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BC Historical Books

Fauna boreali-americana; or, the zoology of the northern parts of British America; containing descriptions… Richardson, John, Sir, 1787-1865; Swainson, William, 1789-1855 1837

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         FAUNA  BOREALI-AMERICANA.
part ti)c jfaurfl) tails Mit
THE    INSECTS.
THE REV. WILLIAM KIRBY,
M.A. F.K.S.   F.L.S.  F.G.S.  ETC.  FAUNA
BOREALI-AMERICANA;
ZOOLOGY
OF THE
NORTHERN   PARTS
OF
BRITISH   AMERICA:
CONTAINING
DESCRIPTIONS OF THE OBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTED ON THE LATE NORTHERN LAND
EXPEDITIONS, UNDER COMMAND OF CAPTAIN SIR JOHN FRANKLIN, R.N.
JOHN   RICHARDSON,   M.D.   F.R.S.  F.L.S.   &c.
MEMBER OF TUG WTJRNERTAH'-NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH, AMI
FOREIGN MEMBER  OF TUB GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF PARIS,
SURGEON AND NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITION,
ASSISTED BY
WILLIAM   SWAINSON,   Esq.   F.R.S.  F.L.S.   &c.
AND
THE   REVEREND   WILLIAM   KIRBY,   M.A.  F.R.S.  F.L.S.  &c.
ILLUSTRATED BY SEVERAL COLOURED ENGRAVINGS.
PUBLISHED  UNDER  THE AUTHORITY OF THE RIGHT HONOURABLE  THE SECRETARY OF STATE
FOR COLONIAL AFFAIRS.
NORWICH:
PRINTED  AND  PUBLISHED   BY  JOSIAH  FLETCHER
AND SOLD IN LONDON BY
LONGMAN, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS.
MDCCCXXXVII. . PRINTED BY JOSIAH FLETCHER,  UPPER HAYMARKET.
/<£739 / TABLE OF  CONTENTS.
Introduction      ...........
Tabular view of the groups of the Orders Coleoptera and Hymenoptera
PAGE
xix
xxvii
INSECTS.
Subclass MANDIBULATA
Order COLEOPTERA
PAGE
1—274
1—249
I. ADEPHAGA     ....       1—81
Cicindelids. (Tiger or Scale Beetles,
Sparklers)     .       .       .       .  .      8
1 Cicindela hirticollis      ...      8
2 ,,       repanda    ... 9
3 ,,       Proteus ...      9
4 „        obliquata   ...        10
5 ,,       vulgaris        .       .        .10
6 ,,       purpurea   .       .        .       11
7 „       albilabris       ...    12
8 Casnonia pennsylvanica    .       .        13
9 Cyniindis marginatus   .        .        .13
10 „       unicolor    ...        14
Sericodiad* 14
11 Sericoda bembidioides       .       .        15
Brachinidje. (Bombardiers)        .        .16
12 Brachinus cyanipennis      .       .       16
Carabidje.   (Burn-cows,  Burst-cows)      17
13 Carabus Vietinghovii   .        .       .17
14 ,,       ligatus .        .       .        18
15 Calosoma (Chrysostigma) calidum     19
16 „                   „            frigidum    19
Nebriad.k  20
17 Helobia castanipes   ...       20
Chl.kniad.£ .....
18 Chlsenius sericeus
19 „        impunctifrons
20 ,,        nemoralis
21 ,,        quadricollis   .        .
22 „        cordicollis
23 ,,        emarginatus
Ago'sidm .....
24 Platynus angusticollis .
25 Agonum (Anchomenus) extensicolle
26 „ ,, picipenne
27 ,, ,, sordens
28 „ „ melanarium
29 „ „ seminitidum
30 ,, ,, simile
31 „ ,, affine
32 ,,. „ erythropum
33 „ „ cupripenne
Calathid*      ....
34 Calathus gregarius
P02CILIDiE ....
35 Platyderus nitidus
36 Argutor bicolor
37 „     femoralis
38 .    „     mandibularis
39 „     brevicomis
40 Omaseus Orinomum
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
23
24
24
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
29
29
30
30
31
31
32 nan
VI
CONTENTS.
41 Omaseus Nigrita
42 „      picicomis
43 Stereocerus similis   .
44 Curtonotus convexiusculus
45 „        rufimanus
46 „        brevilabris .
47 „        latior
48 Peecilus lucublandus   .
49 ,,     castanipes   .
50 „     chalcites
Amarid.&
51 Amara vulgaris    .
52
53
54
55
56
Harpalidje
57 Harpalus pleuriticus
insequalis-
impuncticollis
pallipes
lsevipennis
discors
basilaris
Ochropus
interpunctatus
longior
laticollis
carbonarius
rotundicollis
Stephensii
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
Stenolophid*    .
66 Stenolophus versicolor
Trechid.e
67 Trechus tibialis
68 „     ruficrus
69 „     flavipes
70 ,,     communis
71 „     similis
IsOPLETJRIDjE
72 Isopleurus nitidus
,,       Mac Leayi (
Patrobid^
73 Patrobus americanus
Peryphidje
74 Peryphus bimaculatus
75 „       sordidus
. 76   „   scopulinus
77   „   Rupicola
in a note)
32
33
34
35
35
35
36
36
37
37
38
38
39
39
39
40
40
41
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
45
46
46
46
46
47
47
48
48
49
50
50
50
51
52
52
52
53
53
78 Peryphus picipes
79 „       concolor
80 „       (Lopha) quadrimaculatus
81 „       (Eudromus) nitidus
82 Tachyta picipes
Bembidiad^
83 Notaphus nigripes    .
84 ,,        intermedius
85 „        variegatus
86 Bembidium impressum
Elaphrid^
87 Opisthius Richardsoni
88 Elaphrus Clairvillii
89 ,,       intermedius
90 ,,       obscurior
91 Notiophilus aquaticus
Omophronid.&
92 Omophron Saii    .
Haliplidx
93 Haliplus impressus
94 Hydroporus nigro-lineatus
95 ,, parallelus
96 „ Isevis
97 ,, picatus
98 ,, similis    .
99 Laccophilus biguttatus
Dytiscid*. (Water-beetles, Toe-biters)
100 Colymbetes semipunctatus
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
bicolor
phaeopterus
bifarius
reticulatus
picipes
assimilis
triseriatus
(Hydaticus) rugicollis
„        MacCullochii 74
74
54
54
54
55
56
57
57
58
58
59
60
61
61
62
63
63
64
65
65
65
66
67
67
68
68
69
69
69
70
70
71
71
71
72
73
73
110 Dytiscus Ooligbukii
111 „        Harrisii        .       . .76
112 „        (Leionotus) Franklin ii 77
Gyrinid*. (Whirlwigs)          ,        , 78
113 Cyclinus assimilis       .        . ,    78
114 Gyrinus impressicollis     .        . 79
115 „     seneus           .        . .    80
116 „     ventralis    ... 80 —
CONTENTS.
Vll
PAGE
117 Gyrinus analis       .       .       .       81
118 ,,     miuutus        .        .       .81
II. BRACHELYTRA.   (Rove Beetles,
Cock-tails)   .       .       .         81—95
PJEDERID& 86
119 Paederus riparius .        .        86
Lathrobiadk     .       .       .       .       .86
120 Lathrobium puncticolle .        86
121 ,, Gravenhorstii .    87
122 „ bicolor .        .       87
123 Gyrohypnus assimilis          . .    88
Omaliadje   .           .... 89
124 Omalium marginatum         . .    89
Aleocharid;e          .... 90
125 Aleochara pallitarsis           . .   90
TACHYPORIDiE .... 90
126 Tachyporus acuductus        ,       .    90
127 I affinis .       .       91
Philonthidje              .       .        .        .91
128 Philonthus politus .        .       91
129 ,, mandibularis      .        . 92
130 I picatus .        . 93
131 I fulvipes     ... 93
Staphylinid.&.    (Cock-tail R. B.) 94
132 Staphylinus chrysurus    .       .       94
Creophilid* .        .        .        .95
133 Creophilus villosus .       .       95
III. ENTAPHIA.   (Burying Beetles)   95—99
Necrophoridje .       .       .       .95
134 Necrophorus velutinus    .       .       96
135 „ hebes .       .   96
136 ,, obscurus     . .       97
137 „ Melsheimeri .       .    97
138 I Hallii          . .       98
139 ,, pygmseus .       .    98
IV. NECROPHAGA. (Carrion Beetles) 99-118
SlLPHlDiE ..... 99
140 Necrodes surinamensis     .       .     99
141 Oiceoptoma (Thanat.) marginale    100
142
143
144
145
146
»147
lapponicum 100
„ trituberculatum 101
,, insequale     102
(Necrop.) americanum 102
,, terminatum 103
,, affine     .     103
PAGE
148 Oiceoptoma (Necrop.) canadense
104
Peltidje           .....
104
149 Peltis ferruginea
104
NlTIDULIDffi                   ....
105
150 Nitidula obscura
105
151        ,,      Ossium
106
152      .,,     discoidea
106
Engidje             .....
107
153 Ips De Jeanii
107
Cholevid*                         ,
108
154 Choleva (Catops) Spenciana
108
Scaphidiad^         ....
108
155 Scaphium castanipes
109
Anisotomidje         ....
110
156 Leiodes punctostriatus
110
Sylvanids            ....
110
157 Corticariadenticulata
110
Cryptophagidje
111
158 Atomaria atra
112
159 Cryptophagus humeralis
112
160           „          concolor
112
Dermestids.   (Leather Eaters, or Fur
Beetles)       . ■
113
161 Attagenus cylindricus
113
162        |         Pellio
114
163 Dermestes lardarius
115
164       „         Dissector
115
Byrrhidje.   (Pill Beetles)
116
165 Byrrhus picipes
116
166       ,,     concolor
117
167        ,,     cyclophorus
117
168       ,,     varius
118
V. PHILHYDRIDA         .       .       119-
-121
HYDROPHILIDiE             ....
119
169 Hydrobius fuscipes
119
170       ,,         marginalis
120
' 171        „         melanocephalus    .
120
Histeridje.   (Mimic Beetles)
121
172 Hister Paykullii   .
123
173     „     Harrisii
124
VI. LAMELLICORNIA. (Chafers) 125-
-143
CopRiDiE.    (Dung Chafers)
125
174 Onthophagus latebrosus    .
125
175           ,,         scabricollis
126
Trogid*            	
127
b2 V1U
CONTENTS.
fin
176 Trox arenarius
Rutelidje .       .
177 Pelidnota punctata
Sericidb .       .       .       •
178 Camptorhina atracapilla
Diplotaxids    ....
179 Diplotaxis tristis
Melolonthidje.   (Tree Chafers)
180 Rhizotrogus fervens
181 I Drakii
Macrodactyiid;e
182 Dichelonycha Backii
183 I virescens
184 „ testacea
Cetoniad^.   (Flower Chafers)
185 Cetonia fulgida
Trichiad*    ....
186 Trichius Bigsbii
187 „     (Trichinus) assimilis
188 „ ,, rotundicollis
189 „ „ viridans
190 „     (Gymnodus) rugosus
191 „ „ foveatus
LucANiDffi.   (Stag Beetles)
192 Platycerus piceus
Passalids        .....
193 Passalus interruptus
VII. STERNOXA     .       .       .       143-
Elateridj;.   (Spring Beetles, Skipjacks, Clickers, Sfc.)
194 Campylus denticornis    .
195 Pedetes Brightwelli
196 ,,       ruficornis
197 Perimecus fulvipes
198 „ communis
■ 199        „ similis
200 Ctenicerus Kendalli
201 Elater (Aphotistus) seripennis
Buprestid.k	
202 Buprestis (Anoplis) Rusticorum
203 ,, „       Paganorum
204 „ „       Nutalli
205 „ „       lineata
206 „ „       fasciata
207 ,,       (Stenuris) divaricata
PAGE
127
127
127
128
129
129
130
131
132
133
133
134
134
135
136
136
136
136
137
138
139
140
140
141
141
142
142
-163
144
145
146
146
148
148
149
149
150
150
151
152
152
153
153
154
208 Buprestis (Stenuris) tenebrosa   .
209 „ „        tenebrica
210 „        (Odontomus) trinervia
211 „ „ proxima
212 ,,     (Trachyp.) Drummondi
213 ,, ,,       Umbellatarum
214 „     (Oxypteris) appendiculata
215 Agrilus bivittatus
216 Trachys aurulenta    .
217 ,,       acuducta
VIII. XYLOPHAGA .       .       164—
Cucujid^ .....
218 Pytho niger
219 „     americanus
TrOGOSITIDJE ....
220 Trogosita americana
Lamiad;e        .....
221 Monochamus Resutor
222 ,, Consutor
223 „ Marmorator
Cerambycidje. (Capricorn Beetles,Goat
Chafers) ....
224 Acanthocinus (Graphisurus) pusillus'
Callidiad3; ....
225 Callidium agreste
striatum
collare
(Merium) Proteus   .
„       simile
,,       dimidiatum
(Tetrop.) cinnamopterum
226
227
228
229
230
231
232 Clytus undatus
233 „
234 „
235 „
236 I
Rhagiadje
237 Hargium lineatum    .
Lepturidje
238 Pachyta liturata
239 Leptura chrysocoma
240 „     subpubescens
241 „     erythroptera
242 ,,     canadensis
243 „     tenuior
lunulatus   .
fuscus
longipes
muricatulus
155
156
157
157
159
159
160
161
162
162
195
164
164
165
166
166
167
167
168
169
169
169
170
170
171
171
172
173
173
174
175
175
176
176
177
178
178
178
178
179
180
180
181
181 CONTENTS.
h
PAGE
PAGE
244 Leptura brevis
.    182
X. PHYTOPHAGA          .        .       207—228
245        „     sexmaculata
182
C R YPTOCEPH A LID.E
208
246       ,,     semivittata
.    183
277 Cryptocephalus pubescens
.   208
247        „     gulosa
184
278             „           notatus
208
248        „     subargentata
.    184
279 Eumolpus (Adoxus) Vitis
.    209
249        „     similis
185
Chrysomel-idje
210
250        ,,     longicornis
.    185
280 Chrysomela philadelphica
.    210
251        „     Proteus   .
186
281           „       confinis
211
252        „     longiceps
.    187
282           1       Bigsbyana     .
.    212
Anobiad.ze     .....
189
283           ,,       multipunctata
212
253 Anobium foveatum
.    190
284            „        clivicollis
.    213
254 Cis micans
190
285           „       (Phytodecta) rufipes   213
Scolytid;e         ....
.    191
286 Phsedon Adonidis
214
255 Tomicus Pini
191
287        „      Raphani
.   215
256 Apate bivittata
.    192
288        „      Polygoni
216
257      „   rufitarsis
193
289 Phyllodecta Vitellines
.    216
258      ,,   (Lepisomus) rufipennis
.    193
HaLTICID*     ....
217
259      „           ,,          nigriceps  .
194
290 Haltica (Orchestris) vicina
.    217
260     ,, .         ,,          brevicornis
194
291      ,,               ,,       puncticol
is      218
261 Hylurgus rufipennis
.    195
Gallerucid;e        ...
218
IX. RHYNCOPHORA. (Longsnouts) )
196-207
292 Galleruca Olivieri
.    218
Calandridb.   (Weevils)
196
293         „       canadensis
219
262 Calandra pertinax
.    196
294         „       Sagittariee
.    219
Hylobiadje            ....
196
295         ,,       bilineata
220
263 Hylobius confusus    .
.    196
.296         „       marginella
.    220
Lepyridje       .....
197
Sag rid*        ....
221
264 Lepyrus colon
.    197
297 Orsodacna tibialis
.    221
265       ,,     Gemellus
198
298         1       Childreni     .
221
Cleonide          ....
.    198
DONACIAD*          .      •    .
.    222
266 Cleonis vittatus
199
299 Heemonia nigricornis
222
Phyllobiadje
.    199
300 Donacia femoralis
.    223
267 Macrops maculicollis
200
301       ,,     flavipes
223
268        I      vitticollis     .
.    200
302       „     affinis
.    224
269 Lepidophorus lineaticollis
201
303       ,,     emarginata
224
Thylacitid;e             .        .
.    202
304       „     proxima
.    225
270 Trachyphlseus melanothrix
202
305       ,,     cuprea
225
Pachyrhynchid«
.    203
'306       ,,     hirticollis
.    226
271 Pachyrhynchus Schonherri
203
307        ,,      saqualis   .
226
Attelabid*      ....
.   204
HlSPIDiE     .....
.    227
272 Attelabus similis   .
204
308 Hispa (Anoplitis) bicolor
227
273        ,,       bipustulatus
.    204
XI. APHIDIPHAGA        ..      .
228—232
274 Apotomus ovatus
205
Coccinellidje. (Lady-birds, Lady-
:ows) 228
Anthribid^     .
.    206
309 Coccinella episcopalis
.    228
275 Anthribus fasciatus
206
310         ,,       tredecimpunctata
229
Clythridje       ....
.    207
311         „       tridens
.    229
276 Chlamys plicata   .
207
312        „       quinque-signata
230 CONTENTS.
313 Coccinella quinque-notata
314 „      .tricuspis
315 ,,       incarnata
XII. HETEROMERA      .       .       232-
PjMELIADiE .
316 Pimelia alternata .
Tenebuionid*.   (Darkling Beetles)
317 Upis ceramboides
318 Tenebrio Molitor
319 ,,       pennsylvanicus
Diaperid*	
320 Diaperis (Arrhenoplita) bicornis
BOLITOPHAGID* ....
321 Bolitophagus cornutus
322 „ obcordatus
Helopid*
323 Meracantha canadensis
Stenochiad*
324 Arthromacra donacioides
ClSTELID*
325 Cistela erythropa
Dirc^id*
326 Xylita buprestoides  .
Antiiicidje
327 Notoxus Monodon    .
Cantharidje.   (Spanish Flies, Blister
Beetles)       ....
328 Cantharis unicolor   .
329 Meloe impressa. (Oil Beetles)
330 „     nigra .    '   .
XIII. MALACODERMA. (Soft-wings) 242-249
PAGE
230
231
231
-242
232
232
233
233
234
234
235
235
236
236
236
237
238
238
239
239
239
240
240
240
240
241
241
242
242
Melyrid*        ....
331 Dasytes foveicollis
Clerid* ....
332 Necrobia violacea
333 Thanasimus abdominalis
Cyphonidje
334 Cyphon fusciceps
Telephorid*.. (Soldiers, Sailors)
335 Telephorus ater
lil
336
oo i
338
339
340
341
Westwoodii
Samouellii
Curtisii
(Malthacus) puncticollis
,,       kevicollis
243
243
243
243
244
245
245
245
245
246
247
247
247
248
342 Telephorus (Brachynotus)
LampyriDjE. (Glow-worms)
343 Lampyris corusca
Order ORTHOPTERA    .
I. SALTATORIA. (Grass-hoppers,
LOCUSTIDJE
344 Locusta leucostoma
345 „     verruculata
AcRYDIADiE       ....
346 Acrydium granulatum
Order NEUROPTERA    .    .
I. LIBELLULINA. (Dragon-flies,
bolts)
Agrionid.e     ....
347 Agrion Puella
II. PERLINA
Perlid.3:
348 Perla bicaudata    .
Bennetii 249
. 249
249
250—253
Locusts) 250
.    250
250
.    250
251
.    251
252—253
Adder-
. 252
252
. 252
252
. 252
252
Order TRICHOPTERA. (May-flies,
Case-worms)    ....
PlIRYGANID* ....
349 Limnephilus nebulosus
350 ,, femoralis    .
Order HYMENOPTERA
mandibularis 248
I. TEREBRANTIA      ,
Cimbicid*     ....
351 Cimbex femorata
352 Trichiosoma Triangulum
353 ,, Lucorum
Tenthredinid*. (Saw-flies)   .
354 AUantus Leucostoma
II. UROCERATA. (Tailed-wasps)
SlRICIDJE ....
355 Sirex bizonatus
356 „   Juvencus
III. PARASITA
FcENIDiE ....
357 Fcenus Jaculator
IciINEUMONILVE
358 Ichneumon Ferrugator
Cryptid.se      ....
359 Cryptus viduatorius .
360 Cryptocentrum lineolatum
Braconid;e
254-
254
253
253
253
253
-274
256
254
. 254
254
. 255
256
. 256
256—257
256
. 256
257
261
258
258
258
258
259
259
260
261
258- CONTENTS.
XI
361 Bracon Crocator
IV. ACULEATA
FormicidjE. (Ants)
362 Formica semipunctata
363 ,,     fusca
Vespidje. (Wasps) .
364 Vespa vulgaris
365 ,,    borealis
366 ,,     marginata
I 367      „    maculata
Prosopidje
368 Prosopis elliptica
Andrenid.e
369 Halictus rubicundus
370 ,,       crassicornis
371 Andrena impuncta
372 ,,      varians
Nomadid.se. (Cuckoo-bees)
373 Nomada americana
Chelostomid*
374 Chelostoma albifrons
MEGACHILID.ZE
375 Megachile maritima
ANTH0PH0RID.33
376 Anthophora bomboides
Bombid*.   (Humble, or Bumble
Dores)
377 Bombus Sylvicola
378
379
380
381
382
borealis    .
Terricola
Derhamellus
Praticola
virgjinicus
Subclass HAUSTELLATA
Order HEMIPTERA     .      .
I. GEOCORISA.   (Land Bugs)    .
Pentatomid.se
383 Pentatoma Carnifex
384 ,,       variegata
385 „       trilineata
Edessidje       ....
386 Edessa nebulosa
Capsid* ....
387 Miris punctulatus
PAGE
.   261
261-274
.   261
262
262
263
263
264
265
266
266
266
267
267
267
268
268
269
269
270
,    270
270
,    270
271
.   271
-bees, or
272
.    272
272
.    273
273
.    274
274
275—318
275—285
275—283
275
.    275
276
.    276
277
.    277
277
.    277
PAGE
388 Miris ventralis .        .        .287
ACANTHIADiE . . . 278
389 Aradus tuberculifer .        .    278
390 „     affinis        ...       279
Reduviadje 279
391 Reduviolus inscriptus    .        .       280
392 Chiroleptes Raptor .        .281
393 Nabicula subcoleoptrata        .       282
IlYDROMETRIDiE .....     282
394 Gerris rufo-scutellata    .        .       282
395 „    lacustris .        .        .283
II. HYDROCORISA. (Water-bugs) 283—285
Corixid;e 283
396 Gorixa striata .        .        .283
397 |     carinata     ...       284
398 „     planifrons      .        .        .284
NoTONECTID/E .... 285
399 Notonecta insulata .        .    285
Order HOMOPTERA    ...       285
Cercopid.se 285
400 Cercopis marginella      .        .       285
Order LEPIDOPTERA
286—309
286—300
.   286
I. DIURNA.   (Butterflies)
Papilionids. (Swallow-tails)
401 PapilioTurnus     ...       286
Coliadje. (Whites, Yellows)       .        .    287
402 Colias Edusa       ...       287
403 Pontia casta   .        .        .       .288
Nymphalid* ....       289
404 Melitsea Selenis       .        .        .289
405 Argynnis Cybele .        .       289
406 „       Myrina     .        .        .    290
407 „        Aphrodite       .        .        290
408 „ .     Freya       .        .        .291
Vanessidje 292
'409 Vanessa (Grapta) C. argenteum     292
410 „   furcillata      .        .        .292
411 ,,    Antiopa (Willow Butterfly)293
412 „    Atelmta (Grand Admiral) 294
413 Cynthia Cardui (Painted Lady)   295
414 ,,     Huntera (Belle Dame de
V Amerique) .       .       .       296
HiPPARCHiADiE. (Ringlets, Heaths)    .   297
415 Hipparchia Nephele    .        .        297 Xll
CONTENTS.
PAGE
416 Hipparchia discoidalis      .        .    298
L,YCMSiDM.(Hair-streaks,CoppeTS, Blues)298
417 Thecla Augustus      .        .        .298
418 Lycsena Dorcas    .        .        .        299
419 Polyommatus Lucia .        .    299
Hesperiad*   (Skippers) ■        300
420 Hesperia Peckius     .        .        .    300
IT. CREPUSCULARIA. (Hawk Moths)
301—303
Zyg.enid.<e 301
421 Alypia Mac Cullochii    .        .        301
Sphingid*        .        .        .        .        .301
422 Smerinthus Cerisyi        .        .        301
423 Deilephila intermedia       .        .    302
Sesiadje 303
424 Sesia ruficaudis       .        .        .303
III. NOCTURNA.   (Moths)      .       .       303
LlTHOSIADiE 303.
425 Callimorpha Parthenice .        303
426 „ Virguncula   .        .    304
427 Lithosia miniata   .        .        . 305
Ctenuchidje  305
428 Ctenucha Latreillana    .        . 305
NoCTUIDiE  306
429 Plusia rectangula          .        . 306
430 „     Gamma .        .        .    307
431 ,,    falcifera     ...        308
432 I     Iota    (Gold Spangle)    .    308
Order DIPTERA     .      .      .    309—316
I. NEMOCERA       .       .       .       309—311
Culicid*.   (Gnats, Mosquitos)
433 Culex Punctor
TipulidjE.   ( Crane-flies, Long-legs, Sfc
434 Tipula Pratorum
BlBIONIDjE       ....
435 Aspistes (Arthria) analis   .
II. TANYSTOMA     .       .       .
Empidje     .....
436 Empis luctuosa
437 „     geniculata
Bombyliad.e.   (Humble-bee Flies)
438 Bombylius major
439 „ pygmaeus
Tabanid*. (Horse-flies, Breeze)
440 Tabanus affinis
441 I        zonalis
442 Chrysops sepulchralis    .
III. ATHERICERA      .
Sy.RPHID.ZE ....
443 Scaeva Ribesii
Muscid.se. (Flies)   .
444 Musca Cadaverum   .
445 „     mortisequa
Order HOMALOPTERA
HippoboscidjE. (Forest-flies)   .
446 Hippobosca equina
Order APHANIPTERA. (Fleas)
447 Pulex Gigas    .
PAGE
. 309
309
tjrc.)  310
. 310
310
. 311
311
. 311
311
. 312
312
. 312
313
. 313
313
. 314
314
. 315
315
. 315
316
. 316
316
. 317
317
. 317
318
. 318
In the vertebrated animals almost every genus has an English as well as a Latin name: but this is not the case with
insects, of which, comparatively speaking, very few are so distinguished. To invent appropriate English names for nearly
200 genera, would be no easy task; and as they are generally known by their scientific appellations, the author thought it
would be better to use the Latin name, without translating it. For the convenience of those readers who wish to know
by what English name any old genus or species has been usually distinguished, the author has added such name to it in the
above Table. ARCTIC   INSECTS.
To make the above List of the Insects of the Northern Provinces of America, chiefly under the
dominion of Great Britain, as complete as possible, I shall add an enumeration of those described by
Otho Fabricius in his Fauna Groenlandica, and those taken in the several Expeditions to the Arctic
Regions of America, conducted by Captains Parry, Sir John Ross, and Back, described in the Appendix to their several Narratives by Mr. Curtis, Mr. Children, and myself, distinguished by the letters
F. C. Ch. and K. affixed to each species.
Order THYSANURA.
Podura plumbea F.
„      aquatica F.
„      ambulans F.
„      pusilla F.
„      maritima F.
,,      humicola F.
Lat.
7
m
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Lat.
Order PARASITA.
* Pediculus.    Lat.
Pediculus humanus jF.
„ Canis F.
Lagopi F.
* * Ricinus De G. Nirmus Herm.
Pediculus Strigis F.
„ Corvi JF.
„ Clangulffi F.
Grylle F.
„ Bassani F.
I        Lari F.
Tringae F.
„ Hiaticula? F.
Philopterus (Docophorus) communis Ch.
„ „ platyrhynchus Ch.
,, „ auritus Ch.
,, „ ocellatus Ch.1
„ (Nirmus) affinis Ch.
„ „     testudinarius Ch.
„ „     biseriatus Ch.
„ (Lipeurus) jejunus Ch.
„ (Goniodes) Chelicornis Ch.
Liotheum (Colpocepbalum)subaequale Ch.
„ (Physostomum) sulphureum Ch.
„ „ marginatum Ch.
Order COLEOPTERA.
Colymbetes moestus C.
Dytiscus marginalis F.
Staphylinus balteatus F.
„ fuscipes F.
„ lignorum F.
Silpha pedicularia F.
L.
36 Cistela stoica F.
37 Bostrichus typographus Ch.
38 Curculio nodosus F.
39 „       arcticus F.
40 Altica Helxines F.
41 „     oleracea JF.
42 Coccinella trifasciata. F.
Order DERMAPTERA.    K.
43 Forficula C.
Order ORTHOPTERA.
44 Acrydium sulphureum Ch.
Order NEUROPTERA.
45 Libellula Virgo F.
Order TRICHOPTERA.
46 Phryganea rbombica F.
47 Tinodes hirtipes C.
Order HYMENOPTERA.
48 Ichneumon Moderator F.   {Pimpla ?J
49 „        Laria? C.
50 Ephialtes  C.
51 Campoplex arcticus C.
52 Microgaster unicolor C.
53 Myrmica rubra C.
54 Apis alpina F.    (Bombus)
55 Bombus Kirbiellus C.
Order HEMIPTERA.
56 Acanthia stellata C.
57 Pedeticus variegatus C.
Order LEPIDOPTERA.
Diurna.
58 Papilio Tullia JF.
59 Colias Bootbii C.
60 Hipparchia Rossii C.
61 Melitaa Tarquinius C.
62 Polyommatus Franklinii C.
Nocturna.
63 Laria Rossii C.
64 Euprepia Hyperborea C.
1 Pediculus Corvi F. XIV
ARCTIC   INSECTS.
65 Phalaena B. Graminis (Episema. Charteas) F.
66 „       N. Lucernea (Agrotis) F.
67 ,, Brassicae (Mamestra) F.
68 „ Myrtilli (Anarta) F.
69 „ depuncta (OrthosiaJ F.
70 Hadena Richardsoni C.
71 Psychophora Sabini K. C.
72 Oporaria punctipes C.
73 Phalaena G. tristata F.
74 „ hastata F.
75 „       Tort, uncana (Erastria) F.
76 Orthotaenia Bentleyana C.
77 Argyrotosa Parryana C.
Order DIPTERA.
78 Culexcaspius C.    (C. pipiens L.J
79 „    reptans F.   fSimulium Lat.)
80 ,,    pulicans F.   (C. pulicaris L.)
81 Chironomus polaris K. C.
82 Ctenophora Parrii K.
83 Tipula rivosa F.    (Pedicia Lat.)
f Scatophaga
84 Tipula regelationis F.    CTrichocera Meig.)
85 „   monoptera F.    fDoubtful)
86 „   pennicornis F.    fCecidomyia Lat.)
87 „   atra F.    (Doubtful)
88 ,,   arctica C.
89 Musca stercoraria F.
90 „     scybalaria F.
91 „     cloacaris F. ditto?
92 I     roralis F.    fDoubtful)
93 „     vivax F.    {Doubtful)
94 Helophilus bilineatus C
95 Tachina hirta C.
96 Anthomyia dubia C.
97 Scatophaga apicalis C.
98 Volucella mortuorum F.    (Sarcophaga Meig.)
99 „       vomitoria F.    (Musca L.)
100 „       Caesar F.    /'ilfusca L.)
101 „       Lappona F.    (Sericomyia Lat.,)
102 Tabanus Groenlandicus F.
|   103 Empis borealis F. LIST OF PLATES.
PLATE I.
Cicindela albilabris— ? Tarsus and elytra of female   .
Sericoda bembidioides—a Maxillary palpus,  b Labial ditto
Carabus Vietingbovii .......
Agonum cupripenne—a Elytrum       .....
Platyderus nitidus      ........
Isopleurus nitidus—a Maxillary palpus, b Labial ditto
Peryphus (Eudromus) nitidus—a Maxillary palpus, b Labial ditto
Elaphrus Clairvillii .......
Opisthius Richardsoni—a Maxillary palpus,  b Labial ditto
PLATE II.
Dytiscus (Leionotus) Franklinii—c? Hand of the male
Lathrobium Gravenhorstii .....
Necrophorus pygmseus .....
Ips De Jeanii .......
Thanasimus abdominalis .....
Dichelonycha Backii ......
Ctenicerus Kendalli       ......
Buprestis (Trachypteris) Drummondi      ....
Buprestis (Odontomus) trinervia        ....
PLATE III.
Pontia casta .......
Hipparchia discoidalis, upper side ....
ditto under side
Thecla Augustus, upper side        .....
ditto under side ....
Vanessa (Grapta) C. Argenteum, upper side
ditto under side        . «
Polyommatus Lucia, upper side ....
ditto under side ....
PLATE IV.
Lycsna Dorcas, upper side
Hesperia Peckius, upper side
ditto under side
Smerinthus Cerisyi
Alypia Mac Cullochii
6  Callimorpha virguncula
PAGE
12
15
17
28
29
50
55
61
61
77
87
98
107
244
134
149
159
157
288
298
298
292
299
299
300
301
301
304
c2 XVI
LIST  OF  PLATES.
PLATE V.
1 Scaphium castanipes—a Antenna ....
2 Leptura chrysocoma—a Eye .....
3 Diplotaxis tristis        .......
4 Coccinella episcopalis ......
5 Callidium (Merium) Proteus       .....
6 Colymbetes bifaiius—a Elytrum       .....
7 Lepyrus Gemellus    .......
8 Callidium (Tetropium) cinnamopterum—a Eye
9 Pimelia alternata        .......
PLATE VI.
1 Cryptocentrum lineolatum ......
2 Vespa marginata        .......
3 Nomada americana .......
4 Bombus Terricola      .......
5 Aradus tuberculifer        .......
6 Pentatoma (Neottiglossa) trilineata—a Under side of the trunk
7 Reduviolus inscriptus     .......
8 Aspistes (Arthria) analis      ......
9 Pulex gigas ........
PLATE VII.
1 Coccinella quinque-signata
2 Pytho niger
3 Attagenus cylindricus
4 Telephorus (Malthacus) puncticollis
5 Clytus undatus
6 Orsodacna Childreni
7 Coccinella incarnata
8 Harpalus interpunctatus
9 Haltica (Orchestris) puncticollis
PLATE VIII.
Stereocerus similis—a Antenna
Apate (Lepisomus) rufipennis—a Antenna, b Eye
Argutor brevicornis        .....
Macrops maculicollis—a Eye       ....
5 Apate bivittata— ? Prothorax of female
6 Tachyta picipes—a Maxillary palpus
109
. 179
130
. 228
172
71
198
.  174
232
. 260
265
. 269
273
. 278
276
. 280
311
. 318
230
. 164
113
. 217
175
. 221
231
42
218
.  34
193
31
200
.  192
56 EXPLANATION OF SOME TERMS, USED IN THE FOLLOWING WORK,
NOT IN GENERAL USE.
terms relating to the head.
JSIola. Molary plate or space. (See p. 82, 129, &c.) A broad flat space on the inner side of the base of some mandibles,
having no molary teeth at their apex, of Coleopterous insects (many Lametticorns and Hydrophilus) usually transversely grooved, but sometimes smooth, and used in mastication.
Promuscis.    The HausteUum, or instrument of suction, of the Hemiptera and Homoptera.
Lingua. The Tongue, (p. 49, 78, &c) Often connate with the Labium and called by that name. It is, however, sometimes a separate organ.   (See Introd. to Ent. iii. 357, e.)
Scapus. Scape, (p. 31, &c.) The first, and often most conspicuous joint of the Antennae, terminating below in the bulb,
which inosculates in the head and acts the part of a rotula.
Pedicellus.    The Pedicel, (p. 109, &c.) The second joint of the Antenna, inosculating in the Scapus.
Nasus. The Nose. (p. 67, 276) The terminal piece of the face with which the Labrum, or upper lip, articulates, often
called the Clypeus.
Postnasos. The Afternose. (p. 128) The part of the face, lying behind the Nasus, immediately contiguous to the Antenna, when distinctly marked out as in Camptorkina. (p. 43, 94.)
Rhinarium. The Nostril-piece, (p. 43, 94) The space between the anterior margin of the Nasus and the Labrum, which
in most of the Lamellicorn beetles is vertical; in Necrophorus it consists of membranq.
TERMS   RELATING   TO  THE TRUNK.
Truncus isthmiatus. Isthmiate-trunk. (p. 188) When an isthmus is formed between the Trunk and the Elytra, as in
Passalus.
Manitruncus.    The Manitrunk. (p. 69)  The anterior portion of the Trunk to which the arms or fore legs are attached.
Prothorax.    The Fore-thorax, (p. 8, 35, &c.) The upper side or Shield of the Manitrunk.
Ora. The Ora. (p. 106, 142) The inflexed or inferior lateral margin of the Fore-thorax, in many genera separated from
the Fore-breast by a suture.
Antepectus.    The Fore-breast, (p. 17, 126) The under side of the Manitrunk.
Prosternum.    The Fore-breastbone, (p. 74, 87) An elevation of the Fore-breast between the Arms.
Brachia.    The Arms. (p. 72) Or first pair of legs.
Clavicuxa. (p. 39) Or first joint of the arms answering to the Coxa of the two last pair of legs.
Scapula.    The Shoulderblade, or second joint of the arms, answering to the Trochanter in the other legs.
Humerus.    The Shoulder, (p. 87, 132) The third joint of the arms, answering to the thigh.
Cubitus.    The Cubit or Fore-arm. (p. 7, 74) The fourth joint of the arms answering to the Tibia or shank.
Manus. The Hand. (p. 2, 47) The fifth portion of the arms, usually consisting of more than a single joint, and answering to the Tarsus or foot.
Alitruncus. The Alitrunk. (p. 60) The posterior portion of the Trunk, which bears the organs of flight and the legs.
This part is resolvable into two segments.
Meditruncus.    The Mid-trunk, to which the upper organs of flight and the mid-legs are attached.
Mesothorax.    The Mid-thorax. The upper side of the mid-trunk, bearing the upper organs of flight.
Elytra.    Wing-cases. Horny or leathery organs peculiar to Coleoptera. iUA
XV111
EXPLANATION   OF TERMS,  ETC.
Hypoderma. (p. 16) The membranous lining of the Elytra.
Epipleura. Side-cover, (p. 21,27) The inflexed margin of many Elytra, covering the sides of the Alitrunk and
Abdomen.
Tegmina. (p. 250) Organs of a less firm consistence peculiar to Orthoptera.
Hemelytra. (p. 275) Organs peculiar to the Hemiptera, consisting of two portions, a hard or leathery base called the
Corium, and a terminal Membrane, (p. 275.)
Al.se.    Wings. Membranous organs of flight common to the remaining Orders. ' :Jj^
Tegul;e.    Base-covers, (p. 256, 264) Concavo-convex pieces that defend the base of the wings in Hymenoptera.
Medipectus.   Mid-breast, (p. 135, 165) The under side of the Mid-trunk, bearing the intermediate pair of legs.
Peristethium.    The anterior part of the Mid-breast.
Scapularia.    The Scapulars, (p. 75) The lateral pieces outside the mid-legs.
Mesosternum.   Mid-breastbone.   The middle piece, between the above legs.
Potruncus.    After-trunk.   The last segment of the Trunk, bearing the under wings and posterior pair of legs.
Metathorax. The After-thorax, (p. 259) The upper side of the After-trunk, which bears the above wings, and terminates posteriorly in the Postscutellum. (p. 266.)
Postpectus.    The After-breast. (94, 165, &c.) The under side of the Potrunk.
Mesostethium. (p. 75)  Anterior part of the above, situate between the intermediate and posterior legs.
Parapleur.33. (p. 77) Two pieces, one on each side the postpectus, outside the posterior legs.
Metasternum.    The After-breastbone.   A central and often elevated part between these legs.
TERMS  RELATING  TO  THE  ABDOMEN.
Hypopygium. (p. 130, 155) The last ventral segment of the Abdomen, with the Podex, or last dorsal segment, forming the
Anus.
Ovipositor.   Egg-placer, (p. 257)   The instrument with which the Orthoptera, and many Hymenoptera, convey their eggs
to their proper station.
Caudul.33. (p. 253) Two or more jointed, flexile, anal organs. INTRODUCTION.
The state of society in which the works of Creation are duly investigated, is not
its state of infancy or boyhood, bat that of its maturity and confirmed manhood;
for, in its earlier and ruder stages, the sciences in general are looked upon with
indifference, and not seldom with contempt; but, in proportion as civilization
advances, they acquire daily more and more importance. The last, probably, that
is raised to its proper rank in the public estimation, is the study which is distinguished by the name of Natural History: hence it happens that the patronage
and fostering care of princes and statesmen have been usually extended later to this
branch of science than to any other; and a just sense of the value of it, in public
men, seems an indication of a very advanced state of society, and a proof that the
public mind is wholly liberated from all the trammels of prejudice. When the
inspired wisdom of the most powerful and magnificent of the Hebrew monarchs
was directed to this object, and he composed treatises, for the instruction of his
people, both upon plants and animals, then the Israelitish nation had attained the
acme' of its civilization and glory; and that celebrated Graco-Macedonian prince
and conqueror, whose highest privilege it was to have been the pupil of Aristotle,
at the period when science in Greece had attained its zenith, is related to have
given it in charge to his tutor to pay particular attention to the study of animals,
and, in order to furnish him with materials, employed several thousand men, both
in Europe and Asia,1 in collecting them.
But it is seldom that sovereigns, or their ministers, have extended their fostering
patronage to the science in question, till their attention has been excited by the
1 Plin. Hist. Nat. 1, viii, c, 16. XX
INTRODUCTION.
celebrity, studies, and labours of some eminent individual amongst their subjects;
and they have thus been induced to cast an eye of favour upon them; their own
thoughts and time are necessarily too much absorbed by politics, and the higher
duties of their station, or office, to allow them much leisure to direct and employ them elsewhere, unless some such stimulus awakens their attention to the
subject, its merits, and claims to notice.
It was by his ardent zeal in the cause he had embraced; and the mighty poiver
of his intellect; and his indefatigable labours and studies; and his profound
knowledge of his subject for the time; and the wide celebrity of his name, that the
Aristotle of the North, the illustrious Linn£, attracted to himself, and the science
that he loved, the favourable regards, and the effectual aid of the higher powers ;
in consequence of which, under their auspices, eminent naturalists were sent out
to explore various and distant regions, for the purpose of discovering, studying in
their native soil, and collecting, their natural productions. Thus it was that Kalm
went out to North America; Tornstroem and Osbeck to China; Forskahl to
Arabia; Thunberg to Japan; Sparrman to China and the Cape; Hasselquist to
the Levant, Palestine, and Egypt; and others to various other regions of the globe.
In our own country, till within a few years, the collection of natural productions
made no part of the official duty of those employed by government in exploring
unknown, or little known, countries ; and if such collection was made in any expedition undertaken by authority, it was solely owing to the taste and inclination of
some individual connected with it. It was thus that the late Rt. Hon. Sir Joseph
Banks, led by the love of science alone, and his own native ardour in her cause, at
first distinguished himself; a circumstance that became the stepping-stone which
originally placed him upon the eminence in the scientific world which from that
time he held, and which caused him, in the event, to be looked up to by those
in power, and enrolled him in the list of his Majesty's Most Honorable Privy
Councillors. Accompanying Capt. Cook, the most illustrious of our circumnavigators, in his first voyage, with the aid of his zealous and learned friend the late
inmimiin INTRODUCTION.
XXI
Dr. Solander, he made such collections, both in Zoology and Botany, as had never
before rewarded the zeal and efforts of any single individual; and from regions
which till then had remained unexplored, and of some of which the very existence
was till then unknown, poured vast sums of her peculiar wealth into the general
treasury of Natural Science.
Sir Joseph employed the influence he had acquired with the Government in
promoting the interests of that science, and securing to it a portion of the same encouragement which had been bestowed upon other branches of art and literature;
so that to examine and collect the natural productions of a country, began, at
length, to be regarded as an important object, and to form part of the official duty
contained in the instructions delivered to commanders of voyages and expeditions
of discovery.
And, certainly, merely to ascertain the geographical position and limits of any
country, considered as the sole object of such expeditions, although to the Geographer and Navigator confessedly of the first importance, yet considered per se,
and independently of any knowledge of the inhabitants and productions of such
country, it loses the largest portion of its interest. The advantages that may be
derived from an intercourse with it, furnish one of the principal motives for exploring it, and these may be ranged under two heads, accessions to science, and
accessions to commerce: the former as useful in the enlargement of the human
mind, in the improvement of the human intellect, and in adding to our stores of
knowledge ; as the latter is in the enlargement of our property, and in adding to
our stores of individual and national wealth. And the studies, labours, and observations of the man of science often lead to knowledge highly useful in ascertaining
how far the latter object may be promoted by intercourse with any given country.
The Zoologist, the Botanist, and the Geologist, each in his peculiar department,
may direct the attention of the man of commerce to those districts where such
productions of the animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdoms abound, as may be
made articles of profitable speculation. xxu
INTRODUCTION.
Amongst the other objects of Natural History collected in Captain, now Sir
John, Franklin's last Expedition to the Polar Seas, the Insects form a very principal and interesting feature, not only on account of the number of individual
species, which is considerable, but also on account of several new forms which
they present to the scientific Entomologist; some of them connecting tribes before
placed far asunder,2 and filling up many vacant places in a scientific arrangement
of these minute but not unimportant animals; others exhibiting an Asiatic aspect ;3
and the majority representing, as it were, known European types; and though varying from them in characters of more or less importance, known European species;
so that the American Entomologists, for want of comparing one with the other,
appear often to have confounded them.
Dr. Richardson, who was associated with Sir John Franklin in his first, as well
as in his second, Journey, and to whom was intrusted the Natural History Department of the Expedition, the duties of which office he fulfilled with the same indefatigable zeal and singular skill, that his excellent commander evinced in the general
conduct of it, having, at the recommendation of my worthy and learned friend, the
Regius Professor of Botany at Glasgow, Sir W. J. Hooker, placed in my hands the
above collection for arrangement and description, I must here premise a few observations on the plan I intend to pursue for the accomplishment of those objects.
I must first observe that the majority of the insects in question were necessarily
collected during the brief summers of the Arctic regions, when it was requisite to
use all possible dispatch in proceeding northwards while the season permitted : it
was to be expected, therefore, that they must be hastily put together in boxes,
or bottles of spirits, as they were collected, but it is wonderful, considering their
number, that so little damage was sustained from this mode of packing them, none
having received such injury as to render it difficult to describe them, except some
of the Diptera, and the Libellulina, of which there seem to have been many, and
which were so mutilated, most having lost their abdomen, that they could not be
ascertained or described.
For instance Opisthius Richardsoni, Plate I, Fig. 9.
Carabus Vietinghovii, Plate I, Fig. 3. INTRODUCTION.
XX1U
Having in my cabinet a number of insects, including some new and singular
forms, which were chiefly collected in Canada by Dr. Bigsby, and in Nova Scotia
by Dr. Mac Culloch, I thought it would add considerably to the interest of the
present Fauna, if, as far as relates to the insects, it were made coextensive with the
British Territories in North America ; I have, therefore, with the consent of Dr.
Richardson, included them in my catalogue, which may thus be regarded as the
first attempt at an outline, meager indeed and imperfect, of British American
Entomology. ?
I must also here observe, that several of the insects collected in the Expedition,
were taken in the journey from New York to Cumberland-house, without its being
noted on which side of the 49th parallel of Latitude, the southern limit of the
Zoology of the British American Fur Countries, as fixed in Dr. Richardson's
Introduction,4 they were taken; so that it was not in my power to distinguish the
species taken in the British from those taken in the American territory. I thought
it therefore best to include the whole.
So many different methods of arrangement have been traced out, or adopted, by
different Entomologists, no two having altogether pursued the same path, that
when I first set to work upon these insects, after I had ascertained the genus to
which each species belonged, and which of them appeared to be non-descript, it
was a source to me of no little thought, doubt, and perplexity to determine upon
whose footsteps I should tread in the arrangement of them in a series, especially
with regard to the Coleoptera Order, or Beetles. Two eminent Entomologists, my
lamented friend M. Latreille, and Mr. W. S.«Mac Leay, amongst others of less
note, have taken great pains to form natural groups, but upon different principles,
and both Jiave rendered important services to the science ; but both also, in some
degree, by the adoption of an hypothesis, have tied their hands and impeded their
own progress. M. Latreille by following Geoffroy's method, in which the number
of the joints of the tarsi is assumed to indicate the primary sections of the Order
4 Page xi.
d 2 XXIV
INTRODUCTION.
before alluded to, though in general he has discriminated, limited, and located his
groups with a felicity peculiar to himself, yet in consequence of his assumption of
the above system as an invariable guide, has, in many instances, been induced to
separate groups that are evidently nearly related, and to scatter them far and wide
through his various sections. Mr. Mac Leay, likewise, by assuming the number
five for the universal regulator of every group—whether primary, intermediate, or
ultimate—of the whole animal kingdom, though in many cases it may prevail, has
by no means made it clear that it is the keystone of the mighty arch of nature, or
the clue by which her mazy labyrinth may be traced through all its windings and
recesses.
Whoever considers the infinite ramifications of the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms , the vast number of groups differing in rank and value, and rolling wheel
within wheel, almost ad infinitum, of which each consists; may readily conceive
that the formation of a numerical system, whether the number assumed as the
regulator be two, three, four, five, or seven, is a labour of no very difficult accomplishment ; but to construct it so that the groups of each section, from the primary
to the ultimate, shall be equal or nearly equal in value, which alone can prove that
it is the system of the Creator,—hie labor, hoc opus est.
Mr. Stephens, in his Systematical Catalogue of British Insects, containing, I
believe, the last that has been published, has given a still different, and, upon the
whole, an improved arrangement, in which he implicitly follows neither of his
predecessors, and has taken great pains, as far as his means and limited subject
permitted, though in some things he also appears to me mistaken, and who is not:
to follow the light afforded him by nature. Sir J. F. W. Herschel's observations
on this subject merit particular attention. " The classifications by which science
is advanced, however, are widely different from those which serve as bases for artificial systems of nomenclature. They cross and intersect one another, as it were,
in every possible way, and have for their very aim to interweave all the objects of
nature in a close and compact web of mutual relations and dependence."5
5 Disc, on the Study of Nat. Philosophy, Cab. Cyd. xiv, n. 134. INTRODUCTION.
XXV
When so many eminent men form different conclusions from the same premises,
we may rest assured that there is something in the subject of their lucubrations
that admits of hesitation, and justifies variety of opinions; and this is clearly the
case with respect to the arrangement of natural objects; for whether we consider
the productions of our globe, in all their affinities, as best represented by a branching tree, a net, or a sphere formed of an infinity of larger and smaller orbits,
connected on every side, and placed ad infinitum wheel within wheel; if we set
ourselves to arrange and describe upon paper the individuals composing any department of the three kingdoms, we shall find that it is above us either to conceive
or delineate it so as to maintain all its connections undisturbed and unbroken.
We must do it in a series, which can only be a series of mutilations and dislocations. It will be like cutting off every branch and twig of the tree to place them
end to end; like tearing up the net to place all the meshes one after the other;
like blowing up the whole sphere, and unravelling, as it were, all its orbits great
and small, to make a continuous thread of them. So that it is a hopeless case to
attempt an arrangement according with nature in all its parts; vain man, with all
his boasted powers of intellect, cannot conceive, much less utter and embody it.
All that he can accomplish is to give some general idea of it, and to describe some
fractions of it. He can also attend to the composition of his groups, and keep
those together that are really related; but as to conterminous groups, he will often
be at a loss which is nearest to the one in question, for from different parts of the
same group, a variety of others will often branch off in different directions.
In the following pages, therefore, profiting by the labours of my predecessors,
I have sometimes followed one and sometimes^ another, according as they appeared
to me best to have interpreted nature, and sometimes, where it seemed expedient,
I have entered new paths in my arrangement; it has been my endeavour principally
to make my groups as near to nature as possible, but with regard to the series and
concatenations of them, for the reasons above assigned, it was not possible to place
them on paper as they are inscribed, by the Great Author of nature in her pages. XXVI
INTRODUCTION.
The author cannot conclude this Introduction without returning his acknowledgments to those gentlemen, to whom it will appear from a perusal of the following pages he is under great obligations for very considerable additions to his
catalogue of the insects of the British Provinces in North America, namely to Dr.
Bigsby, of Newark, and Capt. Sheppard, of her Majesty's Royal Regiment of
Artillery, for those of Canada; and to Dr. Mac Oil loch, and Capt. Hall, late of
her Majesty's 81st Regiment, for those of Nova Scotia. From Dr. Thaddens
Harris, and Mr. Drake, he has received several specimens from the Province of
Massachusets, which are likewise found in the British Provinces. INTRODUCTION.
XXVII
The following Table exhibits the groups adopted in this work in the Orders Coleoptera and Hymenoptera only, the author, on account of the small number of specimens collected, having made no
additions to those already established in the other Orders.
Class Insecta.
Subclass Mandibulata.
Order Coleoptera.
I.    Adepbaga
Brachelytra
Geadephaga
Hygradephaga
. Hydradephaga
f Homogenea
1 Heterogenea
\ S u bul i pal pia
I Microcephala '
V, Fissilabra
III.
IV.
V.
IX.
X.
XI.
XIL
XIIL
Entaphia
Necrophaga
Philhydrida
Petalocera
Rcctoccra
Brevicornia
Longicornia
Xylotrypa
Kliynchopliora ) Gonatocera
' Orthocera
■ax. *    i. __      5 Cyclica
Phytophaga     j ,/ .
' t.hupoda
Aphidiphaga   f Melasoma
\ Taxicornia
tt . J Steneiytra
Heteromera    < c    . ', .
\ oernpalpia
/ Trachelida
Malacoderma   v Vesicantia
I. Terebrantia
II. Urocerata
IIL Parasita
IV. Aculcata
\ Securifera
I	
( Pupivora
\ Larvivora
( Heterogyna
1 Lestica
) Diplopteryga
V. A n thoplii la
( Euptera
( Eutrecha
-Ac mi pal pi a
Subulipalpia
Filipalpia
Eunecha
Gyronecba
C Coprophaga
< Pbyllophaga
V. Melitop"hila
t Isocera
\ Anisocera
5 Longirostria
( Brevirostria
" Truncipeiinia
I Obtusipennia
Sarrothropoda
Cystopoda
Quadrimana
Dimaini
Hierentoma
Sternucba
Apostema
Order Hymenoptera.
( Philopona
\ Misopona
{ Brachyglossa
i Macroglossa
S Solitaria
( Gregaria
j Nobilia
( Pjebeia
\ Dimana
I Quadrimana
Cuculina
| Dasygastra
Leiogastra  LIST OF AUTHORS REFERRED TO IN THIS VOLUME IN ADDITION TO
THOSE REFERRED TO IN THE PRECEDING VOLUMES.
N.B. The Italic letters indicate the abbreviations of the titles of the works quoted in the following volume.
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bavn, 1761.   8vo.
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„  Nova, acta Regise Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, 1773.    4to.
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Admiral or Ammiral. Adm. Jacob PAdmiral veranderingen von veel/rcsecten.   Amsterdam, 1774. fol.
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1795.    12mo.
Bingley.    Bing.     .    .    .    Animal Biography, or anecdotes of the lives and manners of the Animal
Creation.   3 vols.    London, 1803.    8vo.
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Bradley.   Brad.
Brahm
Butterflies.
Cederhielm.   Ced.
Children.   Child.
Christius.    Christ.
Clairville.    Clair
Coquebert.    Coq.
Cramer.    Cram.
Curtis.
De Geer.
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DlCTIONNAIRE.      D.
DlLLWYN. . Dill.
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Drury.    Dm.   .    .
DUFTSCHMIDT.     Duft.
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Ernst.      . ,
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A philosophical account of the works of Nature.    London, 1732.    4to.
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iVwecten-.Kttfender.    Mainz, 1790.    8vo.
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»Petropolensis.    Leipzig, 1798.    8vo.
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Appendix to Capt. Sir John Ross's Second Voyage in search of a North
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Zoofogischer Atlas.
Papillons d'Europe peints d'apres nature.    Paris, 1779.    4to.
Die SchmetterXmge in abbildungen nac der natur, mit beschreibungen.
Erlangen, 1777.    4to. LIST OF  AUTHORS   Q.UOTED. XXXI
Fabricius.    Fab.   .    .    .    Systerna, i'n/oinologiee.    Flensburgi, et Lipsia.    1175.   Svo.
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figuram, et proportionem omnium partium oris, adjecta Maniissa
specieram nuper detectarum.   Chilonii, 1776.    12mo.
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,,  Sy sterna, Eleuthev-atovum, torn. 2.    Kilts, 1801.    Svo.
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„    jPiezatorum.    Brunsviga, 1804.    8vo.
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Frisch Beschreibung von allerley Insecten in Deutschland. Berlin, 1766.   4to.
,,         iVafurgeschicht.
Fuessly.    Fuess.   .    .    .   Verzeichniss der ihm bekann bekanntenSchweitzenschen insecten. Zurich
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Gould 	
Graven horst.    Grav.
Gronovius.    Gron.
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Harrer.    H—r.
Harris.    H—s.
Haworth.    Haw.
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ZoopAylacium Gronovianum.    Leyden, 1765—87.   fol.
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Lettsom.   Lett.      .   .   .   The ZVotfuralist's and Traveller's Companion.   London, 1772.    8vo.
Lewin.   Lew Popilio's of Great Britain.   London, 1795.   4to.
Lichtenberg and Voigt.   > Magazin fur das neueste aus der Physik und Nalurgeschichte.    Gotha.
Licht. V. .    .    .     5 8vo.
Linn6.    Linn Iter Oelandicum et Gotlandicum.    Holmia, 1745.    8vo.
„  .4wia?nitates .4cademica, seu dissertationes varia,   physica.   medica
botanica, torn. 7.    Leyden, 1747.   Holmia, 1789.    8vo.
1  Pauna Suecica.   Stockholmia, 1761.    8vo.
,,  Mwseum Regina Zouisa Ulrica, in quo animalia rariora exotica, impri
mis insecta et conchylia, describuntur et determinantur.    Holmia
1764.    8vo.
,,  Systerna Natural.   Ed. 13, torn. 3.    Vindobona, 1767—70.    8vo.
,, ..'....    Idem cura J. Frid. GmeZin, torn. 6.    Lipsia, 1788.    8vo.
Lister.   List Appendix ad historiam animalium Anglia, una cum Scarabaorum Aneli-
canorum quibusdam tabulis Mutis.
„  Vid. Goedart.
Mac Leay.    Mac L.    .    .    Horai Pnfomologica.    2 vols.    London, 1819.    8vo.
,,  -4nnwZosa Jaaanica, or an attempt to illustrate the natural affinities and
analogies of the insects collected in Java by Thomas Horsfield
M.D. &c. and deposited in the Museum of the Hon. East India
Company.   London, 1825.    4to.
Marsham.   Marsh.     .    .   i?niomologia Britannica.   Coleoptera.   Londini, 1802.    8vo.
Martyn.   Mart.    .   .    .   The English .Entomologist exhibiting all the Coleopterous insects found
in England.    London, 1792.   fol. LIST OF  AUTHORS   QUOTED.
\\\\
Megerle.    Meg.
Meig en.   Meig.
Melsheimer.    Mel sli.
Merian.    Mer.
Merret.    Merr.
Mikan.    Mik.    .    .    .
Muller. (0. F.)   Mull
„       (C.L.?) .    .
Mouffet.   MoufF.
OciISENHEIMER.     Ochs
Olivier.    Oliv.
Ohomatomologia.   Onom.
Pallas.   Pall	
Panzer.    Panz.     .    .    .
•    Catelogus insectorum qua Vienna Austria die 14 et sequente Decembri*
1801, auctionis lege distrahuntur.
ZZassification und Beschreibung der Europaischen Zweifl'ugeligen insecten.   2 vol.   Brawnschweig, 1804.   4to.
■   Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten Europaischen Zweiflueelieen
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Systematische Beschreibung der Europaischen iSWimeZZerlinge, mit ab-
bildungen, auf steintafeln, 4 Band.   Aachen et Leipzig, 1827 29.
4to.
Catalogue.
Memoires du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, torn. 18.   Paris, 1815—.
.   Prwcarum ortus, alimentum, et paradoxa metamorphosis.  Amstelodami,
1717.   4to.
.    Histoire des Znsectes d'Pnrope.   Amsterdam,' 1736.   fol.
Pinax rerum naturalium Britannicarum.    Londini, 1667.    12mo.
.    Monographia BomZryliorum Bohemia.   Praga, 1796.    Svo.
.   Pauna insectorum PruZrichsdalina, sive methodica descriptio insectorum
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Zinnaisches ZVaZursystem nach der houttuynischen ausgabe, 1804.
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.    Die jSWwweZZerlinge von Europa.    4 vols, in 5.   Leipzig, 1807—16. Svo.
Ochs. Tr.   Fortsetzung der Ochsenheimerschen werks, von Friederich Treitsche.
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Pauna insectorum America Borealis Prodromus.   Norimberga, 1774.
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Beitrage zur geschichte der Znsecten Erlangm.    1793.    12mo.
Pntamologia Germanica, exhibens insecta per Germaniam indigena.
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Pauna insectorum Germanica initia.   Norimberga1, 1796—1805. LIST  OF  AUTHORS   ftUOTED.
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Monographia Caraborum Suecia.   Upsalia, 1790.    8vo.
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Specimen Znsectorum Ulterioris CaZabria.    Moguntia. 1797.    4to.
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siarnata.   Londini, 1695.    8vo.
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prasertim collegit P. R.    Liburni, 1790.    8vo.
} An account of the animals seen by the late Northern Expedition whilst
>        within the Arctic Circle, being No. 10 of the Appendix to Capt.
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.   Monographia TenZAretflnetarum Synonymia Extricata.    Parisiis, 1823.
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Entomologist's useful Compendium.    London, 1819.    8vo.
ZVowenclature of British Entomology alphabetically arranged. London
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American Entomology, or a description of the Insects of North America,
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Transactions of the .American Philosophical Society.   New Series.   8vo.
Zowrnal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, PAiZadelphia.
Elementa PnZomologica.    Regensberg, 1766.    4to.
Abhandlungen der ZZaZZeschen naturforshenden gesellschaft. Dessau
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alle, 1811.
34- LIST  OF  AUTHORS   &UOTED.
XXXVH
Schellenberg.    Schell.        Cimicum in Helvetia aquis et terris degentium genus in Familias redac-
tum.   Turici, 1800.    8vo.
,, ....    Genres de Mouches Dipteres.    Zurich, 1803.   8vo.
Schmiedleins.   Schmiedl.    Enleitung in die Znsectenlehr.    Leipzig, 1786.    Svo.
Schneider.    Schneid.      .   Systematische Beschreibung der Europaischen  Sc/wneZZerlinge Halle.
1787.    8vo.
:,  Neuestes  Ma^razin fiir die Leibhaberder der Entomologie.   5 heftes.
Stralsund, 1791—94.    8vo.
Schonherr.    Schb'n.   .    .    Synonymia insectorum, oder versuch einer synonymie aller bisher be-
kannten insecten.   3 torn.   Stockholm, 1806—17.   8vo.
„  Cwrculionidum Dispositio methodica, cum generum characteribus, de-
scriptionibus, atque observationibus variis, &c.    Lipsia, 1826. 8vo.
Schrank. ; Pnwmeratio insectorum Austria indigenarum.   Augusta Vindelicorum,
1781.    8vo.
„         Pauna Boica. Durchegedachte, geschichte der in Bajern einheimischen
und zamen thiere.    Nurnberg, 1798.   8vo.
Schreber.    Schreb.    .    .    Novie Species insectorum. • Hala Magdeburgia, 1759.   4to.
Schwartz.    Schw.      .    .   Neuer Pawpenkalender.    Nurnberg, 1791.   8vo.
„         ZVomenclator uber in den Rbselschen insecten belustigungen und klee-
manschen beitragen zur insecten-geschichte, &c. Kafer. Nurnberg,
1793.   4to.
Schwenckfeeld. Schwenck. ITAerioZrophium Silesia, in quo animalium, h. e. quadrupedum, reptilium,
avium, piscium, insectorum natura, vis, usus, sex libris perstringun-
tur.    Lignicii, 1603.   4to.
.Scopoli.    Scop.       .    .    .    Entomologia Carniolica, exhibens insecta Carniolia indigena, et distri-
buta in Ordines, Genera, Species, Varietates, methodo Linneano.
Vindobona, 1763.    8vo.
 Annus iZisZorico-IVaZuralis quartus.    Lipsiae, 1770.    12mo.
Scriba.    Scrib Zowrnal fur die lieb-haber der Entomologie.   Frankfurt, 1790.   8vo.
|  Beytrage zu der Znsecten geschichicte herausgegeben.    Frankfurt, 1790
—93.   4to.
Seba.   Seb TAesaurus locupletissimus rerum naturalium, torn. 4.    Amstelodami,
1734.   fol.
Seligmann.   Selig.    .    .    Aves.    Norimberga, 1749—50.    fol.
Sepp Beschouwing der wonderen Gods in de minstgeachtte schepzelen of ZVe-
(ZerZandsche Znsecten.    3 torn.   Amsterdam, 1742.   4to.
Shaw.   \ General Zoology.   6 vols,     nsects.    London, 1806.
Smith Sir. J. E.      ...    Natural History of the rarer Lepidopterous insects of Georgia including
their systematic characters, the particulars of their several metamorphoses, and the plants on which they feed, collected from the observations of Mr. John Abbott, many years resident in that country.
2 vols.   London, 1797.   fol.
f
il —
XXXviii LIST   OF   AUTHORS   &UOTED.
Spinola.    Spin.      .    . Znsectorum Zi^uria species nova aut rariores, torn. 2.    Francofurti ad
Manum, 1809.    4to.
Stephens.    Steph.       .    .    ZZZwsZrations of British Entomology.   MancZioulata ZZawsZellata. 10 vols.
1827—1837.    8vo.
 A systematic CaZalogue of British insects, being an attempt to arrange
all the hitherto discovered indigenous insects, in accordance with
their natural affinities, &c.    London, 1829.    8vo.
Stewart. Stew. . . . PZements of the Natural History of the Animal Kingdom, being an introduction to the Systema Natura of Linnaus. London and Edinburgh, 1802.    8vo.
Stoll.       .......    Cigales et Panaises qui se trouvent dans les quatre parties du monde,
l'Europe, l'Asie, l'Afrique, l'Amerique.    Amsterdam, 1788.    4to.
Stroem.    Stro PAysik og reconomisk beskrivelse over fogderiet sondmor beliggende i
Bergens stift i Norge.    2 torn.    Soroe, 1762—66.    4to.
Sturm Znsecten CaZunet nach dur natur geseichnet und gastochen.    Niirnburg,
1791—92.    12mo.
 DeuZscAlands Pauna in abbildungen nach der natur mitbeschreibungen.
5 torn.    Nurnberg, 1805—15.    12mo.
1  CaZalog meiner insecten sammlung Kafer,    Nurnberg, 1826.    8vo.
Sulzer.    Sulz.        .    .    .    Die Kennzeichen der Znsecten, nach anleitung des kbnigl. Schwed Rit-
ters Carl. Linnaus.    Zurich, 1761.   4to.
„  Abgekiirtze Gesc/tichte der insecten.    2 vols.    Wintershur, 1776.    4to.
Swammerdam. Swamm. BioZia iVizZura, seu historia insectorum. Leyden, 1738. fol. Translated into English by Sir John Hill.    London, 1758.    fol.
Thunberg.    Thunb. .    Dissertatio entomologica sistens Znsecta Suecicte.    Upsalia, 1784—95.
8vo.
„  Mwsaeum naturalium Academiae t/psaliensis. Upsalia, 1787—1800. 4to.
„  Insecta Hymenoptera illustrata, pars  1, ZcAneumonides, Memoires de
l'Academie imperiale des sciences de St. Petersbourg, 1822.    4to.
Transactions.   Trans.     .    Of the PnZomological Society of London.    London, 1807—10.    8vo.
Uddman.    Udd.      .    .    .    ZVova Znsectorum Species. Diss. Pras. Joh. Leche. Resp. Is. Uddman.
Aboa, 1753.    4to.
Vieweg.    View.      .    .    .   Tabellarisches Verzeichniss in der Churmark Brandenburg einheimischen
ScAmeZZerlinge.    2 heft.    Berlin, 1789—90.    4to.
Villers.   Vill Caroli Linnaei PnZomologia Fauna Suecica descriptionibus aucta d.d.
Scopoli, Geoffroy, De Geer, Fabricii, Schrank, &c. speciebus vel in
systemate non enumeratis, vel nuperrime detectis, vel speciebus Gallia australis locupletata, generum specierumque rariorum iconibus
illustrata.    torn 4.    Lugduni, 1789.    8vo.
Voet Descriptiones et icones CoZeopterorum.    4to.
|        Icones insectorum CoZeopZerorum synonymis commentarioque perpetuo
illustravit D. G. W. F. Panzer.   Erlanga, 1794.   4to. LIST  OF   AUTHORS   Q.UOTED.
XXXIX
Wagner.    Wagn.   .
Walckenjer.    Walck.
Weber.   Web.
Wiedemann.    Wied.
Wienner.    Wienn.
Wilkes.
Historia naturalis Helvetian curiosa.    Tiguri, 1680.    12mo.
Paune Parisienne insectes, ou histoire abregee des insectes des environs
de Paris.   2 torn.    Paris, 1802.    8vo.
Ooservationes PnZomologica continentes novorum qua condidit generum
characteres, et nuper detectarum specierum discriptiones. Kiel,
1801.    8vo.
Zoologisches Magrazin herausgegeben, vol. 2.    Altona, 1818—23.    8vo.
Diptera Exotica. Pars. 1.    Kiliae, 1821.    12mo.
Systematische verseichniss der ScnmeZZerlinge der Wienergegend. Wien.
1776.    4to.
Editio altera cura ZZZigeri.    Brunsvici, 1801.    8vo.
Twelve new designs of English BnZZerflies.    London, 1742.   4to.
One hundred and twenty plates of English Moths and BwZZerflies.
London, 1773.    4to.  NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
PART   IV.
INSECTA.
Subkingdom   Condylopa; Lat.1
Class      Insecta.
Subclass     Mandibulata, Clair.
Order     Coleoptera, Zititi.
I.      Adephaga, Clair.*
i.      Geadephaga, Mac L.
(a)     Eupteba, Kirb.
(a)     Beevicollia, Kirb.3
There is one circumstance which I may mention in this place, distinguishing the
majority of the tribes of this section—Adephaga,* and found also in some conterminous ones, as the Staphylinidce and Silphidee—which demands particular attention,
since it has been used as a distinctive character of several of its groups : I allude
to the dilatation of the anterior, and in several cases also of the intermediate,
tarsus, in the males. But though Entomologists have paid some attention to this
circumstance, they appear to have gone little further, and have not made all the
use that they might have done, with advantage to the science, of the sexual distinctions observable in this part of these animals; for they have taken little or no
notice of the variations in the clothing of the sole or underside of these dilated
joints; speaking of it generally, except in the case of male Dytiscidce, merely as a
brush.    Latreille, indeed, in his last work,5 mentions papilla? as well as brushes,
1 Lat. Cours D'Ent. i, 18. These are the Annulosa of modern Zoologists. For my reasons for adopting Latreille's
term in preference, see my Bridgewater Treatise, ii, 17.
2 I have not adopted, on the present occasion, the phraseology proposed in the Introduction to Entomology, (vol iv,
p. 393) to distinguish the different subdivisions into which each section of an Order is resolvable, in descending to the
families and genera, because I have no,f the means of applying it universally, or of making such a valuation of each as will
indicate at once the denomination to which it is entitled.
3 I consider the Euptera as forming three subtribes—viz. Longicollia (Colliuris,) Brevicollia fCicindela) and Fissicollia
(Manticora.)
4 Camivora, Lat. 5 Crust. Arachn. et Ins. i, 401.
B turn
2 NORTHERN  ZOOLOGY.
but seems not to have examined them very closely, and to have acquired no very
precise idea of their nature. I shall, therefore, under the present head, enlarge a
little upon this subject.
The Predaceous Beetles, considered with respect to this circumstance, are of
three descriptions. 1. Those that exhibit no such distinction. 2. Those that
have only the anterior tarsi or hands dilated. 3. Those that have the two anterior
pair so circumstanced.
1. This sexual character, though very general, is not universal in the Adephaga.
In the Cicindelidans the dilatation, though existing, is less conspicuous; in the
Colliuridans the tarsi in both sexes are dilated, so that in them it is no sexual
distinction ; and the same circumstance occurs in the Longicollia—Agra, Casnonia,
&c. amongst Latreille's Truncatipennes (Brachinidce Mac Leay); in the Manti-
coridans, and the Bipartiti Latr. (Scaritidce Mac Leay) and likewise in some of
the Truncatipennes, as Lebia, Dromia, and in some Carabidans, as Procerus, there
is no dilatation in either sex; and amongst the Hydradephaga Mac Leay, the
sexes of Haliplus seem very slightly distinguished in this respect.
2. The majority of the Geadephaga have only the anterior tarsus or hand
of the male dilated, and may be distinguished, with regard to this circumstance,
by the name of Dimani; some of the Truncatipennes have only the posterior side
of the joints dilated, this is the case with Anthia, Galerita, &c. but, more generally, both sides of the three or four first joints are so circumstanced; in the
Hydradephaga, only in Hydaticus and Acilius, this character is restricted to the
hand.
3. Amongst the Geadephaga, Latreille's Quadrimani—Harpalus, Ophonus, Ste-
nolophus, &c.—have the joints of the four anterior tarsi dilated, but amongst the
Hydradephaga this character is to be found in the majority.
The next circumstance, that calls for our attention, is the number of these dilated
joints, for they vary in different tribes and genera. Thus the Peryphidce have the
first joint only of the hand dilated; the Bembidiadce the first and the posterior
side of the second; Patrobus, Pogonus, &c. the two first; but the most common,
or what may be called the typical structure in this respect, is that in which the
three first joints are dilated; this obtains in the Cicindelidce, Calosoma, and the
great majority of the Eutrecha, even in those that have the four anterior tarsi
dilated; in the Hydradephaga the same number prevails ; in the Carabidans and
Trechus, &c. four joints are dilated.
The most important circumstance, however, connected with the present subject ADEPHAGA. 3
is the lining that covers the sole of these dilated tarsi, or the kind of foot-cushions
with which they are furnished.    These are of three descriptions.
1. A dense brush of stiff hairs. This is to be found in the Cicindelidans, the
Carabidans, and the Chlceniadans; insects so furnished may be denominated
Sarrothropoda. I have noticed no particular variations of this kind of foot-
cushion ; in the last mentioned tribe, however, the Chlceniadans, the brushes are
broader, the consequence of the greater dilatation of the joints, than in the other
Sarrothropodous Geadephaga.
2. The next kind of foot-cushions are formed of little membranous vesicles or
cysts, which are arranged in various ways in different tribes. In some, as Helluo
costatus, the hand is furnished with a compound cushion, there being a brush on
each side, and in the middle a line formed of short transverse rows of vesicles ; in
Anthia the dilated side of the joint only has a line of vesicles included between
lateral brushes; in Brachinus and many others is a double oblique series of vesicles
on each joint;, in Agonum these vesicles are imbricated lying one upon another;
in some, as in Harpalus interpunctatus of this catalogue, these little organs are
arranged without order, and cover the whole joint. In this respect this species
differs from the other Harpali, in which the vesicles are arranged nearly as in
Brachinus. The insects that have this kind of foot-cushion may from it be named
Cystopoda.
3. The third description of foot-cushions is when they are formed of pedunculated cups or suchers, as in several of the Hydradephaga, particularly Dytiscus, in
whose hands may be seen two larger umbilicated cups with an infinity of minute
ones, which I have elsewhere described.6 These may be named Pyxidiopoda.
The great object of all these formations is to enable the male to fix himself firmly
in coitu, which is probably done by producing a vacuum, for which at least the
cysts and cups seem particularly fitted,7 and they may be rendered useful in tracing
the affinities of the different groups of the Section, as will appear under another
head.
Geadephaga. Numerous, and seemingly inextricable, difficulties stand in the
way of a perfectly natural arrangement of this vast group, which includes the
whole of the Terrestrial Predaceous Beetles, for the Systematic Entomologist feels
quite at a loss, when he asks himself by which path shall I next proceed ?   Though
6 Introd. to Ent. iii, 693.
Ibid, 691.
B 2 NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
its typical Tribe, the Euptera offer no very material obstacle to the accomplishment of his purpose, a number of rival forms next present themselves, each
preferring seemingly well founded claims to guide him towards a natural arrangement. Under the present head, perhaps, it may be useful to discuss this subject,
a clear insight into which will prove, that it is not at all wonderful that Entomologists have adopted different methods of arrangement, and that each, is in some
degree right. It may first be asked—what is that Typical Form, from which, led
by nature, in an attempt to arrange the insects of the present Order, we mu3t set
off, as from a common centre or summit, round which all, as it were, revolve, and
towards which all tend ? This is a question, even in the present advanced state of
the science, difficult to answer; for we have beetles before us of vast bulk and
strength, elephants in the class of insects, but which are distinguished neither by
the swiftness of their motion nor by the elegance and beauty of their forms; others
we have, less clumsy indeed and gigantic, but remarkable for the perfection and
symmetry of their general structure; the lightness and velocity of their motions
both on the earth and in the air; and for the splendour and brilliance of their
colours. Such, with only one or two exceptions, are the Euptera or Tiger Beetles.
Amongst the hi. her animals, the Lion, chief of the Predaceous Quadrupeds, is
usually accounted as the king of beasts; a similar reason will justify modern
Entomologists for regarding the above tribe of beetles as the typical and most
perfect form amongst insects, especially Coleoptera, instead of the Lamellicorn
beetles, which Linne" had elevated to that rank.
Having selected a typical or central tribe, let us next consider its composition.
As far as at present known, it is composed of three principal groups. One remarkable for its long cylindrical neck and slender body, and for having all the tarsi of
both sexes dilated and furnished with a brush, the penultimate joint terminating
in a single lobe, the type of which is Colliuris longicollis; another with a short
depressed neck, a stouter body, slender tarsi, with only the three first joints of the
hand of the males slightly dilated, and covered underneath with a brush, and
the penultimate joint not lobed, the type of which is Cicindela campestris; a
third, removed to a vast distance from the preceding ones both in its aspect and
many of its characters: in the former and its colour, which is a dismal black,
resembling Latreilles Melasomes; as to the latter, though the claw of its maxillse
articulates with the lobe, and the mandibles are armed by long and threatening
teeth as in Cicindela, yet having a neck or prothorax, like that which distinguishes
the males in Anthia, bilobed behind; having the surface of the elytra plane with a ADEPHAGA.
very large Epipleura; having no wings, and the hand of the male not being dilated
nor furnished with a brush. The type of this sombre tribe is Manticora Gisas.
From this statement it appears that in this Tribe, as at present known, there is no
circular arrangement, it may be rather said to form a semicircle, beginning with
the Colliuridans, passing from them by the narrow Cicindelidans to the type, and
thence proceeding by Megacephala and the dark-coloured Cicindelidans towards
Manticora with which the semicircle terminates at its lower extremity. To complete the circle it will be necessary to cast an eye over the other branch of the
Geadephaga, the Eutrecha, and endeavour to discover which, amongst its different
tribes, will best supply us with the means of doing it. Our eye probably might
first be caught by the gigantic Anthice, and immediately we should be struck by a
considerable resemblance between these, especially the males, and Manticora, and
by a closer examination be convinced that they approached each other in the line
of affinities; having found a link that connects with one end of our semicircle,
we should next look round for some slender long-necked form to place next the
other, and we should soon discover a group, consisting of several genera, in the
same tribe with Anthia, that exhibited a most remarkable resemblance to the Colliuridans ; upon inspecting these more nearly we should select Agra as almost the
counterpart of Colliuris, comparing the head, the neck, the elytra, and especially
the tarsi, we should find them all formed upon the same plan, except that in Colliuris the penultimate joint of the latter has only one lobe, which in Agra is bilobed,
and feel a strong conviction, that this agreement in structure was not merely an
analogical resemblance,8 but an indication of close affinity. If we next look for
some middle form, which, like Cicindela campestris, may be regarded as nearly
equidistant from the two extremes, perhaps no better known genus could be selected
than Calleida of De Jean, which, in colour, is almost as brilliant as a Cicindela;
and, in form, may be regarded as nearly the mean of the semicircle of Truncipennia
to which it belongs. This is the present aspect of the central group and of the
tribe which appears most nearly connected with it; but to what alterations future
discoveries may open a door I will not presume to conjecture. It would be rash
to affirm that insects may not be found to complete a separate circle both of
Euptera and Truncipennia, but the above arrangement seems to follow from our
present knowledge of them.
s Mr. W. S. Mac Leay fAnnulos. Javan. 8) seems to regard these as only analogical characters, but the points of
agreement are too numerous for any thing but affinity. The agreement of these two genera in having all the tarsi of both
sexes dilated, and furnished with a brush, with the penultimate joints lobed, is alone a sufficient proof. 6* NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
I shall next proceed to state the result, of my investigation with regard to
affinities observable between other tribes of the Euptera and the Eutrecha. Mr.
W.S.Mac Leay,in his arrangement,places Elaphrus next to the Cicindelidans? and
its claims to affinity with them can scarcely be doubted; but when we turn our
attention to one of the Elaphridans described in this catalogue, Opisthius Rich-
ardsoni, we find that the tribe is also connected by affinity with the Subulipalpi
of Latreille, as Bembidium, &c. a further confirmation of this may be derived from
an inspection of Ocydromus flavipes (Bembidium Steph.) which though clearly one
of the tribe last mentioned, is as clearly related to Elaphrus. It is evident therefore that, by the Elaphridans, the Cicindelidans are connected with the Subulipalpi,
which I cannot agree with Mr. Mac Leay in regarding as belonging to the Harpa-
lidce; the Acutipalpi (Trechus and affinities) Subulipalpi and Elaphridce appear
to me to form a distinct tribe, consisting of Eutrecha delighting in humid places
and constituting an intermediate or transition group (or perhaps a minor section
which might be named Hygradephaga) usually consisting of small insects between
the Geadephaga, or terrestrial, and the Hydradephaga, or aquatic, Predaceous
Beetles.    Here then we have a second series connected with Cicindela.
Mr. Mac Leay considers the Carabidans as near in affinity to the Cicindelidans,
nor am I disposed to deny that they make an approach towards them; for the males
of both are Sarrothropodous, the nearest approximation to Cicindela that these
make, as far as I have had an opportunity of examining the family, is by Carabus
splendens Oliv.1 but this is still at a great distance and many forms are wanted to
fill up the interval. The Carabidans go off one way towards the Cystipodous
Dimani by the Chlceniadans and so proceed to the Quadrimani, from which we
may enter the osculant group of Elaphridans, &c. by Stenolophus which connects
my Harpalidans with Trechus, &c.
Thus we have three distinct tribes that branch from the typical group, but we
seem to find nothing amongst the Bipartiti of Latreille to tend towards them,
unless we may suppose Oxygnathus De Jean, and some of the other Scaritidans, to
he connected with it by their mandibles. A circumstance however has been related of
the larva of Aristus bucephalus which indicates some affinity between it and that of
Cicindela ; we are told it has the same habits and form,2 but to look at the perfect
insects, we see little resemblance, except an approach in the form of the thorax
9 Annulos. Javan. 8.
J This insect is synonymous with that mentioned in the Introd. to Ent. (iv, 506, note) under the name of C. laviqatus
1 N. D'H. N. ix, 510.    Article Ditomus. —
ADEPHAGA.
to that of Manticora. Intervening forms may hereafter be found, which may
connect it with that genus, which itself, in some respects, has the aspect of one of
the Bipartiti, or Scaritidce Mac Leay.
From the above statement I trust it will appear evident that almost all the different tribes of Geadephaga immediately connect with the Typical Group, or
branch from it, and that it is impossible to describe them in the order in which
they are arranged by nature, and that, therefore, the different authors who have
written upon them are all correct in their views, though they have taken different
routes in departing from the central station. Thus Latreille, De Jean, and Stephens, are right when they assume the Truncipennia as an evident affinity; and
Mr. Mac Leay also in going off by Elaphrus and Carabus and returning by the
Brachinidce and Anthia.
Under the present head I may further observe with regard to the sculpture of
the elytra of the present sub-section, that, with the exception of Manticora and
Omophron, at least as far as an extensive examination enables me to decide,
they all, if viewed under a very powerful magnifier, appear to consist of a most
minutely and beautifully reticulated substance, chagrined, as it were, with innumerable granules. In some, as Harpalus carbonarius, the Bembidiadans, &c. this
circumstance is more conspicuous than in others, and it gives these animals a silky
appearance; though most visible in the elytra, it may commonly be discovered in
the head and prothorax. In the Hydradephaga it is most visible in the Gyrini-
dans. It is not however confined to the Predaceous Beetles, since it may be
discovered in the Buprestidans and many other Coleopterous insects.
I shall here also observe once for all, that in all the Eutrecha, or Ground Beetles,
that have a notch in their Cubit, with the exception of those whose elytra are
distinguished by elevated ridges, as Anthia, Brachinus, and some.others, near the
margin of the elytra, where they are striated or furrowed, on the eighth furrow
from the suture, or in the interval between it and the ninth, is usually a series of
from twelve to thirty or more ocellated impressions, or impressions with an
elevation in their centre, placed at various intervals, and sometimes only at the
base and apex of the elytrum; those that have no notch in the cubit have usually
no appearance of this kind, but in Cicindela these impressions, but without the
central elevation, may be traced. The typical number of furrows, in the Ground
Beetles is nine, but in Omophron, Calosoma Sycophanta and some others there are
fifteen. NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
Family CICINDELID^E.   Cicindelidans.
I. Genus CICINDELA.   Linn.1
* Labrum unidentate.
1. Cicindela hirticollis.  (Say.)  Hairy-necked Cicindela.
Cicindela hirticollis.    Say. Amer. Trans. N. S. i, 411, 2, t. xiii,/ 2.
Length of the body 6| lines.
Locality not stated.
description.
This species not a little resembles C. hybrida, but the labrum is prominent in the middle, and
more conspicuously unidendate; the colour of its upper surface is browner with less of a purple tint;
the prothorax is rather more hairy; the lateral margin of the elytra is white, from which proceed
five white branches; the two first forming a humeral crescent with the lower limb bending
obliquely towards the base of the elytrum, the third becoming a broken or S-shaped band, the
extremity of which nearly reaches the suture; and the two last, forming a crescent at the apex of
the elytrum, to produce which the whiteness of the margin is subinterrupted: the suture terminates
in a minute point, and the apex of the elytra is serrulate. Underneath the body is green or golden-
green, with the sides rather more thickly covered with snowy hairs than in the other species of the
genus.
N. B. In the male the S-shaped band is interrupted.
1 The larva of this genus, as well as that of Aristus, lies in wait for its prey, suspended by its dorsal hooks, in a little
burrow it has formed. Its body is depressed. Its head corneous with eight eyes, the two external or lower ones being
very minute. The plates that cover the trunk are coriaceous. The abdomen is fleshy, armed on its back with a pair of
suspension-hooks. It has no anal processes. In many respects it exhibits an analogy both with spiders and the larva of
the ant-lion.
Our present acquaintance with the species of this splendid genus is not so intimate as might be expected, since we have
not yet attained to such a knowledge of them as will enable the Entomologist to distinguish with certainty the species from
the mere variety. Count De Jean (Species General des ColeopUres, i, and Supplement to ii) has described 144 species of the
genus as now restricted; but whoever looks at his specific characters will perceive that, in general, they are taken from the
white spots or bands of the elytra. These by no means, however, afford a certain and constant diagnostic. For instance
one individual confessedly of the same species, will have a white humeral crescent, an angular or broken discoidal band, with
a terminal crescent, all extremely well defined. Another will exhibit the same characters, but become less distinct, and
more faintly traced; in a third the humeral and terminal crescents of the elytra will have each become two distinct spots ;
which in a fourth will altogether disappear; lastly in a fifth, to name no more variations, the discoidal band will be almost
as it were, unbent. So that, in some species, without the aid of other characters, these markings of the elytra will often
be insufficient. CICINDELIDjE.
(2)
2. Cicindela repanda.    (De Jean.)    Wavy Cicindela.
Cicindela repanda. De J. Coleopt. i, 74?
Length of the body 5\—6 lines.
Locality not stated.
DESCRIPTION.
Very like the preceding species, but the labrum is shorter and less prominent in the middle; the
lateral margin of the elytra is not continuously white; the lower limb of the humeral crescent
slopes towards the apex of the elytrum; the broken or S-shaped band terminates in a streak at the
margin: all the markings also of the elytra are buff-coloured rather than white; and the minute
mucro or point that terminates the suture, and the serrulations of the apex of the elytra, are less
conspicuous.
De Jean regards this species as synonymous with C. hirticollis, but, if I am correct in my reference to him, of which I have little doubt, they are clearly distinct.
m
(3)
3. * Cicindela Proteus.   Proteus Cicindela.
C. (Proteus) labro unidentato medio subprominulo, supra fusco-cuprea, elytris punctis quatuor,fasciaque media fracta, albis,
Proteus Cicindela, with the labrum unidentate, rather prominent in the middle; above brown-copper, elytra with four white
dots and a mesal broken white band.
Length of the body 5| lines.
This species, of which several specimens were taken in the Expedition, appears
to abound in North America. Dr. Bigsby met with it in Canada, and there was
a specimen in the late Mr. Marsham's collection probably from the United States.
description.
Similar to C. repanda, but instead of the humeral and terminal crescents, in all the varieties, are
four white dots, two at the base and two at the apex of the elytra; the middle broken or tortuous
band resembles the figure 1 reversed, and does not terminate in a marginal streak. The body
underneath, as usual, is golden-green, or green with clouds of blue, above it is dark brown with a
tint of copper.
Variety. B. With the apical dots not larger than the humeral.
C. "With an interrupted crescent at the apex.
D. With three apical and two humeral dots; intermediate band internally abbreviated.
E. Like the last but with only one humeral dot. V
*m
10
NORTHERN ZOOLOGY.
!
** Labrum tridentate.
(4)
4. Cicindela obli&uata.    (De Jean.)    Oblique-marked Cicindela.
Cicindela obliquata.   De J. Coliopt. i, 72.
Length of the body 6^—7i lines.
Many taken in the Expedition, and apparently abundant in N. America. I
received it many years since, but without a name, from my lamented friend Professor Peck.
description.
Body above greenish-copper, underneath golden-green clouded with blue. Labrum white, tri-
dendate slightly prominent in the middle; mandibles white at the base, black at the tip; palpi
black; labial with the intermediate joint rufous, darker at the tip. Elytra with a large white
humeral crescent, extended at the lower end obliquely beyond their middle; mesal band bent downwards, recurved at the end, and connected by a marginal line with a crescent at the apex.
In the male the intermediate joint of the labial palpi is white, and the mesal band is not connected
with the terminal crescent.
(5)
5. Cicindela vulgaris.    (Say.)    Common Cicindela
Cicindela vulgaris.   Say. Amer. Trans. N. S. i, 409, 1, t. i, /. 1.
 obliquata.   De J. Coliopt. i, 72, 56; ii, Suppl. 414,56.
Length of the body 6J—7J lines.
A common species in all N. America.
description.
Very nearly related to C. obliquata and regarded by Count De Jean as synonymous with it.
They differ however in the following particulars. In C. vulgaris the upper surface of the body
is nearly black, without any tint of bronzed-green. The humeral crescent of the elytra is slenderer,
and its lower extremity does not approach so near the mesal band. In the females the intermediate
joint of the labial palpi is black. In the males the underside of the body, with the exception of
the anus, is of a fine blue instead of a eolden-crreen.
o o CICINDELIL\9E.
11
(6)
6. Cicindela purpurea.    (Olivier.)    Purple Cicindela.
Cicindela purpurea.    Oliv. Ent. ii, n. 33, 11; t. iii, /. 34.    Schbn. Syn. i, 240, 14.   De J. Cat. 1.    Say. Amer.  Trans.
N. S. i, 449, 8; *. xiii, /. 8.
Cicindela marginalis.    Fab. Syst. Ekuth. i, 240, 43.    De J. Coleopt. i, 55, 39.
Length of the body 7—7£ lines.
Several varieties of this beautiful species were collected in the Expedition, but
the finest specimen I have seen was taken in Canada by Capt. Sheppard, f.l.s. of
his Majesty's Royal Regiment of Artillery. I have also received it from various
other parts of North America. The green varieties of this species seem to be the
American representatives of C. campestris so common in England and all Europe.
As this species varies greatly, I shall take my description from Capt. Sheppard's
specimen, which may be regarded as the most perfect type of the species.
description.
?
Body underneath with the trunk resplendent with green, gold, and copper,—abdomen, with the
exception of the green anal segment, blue; above purple with the base and apex of the prothorax
green; the suture of the elytra is also green, and adjoining to the lateral margin is a blue and green
longitudinal stripe; at the base of the elytra is a humeral dot, a little before the middle near the
margin a round spot, in the middle a bent band, below this another round spot, and at the apex a
triangular one, all pale buff-coloured And distinctly marked.
Variety. B. c?. In this the spots and band of the elytra are the same in number and situation,
but not so broadly traced as in A. The humeral dot is also larger than
the marginal one between it and the band. Taken in Canada by Dr.
Bigshy.
C. ?.  Lateral stripe of the elytra all green; spotted as in B, but the humeral spot
is of the same size as the succeeding one.    In Mr. Marsham's collection.
D. $.  Elytra without the humeral and first marginal spots; the other spots as in
variety B, except that the band does not approach the lateral margin.
E. <?. ?.  Elytra with a discoidal oblique and apical transverse streak.    Taken in
the expedition, and in New England, by Professor Peck.
F. ?.  Elytra purple tinted with green, lateral stripe blue and green; discoidal band
sinuated; no humeral or marginal spots: apical as in the type.  •   Taken
in Canada by Dr. Bigsby.
G. ?. Elytra entirely green, spotted like variety D.
H. S. ?.  Elytra green with a blue marginal stripe^ spotted like variety E.    Taken
in the Expedition, and in New Jersey by Mr. Drake.
The transition from the fully characterized type of the present species to those varieties with only
two spots, and from them, by means of variety F, to those with green elytra, is so gradual as to
convince any careful inspector of them, that all belong to one species: yet a person who had never
examined the intermediate varieties would seemingly have good reason for considering them as
forming, at least, three distinct ones.
8 C 2 12
NORTHERN ZOOLOGY.
(7)
7. * Cicindela albilabris.    White-lipped Cicindela.
C. (albilabris) labro albo obsolete tridentato, medio prominulo; supra purpurascenti-nigra: elyiris excavato-punctatis: guttis
trihus marginalibus fasciague fracta discoidali, albis.
White-lipped Cicindela, with the labrum white, obsoletely tridendate, rather prominent in the middle; elytra broadly punctured with three marginal dots and a broken discoidal band, all white.
PLATE I. FIG. 1.
Length of the body 6—6J lines.
Taken in Lat. 64°, and also in Canada by Dr. Bigsby.
DESCRIPTION.
S
Body underneath green or golden-green clouded with blue; above black with a purplish tint:
labrum white, prominent, armed in the middle with three short teeth, the lateral ones obtuse; above
with an intermediate obtuse longitudinal ridge: elytra, under a powerful magnifier, covered with
innumerable minute granules, and also with numerous shallow impressions, a series of larger ones is
parallel with the suture; the angular white discoidal band reaches neither the suture nor the lateral
margin; there are also three marginal white dots, one humeral, another between it and the band, and
one between the latter and the apex.
Variety. B. S. Body underneath blue, anus green; above black with the spots of the elytra
buff-coloured.
C. <$. Body underneath as in B: elytra with only two marginal dots, the band and
apical dot almost obliterated, the humeral dot distinct.
D. ?. Body underneath blue with a black anus: elytra with no marginal white dots;
band replaced by a faint streak and dot. Plate I. Fig. 1. ?.
This species, though apparently common in Ndrth America, is not noticed by Say, who perhaps
mistook it for C. sylvatica Linn, of which it may be regarded as the American representative, and
with which it agrees in its prominent upper lip, and the shallow impressions and markings of its
elytra, as well as nearly in its general colour. But besides its smaller size, it differs from it materially in having a white instead of a black upper lip with an obtuse longitudinal ridge and not an
acute one, terminating in three almost obsolete short teeth instead of a single longer one; and
likewise by the want of the silky lustre produced by granulations much more visible, which distinguishes the elytra of C. sylvatica.
vim TUu^l.
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AGRIDiE LEBIADiE.
13
(b) Eutrecha.   Kirb.
(«) Truncipennia.   Kirb.
Family AGRIDJE.    Agridans.
II. Genus CASNONIA.   Lat.
(8) 1. Casnonia pennsylvanica.    (De Jean.)    Pennsylvania Casnonia.
Casnonia pennsylvanica.   De J. Coleopti, 171.
Attelabus pensylvanicus.    Linn. Syst. Nat. i, 620, 5.   Fab. Syst. Eleuth. ii, 418, 7.
Ophionea pensylvanica.    Klug. Ent. Bras. 24, 1.
Odacantha pensylvanica. Herbst. Ins. x, 221,2 t. clxxiii, /. 12.
Agra pensylvanica.    Lat. Gen. i, 196, 3, t. vii, /. 1.
Two specimens taken.
Length of the body 3 lines.
DESCRIPTION.
Body black. Head lozenge-shaped, elongated posteriorly, as in Raphidia, which gives the
animal somewhat of a serpentine aspect, and connected with the prothorax by a rather long neck ;
antennae rufous at the base: prothorax fusiform, widest posteriorly, having on each side an oblique
basilar furrow: elytra testaceous with two black bands, one in the middle and the other near the
apex, which unite at the lateral margin; their anterior half is striated with punctures: the legs are
testaceous, penultimate joint of the tarsi bipartite with very slender lobes.2
(9)
Family LEBIAD_^.   LeUadans.
Genus CYMINDIS. Lat.
1. * Cymindis marginatus.    Margined Cymindis.
C. (marginatum) piceus, punclatissimus; antennis, ore, prothoracis lateribus explanatis, elytrorum striatorum margine laterali
maculaque humerali, pedibusque, rufis.
Margined Cymindis, piceous, thickly punctured; antennae, mouth, dilated sides of the prothorax, lateral margin and shoulders of the striated elytra, and legs, rufous.
Length of the body 4£»lines.
One specimen of this insect was taken in the route from New York to Cumberland-house, and the other in Lat. 65°. It is nearly related to C. pubescens of De
Jean,3 but it appears distinct.
2 De Jean (Ubi. Supr. i, 170) says that the penultimate joints of the tarsus is filiform, but it is really bipartite, though
the lobes into which it is divided are very slender.
3 Spec. Gener. des CoUopt. i, 215,16. mtm
14
NORTHERN  ZOOLOGY.
DESCRIPTION.
Body depressed and flat, as in its congeners, piceous; above densely punctured: mouth rufous:
antenna? longer than the prothorax, piceo-rufous: front between the eyes transversely wrinkled:
prothorax convex, with a longitudinal channel; lateral margin dilated, reflexed, and rufous: elytra
striated or slightly furrowed, with the furrows and their interstices punctured; viewed on one side
they appear hairy with upright ferruginous hairs; their shoulders and lateral margin are obscurely
rufous; their apex obliquely truncated, and subemarginate :  the legs are rufous.
Variety.  B.  Piceo-rufous; elytra concolorate.
(10)
2. * Cymindis unicolor.    Unicolorate Cymindis.
C. (unicolor) punctatissimus ferrugineus: pedubus dilutioribus ■, prothoracis margine liaud explanato.
Unicolorate Cymindis, thickly punctured, ferruginous; legs paler; lateral margin of the thorax not dilated.
One specimen only taken.
Length of the body 3J lines.
DESCRIPTION.
This species greatly resembles variety B of the preceding.     It is however smaller and paler;
the prothorax has no longitudinal channel, and its lateral margin is not dilated.
Family SERICODIAD^.    Sericodiadans.
IV. * Genus SERICODA.    Kirb.
Labrum transverse, subquadrangular: with the anterior angles rounded.
Mandibles acute, incurved at the apex, not toothed ?
Labium4 emarginate with a minute tooth in the sinus.
Maxillae
Palpi
Maxillary five-jointed: first joint very minute, second longer than the rest, subcylmdrical,
attenuated at the base; third obconical; fourth as long as the third, fusiform, truncate; fifth
very minute, retractile within the fourth.5
Labial three-jointed: joints nearly equal in length; the two first conical; the last fusiform,
truncated.6
Antenna rather incrassated toward the apex; scape incrassated; second joint the shortest, and the
third rather longer than the others. \
! The labium here is synonymous with the mentum of most modern Entomologists for reasons assigned in the Introd'to
Ent. (iii, 420. 5th Ed.)
6 Plate I, Fig. 2 a. 6 piate I, Fig. 2 6. SERICODIADjE.
15
Body depressed, narrow. Head triangular. Eyes large and prominent. Neck very little
constricted. Prothorax short, channelled, widest anteriorly: with the angles rounded. Elytra
obliquely truncated at the apex, and emarginate, so that internally they terminate in an acumen.
Cubit emarginate.     Tarsi with the penultimate joint entire.     Claws single, not pectinated.
The maxillary palpi of the genus here defined present an anomaly observed in no other known
coleopterous genus, they appear to be furnished with a minute fifth joint retractile within the fourth.
In one of these palpi, in the only specimen taken, this little accessory joint is not apparent, but in the
other it is distinctly seen emerging from the fourth joint, or rather, as this last appears broken at the
apex, it is uncovered. There is only one supposition that can reconcile this case to the general
rule, that no coleopterous maxillary palpus shall exceed four joints, namely—that this is an effort of
nature, by a reproduction, to restore the mutilated organ so as to fulfil its functions. Did the insect
belong to the Crustacea or Arachnida this would be a satisfactory explanation of the anomaly, but
I do not recollect any instance upon record of a genuine insect having reproduced a lost organ.
I thought it possible that the palpi of other Predaceous beetles might contain a retractile joint, and
this truncated apex seemed in some degree to favour the idea,, but I did not succeed in my endeavours to discover one.
The above structure of the palpi, if not accidental, seems to give our little insect some affinity
with the Subulipalpi of Latreille, but its general characters and aspect appear to demand a place for
it somewhere between those Truncipennia whose claws are not pectinated, and those who have those
organs so armed.
(11)
I. * Sericoda bembidioides.    Bembidian Sericoda.
S. (bembidioides) subtus nigra, supra nigro-anea, subsericea; prothorace subtrapezoideo, posterius bifoveato: elytris substriatis
brevibus subnebulosis, apud suturam fovearum serie.
Bembidian Sericoda, black underneath, above black-bronzed rather silky; prothorax subtrapezoideal, with a pair of impressions behind; elytra substriated, impunctured, somewhat clouded, with a series of impressions adjoining the
suture.
PLATE I, FIG. 2.
Length of the body 3£ lines.
Only a single specimen taken.
Mr. Drummond, in answer to my queries with respect to this, and some others
of the more remarkable insects taken in the Expedition, observes, upon reading
my description of this insect, that it agrees with one taken on the sandy shores of
Lake Winnipeg in the spring of 1825, that it runs on the sands with great agility,
and frequently flies when attempted to be taken. But this statement agrees so
precisely with the motions of Bembidium impressum as described by Linn£ and
Gyllenhal (see under that insect) that I suspect Mr. Drummond had his eye to it,
rather than Sericoda. 16
NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
DESCRIPTION.
Body underneath black, glossy; above the black has a brassy tint, with somewhat of the lustre
of silk: head, between the eyes, marked with a short, anteriorly forked furrow ( prothorax sub-
trapezoidal, anteriorly subemarginate, sides oblique with the margin reflexed, transversely very
minutely wrinkled, with a pair of anterior excavations in the disk, posteriorly also somewhat impressed
on each side: elytra longer than the head and prothorax together, slightly furrowed with impunc-
tured furrows, obsoletely clouded; there is a series of about five shallow impressions near the
suture.
I
Family BRACHINID^E.    Brachinidans.
V. Genus BRACHINUS.    Web.
(12)
1. Brachinus cyanipennis.7    (Say.)
Blue-winged Bombardies.
Brachinus cyanipennis.    Say. Journ. Ill, i, 443.
Length of the body 5 lines.
Several specimens of this insect were taken in the Journey from New York to
Cumberland-house, and in Lat. 54°; Mr. Nuttall took it near the Missouri; and
Mr. Say in great numbers near Engineer Cantonment, where they were found
hybernating in the fissures of a stone-quarry; it was taken also in Canada by Dr.
Bigsby.
description.
This species is very closely allied to B. crepitans, common in England and all Europe, but the
second and third, as well as the other joints of the antennas are red: the principal distinction, however, is in the shape of the prothorax, which is shorter, anteriorly more dilated, and the posterior
angles are more prominent: it is scarcely half the size of its compatriot B. fumans, and differs from
that, and all other Brachini that I have examined, in having the thin white membrane that terminates the elytra, especially at their internal angle, much longer and more conspicuous; this membrane, which is a continuation of the hypoderma or lining of the elytra, is but just discoverable in
B. crepitans; the extreme base of these organs is testaceous: the underside of the abdomen is
rufo-piceous.    In other characters this insect agrees with the species last nafoed.
I As many species have blue elytra this name is not sufficiently distinctive.
,#' CARABIDJE.
Having arrived at this point, I must now retrace my steps, and starting again
from another branch of the Cicindelidans (Cicindela) proceed by the Carabidce.
(b.)   Obtusifennia.   Kirb.
(a)   Nobilia.    Kirb.     '^gp>'
Family CAKABIDiE.
Genus CARABUS.    Linn.
(13) 1. Carabus vietinghovii.    (Adams.)    Vietinghoff's Carabus.
Carabus Vietinghovii Ad. Mem. iii, 170, t. xii, / 3.    Fisch. Ent. Russ. i, 98, t. ix, /. 19.    De J. Coleopt. ii, 61,21.
PLATE I, FIG. 3.
Length of the body 10 lines.
DESCRIPTION.
?
Body very black and glossy. Head punctured between the eyes with confluent but not minute
punctures; anterior part of the front wrinkled on each side, but the nose and upper-lip are quite
smooth; the seven terminal joints of the antenna are brown: the prothorax is nearly square with
the sides rounded anteriorly and the posterior angles a little prominent; it is deeply channelled,
transversely wrinkled in the disk, confluently but not minutely punctured on the sides; the disk
also is black, but the sides exhibit shades of dark blue and green, at the margin they are of a most
brilliant ruddy copper, some of the anterior punctures also appear as if gilded: the elytra are rough
and as it were reticulated with longitudinal and transverse elevations, the former nearly arranged in
lines which produce deep cavities; the disk is of a fine deep blue, the sides green and the lateral
margin of the same ruddy copper as that of the prothorax. The body underneath is quite smooth
in the disk, with some irregular elevations and depressions on the sides: the sides of the antepectus,
or forebreast, are of a fine green; the intermediate segments have each a pair of impressions from
which a hair emerges.   This is most visible in the male.
I at first regarded this splendid insect as a new species. I thought it, indeed, very near Carabus
Vietinghovii, hut as it did not altogether agree either with Dr. Fischer's figure or description, and
was found in another quarter of the globe, I regarded it as distinct; but having received from my
friend Mr. Hope, a Russian specimen of that insect, I find no difference sufficient to constitute a
species. In that specimen the marginal gilding of the prothorax and elytas^sS^reener with scarcely
any of the ruddy hue of copper which gives such brilliance to the American specimen. It has been
observed that the plants on the other side of the. rocky mountains are of an Asiatic type, and the
present animal, and some others I shall hereafter notice, furnish a proof that several of the insects
are similarly circumstanced. The sculpture of the elytra of this species is precisely that of a Procerus,
to which genus I at first referred it, but the tarsi of the male are dilated which is the character
assigned to Carabus. The only specimen taken was brought over in spirits, and affords a striking
proof of the excellence as well as convenience of that mode of destroying and preserving beetles for
D 18
northern zoology.
transportation.8 It has been in my custody more than twelve months since it was taken out of the
spirits, and it has never been at all mouldy, nor has it ever suffered from the attack of Acari, &c.
from which other insects preserved with it have not escaped, which leads me to conjecture that
immersion in spirits, if for a sufficiently long period, renders an insect distasteful to the little
devastators of our cabinets.
(14)
2. Carabus ligatus.   (Knoch.)    Ligatured Carabus
Carabus ligatus.    Germ. 7ns. i, 6, 10.
  carinatus.    De J. Coleopt. ii, 80, 35 ?
Length of the body 7\ lines.
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby.
description.
Body black and glossy. Head oblong, impunctured, separated from the neck by a transverse
slender curvino- ridge forming anteriorly a deep sinus; ridge, defending the base of the antennae,
conspicuous; frontal impressions long, not deep; antennas not much longer than the prothorax:
prothorax nearly square, black slightly bronzed; sides lightly punctured, lateral margin reflexed; it
is faintly channelled, depressed transversely at the base, with a punctured impression on each side:
elytra bronzed, subdepressed with scarcely any sinus at the apex, lateral margin reflexed and cari-
nated : each elytrum with thirteen or fourteen rows of impressed punctures; a triple series of oblong
discoidal elevations; interstices with numerous transverse linear impressions: abdomen underneath
smooth with a few minute punctures on the sides.
The insect here described agrees with Germar's description of Enoch's C. ligatus, but it is doubtful whether it be synonymous with C. carinatus of De Jean. In most respects, indeed, it accords
precisely with his description, but the head is not slightly punctured, as he states his specimens to be.
VII.    Genus CALOSOMA.    Fab.
i. * Subgenus. Chrysostigma.
Calosoma.    Maxillary Palpi with the last joint of the length of the last but one.
Elytra gilded.
Chrysostigma.    Maxillary Palpi with the last joint shorter than the last but one.
Elytra obscure with gilded punctiform impressions.
The Genus Calosoma clearly admits of being divided into two families. The first, which I regard as the typical family, including C. Sycophanta and C. Scrutator, distinguished by the golden
splendor of its whole upper surface, and by having the last joint of the maxillary palpi of the same
length with the preceding one; and the other, including the rest of the known species, not remarkable for the lustre of their upper surface, but for several rows of gilded punctiform impressions or
stigmata upon their elytra, and distinguished by having the last joint of the above palpi shorter than
the last but one.
s Introd. to Ent. 5th Ed. iv, 541. CARABIDiE.
19
(15)   1. Calosoma (Chrysostigma) calidum.   (Fabicius.)   Calid C. Chrysostigma.
Calosoma calidum.   Fab. Syst. Eleuth. i, 211, I.    De J. Coleopt. ii, 197, 5.
Carabus calidus.    Fab. Syst. Ent. i, 37, 8.    Oliv. Ins. iii, 35, 30, 26, t. iy, /. 45.
Length of the body 9 lines.
This species is very common in all parts of North America; several specimens
were taken in the Expedition.
description.
Body short, underneath very black, glossy. Head thickly and confluently punctured and wrinkled ; frontal impressions short and large; mandibles obliquely wrinkled : prothorax transverse, very
short, thickly and confluently punctured; dorsal channel slight and abbreviated; lateral margin
reflexed particularly at the posterior angles: elytra with fifteen elevated obtuse ridges intersected by
innumerable transverse impressed lines; on the fourth, eighth, and twelfth ridges, which are wider
than the others, are from nine to eleven punctiform impressions coated, as it were, with brilliant gold
leaf, often of the ruddy hue of copper; one or two also are usually to be seen at the base of the
sutural ridge; in some specimens one on one side, and two on the other, in others two and three :
the body underneath is thickly and confluently punctured on each side.
(16)        2. * Calosoma (Chrysostigma) frigidum.    Frigid C. Chrysostigma.
C. (frigidum) nigrum, subtus lateribus obscure virescentibus ,• etytris striatis: striis punctatis, interstitiis elevatis transverse
lineatis,foveolisque bilobis triplici serie; margine virescenti; prothoracis angulis posticis deflexis.
Frigid Calosoma, black underneath-with greenish sides; elytra furrowed with the furrows punctured; interstices of the
furrows elevated with transverse lines impressed, and a triple series of bilobed obscurely gilded punctiform
impressions; margin greenish; posterior angles of the prothorax depressed.
Length of the body 9£ lines.
Taken in Drummond's Island, Canada, by Dr. Bigsby.
DESCRIPTION.
Not unlike C. calidum, but longer in proportion and more depressed. Body black, not glossy
above. Head confluently punctured and wrinkled: mandibles obliquely but less densely wrinkled,
and frontal impressions longer than in C. calidum : prothorax scarcely wider than the head, posterior angles bent downwards: elytra scarcely at all bronzed, lateral margin, obscurely green, with
the same number of elevated lines as in C. calidum, but in the furrows formed by them is a series
of punctures, and the transverse lines are less conspicuous; there is a triple series of punctiform
impressions, but they are bilobed, smaller, and the gilding is greenish and less conspicuous; they
are also less numerous, there being only seven or eight in the series next the suture, eight or nine
in the intermediate one, and three only towards the apex in the external one: at the base there is
also a pair on each side: the sides of the body underneath are greenish, punctured and wrinkled.
D 2 20
NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
ill
■i: .:    • "I
(17)
(/3) Plebeia.   Kirb.
Family NEBRIAD^E.   Nebriadans.
VIII.   Genus HELOBIA.   Leach.
1. * Helobia castanipes.    Chestnut-foot Helobia.
H. (castanipes) atra, nitida; elytrispiceis, striatis.- striis subpunclatis,foveolis quibusdam impressis; antemispedibusque, cas-
taneis.
Chestnut-foot Helobia, black, glossy; elytra piceous, furrowed: furrows indistinctly punctured with some punctiform
impressions; antennae and legs pale chestnut.
Length of the body 5 lines.
Two specimens were taken in Lat. 65°.
DESCRIPTION.
Body black, glossy. Antenna?, mouth, mandibles, and palpi pale chestnut or mahogany colour;
the former more dilute at the apex; front with three or four slight furrows between the eyes; upper-
lip very short: prothorax heart-shaped, constricted posteriorly, convex in the disk; sides and base
depressed and lightly punctured: elytra dark piceous, striated or slightly furrowed: furrows very
obsoletely punctured; interstices very flat; between the second and third furrows, adjoining the
latter, are from three to five shallow but rather large impressions: the legs are slender, of a pale
chestnut or mahogany colour, in one of the specimens the thighs are darker than the rest of the leg.
N. B. In one specimen there are three and in the other five impressions.
(c.) Sarrothropoda.    Kirb.
Family CHL^ENIADiE.
IX. Genus CHL.ENIUS.   Bonell.
(IS) 1. ChljEnius sericeus.   (Say.)    Silky Chlcenius.
Chtenius sericeus.    Say. Amer. Trans. N.S.61,\.    De J. Coleopt. ii, 347, 47.
  laticollis.    De J. Cat. 8.
Carabus sericeus.    Forst. Cent. 58.    Oliv. Encycl. v, 341, 89.
Length of the body 6—7 lines.
Several taken in the Journey from New York to Cumberland-house.  In Canada,
by Dr. Bigsby. CHL.3ENIADiE.
21
DESCRIPTION.
Body black underneath, above of a rich silky green, bronzed on the head and prothorax. Head
punctured with scattered punctures; the middle space between the eyes has a central punctiform impression ; upper-lip and mandibles ferruginous; palpi and antennas paler; the latter, half the length
of the body, the third joint being twice the length of the following one: prothorax subquadrangular
with curving sides, channelled with the channel abbreviated at both extremities; basilar impressions
oblong: scutellum acuminate, black: elytra not shining, very slightly furrowed with punctures in the
furrows; the interstices also being most numerously and minutely punctured; thickly set with yellowish hairs: legs deep yellow with black coxa?.
(19)
2. * Chljenius impunctifrons.    Impunctifront Chlcenius.
C. (impunctifrons) niger; capite Levi prothoraceque viridibus;  elytris obscuris virescente-nigris;  epipleura apice, antennis
basi, pedUmsque testaceis.
Impunctifront Chlaenius, black with its smooth head and prothorax green;   elytra not shining, greenish-black ; apex of the
side-covers and legs testaceous.
Length of the body 5—5| lines.
DESCRIPTION.
Smaller than C. sericeus, though like it. Head without punctures; antenna? black with the
three first joints testaceous: scutellum not acuminate: elytra black with a shade of green; apex
of the epipleura? or side-covers and legs testaceous; coxa? chestnut. In other respects this agrees
with the preceding species.
(20) 3. CHLiENius nemoralis.    (Say.)    Nemoral Chlcenius.
ChlEenius nemoralis.    Say. Amer. Trans. N. S. 65, 8.    De J. Coleopt. ii, 332, 34.
  arnethystinus.    De J. Cat. 8.
Carabus arnethystinus.    Melsh. Cat.
Length of the body 6 lines.
A pair taken in the Journey from New York to Cumberland-house. I have
excluded the synonyms of Fabricius and Olivier, to which De Jean has added a
mark of interrogation, because they both describe the species they call C. arnethystinus, as blue underneath, of which colour our insect has not the slightest shade,
and Olivier's figure9 evidently belongs to a much smaller insect.
» Ins. t. xi, /. 126. 22
northern zoology.
DESCRIPTION.
Body black underneath. Head and prothorax bronzed-copper; front wrinkled; mouth and
oral organs ferruginous; antenna; rufous, the three first joints clearer than the rest: prothorax rather
narrow anteriorly, densely punctured, somewhat hairy; channelled, with a posterior linear impression
on each side: scutellum black, triangular: elytra deep blue, with a shade of violet, furrowed like
the other species, with the interstices of the furrows indistinctly and most minutely granulated : legs
rufous.
(21)
4. * Chlcenius quadricollis.    Square-necked Chlcenius.
C. (quadricollis) niger, capite thoraceque subquadrato teneo-viridibus; palpis, antennisbasi, pedibusquetestaceis; elytriscaruleo-
nigris.
Square-necked Chlsenius, black; head and subquadrate thorax bronzed-green; palpi, legs, and base of the antenna? testaceous ; elytra blue-black.
Length of the body 6 lines.
Taken by Dr. Bigsby in Canada.
description.
Body hairy like the others, black underneath. Head and prothorax bronzed-green; mandibles
piceous; palpi and three first joints of the antenna? testaceous; the latter are longer than the thorax,
with the fourth joint as long as the third: prothorax rather square, a little narrower before, with the
sides curving, sculptured like the preceding species: scutellum subacuminate: elytra blue-black,
furrowed with deeper furrows very visibly punctured, interstices minutely punctured.
(22)
5. * Chl^nius cordicollis.    Heart-necked Chlcenius.
C. (cordicollis) niger; prothorace obcordalo: palpis, pedibus, antennisquebasi, rufis; elytris nigro-virescentibus.
Heart-necked Chlsenius, black; prothorax obcordate; palpi, legs, and antenna? at the base rufous; elytra black with a shade
of green.
Length of the body 8 lines.
Taken in Canada by Dr. Bigsby.
description.
Body black. Head impunctured; palpi rufous; antenna? dusky, with the three first jobts rufous,
the third much longer than the fourth : prothorax obcordate, constricted behind, deeply channelled,
disk gibbous on each side of the channel, centre of each gibbosity smooth, remainder of the prothorax
punctured; posterior lateral impression longitudinal: elytra black with a shade of green, sculptured
as in the preceding species, but the interstices of the furrows are more visibly punctured: legs
testaceous, thighs darker. AGONID^.
23
(23)
6. Chl^nius emarginatus.    Emarginate Chlcenius.
Chlsnius emarginatus.    Say. Amer. Trans. N. S. 64, 7.    De J. Coleopt. ii, 366, 65 ?
Length of the body 6| lines.
Taken in the Journey from New York to Cumberland-house.
description.
Body hairy, punctured; black underneath. Head glossy green, with a tint of copper between
the eyes, and a network of very minute, confluent, transverse wrinkles; maxillae and palpi rufous,
maxillary palpi very long; upper-lip transverse, rufo-piceous, anteriorly subemarginate; mandibles
piceous; antenna? rufous, longer than the prothorax with the third joint rather longer than the
fourth: prothorax dusky-green, transverse, rather narrowest at the apex, very thick and minutely
punctured; basilar impressions double, the inner one the longest: elytra black with a very faint
tint of blue: legs rufous.
This is most probably the Chlcenius emarginatus of Say, but it does not exactly accord with
De Jean's description.
(d.) Cystopoda.    Kirb.
(y) DrMANA.   Kirb.
Family AGONIDjE.    Agonidans.
X. Genus PLATYNUS.1   Bonell.
(24)      1. Platynus angusticollis.    (De Jean.)    Narrow-necked Platynus.
Platynus angusticollis.   De J. Cat. 10.    Steph. IUustr. Mandib. i, 83, 1.
Carabus angusticollis.    Fab. Syst. Eleuth. i, 182, 64.
  Duft.   Fn. Austr. ii, 173, 231.
 assimilis.    Payk. Fn. Suec. i, 119, 30.
 collaris.    Marsh. Ent. Brit, i, 443, 39.
Harpalus angusticollis.    Gyll. Ins. Suec. ii, 81, 2.
Anchomenus angusticollis.   Sturm. Deutsch. Fn. v, 168, 2, t. xxx ?   De J. Coleopt. iii, 104, 3.
Length of the body 5 lines.
Taken in Lat. 54°. and 65°.    Not uncommon in Britain.
1 Latreille places this genus, Anchomenus, and Agonum, in the same tribe with Chlcenius, Licinus, Panagaus, &c. which
he distinguishes by the appellation of Patellimani, (Crust. Archn. et Ins. i, 401,*) but it seems to have escaped this learned
and acute Entomologist, that in these genera, though the form of the dilated joints of the hand of the males differs from
that of his Simplicimani, yet that underneath, like them they are furnished, not with a brush like the last named genera,
but with little membranous bags or cysts.
* I have quoted this work under the title which M. Latreille himself affixed to those copies that were presented to his friends
or sold separately—viz. Les Crustacis, Les Arachnides el Les Insectes, forming two volumes per se, and the 4th and 5th of Baron
Cuvier's 2nd edition of the Eigne Animal. 24
NORTHERN ZOOLOGY.
DESCRIPTION.
Body very black, glossy, somewhat narrowed. Head smooth, narrower than the prothorax,
including the neck subrhomboidal, without it triangular; palpi and antenna? piceous; frontal impressions large: prothorax narrower than the elytra, obcordate, longer than wide; dorsal channel deep
terminating anteriorly in a transverse obtuse angular impression; lateral margin dilated, especially at
the base, reflexed, somewhat piceous in a strong light, basilar impressions single, large, round, with
a few scattered indistinct punctures: elytra rather deeply furrowed; furrows very slightly punctured,
between the second and third are two punctiform impressions, the anterior one being adjacent to the
former furrow, and the posterior to the latter.
XL Genus AGONUM.   Bonell.   .
ii. Subgenus Anchomenus.2
(25) 1. Agonum (Anchomenus^ extensicolle. Extended-necked A. Anchomenus.
,l;
Anchomenus extensicollis.    De J. Coleopt. iii, 113,11.
 •  viridanus.   De J. Cat. 10.
Carabus extensicollis.    Melsh. Cat.
Feronia extensicollis.    Say. Amer. Trans. N. S. ii, 54, 34.
A pair taken in Lat. 54°.
Length of the body 4£ lines.
DESCRIPTION.
Body black underneath, above, dark green sometimes bronzed; palpi, legs, and three first joints
of the antenna? reddish-yellow: prothorax quadrangular, elongate, somewhat constricted posteriorly,
lateral margin very slender; basilar impressions oblong: elytra furrowed, furrows obsoletely punctured ; five punctiform impressions in the third furrow from the suture.
I
(26)
2. * Agonum picipenne.    Pitch-winged Agonum.
A. (picipenne) nigrum, nitidum; ore pedibusque rufis,- prothorace obkngo-ovato; elytris piceis, foveolis quatuor vel quinque
impressis.
Pitch-winged Agonum, black, glossy; mouth and legs rufous; prothorax oblong-ovate; elytra piceous with four or five
punctiform impressions.
Length of the body 3|—4 lines.
Several specimens taken in Lat. 54°.
2 Anchomenus differs from Agonum in scarcely any respect, except in having the posterior angles of the prothorax less
rounded, and as it is closely connected with it by those species, which like Agonum picipes have a longer prothorax, I consider it merely as a subgenus. AGONID/E.
25
DESCRIPTION.
Body black, glossy. Mouth and its organs rufous, except the upper-lip which is edged with
that colour; antenna? longer than the prothorax, piceous with the scape paler than the other joints :
prothorax longer than in the following species, oblong-ovate, with the lateral margin piceous, and
not dilated posteriorly as in the majority; basilar impressions rather shallow, oblong: elytra oblong,
rufo-piceous, slightly furrowed, furrows impunctured; five punctiform impressions between the
second and third; the three anterior ones adjacent to the latter, and the two posterior to the former:
legs dusky rufous.
Variety B.   With only four punctiform impressions, legs paler.
C. With the second, third, and fourth joints of the antenna? piceous, the rest ferrugi
nous r impressions of the elytra as in B.
D. Larger, elytra with five impressions, in other respects like C.
This species appears very like A. lenum De Jean,3 which is also North American, but the colour
of the underside of the body and of the head and prothorax is different.
3. * Agonum sordens.    Dingy Agonum.
A. (sordens) nigrum nitidum'; proihorace postice angustiori, antennis basi, pedibusque testaceis; elytris sordide testaceisfoveolis
quinque impressis.
Dingy Agonum, black, glossy; prothorax narrower behind; base of the antenna?, and legs testaceous; elytra dingy-testaceous, with five punctiform impressions.
Length of the body 3 lines.
Two specimens taken in Lat. 54°.
DESCRIPTION.
Body black, glossy. Head rhomboidal; mouth, mandibles at the tip, palpi at the base, and scape
of the antenna?, rufous; frontal impressions very slight: prothorax scarcely longer than wide, narrowest behind; dorsal channel rather deep; lateral margin underneath testaceous; basilar impressions
oblong, deepish: elytra dusky-testaceous, in one specimen a little bronzed, slightly furrowed, furrows
impunctured; between the second and third are five punctiform impressions placed as in the last
species: epipleura and legs testaceous.
3 Coleopt. iii, 166, 39. 2&
northern zoology.
(28) 4. Agonum melanarium.   (De Jean.)    Black Agonum.
Agonum melanarium.    De J. Coleopt. iii, 152, 19.
Carabus pullatus.    Melsh. Cat. 89.
Length of the body 4f lines.
Taken in Lat. 54°.
DESCRIPTION.
Body black, glossy. Mandibles at the tip, mouth and scape of the antennae, piceous: prothorax
nearly as long as wide ; disk transversely wrinkled; lateral margin at the base much dilated, rather
incrassated, and subangular; posterior impressions large and distinctly punctured : elytra wider than
the prothorax, subemarginate at the base; distinctly furrowed with very minute and inconspicuous
punctures in the furrows; three punctiform impressions in the third furrow from the suture : legs
piceous.
This species is the American representative of A. versutum, which it much resembles. It is
however larger, the transverse wrinkles of the disk of the prothorax, and the punctures in its posterior
impressions, are more distinct; the furrows of the elytra are rather deeper with more convex interstices, and the three punctiform impressions are all adjacent to the third furrow, whereas in A. versutum the anterior one alone is adjacent to that furrow, the two other adjoining the second.
(29)
5. * Agonum seminitidum.    Half-glossy Agonum.
A. (seminitidum) nitidum, subtus nigrum, capiteprothoraceque viridi-eeneis; elytris obscurioribus, nigro-aneis, quinque-foveolatis.
Half-glossy Agonum, glossy, black underneath, head and prothorax greenish-bronzed; elytra more obscure, black-bronzed,
with five punctiform impressions.
Taken in Lat. 54°.
Length of the body 4J lines.
DESCRIPTION.
Body smooth, glossy, black underneath. Head greenish-bronzed, very glossy, with frontal impressions lunular; antenna? longer than the prothorax: prothorax greenish-bronzed with a copper
tint, very glossy, channelled, disk transversely and minutely wrinkled; basilar impressions longitudinal, lateral margin, particularly at the base, reflexed : elytra black-bronzed, less glossy than the
head and prothorax, lightly furrowed; furrows punctured; in the insterstice between the second
and third furrows are five punctiform impressions, two nearer the base and three nearer the apex of
the elytrum, so that the interval between the second and third is greater than that between the
others.
Variety B. Second and third punctiform impressions not more distant than the others. In
this specimen, on the left hand elytrum, there are only four impressions, and on
the other five, but in neither are the second and third situated as in A. It may
be a distinct species, but I can discover no other difference.
II 1 AGONIDjE.
27
(30)
6. * Agonum simile.    Similar Agonum.
A- (simile) nilidum, sublus aterrimum, supra aneo-nvgrum; elytris striasuturali reliquisprofundiori, quinque-foveolatis.
Similar Agonum, glossy, underneath very black, above a little bronzed; elytra with the sutural furrow deeper than the rest,
marked with five punctiform impressions.
Length of the body 3^ lines.
Locality not stated.
DESCRIPTION.
Body glossy, underneath very black, above black slightly bronzed. Antenna? scarcely longer
than the prothorax: prothorax rather longer than broad; basilar impressions roundish, impunctured:
elytra more bronzed than the head and prothorax, lightly furrowed; furrow adjoining the suture
more depressed and deeper than the rest; in the space between the second and third furrows are.
five equidistant punctiform impressions, the two anterior adjoining the latter furrow," and the three
posterior the former.
This little species greatly resembles A. seminitidum. It is however much smaller, less bronzed,
the prothorax is longer in proportion, the sutural furrow is deeper, and the impressions are differently
arranged.
(31
7. * Agonum affine.   Kindred Agonum.
A. (affine) atrum, nuHdum; prothorace subquadrato, margine laterali posticc vix reflexo; elytris ceneo-nigris, trifoveolatis;
trochanteribus quatuor anterioribus rvbris.
Kindred Agonum, black, glossy; prothorax rather square, with the lateral margin scarcely reflexed at the base; elytra
slightly bronzed with three punctiform impressions; four anterior trochanters red.
Length of the body 4 lines.
Locality not stated.    A single specimen taken.
description.
Body very black, glossy. Antenna? longer than the prothorax: prothorax of the same width
before and behind so as to appear more square than in the preceding species; its lateral margin at
the base is likewise not reflexed, the dorsal channel is slight, and the disk is minutely and transversely wrinkled; the basilar impressions are deep, large, and circular: elytra very slightly bronzed;
three punctiform impressions, the anterior one adjoining the third furrow, and the two posterior the
second, are visible in the usual situation: the four anterior trochanters are of a deep red.
E2 ill
28
(32)
NORTHERN   ZOOLOGY.
8.* Agonum erythropum.   Red-legged Agonum.
A. (erythropum) nigrum, nitidum, supra nigro-ceneum; prothorace postice angustiori; elytris trifoveolatis, pedibus rvfescenhbvs.
Red-legged Agonum, black, glossy, above bronze