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The Year book of British Columbia and manual of provincial information Gosnell, R. E. (R. Edward), 1860-1931 1911

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     The Year Book
of
BRITISH COLUMBIA
MANUAL  OF   PROVINCIAL
INFORMATION
(CORONATION   EDITION)
R. E. GOSNELL
formerly Librarian Legislative Assembly and
Secretary   Bureau   Statistics
-THEGQVERNMENTOF
THE PROVINCE 0F8RJTJSH COLUMBIA
Published by Authority Legislative Assembly, British Columbia
Victoria, B.C.
1911  ADDENDA.
Since the Year Book has gone to press, two things of unusual importance have
transpired—the Dominion general elections have taken place and the results of the
census-taking  of   the Dominion   have been published.     The figures, in so far   as
the Province of British Columbia is concerned, are as follows:—
Elections.    -
CONSTITCKNCY.
Cons.
Lib.
Soc.
Constituency.
Cons.
Lib.
Soc.
Comox-Atlix :
1810
1622
"3639"'
1750
1849
VANCOUVER :
H. H. Stevens	
J. H. Senkler	
E.T. Kingsley	
Victoria :
H. G. Barnard	
Wm. Templeman ...
Gordon Brown	
Yale-Cariboo :
Martin J. Bun-ill	
M. A. Macdonald	
— Johnson 	
7052
21816
4088
3796
Kootenay :
A. S. Good eve.  	
4113
1051
NAXaimo :
F. H. Sheppard	
2438
2332
2053
"296"
New Westminster :
J. D. Taylor	
John Oliver	
8542
"*252""
25859
16441
1593
Conservative majority over all..
Total vote polled	
Census Returns.
Canada   	
British  Columbia
Incorporated Cities, Towns,
Comox-Atlin:
Cumberland   City   	
Prince Rupert   	
Alberni   	
Kootenay:
Fernie   	
Fort   Steele   	
Nelson City   	
Rossland City   	
Cranbrook   	
Trail   	
Slocan   	
New Michel   	
Old Michel  	
Revelstoke   	
Nakusp   	
Golden   	
Hosmer  	
Nanaimo:
Esquimalt District   	
Nanaimo City   	
Ladysmith and South Oyster ...
New Westminster:
New Westminster  	
Stevestown  	
Chilliwhack   	
Victoria:
Victoria City   	
Yale-Cariboo:
Grand Forks   	
Phoenix	
Enderby   	
* Armstrong  	
Kamloops   	
Kelowna   	
Vernon :	
Vancouver:
Vancouver City   	
North Vancouver	
South Vancouver	
Point Grey	
1911,
 7,100,000
      362,768
nd Villages, B.C.
1901.
5,371,315
178,657
2,365
1,450
189
662
1,515
3,010
347
4,001
8,305
3,295
13,394
1,100
1,657
31,620
1,577
1,512
835
810
3,772
1,663
2,671
16,021
4,319
6,130
6,499
The author here wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to B.. T. Williams'
Directory of 1891 for chronological information subsequent to Confederation, and for
political information with reference to early Administrations.    TABLE OF CONTENTS
D(
Preface (In Explanation)...    7-   8
Historical Review      9-62
Early History      9-24
Dates in Our History 25-46
Explorers, Travellers, Fur
Traders, etc  47-48
Founding ci Forts           48
Churches and Missions .. *       49
Issues ot i-ostage Stamps        49
Kates oi i-ostage         60
b. C, Tariff   51-62
Government     63- 92
introduction oi itespon-
siuie Government   53-64
Colonial and Provincial
Governments     66- 60
Legislative Assembly
After Confederation ... 61- 66
Provincial Officials ...... 66-69
B. C. Legislature, Opening and Closing Since
Confederation          70
Administrations and Members of Executive Council   71- 74
Dates of General Elections
Since Confederation ...        75
Provincial Elections Since
1903, Votes cast    76-80
Qualifications of Electors        80
Provincial Elections by
Constituencies            81
Speakers, Governors, and
Lieut.-Governors of B.C.        82
The Old Government
Buildings            83
Present Government
Buildings     83-85
Proposed Extension of
Buildings     86-87
Arms of B. C         88
B. C. Representatives in
House of Commons ...        89
Dominion Elections           90
B.  C.  Representatives  in
the Senate            91
Dominion Government Officials  in the  Province       92
Administration of Justice .. 93-105
The   Supreme   Courts   of
Vancouver Island and B.
C  93* 95
Constitution of the County
Court   96- 97
Minor Courts    97-98
B. C. Law Society         98
Synopsis of the Laws of
B. C  99-102
Certain   Constitutional
Questions  103-105
Physical Characteristics ... 106-143
General Description  106-109
Geology of B. C 109-112
The Province by Districts 113-129
A Coast Journey  129-137
Climate  137-143
Education   144-157
Early History, etc   144-146
School Districts, Certificates, Salaries, etc.  ...146-149
Higher Education  149-151
Statistics of Schools  ....151-157
Our Native Races (The Indians)    158-169
The Indians Classified and
Described  158-163
Their Places in the Nation    164-165
Numbers' and Distribution
of Indians   166-169 YEAR    BOOK    OF    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
TABLE OF CONTENTS-Continued
Mines and Minerals  170-202
General  Introductory  Remarks    170-173
History of Mining in B.C. 173-176
Mineral Production 176-181
Lode Mines of the Province 181-183
B. C. Mineral Resources 183-184
Mining and  Metallurgical
Facilities    185-191
The Iron, Steel Industry 191-198
Department of Mines  ...198-201
Mining Laws        201
Mineral Products  in  B.C.       202
The Fisheries  203-226
Introductory Remarks ...203-205
Investigation and Regulation    205-207
Hatcheries   207-208
Deep   Sea  Fishing  208-215
Seal,    Whale   and    Other
Fisheries 215-218
Fishery Regulations   218-222
Fishery Statistics   223-226
Population of B. C        222
Agriculture  227-246
General Description of Industry    227-239
Statistics    of    Production
and Consumption        239
Farmers'    Institutes    and
Their Membership           240
Creameries in B. C 240-241
Crown   Lands   and   Laws
Respecting Agriculture 242-246
Forest Wealth    247-263
Economic Conditions ....247-250
Wood, Pulp and Paper  ..250-253
Conservation and Markets 253-254
B.   C.   Forest   Trees   Described    : 255-262
Further Observations   ...262-263
Municipal Affairs  264-277
Municipal Powers, etc. .. .264-267
Assessment     and     Taxation    267-268
Administrative Powers,
etc. 268-271
Taxation in Municipalities 271-273
Municipal Statistics  274-277
Provincial Finances   278-287
Financial Statistics 278-280
Assessment and Taxation 281-287
Railway and Electrical Enterprise  288-306
Railway Statistics    288-292
Stage Routes in B. C.  ...       293
International,      Inter-Provincial   and   Provincial
Highways   294-298
Tramways, Electric Light
and Power 298-302
Telegraphs 302-304
Water Powers    304-306
Game of B. C.
Game   and   Fur   Bearing
Animals    307-311
Game Birds  311-317
Synopsis of Game Law ..       318
Commerce and Shipping  ..319-328
Steamship Lines   319-321
Statistics of Shipping ... 321-322
Exports and Imports at B.
C.   Ports 323-325
Postal Statistics of B. C. 326
Clearing House Returns  .       327
Business Failures        327
Consuls      and     Consular
Agents           328
Provincial Boards of Trade      328
Social  Conditions    329-334
General Remarks 329-330
sL^fiahnr and Wages    330-332
Vital Statistics        333
Hospitals    333-334
Naval and   Military   Establishments    333-335
Area of Province        336
Altitudes           336
Lakes           336
Gazeteer of B. C .337-354   DEDICATION
In the year 191 1, of the Coronation of King George V,
this book is dedicated to the welfare and best interests
• of his subjects in British Columbia, than whom throughout the wide expanse of our Empire there are none
more loyal to their Sovereign or steadfast in their adherence to Motherland and British institutions. The hope
is entertained that during a long and prosperous reign
of His Majesty they may continue to enjoy in an ever
increasing degree the Era of Progress peculiar to and
coincident with the Age of Queen Victoria and King
Edward VII, the most illustrious and best loved of a
long line of ancestral rulers, of whom our Sailor King is
a worthy successor.   r
HIS MAJESTY KING GEORGE V. HER MAJESTY QUEEN MARY.  HIS HONOUR THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR. r
THE HON. RICHARD McBRIDE,
Prime Minister. THE HON. HENRY ESSON YOUNG,
Provincial Secretary and Minister of Education. THE HON. W. J. BOWSER,
Attorney-General. THE HON. THOMAS TAYLOR,
Minister of Works and Railways. THE HON. PRICE ELLISON,
Minister, of Finance audi Agriculture, THE HON. WILLIAM R.  ROSS,
Minister of Lands. THE HON. ALBERT E. McPHILLIPS,
President of the Council. MR. JOHN HERBERT TURNER,
Agent-General for B.  C.   (London,  Eng.). THE HON. J. S. HELMCKEN,
First Speaker Legislative Assembly  (V. I.). THE HON. D. M. EBERTS,
Speaker Legislative Assembly. THE LATE HON. R. G. TATLOW,
Minister of Finance. IN   EXPLANATION
THE last edition of the Year Book of British Columbia and Manual of
Province Information appeared in 1903, and was published under
the auspices of the Bureau of Provincial Information. On account
of the large amount of literature issued from that department in
bulletin from dealing specifically and separately with the subjects
treated in the main chapters of the Year Book, it was not considered
necessary or, indeed, advisable, in view of the heavy expense involved, to
continue it as a distinct and annual publication. However, as time has gone
on, the requests from a great variety of sources for a new edition and for
copies of the old have been so numerous and persistent that the Provincial
Executive have authorized the issuance of the present volume, of which an
edition of 10,000 copies has been printed. Owing to the circumstance of the
Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria having been celebrated the same year in
which the original edition appeared, and as a similar circumstance, in the
crowning of King George V., will affect 1911, it has been deemed appropriate
to style the present The Coronation Edition.
Another reason which may be cited as influencing the Government in
again undertaking this work is the fact that since the date of the last publication, which was by a pleasant coincidence the date of the incoming of the
present provincial administration, eight years ago, very remarkable developments have taken place in the Province of British Columbia, and a new
manual definitely marks and emphasizes the important mile posts of that
eventful period of progress and unexampled prosperity. It will, too, it is
hoped, materially assist in satisfying in a substantial way the extraordinary
quest for information concerning the province.
Essentially, as is stated elsewhere, the Year Book is a work of reference
in respect to matters of general interest pertaining to British Columbia, and
in the preparation of its 350, odd, pages an honest endeavor has been made
to anticipate all reasonable enquiries about its present or its immediate past,
and cause them to be, generally speaking, instructive on that score. It
ought not to be necessary to state that a work of this character should be
characterized by extreme accuracy and reliability as well as completeness.
While a conscientious effort, as alleged, has been made to satisfy every
requirement in these and other respects, the time at the disposal of the
author—a period of three and a half months for the commencement and
completion of the work, including the supervision of printing and binding— YEAR    BOOK    OF    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
must be the excuse for any failure to attain to the ideal of a Whittaker's or
a Burke's vade mecum.
To secure absolute results in the way of accuracy and completeness, in
the absence of an organized bureau of statistics, is not practicable, and,
dealing, as was necessary in this case, with a mass of new material and the
statistics of new developments and rapidly changing conditions, the author
has been handicapped in being unable to find in easily accessible form the
information which in frequent instances he was most desirous of obtaining.
In all the circumstances, therefore, in having done the best with the time
and facilities at his disposal, the writer is not inclined to offer any apologies
for what appears in the following pages, prepared as they were at high
pressure, and for what, in the very nature of things, he must accept the lion's
share of responsibility.
On the other hand, he has had the most cordial co-operation and
assistance of the members of the Executive, of all the officials of departments, and of all other persons whom he has had occasion to interview or
rely upon for the purposes of the work, and if particular credit has not been
given to all such persons it is because of the magnitude of the debt of
gratitude thus incurred. He has drawn freely from a great variety of
sources, not always by permission, in view of the objects of the undertaking,
but with acknowledgments wherever such wholesale •■pilfering" would
otherwise be too glaring. Such as the volume is it is presented to the
public in the hope that it will in some measure fulfil its ostensible mission
and that it will not fall too far short of what, in a work of the kind, the
public especially interested in the fortunes of British Columbia have a
right to expect. AN HISTORICAL REVIEW
THE Year Book of 1897 contained a preliminary historical review of
over 100 pages, and there have been frequent requests that, in
subsequent editions, that featur