird-catchers
is called a Grey-pate.
This is Mr. Pennant's defcription, which is more than fuffi-
cient to define a bird fo well known. It is much efteemed for its
fine note *, as well as great tamenefs and docility.
* The Goldfinches of Kent faid to fing beft.   Barrington.
Vol. II. O o It _8_
I     N
H.
It makes a curious and well-conftructed neft, of fine mofs, liverworts, thifile-down, &c. lining it firft with wool and hair, and the»
with the down or gofim of the Sallow. The eggs are five in
number; white, marked with deep purple fpots at the larger
end. It has two broods in a year. Often builds in orchards, in
the fruit-trees.
The food of the Goldfinch confifts of feeds of feveral kinds,
but is fuppofed to prefer thofe of the Thiftle; and about the places
where they grow are to be met with frequently. In winter they*
affemble in pretty large flocks. Are kept often in cages, and
will feed freely on Hemp-feed *. Said to be a long-lived bird,
living above twenty years |.
This fpecies is plenty throughout Europe; and met with
both in Africa J and Afia \, but lefs common.
Le Chardonneret a t>
N° 2 Will. <
e blanche, Brif. om
u p. 257. Var. 2.
Buf. of. i
rP LI I S is like the common one, except the fore part of the
head, which is red, and abowt the eyes white.
• But this is feid to make them grow hlack. I few this once verified ; in
which inflance the bird loft almoft the yellow as well as the red colour, only, the
mere traces of them remaining.
f Gefner.
t Dr. Forfter met with it in Madeira.    See Voy. p. 26.
U At Aleppo, Ruff. Alep. p. 70.—I have alfo feen it more than once jn
Chinefe drawings, though this circumftance will not perhaps prove it to be other-
wife than a caged bird. Le Chardonneret a teterayee, Brif. orn. iii. p. 58. B.—Buf. of.iv. p. 3.
Goldfinch, Brown. Jam. p. 468.
'TpH I S variety has the head ftriped alternately with red and
yellow.
Le Chardonneret a tete noire, Brif om, iii. p. 58. C.—Buf. eif. iv. p. 203.
N» 4.
Swallow Goldfinch, Albin. pl. 70. a. *
*TPHE  bill in  this is  flefh-coloured:   irides yellowifh:   the     Description.
head, throat, and neck, are black, fpotted with red near
the bill: the breaft, back, feapulars, and rump, yellowifh brown:
belly, fides, thighs, and under tail coverts, white: the reft as
in common: the legs flefh-colour.
Le Chardonneret blanchatre, Brif om. iii. p. 59. D.—Buf. oif. iii. p. 204. ^*'n
I N» 5i—Will. ern. p. 257. Var. 4. Var" D°
np HIS bird is red on the forehead., cheeks,   and throatj the     Description*
other parts whitifh, except the wings and tail, which are
brownifh afh-colour : and that part of the wings which in common is yellow, in this was of a dingy hue.
Le Chardonneret blanc, Er$i orn. iii-. p. 60. E. pl. 4. f. 4.—Buf. of. iv 51.
p. 204. N° 6.—PL enl. 4. f. 2.—Will. orn. p. 257. N° 3. Var-  &
Lev. Muf.
*"p H I S  is wholly white, except the outer edge of the quills,      Description.
which are yellow : a little mixture of the fame on the Wing
* Said to be a mixed breed with a Lark.
O o 2 coverts t 384
I     N
H.
coverts : the ends of fome of the quills half black, and tipped
with white : legs white.
. That in the Leverian Mufeum has the parts which are ufually
red, of a very pale red, a little gloffy. Briffon alfo fays he ha3
feen birds of this fort.
Buffon mentions one with a black head : the red parts very
pale: the under parts greyifh white : the wing coverts pale olive :.
the yellow of the wings as ufual: wings, and tail, white: bill,
and legs, reddifh white.
This was caught at large.
There is one alfo in the Leverian Mufeum wholly white; and
another all white, except the crown of the head, which is mottled
with red, and a. crefcent of the fame under the throat : the
wings yellowifh.
Le  Chardonneret noir,   Brif om. iii. p. 60. F. pl. 4.. f. 5, — Buf. oif iv..
p. 205. N° 7.
Lev. Muf.
Z^1 ENER AL colour black, except four of the middle quills,
viz. from the fourth to the feventh, brimftone-coloured on.
the outer edge, and white within, from the bafe to the middle:
bill, and legs,, whitifh.
Goldfinches entirely black are not uncommon; fome have the
appearance of red about' the head, others not. Of the firft of
thefe is one in my collection, which had been a caged bird, and
gradually became of that colour *.
• This had hemp-feed for its ufual food.    Buffon mentions one that changed,
black all at once, after being four years in a cage.  It kept fo for eight months,
when FINCH.
p.6i. G. — Buf. oif.
Le Chardonneret noir a tete jaune, Brif o
p. 207. N° 8.
Cardueli congener, Raii Syn. p. 90. 2.
A bird of kin to the Goldfinch, Will. orn. p.
T? AT HER bigger than a Goldfinch.    The bill furrounded     Besc
with a faffron-coloured ring : the reft of the head, and upper parts, blackifh : breaft greenifh black: belly, and under
parts, brownifh afh-colour: edge of the wing greenifh black:
quills black, with more white than common in them : the ufual
yellow parts merely yellowifh : quills black.
This is, without doubt, a mere variety of the Goldfinch,
fufpecls the * fame.
Le Chardonneret mulet,  Brif orn. iii. p. 62. H.
■  metis, Buf. of, iv. p. 207.
Canary Goldfinch, Albin. iii. pl. 70. /?.
Lev. Muf.
'"PHIS is rather larger than the common: the head is not un-    Description.
like that bird, but lefs bright : the upper parts of the body
yellowifh brown ; the under parts yellow : wings like the Goldfinch : tail yellow, tipped with black.
This arofe from the two mixtures mentioned by Albin.
when it began to refume its former colours;  and this circumftance happened
three times An eleftrified Goldfinch loft the red of the head, and yellow on
the wings, fix months after. — Hifl. des oif. from Klein.
* Forte fpurium aliquod genus eft.
Fringilla^ GREEN^GOLD-
FINCH.
I     N
Fringilla melba, Lin, Syft. i. p. 319. 8.—Ofteck Voy. ii. p. _%$.
Le Chardonneret verd, Brif. orn. App. p. 70.
■ , ou le Maracaxao, Buf. oif, iv. p. 211.
Green Goldfinch, Edw. pl. 272. {the male.) 128. {the.female).
CIZE of our Goldfinch. Bill flefh-coloured : the fore part of
the head, and throat, of a bright red: between the bill and
eye blueifh afh-colour: the upper parts of the bird are yellowifh
green : the wing coverts, and fecondaries, greenifh, with red margins: quills dufky: the breaft is olive green, changing into
white on the belly and under the tail; all beneath variegated
with broken dufky tranfverfe lines : the rump, and tail, bright
red ; the laft even at the end t legs pale browm
The female has a pale yellow bill: top of the head, and neck,
afh-colour: bafe of the wings, and rump, yellowifh green, inftead
of red: the tail browri, edged with dull red. In other things not
unlike the male, having the red face, as in that fex.
This is faid to inhabit China * and Brafil f.
Red-faced Fincti, Brown's 111. pl. 25.
T   ENGTH near fix inches.    General colour of the plumage'
deep dull green : cheeks tinged with crimfon :  prime quills
dufky, with dull orange edges :   tail dull crimfon :  legs yellowifh.
Inhabits Angola.
f Edwards.
SIZ& ^asrrvt   5?  _87
PARROT F.
Pl. XLVIII.
CIZ E of the Waxbill, or lefs. The bill black : face, to behind
the eye, and the throat, deep fcarlet: the rump, and tail, the
fame : reft of the body parrot green, lighteft beneath : the wings,
when folded, reach the bafe of the tail: the outer edge of the
quills is green ; the inner cinereous brown : the tail cuneiform ;
the two middle feathers deep fcarlet, with the fhafts brown; the
other five, on each fide, have only the outer web fcarlet, the inner
brown.
This is a moft beautiful fpecies, and was fhot by Dr. J. R.
Forfter, at New Caledonia.
Red-headed Finch, Brown's Muft, pl. 28.
T   ENGTH near five inches.    Bill black:   head, and neck,
rich fcarlet: fpace round the eyes black.: back, breaft, and
belly, olive: wings black, with two bars of white on the coverts:
tail black : legs reddifh grey.
Inhabits the ifland of Mauritius.
RED-BEADED
F .
Frifigata l-hmfis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 318. t..—Fau». Sttee. 134.—Muller, N° 257.
Le Chardonneret de Suede, Brif. orn. iii. p. 63. 2.
._______.. a <juatre Raies, Buf. oif. iv. p. 210.
L-lean Finch, Ara. Zool,
CIZE of the common Goldfinch. Bill brown : the head, and
upper parts, blackifh afh-colour : throat, and fore part of the
neck, white: breaft rufous ; from thence to the vent whitifh:
leffer wing coverts rufous; the next the fame, forming a band;
bleow this a black band, and then another rufous one ; this is fol-
6 lowed
56.
LULEAN F. I     N
H.
lowed by a fecond band of black; and laftly by a white onet
the quills are dufky :   the tail dufky afh-colour.
This inhabits Sweden, chiefly about Weft Bothnia.
.+- AMERICAN
GOLDFINCH.
Description.
Fringilla triftis, Lin. Syft. i, p. 320. 12.
Le Chardonneret d'Amerique, Brif orn. iii. p. 64. 3.
 jaune, Buf. oif. iv. p. 212.
 . de Canada, Pl. enl. 202.  f. 2.
• ■ ■   de Surinam, Defer, de Surin. vol. ii. p. 199.
American Goldfinch, Catefb. Car. i. pl. 43.—Edw. pl. 274.—ArB, Zool.
Green Sparrow of Guiana, Bancr. Guian. p. 181. 1 (the female).
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
CIZE of the Linnet: length four inches and a third. Bill
white: irides hazel: fore part of the head black : the reft of
the body yellow : thighs, and tail coverts, yellowifh white* : the
wing coverts black, croffed with a band of white : quills black;
the edges and tips of the leffer ones white: tail black : legs
white.
The female wants the black on the head: the upper parts are
olive green : throat, breaft, and rump, pale yellow : belly, and
vent, white : wings, and tail, like the male, but lefs bright.
The young bird is at firft like the female in all things, except
in having the black forehead.
Thefe inhabit North America, particularly about New York,
where they are fummer birds, and feed on thiftles, like our Goldfinch.
Alfo found at Surinam and Guiana, in the favannas.
' Thefe parts in Brifon's bird were grey.
Fringilla Fringilla fpinus, Lin. Syft. i, p. 322. 25.—Faun. Suec. 237, — Scop.
N° 212.—Brun. 261. 262. — Muller, N° 259, —Kram. el. p. .
—Olin. uc. pl. in p. 17.—Frifch. pl. ii.y—Georgi Reife, p. 174.
Le Tarin, Brif. om. iii. p. 65. 4..—Buf. of iv. p. 221.—Pl. enl. 485.
Sifkin, Raii Syn. p. 91. A. 5. — Will. orn.  p. 261. pl. 46. —Br. Zi
N° 129. pl. 53.—ArB. Zool.
Abadavine, Alb. iii. pl. 76.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Linnet, or rather lefs: length four inches and
three quarters. Bill white, with a black tip : top of the head
black: hind head, and all the upper parts, yellowifh olive, with
a dafh of dufky down the middle of each feather : rump yellowifh : the under parts of the body greyifh yellow : belly whitifh:
under tail coverts ftreaked with dufky : thighs grey : leffer wing
coverts olive ; the middle ones blackifh, tipped with olive; the
greater ones the fame; hence are formed two olive green bands :
the three firft quills are blackifh, with the inner edge brimftone-
colour; the outer edge of the fecond and third yellow green ; the
others are half blackifh half yellow, edged with greenifh, and
tipped with grey : the tail is a little forked; the two middle feathers blackifh, edged with olive; the others yellow, with the tips
black, and the edges grey: the legs are grey.
The female has the crown of the head grey and black mixed,
and a whitifh chin; otherwife like the male, but much lefs
bright.
This bird is pretty common throughout Europe, and not un-
frequent in England in the winter feafon ; but in fome years much
fcarcer than in others. During the time of its being in England,
it may be met with, mixed with the leffer Redpole, on alder trees,
Vo_. II. P p fometimes Z(p
I     N
H.
fometimes in great numbers ; often runs on the under part of the
branches, and hangs with the back downwards, like the Titmoufe,
feeding on the feeds of thefe trees ; and departs in fpring: but
this is not the only food. In other countries they frequent hopgardens *, where they eat the feeds, and, I make no doubt, many
other kinds of feeds alfo f.
No one has defcribed the neft. It is fuppofed to conceal it
with great cunning J; nor has it ever been known to breed
with us.
In Suffex this bird is called the Barley Bird, as being feen in
that feed-time. About London known by the name of Aberdevine.
In the weftern and fouthern parts of Ruffia this bird is found
in plenty ; but is not met with towards the Uralian chain, nor in
Sibiria ||.
It is reckoned by fome among the fong-birds, though far inferior to many. Is often kept and paired with the Canary-bird»
with which it breeds freely §. It is a very tame and docile
fpecies.
• This they are faid to do in Germany, to the great detriment of the owners.—
Sift, des of.
+ Habitat in Europae juniperitis.—Lin.
% Kramer has feen both male and female carry food to the young, but could
never find the neft,
y Mr. Pennant.
§ Twice in the feafon.—R. P. Bougot.—Hift. des oif, p. 227. (g). LeTarin noir, Brif. orn. iii. p. 6c), A—Buf. oif. iv. p. 233. N° 4.
'"THIS is black, with a yellowifh crown; and met with in
Silefia.
Buffon mentions one taken at large, which he thought to be a
mixed breed between a Canary and the Sifkin; the colour much
like the laft-named: the upper parts mixed, grey, brown, and
yellowifh olive; the laft chiefly on the neck, breaft, rump, and
thighs: quills, tail, and almoft all the wing coverts, blackifh,
edged with yellowifh olive.
Le Tarin de la Nouvelle York, Buf. oif. i
-Pl. enl. 292. f. 1
HP HIS is a trifle bigger than our fpecies. The bill fhorter :
the top of the head black: throat, round the neck, and
breaft, yellow : the rump is alfo yellow, changing into white on
the upper tail coverts : the back olive brown ; the edges of the
feathers paleft: wings, and tail, black, moftly edged with white :
the belly, and vent, whitifh :   legs pale.
The female is very like the male, but the colours lefs bright,
and wants the black on the head.
Inhabits New York.
Description
L'Olivarez, Buf. oif. iv. p. 232. N° 3.
TE N G T H four inches and a half.    Bill cinereous:  pupil
blueifh : the upper parts of the body pale olive: beneath,
yellow : head black: quills blackifh, edged more or lefs with
P p 2 yellow,
Description. F     I     N
H.
yellow, and a ftripe of the fame on the wings:   tail,, and the-
quills, a little forked : legs cinereous.
Female. The female has the crown grey brown : cheeks, and throat,.
pafe yellow.
Thefe birds are found in the-wood's about Buenos Ayres, and in
the Straits of Magellan. It Is fild to fing better than any other
bird of South America.
The above are thought' by Buffon to be varieties of our
Sifkin*
MEXICAN- Le Tarin du Mexique, Brif. om. iif. p. 70. c>
SISKIN. Acatechili, Buf of. iv. p. 234.
Acatechichictli, Raii Syn. p. 90. 3..
Description..   CIZE of our Sifkin.    The upper parts greenifh brown; the*
under, yellowifh white : quills, and tail, like the back.
Place.. This inhabits Mexico, where it is called Acatechichiflli.    It has,
the famemanners, and lives on the like food, as our Sifkin.
60.
BLACK MEXT-
CAN SISKIN.
Le Tarih noir du Mex
LeCatotol, Buf. oif ii
CIZE of our Sifkin.    The upper parts variegated with yellow and blackifh.; the under, white: legaafh-colour.
Inhabits the plains of Mexico, and is faid to fing agreeably.   It.
feeds on the feeds of a tree called Hoauhtlh. F     I     N
a93
Le Tarrain de la Chine, Son. Voy. Ind. vol. ii. p. 202.
T ESS than the Sparrow. Bill black : the head is black :
hind part of the neck, and back, olive green : the fore part,
belly, and vent, yellow : wing coverts the feme; the leffer croffed
with two black bands, the larger tipped with a fpot of black.--
the quills are black, but the greater ones are yellow halfway from the bafe: tail half black half yellow, like the quills :
legs black.
Inhabits China*
CHINESE
SISKIN.
Description.
Fringilla Canaria, Lin. Syft'. i. p. 321. 23. —t
pl. 12. feveral varieties.
Le Serin des Canaries, Brif. om. iii. p. 1-84. _2.—Buf. oifiv. p. i.—Pl. enl.
pl. in p. 7. — Frifch. 62.
+. CANARY F;.
Paffer Canarienfis, Raii Syn. p. 91. 6.
Canary Bird,   Will. om. 262. pl. 46.—Albin. i. pl. 65.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
C^ EN ERAL fize that of the Hedge Sparrow, and the length
from five to five inches and a half.    The bill is whitifh, or
pale flefh-colour:   colour of the plumage yellow, more or lefs
mixed with grey : the tail a little forked : the legs pale.
The colour of thefe birds in a ftate of nature is.chiefly grey**
but breaks out into the. greateft variety imaginable, from ar-
* The Canary-bird, which grows white in France, is in the ifland of Teneriffe-
almoft as grey as a Linnet.—Adanfi Voy. p. 20.
tificial trifacial management, in the fame manner as our common
poultry *.
They inhabit, in a wild ftate, the Canary Iflands chiefly, as
well as fome others; as Palma, Cape Verd f, Fayal J, Madeira ||;
and are faid to frequent watery places.
Our plan will not allow the taking notice, even in brief, of
the various methods of rearing thefe birds. This can be fhewn
only in authors whofe writings are more diffufe; as thofe of
Buffon, who allows above fifty pages on this bird alone; all of
which may be read with pleafure and inftruclion. Willughby has
treated lightly on the fame fubject; as has Albin, in his Hiftory of
Singing Birds; and others. We will therefore wave the matter,
further than to obferve, that this bird breeds freely with our two
next fpecies, both feemingly congenerous birds ; the firft found
in Italy, Greece, Turkey, Auftria, and Provence; the Other met
with in the laft-named place, Dauphiny, Lyons, Bugey, Geneva,
Switzerland, Germany, Spain, and Italy.
The Canary-bird will alfo prove fertile with the Sifkin and
Goldfinch; but in this cafe the produce, for the moft part, proves
fieri le:   the pairs fucceed   beft  when  the  hen -bird is the Ca-
* Twenty-nine varieties are mentioned by name in the Hifl, des oif p. ior.
and, from what I can learn, many more are reckoned by fanciers in thefe birds. .
t Hifl. des oif. vol. v. 4. p. 35. 45.—If this bird be the Serinus oi Kolben, it is
alfo found at the Cape of Good Hope. This is faid to be of a yellowifh green*
mixed with grey on the backy«tod te--fing like a Canary-bird.—Kolb. Cape,
vol. ii. p. 156. I have feen the yellow fort, mixed with both brownifh grey
and greenifh, in Chinefe drawings, frequently; but whether caged birds or not
could not be-eeWaitift* f:t
J Forft. Voy. ii. p. 590. '   || Forft. Obf. p. 26.
9 nary, I      N
H.
nary, and the cock of the oppofite fpecies *. It will alfo prove
prolific with the Linnet, Yellow-hammer, Chaffinch, and even the
Houfe Sparrow f; but the male Canary-bird will not affimilate
with the female of thefe birds; the hen muft be ever of the
Canary fpecies, and the young of thefe moftly prove mule birds.
As to the fong, fo highly prized by many, it is alfo needlefs-
here to dwell upon. Whoever may wifh to read what is faid on
the fubject of this or other finging birds, need only conflilt a
well-written treatife by our friend the Plon. Daines Barrington\,
on this fubject.
This bird is faid by fome to live ten or fifteen years || ; by
others, as far as eighteen §^ One of them, now alive, has already
been in the poffeffion of a friend of mine thirteen years.
*9$
* When a male Canary-bird is matched to the hen Go'dftnch, or Sifkin, it is
not without certain precautions, and great attention, that a brood will follow.
On the contrary, when the male of either of the two lafi-mentioned birds is
made ufe of, the fuccefs is almoft certain.
f A female Canary-bird of the grey kind, which efcaped from a cage, has
been known to pair with a Houfe Sparrow, and to bring a brood in a bird-pot
placed againft an houfe. — Hifl. des oif. iv. p. 11. note (p) -A few Canary-
birds that have efcaped from an aviary, feem to have bred; as fuch are fre»
"quently feen, with other fmall birds, in the hedges at Puddington, in Bedfordfhire.
 See Bibl. Typogr. Brit. N° 8. p. 13. art. 35. The circumftance alfo has
occurred of the Canary-bird breeding with the Vengoline.—See Barrington on
Singing Birds.   Phil. Tranf vol. lxiii. 1773. Br, Zool. ii. p. 666.
\ See Phil. Tranf. vol. lxiii. or Br. Zool. vol. ii. App. N° 5.
H Qlina. § Salerne. _9* F     I     N     C     H.
62.
Var. A.
MOSAMBIQUE Serins de Mozambique, PL enl. 364. f. 1
Des.cr
'T'HiS fpecies is very little lefs than the Canary-bird: in
length four inches and a half. The bill, and legs, pale :
the upper parts brown : the feathers of the wings, and tail, edged
with pale : the under parts, and rump, yellow : over, and between
the bill and eye, yellow; under the eye a ftreak of the fame.
The male and female much alike.
For thefe birds we are indebted to Buffon, who fays they were
brought from Mozambique, on the eaftern coaft of Africa. And
this again reminds us of that mentioned by Kolben, in his Hiftory
of the Cape of Good Hope *, which may not be far different from
this fpecies ; and I the rather think this, as I have fuch an one in
my collection from the Cape, which came into my hands under
the name of Caps Canary Bird.
Pringilla ferinus,  Lin. Syft. i. p. _zo. 17.—Kram. el. p. 368. 7.
SERIN F. Loxia ferinus, Scop. ann. i. N° 205.
Le Serin, Brif orn. iii. p. 179. 50.—Pl. enl. 658. f. I.
.Serinus, Raii Syn. p. 92. 8.—Will. om. p. 265. pl. 46.
Lev. Muf.
Description.     CIZE of the fmall Linnet: length near four inches and a half.
The upper mandible  grey brown, the under whitifh :   the
plumage on the upper part of the body brown, mixed with yellowifh green : beneath, of a greenifh yellow, marked on the fides
63-
* Vol. ii. p. 156.' I     N
H.
with longitudinal fpots of brown : on the wings a greenifh band :
the quills, and tail, brown, margined with greenifh grey,, the laft
fomewhat forked in fhape : legs brown.
This fpecies inhabits Italy, Auftria *, Stiria, and is not uncommon in the fouthern provinces of France.
Scopoti obferves that it is gregarious in fpring, and frequents
orchards; is fond of cabbage and hemp-feed; frequently takes
fudden flights upwards, and, after fluttering in the air for a little
while, and warbling at the fame time, alights with expanded
wings nearly on the fame fpot from whence it arofe.
Fringilla Citrinella, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 320. \6.
Verzellino, Olin. uc. pl. in p. 15.
Le Serin d'ltalie, Brif. orn. iii. p. 182. 51.
Le Venturon de Provence, Pl. enl. 658. f. 2.
Citril of Vienna,  Raii Syn.  p. 92. 7, — Will. cm. 2S5. pl. 46.—. Ruff. Alep.
p. 6S.
rjP H I S is rather larger than the laft bird. The bill is brown ::
the plumage on the upper parts yellowifh green, fpotted
with brown : the under, and rump, greenifh yellow : the breaft
of the male much inclined to yellow: the leffer wing coverts
greenifh, the greater dufky, edged with green : the quills much
the fame; as are the feathers of the tail, which is a little forked
in fhape: the legs flefh-colour.
This fpecies is common in the fouthern provinces of France,
.and about Rome,    It is- found alfo in Greece, Turkey, and other
• Called at Vienna, Hirngryll.
Vol., Hr Q__q neighbouring N
H.
neighbouring parts'*. Both this and the laft are remarkable for
their fong, which is faid to be as fine as that of the Canary-bird,
to which both, thefe feem to have great affinity.
m
■*- SAFFRON-
FRONTED   F.
;Fringilla flaveola, Lin. Syft. i. p. 321, 2±.
>Lev. Muf.
iOIZE of a Canary-bird: general colour yellow. Bill convex,
of a pale colour, with a brown tip : the forehead faffron-
,-colour: the back inclines to green : quills and tail edged with
-yellow; the laft forked : legs pale.
■Linnaus fays, this was in the Mufeum of M. de Geer; but from
whence it came unknown.
I find it likewife in the Leverian Mufeum, but without any
;hiftory annexed.
I fufpecl that it is a mongrel bird, as one in my collection,
..anfwering this very defcription, was given to me as the produce
of a Canary-bird .with a Goldfinch.
AUTUMNAL F.
Description.
jPlacb.
•Fringilla autumnalis, Lin. Syft. i. p. 320. .i£.
HP HIS is faid to be of a greenifh colour : the top of the head
: ferruginous:   vent teftaceousi And -the tail even  at the
end.
inhabits Surinam.
■*<Ruffil mentions the-'C»Vr//-being «ommon at Aleppo, aadibatit 2s$req-uenf$
,-aten,there by the French.   Hifl. Alep. p, 65.
Fringilla Fringilla lepida, Lin. Syft. i. p. 320. 14.
rPHI S is lefs by one half than the Canary-bird.   The general
colour greenifh brown : bill and eyes black; above the eyes
a fulvous ftripe, and a leffer one of the fame beneath them :- the
chin fulvous : breaft black :-. legs grey.
This fpecies inhabits the woods about Havannah, in the ifland
of Cuba, and is eafily tamed: it is very frequently finging, but in
fo weak a voice, as fcarce.to be heard,.except one is almoft clofe
to it.
Fringilla butyracea", Ltn. Syft. i.'p. 321. zti
Le Verdier des Indes, Brif. orn. iii. p. 195. 55.
 du Cap de Bonne Efperance; Pl. enl. 341. f. 1.-
Le Vert brunet, Buf. oif. iv. p. 182.
Ghloris,-or Greenfinch, Kolb. Cap. ii. p. 151 J"''
Indian Greenfinch, Edw. pl. 84.-
CIZE of the Canary-bird: length four inches and a half. Bill
blackifh brown, paleft beneath : irides hazel: plumage on the
upper parts olive green : rump and under parts yellow : over the
eye a yellow ftreak; a fmaller ftreak or two beneath the eye; and
one of green paffing through it: the quills olive green, edged'
with white: the tail, which is forked,, yellow green: legs
brown.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies, and is faid to fing exceeding well.    If
this be the fame bird with that of Kolben*, he gives it the fame
* His bird had a broad bill, the back and belly grafs green, moft of the tail
defcription.
i green,  and the wings
moftly  black.    This
character 3oo FINCH.
character, obferving, that the notes are loud and pleafant. This
laft author fays, that it is more frequent at the Cape of Good Hope
than the Greenfinch in Europe \.
69.
BAHAMA F.
Fringilla bicolor, Lin. Syft. i. p. 324. 38.
Le Verdier de Bahama, Brif em. iii. p. 202. 59,
Le Verdinere, Buf. of. iv. p. 184.
Bahama Sparrow, Cat eft. Car. i. pl. tf.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of a Canary-bird: length four inches. Bill black:
head, throat, and breaft, the fame: the reft of the bird dirty
•green.
This fpecies is common in the woods of Bahama, where it fits
perched on the tops o,f trees, and fings prettily, not unlike the
Chaffinch.
This bird varies in colour: one in the Britifh Mufeum has an
afh-coloured belly, and the vent tinged with red. This came
from Jamaica.
In the fame place are two others : in one, neither the head,
nor back part of the neck, are black; and the feathers of the
back incline to afh-colour. The fecond, brownifh olive above;
beneath afh-colour: quills and tail dufky, edged with olive. The
two laft from Bahama,
BLACK-
COLLARED F.
Description.
Le Worabee, Buf. oif. iv. p. 54.
CIZE and fhape of a.Canary-bird.    The bill fafhioned much
the fame, and black: the fides of the head beneath the eyes,
the throat, fore part of the neck, breaft, and upper part of the
f It is alfo found at Madeira.   Forft, Obf. p. z6.
belly, I      N
H.
belly, black: the upper part of the head, the reft of the body,
and lower part of the belly, yellow : at the back part of the neck
a collar of black, which meets the black on the fore part: the
wing coverts and quills black, with pale edges: tail black, edged
with greenifh yellow: legs pale brown.
This inhabits Abyffinia, where it is met with in flocks, and is
known by the name of Wjrabee. It feeds on the feed of a plant
called Nuk, which has a yellow flower, and the feed produces an
<oih in much ufe among the monks *..
L'outre-mer, Buf. of. iv. p. 56.
•CI Z E of a Canary-bird, but has a rounder head. The bill
white: the plumage wholly of a fine deep blue: the legs red.
The young birds and females are grey. The male gets the blue
plumage in the fpring of the fecond year; but the female ever
remains of the fimple grey colour.
This alfo inhabits Abyffinia, and is faid to have a fine fong.
L'Habefch de Syrie, Buf. oif. Iv. p. 57. TRIPOLINE F.
MpHIS bird is a little bigger than the Linnet.    Bill thick,    Description.
fhort, and of a lead-colour: the top of the head of a fine
bright red: the cheeks, throat, and fore part of the neck,
blackifh, mixed with brown : the reft of the neck, breaft, upper
parts of the body, and leffer wing coverts, brown, dufky, and
yellow, mixed : the greater wing coverts deep afh-colour, edged
with paler:  quills and tail the fame, but edged with bright
* Hifl. des oif. 3Q2
I     N
H.
orange; the laft a little forked: belly and vent dirty white,
marked with obfcure yellowifh and dufky fpots:. legs lead-
colour.
This fpecies is found about Tripoli, in Syria: is a bird of
paffage, and faid to fing very finely.
We are indebted, for the three laft, to the pencil of Mr. Bruce,.
from whofe drawings the defcriptions were taken.
La Linotte,   Brif. orn.  iii.   p.   131.
Pl. enl. 151. f. 1—Frfb.pl. 9.—
Common Linnet, Raii Syn. p. 90.  A
Br. Zool. i. N> 130.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
Buf. oif. iv. p..5-8. pi. 1.-
uc. pl. in p. 45.
■Will, orn, p, 258. pl. 46.-
*Tp HIS bird is well known : the length of it five inches and a
half. The bill grey, with a brown tip, and inclines to blue
in the fpring : the irides hazel: the plumage on the upper parts
dark reddifh brown; the margins of the feathers pale: the head
feathers are very dark, with cinereous edges; and the fides of the.
neck of this laft colour: on the throat a line of brown, bounded-
on each fide with white: the under parts of the body dirty
reddifh white; the breaft is deeper than the reft, and in fpring -
becomes of a beautiful crimfon: the fides fpotted with brown::
on the wings is a longitudinal white mark: the quills are dufky:
the tail brown, edged with white, except the two middle feathers,,
which have reddifh margins; the fhape of it a little forked : legs
brown.
The females and young birds want the red fpot on the breaft,
but inftead of it have fhort perpendicular ftreaks of brown in the
fame place : the female has alfo lefs white in the wings than the-
7 male,. N
H.
#nale, and the colours in general lefs bright. What has been
;faid concerning the red on the breaft, however, only holds good
iof the bird in a natural ftate, as the moft beautiful breafted.0ale
ifoon lofes the crimfon when confined in a cage; nor does it regain it even in fpring, during its ftate of confinement. It is faid
;to live fourteen years, or more *.
This bird is fufficiently common in England, and breeds on
low fhrubs, black and white thorn, and furze.   The outfide of the
neft is compofed of dried herbs, grafs, and mofs, and lined with
wool, or hair. The female lays as far as five white eggs, fpotted
•with reddifh brown at the large end.   Buffon talks of having nefts
brought to him in May, July, and September; but whether they
breed more than twice in a year, in England, is not certain. They
:are frequently found in flocks, during the winter; and feed on
many kinds of feeds, and are faid to be fond of flax-feed (Linum)
'whence perhaps their name : are found throughout France, Italy,
^Germany, the fouth of Ruffia, and many other parts of Europe;
and it is not improbable but that it is alfo met -with at the Cape
tf Good Hope f.
There are only two varieties mentioned of this bird J.    The
one white; the quills and tail black, edged with white, as in the
^common.
* Willughby.—As far as eighteen. Sakrne.
■}• I fay this on theFujjpofition of its being the JEgithus of Ariftotle, as Belon
•thinks. Kolben mentions one, by name the Aigithus, as being common at the
£ap&, and a bird well'known in Europe, but does not defcribe it. He adds, that
it is _1 enmity with affes, for deftroying the neft, which it conftantly builds upon
thiftles.    See Kolb. Cap, vol. ii. p. 156.
% Hifl,.des of.
The N
H.
The other, with a greenifh bill, the legs black, and a very
forked tail: otherwife like the common Linnet.
One, wholly white, is alfo in- the Leverian Mufeum:
4- GREATER
REDPOLE.
Place and
Manners.
Fringillacannabina, Lin. Syft. i. p. _iz. 28.—Faun. Suec. 240.—Scop. ann. i.
N° 219.— Kram. el.   p.  _6%.%.—Brun.  N° 263.— Muller, N» 261.—
Frifch. pl. 9. f." 1. 2.— Georgi Reife, p. 174.
La grande Linotte de Vignes, Brif. orn. iii. p.  135. 30.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 58.-
—PL enl. 485. f. 1..
Greater Red-headed Linnet, Raii Syn. p. 91. A. 2.—Will. om. p. 260.—
Albin. iii. pl. 72. 73.—Br. Zool.i. N° 131. pl. 55.— ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf
"D ATHER lefs than the common Linnet, and about the Tarried:!
length. The bill is dufky : irides hazel: on the forehead
is a blood-coloured fpot: the reft of the head and neck afh-
colour : the breaft tinged with a fine rofe-colour: back, wing
coverts, and feapulars, bright reddifh brown : the firft quill
feather black ; the exterior and interior edges of the eight following white, forming a bar of white on the wing: the fides are
yellow: middle of the belly white.: tail a little forked, dufkyy
edged with white : the legs brown.
The head of the female is afh-coloured, fpotted' with black:
back and feapulars of a brownifh red : breaft and fides dirty yellow, ftreaked with dufky lines.
This bird is frequently met with in flocks on the fea-coafts, and
in flight-time near London; and is alfo common on the continent
of Europe, like the former, but found more northward than that
bird, in which parts it breeds *..   It is likewife found in Ammc'ailM
* I have been told that it chiefly breeds in the northern parts of England
and Scotland, upon  the mountains.    Dr. Heyjbam- tells me that it breeds in.   -
Cumberland.
where* I I     N
H.
where, I am told, it fhifts its quarters according to the feafon,
and unites into flocks, in the fame manner as in Europe. I have
a fpecimen received from Hudson's Bay, which differs in being
of a paler brown.
Fringilla linaria, Lin. Syft. i. p. 322. 29.—Faun. Suec. 241.—Faun. Green.
p. 121. 83.—Brun. N° 264.—Muller, N° 262.—Kram. el. p. 369. 9.
,    —Frifch. pl. IO.—Georgi Reife, p. 174.
La petite Linotte de Vignes, Brif. orn. iii. p. 138. 31.—Pl. enl. 151. f. 2.
Le Sizerin, Buf. oif. iv. p. 216.
Leffer Red-headed Linnet, Raii Syn. p. 91. A.  3.—Will. orn. p. 260. pl.
46.—Alb. iii. pl. 75—Br. Zool. i. N° 132. pl. 54—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
HP H IS is about half the fize of the laft, and is in length five
inches. The bill is dufky : irides hazel: on the forehead is
a rich fpot of purplifh red : the breaft of the fame colour, but
lefs bright: the back dufky, edged with reddifh brown : the
fides yellowifh, or afh-colour, marked with narrow dufky lines :
quills and tail dufky, edged with dirty white: on the wing coverts two whitifh bars : the legs dufky.
The female is lefs lively in colour; has no red on the breaft;
and the fpot on the forehead is of a faffron-colour.
This fpecies is alfo common enough in England, but I am
not clear of its building very often in the fouthern parts *. A
neft of this fpecies has been found on an alder flump, near a
brook, about two or three feet from the ground; the outfide
compofed  of dried ftalks,  and  other plants, intermixed with
» It makes the neft in the mountains of Wales.   Barringt. Mifc. p. 217.
Vol. II. R r wool,
■ LESSER RED-
POLE.
Place add
Manners. 3o6
I
I
C
m.
wool, and lined with-hair and feathers. The eggs were four in-,
number, of a pale blueifh- green, thickly fprinkled near the
blunt end with fmall reddifh fpots. The bird was fo tenacious-
of her neft, as to fuffer herfelf to be taken off by the hand, and.
when releafed would not forfake it *.
This fpecies is known about London by the name of Stone-
'Redpole.
Linnaus, Kramer, and others,, mention its being very fond of
the feeds of Alder. This we have feen frequently ;. for whole-
flocks of thefe birds,.mixed with the Sifkin, frequent many places-
where Aljderpgrow, for the fake of picking the catkins; they generally liang like the Titmoufe,. with the back downwards; and'
in this ftate are fo intent on their work, that they-may be entangled one after another by dozens, by means of a.twig fmeared,
with birdlime, fattened to the end of a fifhing-rod,, or other-
long pole.
This fpecies feems to be in plenty throughout Europe, from?
the extreme parts of Ruffia, on the one hand, to Italy on the
other. Is very common in Grffflland, and was alfo met with by
our late voyagers at Aoonalafhka\. In America it is likfWji-fer
well known.. Hence it feems to be a bird common to the whole:
of the northern part, of the globe without .eagsgption..      fft$H|
f Ellis's Voy. ii. p. iS.- m
l_a Linotte de Montagne, Brif orn. iii. p. 145; 33.—Buf. oif. iv. p, 74.—
Frifch. pl. 10.
Mountain Linnet,   Raii Syn. p. 91. A. 4.—Will. om.  p. 261.—Br, Zeal.
N" 133. pl. 53.
Lev. Muf.
CIZE   of   the  common   Linnet:   length fix  inches  and   a
half*.    Bill .pale : irides hazel: the feathers on the upper
]part of the body dufky; thofe on the head edged with afh-colour,
•the others with brownifh red : the rump pale crimfon : the under
parts of the body pale-; thofe of the throat and breaft blackifh,
•with pale edges.: wings and tail dufky': the tips of the greater
coverts and fecondaries whit-ifh : legs pale brown.
The female wants the red mark on the rump. In Mr. Pen-
mant's bird there was a pale brown fpot above and beneath each
=«ye ; and the -greater wing coverts_e-dged with white.
76.
MOUNTAIN
LINNET.
1 petite Linotte,  ou le Cabaret, Brif. 01
p. 76.—PL enl. 485. f. 2.
wite, Albin. iii. ,pl. .74.—ArB. Zool.
>Lev.   Muf.
m&j
76.
Var. A.
. TWI fE.
'"'"THE  length of  this  bird is only four inches   and a half.     De£
Bill yellowifh, with a brown tip : the top of the head, and
rump, are both red : over the eyes a rufous band: -the upper
.parts black, edged with rufous : the under rufous, fpotted with
^blackifh on the throat: the belly white: the legs brown or black:
the claws long, efpecially the hinder one : between the bill and
eye a black brown fpot, and on the chin another.
R r 2 3°3
I     N
H.
Female. The female wants the red fpot on the rump.    It is moft pro
bable that this and the laft-defcribed are mere varieties of each
other. Mr. Pennant feems of this opinion, by placing them as
one fpecies; and I fhould readily join him, did not Willughby
exprefsly fay, that his Mountain Linnet is fix inches and a half, or
two inches longer than the prefent fpecies. This, however, may
be a miftake, as the common Linnet is only five inches and a
half. As to the prefence, or want, of the red on the head, which
feems to conftitute another effential difference, the time of the
year, age or fex of thebird, or other circumftances, may have
given rife to a double defcription. We have feen one of thefe*,
in which the forehead, rump, and breaft, were all of them
red.
Twites are taken in the flight-feafon near London, along with
other Linnets. It is probable that the name has been taken from
their twittering note, having no mufic in it; and indeed the bird-
catchers will tell at fome diftance whether there be any Twites
mixed among Linnets, merely from this circumftance. The
Twite is fuppofed to breed in the more northern parts of our
ifland.
La Linotte de Strafhourg, Brif. om. iii. p. 146. 34.
STRASBURG F. Le Gyntel de Strafburgh, Buf oif. iv. p. 73.
Description.    CIZE of the common Linnet.    The head and upper parts, as
far as the rump, brown : beneath, as far as the upper part of
the belly, and fides, rufous, fpotted with brown : the belly and
vent whitifh: quills and tail brown: legs reddifh.
• In the Leverian Mufeum,
Inhabits Inhabits the environs of Strafbourg, where it is called Gyntel,
Is faid to lay as far as four eggs.
La Linotte d'Angola, Brif. orn. Supp. .
La Vengoline, Buf. of. iv. p. 80.— B,
Linnets from Angola, Edw. pl. 129.
, 81.71.
Zool. 8vo. vol. ii. App. p. 666.
CIZE of our Linnet. The bill brown; the feathers round
the bafe black : the upper parts of the head, neck, and body,
brownifh afh-colour, each feather darker in the middle: round
the eyes, and on each fide of the throat, white : the under parts
of a plain dull orange: the rump, and upper tail coverts, bright
yellow : the greater wing coverts and quills brown, edged with
yellow : tail the fame, edged with grey : legs flefh-colour.
The female has the upper parts rufous brown, each feather
darkeft in the middle : fides of the head pale rufous: near the
bafe of the bill a brown mark, which paffes towards the hind
head : from the breaft to the vent pale rufous, fpotted with
brown : the reft partly like the male.
Thefe came from Angola, where the male bears the name of
Negral, or Tobaque; the female, Benguelinha. Indeed their being
of oppofite fexes is not certain: Mr. Edwards only fuppofes It;
and it is probable, that, as they are both faid to fing well, they
may have been males of two different fpecies, as females in general feldom have a fine fong. The laft-named bird is moft
likely the Vengoline, mentioned by the Hon. D. Barrington *,
which he fays fings better than any bird that is not European,
except the American Mocking Bird.
* See his Experiments and Obfervations on the finging of birds. Phil. Tranf. i   n   c   m
La Linott
e brune, Buf. oif. i
Dufky Lir
net, Edw. pl. 270.
LONG-TAILED
F.
T  ENGTH four inches,   IBffiam-cdlour: general cofouf^ef
the  plumage dufky  brown  or blackifh,  inclining to afh-
colour on the breaft and rump: all the feathers have the tips of
a lighter colour: the legs are dufky.
This is a native of Angola or Brafil, but which not certain.
Briffon makes-thefe-two-the fame fpecies; Buffon is of a contrary
fentiment.   ,1 have not feen either, fo can form no opinion.
.-'C'l Z E of a Linnet: length feven inches and a half. Bill
; brown : the upper part of the plumage like that of a Sky- lark.;
•the middle of each feather very dark : the under parts of the
ibody very pale afh-colour : tail long, very.cuneiform in fhape;
-the two middle feathers narrow, and fharp at.the ends; thefe are
of a greenifh brown ; all the others brown.: the quills are brown,
>with greenifh margins : legs brown.
From Cayenne. I few the above in a.collection of .birds fent
from.that place.
8K                  jFringillaBenghalus,
BLUE-BELLIED       \ 1 Angolenfis,
Syft. i. p. 323- _-z. (the-male.-)
!— —— 31. (the female.)
p. 303. 60   pl. 10. f. .1.—Buf,..of. iv. p. 92.-
■*• Le Bengali, Brif. orn. i
PL enl 115.  f. i
Blue-bellied Finch, Edw. .pl. ,1.31. (female.)
Lev. Muf.
Description.     Q I Z E of the leffer Redpole : length9four Inches three quarters.
Bill dirty flefh-colour : Irides hazel:  the head, and upper
I parts I     N
IT.
: of tl
P.-
_parts of phe body, grey : the lower part of the back and ri
and all the under parts, blue : on each fide of the head is a
\ curved purplifh red fpor,, placed beneath the eyes, and rather
behind them: the quills are brown,, edged with grey : the tail
pale blue,, and a little wedge-fhaped : the legs whitifh.
The female.is the fame in colour, but wants the red fpot beneath the eyes.
Somefpecimens have the under parts of the fame colour as the-
back, but paler; in others there is a tinge of red on the belly..
Edwards's bird was of an afh-coloured brown above, and pale'
blue on the under parts and tail, but had no red markunder the
eyes; and what he took for the femalewas cinereous brown, .and'
had only a light tinge of blue on the under parts of the body..
Thefe differences are all to be feen in a variety of fpecimens in
the Mufeum of Sir A. Lever-
Fringilla amandava; Lin. Syft. i. p. 319. 10'
Le Bengali piquete,  Brif om. iii. p. 206. 6:
96. pl. 2. f. 1.—PL enl. 115. f. 3..
Avicula Amandavsea, Raii Syn. p. 92. 9.
Amadavad Bird, Will. orn.  p.  266. pl. 46.—Albin
355- | »•
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf
pl. io..f.  A.-Buf.of. iv. p...
. pl. 77.—Edw.  pl.
CIZE of a Wren : length four inches. Bill of a dull' red :
all the upper parts brown, with a mixture of red : the under
the fame,, but paler;, the middle of the belly darkeft: all the
feathers of the upper wing coverts, breaft, and fides, have a fpot
of white at the tip: the quills are grey brown■: tail black r legs
j|aleuycllo\sdfh -white..-  I
The
Descriptio m
mm
N
H.
The female differs in having a mixture of white on the throat
and fore part of the neck ; and the belly of a pale yellow colour:
but in other things refembles the male.
Inhabits Bengal, Java, Malacca, and other parts of Afia.
Fringilla Amandava, Lin. i
Le Bengalis brun, Brif. orn
—Pl. enl. 115. f. z.
fft. 1. p. 319. 10. 8.
iii. p. 205. 61, pl. 10. f. $.~—Buf. of. iv. p,<?5.
. Muf.
^p H I S is very little bigger than a Wren : the length under
four inches. The bill is reddifh: general colour of the
plumage brown, deepeft on the belly; in fome birds mixed with
a little white on the breaft, and a little reddifh in others: on
many of the wing coverts is a fpot of white juft at the tip : tail
dufky. black: legs pale yellow.
The female * is of an uniform brown colour, and the wing
coverts not fpotted with white.
Inhabits Bengal.
Fringilla Senegala, Lin, Syft, i. p. 320. 18.
4- SENEGAL F.       Le Senegali rouge, Brif. orn. iii. p. 208. 63. pl. 10. f. 2. —Buf. oif. iv. p. 99.
PL enl. 157. f. 1.
Description.     HP HI S is very little bigger than a Wren: length four inches
three quarters.    The bill   reddifh, edged  all round with
brown ; and beneath'the under mandible a line of brown quite to
the tip ; the fame alfo is feen on the ridge of the upper mandible:
* Whether thofe faid to be females, of this and the laft, are really fo, is doubtful,
fince they change colour every moult.   See Hifl, des oif. ii. p. 7^.
the I     N
H.
the upper part of the head, throat, fore part and fides of the
neck, breaft, and upper part of the belly, fides, rump, and upper
tail coverts, are of a vinaceous red colour: the lower part of the
belly, thighs, and under tail coverts, greenifh brown: the hind
part of the head and neck, the back, feapulars, and wing coverts,
are brown : the tail black : the legs pale grey.
This inhabits Senegal. Buffon mentions one of thefe having
been killed at Cayenne; but it is moft likely that it had been a
caged bird : it was a trifle different from the above-defcribed, as
the wings were lightly edged with red, and the bill entirely of
the laft colour: the legs reddifh : it had alfo the breaft and fides
fpotted with white. There is likewife mentioned one brought
from Abyffinia, by M. Bruce, which he calls Danbik, in which
the red covered the neck and wing coverts, as well as the under
parts; and it was fpotted on the fides of the breaft and wing coverts with white.
Buffon obferves, that thefe birds do not change the feathers
more than once in a year in this climate, though they do in their
native one : however this may be, I have now one of this laft
fpecies by me, which has not a fingle fpot upon it, and was once
full of them : it belonged to a young lady of my acquaintance,
to whom it was given, two or three years fince, along with another, as Amaduvades. The firft did not live long; the other died
without even the trace of a white fpot; and fhe affured me,
that it had whife fpots at one time of the year, and at another
none. I cannot fay that this circumftance I faw myfelf, but I
have no reafon to difbelieve it.
The Bengalis and Senegalis, as they are called, are natives of
Senegal, and feed on Millet.   This affords the natives an eafy
Vol. II. S f method I     N
H.
method of catching them: they have no more to do- than to<
fupport a large hollowed gourd, the bottom uppermoft, on a flick,.,
with a firing leading to fome covered place, and ftrewing under
it fome Millet; the little birds, haftening in-numbers to pick it:
up, are caught beneath the trap, by the flick being pulled away
by the obferver at a diftance. The females are faid to fing nearly,
as well as the males. They are pretty familiar birds, and, when
once ufed to the climate, will, frequently live five or fix years in<
a. cage. They have been bred in Holland by the fanciers ofv
birds.
From what has been faid, the reader will think with me, that;
it is quite poffible that the two laft may be only one fpecies, de--
feribed in different periods of. their changes...
84*      /ISB ECK* mentions five fmall birds, which he takes to be-
WHITE-EARED   t/
i    pf Ftnches,
The firft had the head, back, and wing coverts, purple: the
under fide of the body yellow : prime quills and tail fine blue :-
the fecondaries green: on the ears a white fpot.
The fecond like the former, but the back and tail purple.
The third with a green head, and a purple breaft and tail.
Fourth, the breaft of a light green: the head, and leffer wing
coverts,, brown.
The fifth had the head, back, wing coverts, and tail, of a fine
deep brown -the under fide of the body, and under wing coverts,,
fine crimfon.
* See Pej. vol. ii. p. 329, 330.
Each I     N    <C     H.
"Each of thefe birds had a white fpot on the ears ; hence it is
probable they may be varieties of each other : at leaft, we fhall
follow  Ofbeck's   fuppofition   of
-fuller authority for the alteration.
The defcription is taken from fome Chinefe drawings
1  being fo, till juftified by
fringilla alario, Lin. Syft. i. PJI9, .9.
"Le petit Moineau du Cap de B. Efperance, Brif.j),
Sparrow from the Cape of Good Hope, Albin, iii
rn. iii. p. 106. pl. _, f.J8.
, pl. 67.
T> I GGER than the.Houfe Sparrow : length four inches one-
third. The bill pale afh-colour : head and neck black; the
black ending in a point on the breaft: the breaft itfelf, and the
reft of the under parts, white : thighs rufous.: upper parts of
the body chefnut: quills blackifh ; inner,part of the leffer .ones,
and under the wings, chefnut: tail of this laft colour; and the
four .outer feathers marked with a longitudinal -blackifh fpot at
the tip : the fhape of the tail rather forked : legs brown.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope.
Fringilla Maia, Lin. Syft. i. p. 323. 35.
Le Maia de la Cuba, Brif. em. iii. p. 2
Buf. of. iv. p. 105. pl. 3.-/
Raii Syn. p. 155.—Will. orn. p. 3!
. 66. pl. 7. f. 3. (the female,)—
enl.   109. f. 2, (the female,)—
T^ENQTH three inches three quarters. Bill grey : the
head, neck, and under parts of the body, blackifh 4 back,
and upper parts, of a purplifh chefnut, brighteft on the rump:
acrofs the breaft a purplifh chefnut band: tail of the fame colour : quills grey brown, edged with chefnut: legs lead-colour.
S f 2 The 316
F     I     N
H.
The female differs : in her the bill is whitifh : head, neck, and
upper parts, fulvous : throat purplifh chefnut: on each fide of
the breaft a fpot of the fame colour; the reft of the under parts
dirty yellowifh white: quills and tail fulvous : legs and claws
grey.
Inhabits the ifland of Cuba, where the natives give it the
name of Maia.    It is likewife found in the Eaft Indies.
It is a gregarious bird: flies in innumerable flocks, and is
very hurtful to the i?^-fields, which it is a very great deftroyer
of, and, in all probability, may be found wherever that grain is
cultivated.    The flefh is accounted good and wholefome.
87.
4- BRASILIAN
Description.
Fringilla granatina, Lin. Syft.i. p. 319.  it."
Le Grenadin, Brif. orn.  iii.  p. 216. 67. pl. 9, f. 3.—Buf. oif iv. p. 169.
pl. 7. f. 1.—Pl. enl. 109. f. 3.
Red-and-blue Brafilian Finch, Edw. pl. 191.—Bancr. Guian. p. \%\i
Br. Muf    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Sifkin: length four inches three quarters. Bill
like red coral: irides dark: eyelids fcarlet: fides of the
head, round the eye, bloffom-coloured violet: bafe of the bill
above, blue : throat, lower part of the belly, and thighs, black t
the reft of the head and body chefnut: the back and feapulars-
incline to brown: the rump blue : the quills, are brown: tail
cuneiform and black : the legs pale grey.
Thefe differ in colour: fome have a fpot of brown between the
bill and eye; and the hinder parts of the body,, both above and
beneath,, violet \ others are of the fame colour on the lower belly
and I     N
H.
and thighs as on the upper parts *. In fome birds the tail is
reddifh f.
The female has the red bill: a little purple under the eyes :
the top of the head fulvous : the back grey brown : throat, and
under parts, pale fulvous : the lower part of the belly and vent
whitifh : the reft much as in the male, but lefs bright.
This beautiful bird inhabits Brafil, has an agreeable fong,
and is frequently kept in cages by all' the Europeans. It is a
lively bird.
CIZE  fmall.    The bill and  head black:  the whole body
yellow, inclining to green on the back : the under parts
white and dufky: quills and tail dufky;. the outer edges yellow.
Inhabits China and Ceylon J.
D I Z E fmall.    Bill black r head tawny : back green : breaft
and belly yellowifh white : wings and tail dufky.
In China.    I few this among fome Chinefe drawings.    Perhaps
i different fex of the laft, as both were on one paper.
* Such an one is reprefented in. the Pl, enluminees.    In fome the throat is
©f a greenifh brown.
f Bancroft's bird was of this colour.
% Mr. Pennant.
BILL
Description. 89.
BROWN-
THROATED   F.
INCH.
DILL red : crown of the head.green: from the eyes aline of
white, paffing backwards : throat pale brown beneath 9.
patch of afh-colour; then a fpot of pale red: the back ferruginous : rump and vent green : Wings dufky: on the lower part
of the quills a yellow fpot: . tailhalf yellow half black: legs
yellow.
"From China.
op, "Fire Bird, Brown. 'Illuft. pl. z.
FIRE' F. Lev. Muf.
-Description.    C J Z E pf the fmaller Redpole.    Bill  dufky; bafe yellowifh:'
the general colour of the plumage ,a gloffy.brownifh red;
vvent rather darkeft: quills dufky: tail the "fame, rather cunei-
, form : legs pale flefh-colour.
-/Femaik. The female is of a pale reddifh'brown: the forehead, and be
tween the eyes, crimfon: tail reddifh ; fhaped likethat of the
male, with the end dufky.
.Place. Thhabits Gapibia, in Africa.
BLUE-FACED
Fringilla tricolor, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 323. .34.
American Sparrow of Seba, Bancroft. Guian. p. 182,
rJT. H E forehead, temples, and throat, are blue: region of the
noftrils black :   the back black :   fhoulders green:  under
parts yellowifh white: quills black; jthe.primeones green on*the
outer edge : tail black; even at the end.
Inhabits Surinam.    Bancroft's bird had the breaft of a lively
hliie.: the rump deep.green.: the wings and tail purplifh black.
Fringilla Rringilla cserulea, mento, gula, alarum bafi, dorfique parte ant
N. C. Petr. xi. p. 434. pl. 15. f. 6.
Le Demi-fin noir & bleu, Buf. oif. v. p. 327.
CIZE of the greater Linnet. Bill brown : head and neck
blue: between the eyes, acrofs the forehead, a narrow black
line : chin and throat black : acrofs' the upper part of the back a
femicircle of black : wing.coverts, lower part of the backhand
rump, blue: breaft, . belly, and vent, blue: quills blackifh
brown, edged with blue, appearing green, in fome lights :. tail
even; brown hiack: legs brown.
T   ENGTH four inches.    Bill red: crown of the head pale
blue: hind part of the neck, throatj. -.breaft, and undertail
coverts, red : belly pale afh-colour: back, and leffer wing coverts, purplifh: greater coverts green: lower part of the back,
and rump, yellow: quills and'tail blue : legs red.
Inhabits China.    I faw- this among fome fine Chinefe drawings,
in poffeffion of the late Dr. Father-gill.
Fringilla cyanocephala, Miller's Plates, N° 24.V
T ENGTH feven inches. Bill dufky: crown of the head
blue, bounded behind with rede -round the eye white : hind
part of the neck, and back, pale reddifh brown : lower part of
the back, and rump, pale blue : under parts of the body yellow :
thighs and vent white: middle and greater coverts margined
with white : quills and tail.black: legs pale brown.
Inhabits 320
F     I     N
H.
Inhabits Senegal. The four laft feem much allied to each
other; but as they differ in fome particulars, as well as inhabit
different regions, it is not fit that conjecture alone fhould place
them as varieties only.
Place.
96.
GREEN-
RUMPED F.
Description.
Fringilla Torquata, Miller's Plates, N° 50.
T ENGTH fix inches and a half. Bill flender; dufky
black : head, neck, and back, reddifh ; the laft inclining to
brown : rump pale blue: acrofs the throat a narrow crefcent of
black, bounded below with yellow : quills black; the ends of
them blue, with a white fpot at the tip of each: tail and legs
black.
Inhabits the Eaft Indies.
15 I LL blueifh : head, hind part of the neck, upper part of the
back, and tail, black: cheeks, chin, and the reft of the
under parts, light yellow : vent yellow: wings black; on the
coverts a white fpot; the fecondaries croffed at the ends with
white : lower part of the back, and thighs, green : legs grey.
From Ceylon *.
GlNVS [   3"    1
Genus  XXXVIII.    FLYCATCHER,
5   i. Spotted Fl.
N" i9,
2. Pied Fl.
Var. A.
Var. B.
20.
Var. C.
21.
3. Cape Fl.
22.
Var. A.
23
4. Black and white Fl.
24,
Var. A.
25
5. Senegal Fl.
26
Var. A.
_7
6. Crefted D°.
28.
7. Bourbon Fl.
29.
8. Collared Fl.
3°
9. Black-fronted Fl.
l|
10. White-tailed Fl.
32.
11. Coromandel Fl.
33-
12. Spotted Yellow Fl.
34.
13. Afh-coloured Fl.
35-
14. Madagafcar Fl.
36.
15. Undulated Fl.
37-
16. Indian Fl.
38.
17. Rufous-vented Fl,
39-
18. Tufted Fl.
40.
Vol. II.
T t
Red-vented Fl.
Var. A. Yellow-vented
Fl.
Guava Fl.
Yellow-breafted Fl.
Green Fl.
Wreathed Fl.
Grey-necked Fl.
Yellow-necked Fl.
Flammeous Fl.
Orange-vented Fl.
Black Fl.
Philippine Fl.
Azure Kl.
Blue-headed Fl.
Yellow-throated FL
Fan-tailed El.-
Supercilious Fl.
Olive Fl.
Luteous Fl.
Yellow-headed Fl.
Yellow-fronted Fl.
Nsevous Fl.
Red-bellied Fl.
N°4i. -   3«   1
f°4i
. Sandwich Fl.
N* 58.
Cayenne Fl,
42.
Dufky Fl.
"   59-
Fork-tailed Fl.
43'
. Spotted-winged Fl.
60.
Swallow-tailed FL
44.
Paradife Fl.
61.
Crefted Fl.
Var. A.
62.
Tyrant Fl,
Var. B.
Var. A.
Var. C.
%•
Louifiane Fl.
45-
Mutable FL
64.
Yellow-crowned Fl,
Var. A.
6$.
Yellow-bellied Fl..
Var. B.
66.
Petechial Fl.
46.
Striped Fl.
67.
Streaked FL
47-
Cinereous Fl.
68,.
Adive Fl.
48.
Chattering Fl.
69.
Surinam Fl".
49-
Dun.FL
70.
Brown Fl'.
50,
Red-faced Fl.
7*\
Orange-breafted Fl,
51-
Red-eyed Fl.
72.
Round-crefted FL
Var. A.
73-
Rufous Fl.
52.
Martinico Fl.
74-
Rufous-bellied FL
S3-
Black-capped FL
IS-
Dwarf Fl.
54-
Cat Fl.
76.
Petty Fl.
55-
Canada^Fl,
77-.
Whifkered Fl.
56.
Cinnamon Fl.
7s"
Purple-throated Fi.
57-
Yellow-rumped Fl.
B
ILL flatted at the bafe; almoft triangular; notched at the-
end of the upper mandible, and befet with briftles.
Toes divided as far as their origin *.
* Gen. of Birds. This character muft be difpenfed with in fome fpecies,.
which, though true Flycatchers in every other particular, are more or lefs united:
at the bafe, but never fb much as in the Tody genus.
_ Mufcicapa. FLYCATCHER,
Mufcicapa Grifola, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 328. 20,
Curruca fubfufca, Frifch. pl. 22.1
Le Gobe-mouche, Brif. orn. ii. p. 357. 1. pl, 35. f. 3.—Buf. oif. iv. p. 517.
pl.25. f. 2.—Pl.enl._6z. f. 1.
Grifola, Raii Syn. p. 81. 7.—Will. om. p. 211.
Stoparola Aldrov. ? Raii Syn, p. 77. A. 1.—Will. om. p. 217.
Cobweb, Morton Northampt. p. 426.
Spotted Flycatcher, Br. Zool. i. N° 134.—Ara. Zool.
CIZE of the White Throat > length near five inches and three
quarters. Bill dufky, bafe of it whitifh, and befet with fhort
briftles : infide of the mouth yellow : the head large, brownifh,
obfcurely fpotted with black : the back of a moufe-colour:
wings, and tail, dufky; the firft edged with white: breaft, and
belly, white: throat, and fides under the wings, dafhed with red:
legs black.   Male and female much alike.
This bird vifits us in the fpring, and departs in September.
Builds againft any part of a tree that will fupport it; often in the
hollow caufed by the decay of fome large limb, hole in a
wall, &c. alfo on old polls, and beams of barns; and is found
to return to the fame place feafon after feafon. It is carelefs in
the placing the neft: makes it chiefly of mofs; often with a mixture of wool and fibres. Lays four or five pale eggs, marked
with reddifh.
It feeds on infects, and collects them on the wing. For this
purpofe it fits on a branch, poft, &c. and, on one flying by,
leaps after, and, having caught it, returns to the place it fprang
from.    This it may be feen to do many times together.
This fpecies frequents orchards where cherries grow, of which
T t 2 they FLYCATCHER,
they are faid to be very great deftroyers. Hence, in Kent, are
known by the name of Cherry-fuckers.
They alfo frequent the warmer parts of the European continent. I believe found nowhere more northspard than in? our
realms.    In the fouthern parts of Ruffia pretty common.
A fmaller variety is found beyond Lake Baikal*.
Mufcicapa atricapilla, Lin. Syft. i. p. 236. 9. —Frifch. pl. 24. —Kram. el.
p. 377. 16.
Le Traquet d'Angleterre, Brif. om. iii. p. 436. 27.—Buf. oif. v. p. 222.
Coldfinch, Raii Syn. p. 77. A. c.— Will. orn. p. 2_6.—Edw. pl. 3a.
Pied Flycatcher, Br, Zool. i. N° i__.—ArB. Zool.
Br. Muf.    Lev. Muf.
CIZE of the Whin Chat: length four inches and three quarters. Bill black : irides hazel: the colours of the bird
merely black and white : the upper parts of the body, wings, and.
tail, are black ; the firft of them inclined to dufky, and the forehead and under parts white; there is alfo a fpot of white on the
wing, and the outer tail feather is white on the outer web, almoft
to the end + : the upper tail coverts are black and white
mixed J : the legs are black.
The female is brown where the rnah- is black. It wants the-
white on the forehead ; and the under parts- are dufky white : the-
white on the wings is alfo lefs pure..
* Mr. Pennant.
f Willughby's bird had two of the outer t.
X In fome wholly black.
il feathers white on the margins-
This FLYCATCHER.
This is indigenous to England, but I believe nowhere common. In moft plenty in Torkfhire, Lancafhire, and Derby-
fhive,.
3*5
Le Gobe-mouche noir, Brif. e
Var. A.
''"PHIS is above five inches and a half in length; and differs     Description.
from the laft in having a mixture of grey on the upper
parts, the thighs mixed brown and white, and three of the
outer tail feathers white on the margin.
Le Gobe-mouche noir a Collier, Buf. oif. iv. p. 520. pl. 25. f. 1.—Pl, enl.
565. f.2. 3.— Kramer el. p. 377. 16.—Frifch. pl. 24,
HTHIS is like the firft; having only the outer tail feather
white on the margin,' but differs in the white on the neck
paffing quite round it, like a collar. Thefe varieties the lefs fur-
prize us, when we are told that the bird varies in plumage in different feafons o