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The quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society. Volume XI. Oregon Historical Society 1910

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Array       THE QUARTERLY
of the
Oregon Historical Society
Volume XI
MARCH, 1910
NUMBER 1
CONTENTS
FREDERICK*. V. HOLM AN—Oregon Counties, Etc. -   "^§C  -       1-81
WM. D.'  FENTON—Fenton's Opinions, Etc -        -;fc^^R- 82-118
NOTES—Report of Sixth Annual Meeting of Pacific Coast Branch of
American Historical Association ^^^^fef^^^^^fe^^^^^-119-120
PRICE: FIFTY CENTS PER NUMBER, TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR
Entered at the post office at Portland, Oregon, as second-class matter  THE
QUARTERLY
VOLUME XI
MARCH, 1911—DECEMBER, 1911
Edited by
FREDERIC GEORGE YOUNG
Portland, Oregon
The Ivy Press
1911 /So 46o
r
WK
Fsnt
(1io TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECTS
PAGES
Counties of Oregon, Their Creations and the Origins of their Names.    By
Frederick V Holman P^ffl        x
Counties, Oregon, Note Supplemental to Paper On. By Frederick V. Holman       227
Financial History of Oregon—The Sale of Oregon Lands, III; Public Expenditures, IV; The Use of Public Credit by the State of Oregon, V.
By F. G.  Young 121-161;  286-306; 401-418
McLoughlin, Dr., What I Know of, and How I Know It    By John Minto. .177-200
Odgen, Peter Skene, Journal of Snake Expedition, 1826-1827, with Editorial
Notes by T. C Elliott 201-233
Ogden,  Peter Skene, Journals of Snake Expeditions,  1827-1828;  1828-1829,
with Editorial Notes by T. C. Elliott 355*397
Ogden, Peter Skene, Fur Trader.    By T. C Elliott 229-378
Political Parties in Oregon, Rise and Early History of.    W. C. Woodward. .3*7=354
Stockman, Lawson, Pioneer of 1859, Recollections of, Narrated.    By B. F.
Manring 162-176
Supreme Court of Oregon, On Power of Legislature to Increase Number of
Justices Constituting.    By W. D. Fenton 82-118
Williams, Judge George H., An Estimate of the Character and Services of.
By H. W. Scott 333-336
Williams, George H., The Late.    By T. W. Davenport 379-385
NOTES
Report of  Sixth Annual  Meeting of  Pacific   Coast  Branch  of  American
Historical Association    119-130
Appointment of Dr. Marcus Whitman as Guardian of the Sager Children..        313
DOCUMENTS
Letter and Circular of Information for Prospective Emigrants to Oregon.. .307-312
Probate  Record of Appointment of Dr.  Marcus Whitman  Guardian of the
Sager  Children    313-313
Peter Skene Ogden, Letter to Reverend Elkanah Walker.         399
General           314
REVIEWS
T. C. Elliott, British Columbia Coast Names, 1592-1906; Their Origin and
History.    By Captain John T. Walbrah         41$
AUTHORS
/Davenport, T. W., The Late George H.  Williams 379-385
Elliott, T._ C., Editorial Notes on Peter Skene Ogden Journal of Snake Expedition, 1826-7   • 201-223
    Peter Skene Ogden, Fur Trader 229-278
    Peter Skene Ogden Journals of Snake Expedition, 1827-1828;  1828-
1829, with Editorial Notes. 355*397
     Review of Captain John T. Walbrah's British Columbia Coast Names       419
Fenton, W. D., On the Power of the Legislature to Increase the Number of
Justices of the Supreme Court of Oregon   82-118
Himes, George H., Report of Sixth Annual Meeting of Pacific Coast Branch
of the American Historical  Association 119-120
     On the Appointment of Dr. Marcus Whitman as Guardian of the
Sager Children         3I2
Hillman, Frederick V., Oregon Counties, Their Creations and the Origins of
Their Names        j-gi
— —    Note Supplemental to the Paper on Oregon Counties         227
Manring, B. F., Recollections of a Pioneer of 1859—Lawson Stockman 162-176
Minto, John, What I Know of Dr. McLoughlin and How I Know It 177-200
Scott, H. W., An Estimate of the Character and Services of Judge George
H. Williams   223-236
Woodward, W. C, Rise and Early History of Political Parties ini Oregon'.'.317-354
Young, F. G., Financial History of Oregon—The Sale of Oregon Lands, III.121-X66
    Public Expenditures, IV 286-306
     The Use of Public Credit by the State of Oregon '...'. .401-418  THE QUARTERLY
OF THE
Oregon Historical Society.
Volume XI
MARCH, 1910
Number 1
[Copyright, 1910, by Oregon Historical Society]
[The Quarterly disavows responsibility (or the positions taken by contributor* to its pages.]
OREGON COUNTIES
Their Creations and the Origins of Their Names.
Address  by   Frederick   V.   Holman,   President   of  the
Oregon Historical Society, at Its Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon,  December  18,  1909.
When I agreed to write an address on Oregon Counties—
their creations and the origins of their names—I was not
aware of the time and trouble it involved. Few of the early
books on Oregon have indices. And this is true of the
"Oregon Archives," which contain the Journals of the Provisional Legislature, and of several of the compilations of early
laws. In consequence I was compelled to go over several
thousand pages of books, page by page, and, in some cases, to
do this several times. Some of the early laws of Oregon have
not been printed, one on the creation of Clatsop County cannot be found. Excepting some of the compilations of early
laws and the manuscripts expressly noted herein, I have
in my library all the books, pamphlets, and reports cited in
this address. I have endeavored to go to original sources, as
far as possible, and not to rely on statements or impressions
at second hand.
In an appendix to this address I set forth the descriptions
of the boundaries  of the respective counties  as originally Frederick V. Holman
created. There have been numerous Acts passed changing,
mostly in small ways, the boundary lines of counties. To set
forth all these changes would make this address too long. I
must leave these matters to the future historians of the several
counties.
To a better understanding of these counties, and, for the
reason that most of the earlier counties were large and later
counties were created out of pre-existing counties, I have
arranged these counties chronologically, instead of alphabetically.
Early Counties Had Natural Boundaries.
An examination of the map will show that many of the
counties in Oregon, particularly west of the Cascade Mountains, are very irregular in shape.    This is due to the fact
that their boundaries were made according to physical conditions,—the   situation   of   mountains,   rivers,   and   streams,
which make,  what may be  called,  natural  boundaries.    In
addition, when the population of Oregon was small, the size
of the counties was of little moment, for the white population
was mostly in small settlements west of the Cascade Mountains.   When Wasco County, comprising all of Eastern Oregon, was created in 1854, its population was small and mostly
living near the Columbia River, a part of its northern boundary.
There were no official surveys of land in Oregon by the
United States Government prior to the passage of the Oregon
donation land law of September 2J, 1850.    In the Act establishing the Territory of Oregon, approved August 14, 1848,
all laws of the Oregon Provisional Government were recognized excepting only laws relating to the disposition of land
in  Oregon.    Under the  Oregon  donation land  law  claims
settled on prior to its passage were, in effect, recognized and
patents, in course of time, were issued to lawful claimants,
and they were granted patents without regard to township or
section lines, after governmental surveys had been made.   The
surveys of the Willamette Meridian and of the Base Line were History of the Counties of Oregon 3
begun in June, 1851. The first contract for governmental
surveys in Oregon is dated May 28, 1851. Prior to that time
county lines could not be established with reference to governmental surveys. Up to the year 1856, parts only of the
portions of Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains had been
officially surveyed. The first county, the boundaries of which
had reference to official surveys, was Multnomah County,
created December 22, 1854.
The number of counties has increased, from the original
four districts, to thirty-four. Two of the original four, Twality
and Clackamas, included all of what is now the State of
Washington.
Oregon Counties Now in the State of Washington.
Washington Territory was created out of the northern part
of Oregon by Act of Congress, approved March 2, 1853.   Prior
to that time a number of counties had been created in that
part of Oregon by its Provisional and Territorial Legislatures.
Of these counties I shall refer only to Vancouver (now Clark)
County.    I spent much time in an endeavor to find the Act
creating Vancouver District or County, but without finding the
Act or the boundaries.    Neither the Journals of the Legislatures nor the published laws show any record of it.   At last
I applied to Mr. George H. Himes, the efficient Assistant
Secretary of the Oregon Historical Society, who had been away
from Portland for several weeks during my search.   He found
a copy of this Act in the Oregon Historical Library.   I believe
it to be the only copy in existence.   It is contained in a manuscript book setting forth copies of laws of the Provisional
Legislature   approved   by   Governor   George   Abernethy   in
August, 1845.   Each of these laws is attested by the genuine
signature of J. E. Long, Secretary of the Provisional Government.   These copies are apparently all the laws passed by
the Provisional Legislature  at  its session,  at Oregon  City,
begun June 24, 1845, which were approved by the Governor. Frederick V. Holman
According to the "Oregon Archives," this session adjourned
July 5, 1845, to meet August 5, 1845.   After meeting according to adjournment it held continuous meetings until August
20, 1845, when it adjourned sine die.   Among these copies of
laws is one passed July 3, 1845, and fiye passed July 5, 1845,
all of which were approved August 15, 1845.   The only acts
which, according to the Journal, as set forth in the "Oregon
Archives," were passed in July, 1845, and are not contained in
these copies, are:   "The bill concerning the sittings of the
Legislature," passed July 3, and "The bill for locating county
seat of Tuality," passed July 5, and two bills granting divorces,
passed July 3.    None of these laws is contained in the compilation of the laws of 1843-1849, published in 1853, or otherwise printed so far as I have been able to ascertain.   The next
Legislature should cause these laws to be printed.
This book formerly belonged to Judge William Strong.
After his death it was given by his son, Thomas N. Strong,
of Portland, to the Oregon Historical Society. Judge Strong
was appointed a Judge of Oregon Territory in 1849, and
arrived in Oregon in August, 1850. His judicial district comprised all of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River,
which was the original Vancouver District, and also Clatsop
County.
This Act creating Vancouver County appears on page 24
of this manuscript book. The following is a correct and full
copy:
"An Act to Organize the District of Vancouver, passed
18th Aug., 1845.
"Be it enacted by the House of Representatives of Oregon
Territory as follows
"That all that portion of the Territory of Oregon lying
north of the middle of the main channel, of the Columbia
River, shall be and the same is hereby declared a seperate
District, under the name and style of Vancouver District and
the said District shall be entitled to elect one member of the
House of Representatives, at the next annual Election. History of the Counties of Oregon 5
"This act to take effect and be in force from and after its
passage—
"Oregon City 20th Aug. 1845.
"Attest J. E. Long "Approved
"Secretary      (Signed) Geo. Abernethy."
This District was named for Captain George Vancouver,
R. N., the explorer, who was in charge of what is known as
Vancouver's Voyage in 1790-1795. His expedition was on
the North Pacific Coast in the years 1792, 1793, and 1794-
The first Oregon Territorial Legislature, September 3, 1849,
changed the name of Vancouver County to that of Clark in
honor of Captain William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The following is a correct and full copy of the Act
changing the name of Vancouver County to Clark, andi the
only law I have found on the subject:
"AN ACT, to change the name of Vancouver County.
"Section 1.   Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of
the Territory of Oregon, That the name of the county of Vancouver be, and hereby is, changed to Clark.
"Sec. 2. That all acts, or parts of acts, coming within the
purview of this act, are hereby repealed.
"Sec. 3.    This act to take effect from and after its passage."
"Passed, September 3d, 1849."
(Local Laws of the Territory of Oregon of 1850-1, page 54).
In the copy of this Act, as printed in said Local Laws, the
name Clark is in italics.
In an Act passed by the Oregon Territorial Legislature
January 3, 1854, after Clark County had become a part of
Washington Territory, releasing Clark County from the payment of certain taxes due to the Territory of Oregon by that
County, the name is spelled Clark. (Special Laws of 1853-4,
page 18).
In Abbott's "Real Property Statutes of Washington Territory From 1843 to 1889," page 69, this Act of September 3,
1849, is set forth.   It erroneously spells the name Clarke.   As 6 Frederick V. Holman
this work of Abbott's gives all the laws in relation to the
creation, boundaries, and names of counties in Washington
Territory to 1889, it may be said, safely, that the name of
Clark County has never been changed to Clarke. Abbott cites
no law in relation to the change of name of this County, other
than said Act of September 3, 1849. The heading of this Act
changing the name of Vancouver to Clark, as printed in
Abbott's book, is "Vancouver or Clarke County," which shows
that the misspelling of the name Clark was not done inadvertently. But that does not change the name. An Act of a
Legislature is more authoritative than ignorant or deliberate
misspelling in a private compilation.' It is to be regretted that
so valuable a work is thus marred.
It is to be hoped that as this County was intended to be
named in honor of CapUin William Clark, and as adding a
final "e" to the name makes it appear to be named for some
unknown man named Clarke and, as the use of such name is
wholly unauthorized, that the proper authorities of Clark
County, and especially its Superior Court, hereafter will use
the correct name.   A Court should follow the law.
Early History of the Original Oregon Country.
For a better understanding I think it well to give a brief
statement of some facts in connection with the original Oregon Country and the formation of the Oregon Provisional
Government.
Prior to the boundary treaty of June 15, 1846, what is
now the State of Oregon, was only a part of what, prior to
that time, was known as the Oregon Country. The southern
boundary of the latter was well known. It was latitude forty-
two, or what is now the northern boundary of California and
Nevada. Its western boundary was the Pacific Ocean, its
eastern boundary was the Rocky Mountains, and its northern
boundary was latitude fifty-four degrees, forty minutes, on
which was the southern boundary of Russian America, the History of the Counties of Oregon 7
present southern boundary of Alaska. This northern boundary
of the Oregon Country was supposed to run along that latitude from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains.
From October 20, 1818, to June 15, 1846, the Oregon
Country, under conventions between the United States and
Great Britain, was free and open to occupation by the citizens
and subjects of these two countries, being what was called
"joint-occupancy." There were no laws made by either of
these countries which applied to all the inhabitants of the
Oregon Country, but Canada had some criminal laws which,
in a way, applied to British subjects, including officers and
employees of the Hudson's Bay Company.
In 1842, prior to the immigration of that year, the population of Oregon south of the Columbia River, excluding
Indians, was about one hundred and two white citizens of the
United States, men, women and children, of whom about
seventy were men. These were called Americans. There were
also about sixty-three French-Canadians, who were British
subjects. These were mostly former employees of the Hudson's Bay Company. In these numbers are not included Indian
women, who were wives of white men, and half-breed children.
October 5, 1842, there arrived at Oregon City the immigration of 1842, consisting of about one hundred and twenty-
five persons, of whom a few more than half were men. May
30, 1843, fifty-three of these immigrants, of whom twenty-five
were men, left for California.
May 2, 1843, at a public meeting held at Champooick
[Champoeg], Oregon, attended by one hundred and two men,
Americans and British, the latter being almost wholly French-
Canadians, by the close vote of fifty-two for, and fifty against,
a provisional government was formed. Certain officers were
elected and a legislative committee of six was appointed to
report July 5, 1843. The report of this committee was
adopted at a public meeting held at Champooick, July 5, 1843.
("Oregon Archives," page 23). It divided the Oregon Country into four Districts.    After the creation of Clatsop and 8
Frederick V. Holman
Polk Districts the Provisional Legislature, by an Act approved
December 22, 1845 (General and Special Laws of 1843-9,
page 35)f changed these Districts to Counties, and these
political or civil divisions of Oregon have been called counties
ever since.
The Original Four Districts or Counties.
The original four Districts were named Twality, Clackamas,
Yamhill, and Champooick. Of these Districts, Twality and
Clackamas were the northern, and Yamhill and Champooiek
the southern.
The northern boundary of Twality and Clackamas was the
supposed northern boundary of the Oregon Country, viz.:
latitude fifty-four degrees and forty minutes. The southern
boundary of Twality was the Yamhill River and, presumably,
a line which would be the westerly continuation of the Yamhill River to the Pacific Ocean, the latter being the western
boundary of Twality District. Its eastern boundary was the
Willamette River, and, presumably, an extension of a line
from its mouth north to the north line of the Oregon Country. Its full boundaries, as is the case with those of the other
three Districts, are somewhat uncertain.
The southern boundary of Clackamas was a supposed line
drawn from the mouth of Pudding River running due east
to the Rocky Mountains, the latter being the eastern boundary
of Clackamas District. Its western boundary was the Willamette River, and, north of that river, the eastern line of
Twality District
The southern line of Yamhill and Champooick Districts
was the northern California and Nevada lines as they are
today. The northern boundary of Yamhill District was the
south line of Twality District, i. e., the Yamhill River and an
indefinite line running west from that river to the Pacific
Ocean, the latter being the westerly boundary of Yamhill
District.   Its eastern boundary was the Willamette River and History of the Counties of Oregon 9
a supposed line running south from the latter river to the
California line.
The northern boundary of Champooick District was the
south line of Clackamas County, i. e., the supposed line running east from the mouth of Pudding River to the Rocky
Mountains, the latter being the eastern boundary of Champooick District. Its western boundary was the Willamette
River and a supposed line running south from the latter river
to the California line.
The boundaries of these four Districts, as adopted on the
report of the Legislative Committee, are hereinafter set forth.
To make a rough map showing these four Districts, take a
map of the original Oregon Country and, at a point where the
Willamette River flows into the Columbia, draw a line running north to latitude fifty-four degrees and forty minutes.
Then  show the  Willamette  River  from its  mouth  to,  say,
Springfield, in Lane County, then draw a line south  from
Springfield to the California line.    This will be the boundary
separating Twality and Clackamas Districts and Yamhill and
Champooick Districts. Draw a line from the mouth of the Yamhill River west to the Pacific Ocean.    This will be the line
separating Twality and Yamhill Districts.    Then draw a line
from the mouth of Pudding River east to the Rocky Mountains,
this will be the line separating Clackamas and Champooick
Districts.
The division lines between these four Districts were changed,
several times, 'by Acts of the Provisional Legislature.
June 26, 1844, the division line between Yamhill and Twality Districts was changed to be as follows: "Commencing in
the middle of the Willamette River, at the mouth of Pudding
River; thence in a direct course to the divide of the waters in
Chehalem Valley; and thence due west to the Pacific Ocean."
(General and Special Laws of 1843-9, Page 87.)
December 19, 1845, *he division line between Yamhill and
Twality Districts was again changed to be as follows: "Commencing in the middle of the main channel of the Willamette Frederick V. Holman
River, one mile below the Bute [Butteville] ; thence in a direct
course due west to the Pacific Ocean." (General and Special
Laws of 1843-9, page 36).
December 11, 1846, the division line between Yamhill and
Twality Districts was again changed to be as follows: "Commencing at a point on the northwest bank of the Willamette
River, opposite the mouth of Pudding River, and run thence
in a northwest direction on the top of the main ridge dividing
the waters of the Tuality River from the waters which flow
into Chehalem Valley, and thence along on the dividing ridge
near Jesse Cayton's, in a straight line to the top of the dividing ridge between the waters of the Rivers of Yamhill and
Tuality, to the top of the Mountain between said rivers, thence
west to the Pacific Ocean." (General and Special Laws of
i843~9> page 7)-
December 19, 1845, *he dividing line between Champooick
and Clackamas Districts was changed to be as follows: "Commencing one mile below the Bute [Butteville], in the middle
of the main channel of the Willamette River, thence in a due
east course to the summit of the Rocky Mountains." (General
and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 36).
By the Report of the Legislative Committee of the Provisional Government under which the first four Districts were
created it was uncertain as to whether any part of the Willamette River was included in either of these Districts. By the
Act of December 19, 1845, the middle of the main channel of
the Willamette River was made the dividing line between
Twality and Clackamas Districts and between Champooick and
Yamhill Districts. (General and Special Laws of 1843-9,
page 36).
June 27, 1844, the Provisional Legislature passed an Act
"that all those parts of any Counties heretofore organized
which lie north of the Columbia river be and they are hereby
stricken off respectively, and that the said river shall constitute the northern boundary of said Counties respectively."
(General and Special Laws of 1843-9, P*ge 74■)•    This law, History of the Counties of Oregon ii
as printed, recites that it was passed June 27,  1854.    The
figure 5 is a misprint.   That it was passed June 27, 1844, is
shown by the Journal of the Provisional Legislature. ("Oregon Archives," page 52).   It is also shown by the title of an
Act, passed December 24, 1844.    The latter Act is entitled:
"AN ACT Explanatory of an Act entitled 'An Act to amend
the several Acts organizing Counties', passed June 27, 1844,
making the Columbia  River the northern line of Clatsop,
Tuality and Clackamas Counties."   Section 1 of this Act provides :   "That Oregon shall consist of the following territory:
Commencing at that point on the Pacific Ocean where the
parallel of forty-two degrees of north latitude strikes the same,
as agreed upon by the United States and New Mexico; thence
north along the coast of said ocean, so as to include all the
islands, bays and harbors contiguous thereto, to a point on
said ocean where the parallel of fifty-four degrees and! forty
minutes of north latitude strikes the same; thence east along
the last parallel, as agreed between the United  States and
Russia, to the summit of the main dividing ridge of the Rocky
Mountains, dividing the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans; thence southerly, following said main dividing ridge,
to the said parallel of forty-two degrees north latitude; and
thence west to the place of beginning."    (General and Special
Laws of 1843-9, page 72).
Twality District.
As originally created Twality District was described as:
"First district, to be called the Twality District, comprising
all the country south of the northern boundary line of the
United States, west to the Willamette, or Multnomah, River,
north of the Yamhill River, and east of the Pacific Ocean."
"Approved by the people July 5th, 1843." ("Oregon Archives," page 26).
This Indian name has been spelled in many ways.    It is
the name of a river, mostly now in Washington County, which Frederick V. Holman
flows into the west side of the Willamette River, about two
miles above its falls at Oregon City. Indian names are few,
as are all words in the languages of the different Indian tribes.
The word apparently means sluggish and also restful, and,
what is one meaning of the English word peaceful, as applied to a beautiful plain or scene. The Tualatin River is a
very sluggish stream. Tualatin Plains, now in Washington
County, is a beautiful country, in many places almost level, in
other places slightly rolling, with many beautiful oak and other
trees.
The name Twality, is spelled also Twalaty and Tuality in
the laws and journals of the Provisional Legislature. In the
Act of September 3, 1849, passed by the Territorial Legislature changing the name to Washington County, the name of
the County is referred to as " 'Faulitz' or 'Palatine' ". (Local
Laws of 1850-1, page 54).
Nathaniel J. Wyeth, who came overland to Oregon in 1832
and in 1834, kept a Journal of his two expeditions.    These
were published by the Oregon Historical Society in 1899.   In
the "Journal" of his second expedition, page 25, under date of
April   13,   1835,  he  spells the name Fallatten.   Commodore
Charles Wilkes, U. S. N., who was in the Willamette Valley
in 1841, on page 357 of Volume 4 of his "Narrative of the
United States Exploring Expedition," published in 1849, spells
the name Faulitz.   In other books on early Oregon the name
is spelled in several ways: Fualitine, by L. W. Hastings, an
immigrant of 1842, on page 40 of his book, "A New Description of Oregon and California," published in 1849; Fallatry,
by Peter H. Burnett, an immigrant of 1843, in his letters to
the New York Herald, written in 1844.   A part of these letters
is in an appendix of the "History of Oregon," by George
Wilkes, published in 1845.    (See page 101) ; Tualatin, on the
map in "Ten Years in Oregon", written by Rev. Daniel Lee, a
Methodist missionary of 1834, and Rev. J. H. Frost, a Methodist missionary of 1840, published in 1844; Fallatine, by Dr.
Elijah White, a Methodist missionary of 1837, on page 240 of History of the Counties of Oregon 13
his book "Ten Years in Oregon", published in 1850; Timlatin,
by J. Quinn Thornton, an immigrant of 1846, on page 292 of
Volume 1 of his book "Oregon and California," published in
1849; a11^ Qwa&ty, hi Joel Palmer's "Journal," published in
1847, pages 90 and 115.
Report No. 101 of the House of Representatives, 25th Congress, 3d Session, ordered to be printed February 16, 1839,
is the Supplemental Report of the Committee on Foreign
Affairs on the Territory of Oregon. Its appendix N is the
Report of William A. Slacum. to Hon. John Forsyth, Secretary
of State, dated November 11, 1835. (Senate Document 1837*
81, No. 24). On page 42 of this Supplemental Report No. 101,
the name is given as that of a tribe of Indians and is spelled
Fallatah. Slacum was in Oregon a part of December, 1836, all
of January, and a part of February, 1837, on a secret mission
from the Department of State. The name is now spelled
Tualatin.
What was left of this County, after Clatsop County was
created, January 15, 1855, was narited Washington County by
an Act of theTerritorial Legislature, passed September 3,
1849. (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 54). For present boundaries see Washington County.
Yamhill District.
As originally created Yamhill District was described as:
"Second district, to be called the Yamhill District, embracing all the country west of the Willamette, or Multnomah,
River and a supposed line running north and south from said
river, south of the Yamhill River to the parallel of 420 north
latitude, or the boundary line of the United States and California, and east of the Pacific Ocean." "Approved by the
people, July 5th, 1843".    ("Oregon Archives," page 26).
December 19, 1845, three days before Polk District was
created, the Provisional Legislature changed the boundaries
of Yamhill District so as to be as follows:   "Commencing in Frederick V. Holman
the middle channel of the Willamette river, one mile below the
Bute [Butteville] ; thence a direct course due west to the
Pacific Ocean; thence south along the coast of the Pacific
ocean to a point due west of George Gray's house; thence due
east to the middle channel of the Willamette river, leaving said
George Gray's house in Yamhill district; thence down said
channel to the place of beginning". (General and Special
Laws of 1843-9, page 36).
Although in this Act of December 19, 1845, as printed in
the compilation of the laws of 1843-9, tne name of the owner
of the house as therein specified is George Gray, this is undoubtedly an error and the name should be George Gay.   The
latter was a notable character in the history of early Oregon.
George Gay was born in England in 1810.   He became a sailor.
He left his ship at Monterey, California, in 1833, and became
a trapper, with Ewing Young.    He came to the Willamette
Valley from California with Dr. W. J. Bailey, in 1835, and
settled near Wheatland in the southeastern part of Yamhill
County, as it now is, and near the present southern line of
Yamhill County.    In 1843 ne built the first brick house in
Oregon.    He became a wealthy man, for those early days,
having herds of cattle and horses roaming over the southern
part of Yamhill County   and   the   northern   part   of   Polk
County.   These facts I have obtained from a short biography
of Gay written by Col. J. W. Nesmith, a noted Oregon Pioneer of 1843, and who was, from 1861 to 1867, an United
States Senator from Oregon.    This biography is published
at pages 88-90 of "Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association" for the year 1882.   In this biography Col. Nesmith
says of Gay:   "His house was a general resort for travellers
and immigrants in early days.   He dispensed a rude but unbounded hospitality, to which all comers were welcome.    I
have known him to slaughter a bullock for the breakfast of
his guests, the remnants of which were eaten for supper."
Commodore Wilkes, in his "Narrative," Vol. 4, pages 357-
363, writes of George Gay.   The latter entertained Wilkes, on History of the Counties of Oregon
15
his trip to the Willamette Valley, in June, 1841, and accompanied Wilkes to Oregon City.
The origin and meaning of the name Yamhill is somewhat
uncertain.    The Yamhill River  runs  through this  County
which is one of the most beautiful and fertile parts of Oregon.
It flows into the Willamette River, on the west side, about
twenty-five miles above Oregon City.    The first mention of
the name appears in Coues' "Journals" of Henry and Thompson, under date of January 23, 1814, written above the portage
at the falls of the Willamette River.   After speaking of meeting a party of seven Indians it is said:   "They were Yamhelas,
who dwell in houses on Yellow River, a branch of the Willamette."    (Vol. 2, page 812).    Frances Fuller Victor, one
of Oregon's best historians, in her book "All over Oregon and
Washington", published in 1872, at page 195, says, of the
name Yamhill: "The original name, let it here be stated, was
Che-am-il—the Indian term for bald hills—and was applied
first to the river at the falls of the Yamhill River, just above
which was the ford, because these hills served as a landmark
by which they easily found the ford".    These bald hills are
beautiful hills.    In pioneer days, in the spring, they were
covered with a luxuriant growth of grass.    When the early
pioneers came the name was sometimes pronounced as though
spelled Yamil.   As many of the early immigrants were from
the southern states, in a jocular way, they called the name Yam
Hill.   This is the spelling used by Peter H. Burnett (Appendix
of George Wilkes "History of Oregon," page 101).    It is
spelled Yam-Hill by Palmer, in his "Journal," pages 91, 92,
93, 115 and 116.
Com. Charles Wilkes published, in 1849, a pamphlet entitled
"Western America, including California and Oregon". This
pamphlet is supplementary to his "Narrative of the United
States Exploring Expedition", in five volumes, published in
1849. *n this pamphlet he quotes numerous excerpts, relating
to the Oregon Indians, from the "Ethnological Remarks" made
by Horatio Hale, the Philologist of the Exploring Expedition. i6
Frederick V. Holman
Hale made a careful investigation of Oregon Indian tribes.
In this pamphlet Wilkes makes the curious error of using the
word "Yam" as the name of a range of hills in Yamhill
County. In speaking of valleys adjacent to the Willamette
Valley he says: "The principal one is called Faulitz Plains,
and is divided from the Willamette by the Yam Hills. These
are clothed to their very top with grass, and afford excellent
pasturage." ("Western America," page 56). The same error
appears in Wilkes' Narrative, VoL 4, pages 356 and 357,
where he says, under date of June 9, 1841: "We started for
the Yam Hills, which divide the valleys of the Willamette and
Faulitz .... These hills are clothed to the very top
with grass . . . On our route through the Yam Hills,
we passed many settlers' establishments". While Com. Wilkes*
"Narrative" is, in the main accurate, he, occasionally, was careless. He made the ridiculous error of calling Campement du
Sable [Champoeg] Camp Maude du Sable. (Wilkes' "Narrative," pages 346 and 347).
Yamhill County is now bounded: on the north by Washington County; on the east by Washington County and the Willamette River, its common boundary with Marion County; on
the south by Polk County and a small portion of Tillamook
County; and on the west by Tillamook County. Its county
seat is McMinnville.
Clackamas District.
As originally created Clackamas District was described as:
"Third district, to be called the Clackamas District, comprehending all the territory not included in the other three districts". "Approved by the people, July 5th, 1843". ("Oregon
Archives," page 26). The other three districts were Twality,
Yamhill, and Champooick, which see for descriptions.
Clackamas is an Indian name. It is first mentioned in Lewis
and Clark's "Journals." Under date of April 3, 1806 ("Original Journals", Dbdd, Mead and Company edition (1904), Vol. History of the Counties of Oregon
17
4, page 241), it is said that an old man gave the names of four
nations  residing on the  "Multnomar"   [Willamette]   river."
The "Journals" then set forth:   "The first is Clark-a-mus nation reside on a small river which takes its rise in Mount Jefferson and falls into the Moltnomar aboue 40 miles up.   This
nation  is  noumerous and inhabit  11  towns."    The Oregon
Indians have no "r" sound in their languages.   In the Chinook
jargon the word for rope is taken from the English word.
It is pronounced "lope".   But Indians often gave a very broad
pronunciation to the  letter "a"  and, especially when using
"cl", gave a clucking sound which, with an "a" following,
gave to that letter a sound, to a stranger, very much like "r".
Besides Lewis and Clark were not only intrepid explorers but
they were also "fierce"  spellers.    Under date of April 7,
1806, their "Journals" ("Original Journals", Vol. 4, page 254),
after setting forth about a map made on the sand by an old
Indian showing the Multnomah river, proceeds:    "He also
lais down the Qarkamos passing a high conical mountain near
its mouth on the lower Side and heads in Mount Jefferson."
Thus Lewis and Clark give the name Clarkamos, not only as
the river, but of the tribe which lived near the river.    On
Clark's map, printed in 1814, the name is spelled Clack-a-mus
and Clackamus.
In Cones' Henry and Thompson's "Journals," Vol. 3, pages
810-811, under date of January 22, 1814, it is said: "It was
dark before we saw the village on the S [present site of Oregon City] near a small but rapid river on our left, called the
Clukemus, from a numerous tribe who dwell up it".
It is also spelled in various ways in other early books on
Oregon: Klackamus, in Hasting's "Description of Oregon
and California," page 55; Clacamur, in George Wilkes* "History of Oregon", in the main work, page 44, and Klackamus,
in the appendix, by Peter H. Burnett, page 100; Klackamus,
in Com. Charles Wilkes* "Narrative", Vol. 4, pages 36 and
343; Klackamus, in Rev. Gustavus Hines' "Oregon", page 44;
Clackamis in Joel Palmer's "Journal", pages 84 and 116; and i8
Frederick V. Holman
Clatmus, page 2, House Report 213, 19th Congress, 1st Session, dated May 15, 1826.
Duflot de Mofras, an attache of the French Legation in
Mexico, came to Oregon in 1841. He came ostensibly, at
least, to study the country and to write a book. His work in
two volumes was published in Paris in 1844. Its title is "Exploration du Territoire de Oregon, des Californie et de la Mer
Vermeille". In Volume 2, page 335, he calls this tribe of
Indians, Clakemas.
In a letter dated at Fort Vancouver, September 28, 1841,
written by Rev. F. N. Blanchet, afterwards Catholic Archbishop of the Diocese of Oregon City, the name is spelled
Flackamar ("Letters and Sketches", by Rev. P. J. De Smet,
S. J., page 233, published in 1843). On page 43 of the preface
to "Notice sur le Territoire et sur la Mission de l'Oregon"
(1847), tne name of Clackamas River is spelled Tlakemas.
Paul Kane, the artist, was in Oregon in 1846 and 1847. He
returned to Toronto in October, 1848. His book "Wanderings
of an Artist" was published in 1859. In January, 1847, ne
made a visit to Oregon City. On page 196 of his book he
writes of the river and the tribe and gives the name as
Klackamuss.
Lieuts. Warre and Vavasour, of the British army, were
at Fort Vancouver in 1845. ^n their "Census of the Indian
Tribes," dated at Fort Vancouver, October 26, 1845, and "derived from the Trading Lists of the Hudson's Bay Company
and best obtainable information," the name is spelled Claka-
mus, as printed in Martin's "Hudson Bay Territories" (1849),
page 81, while in Prof. Joseph Schafer's copy of this "Census,"
in the March, 1909, Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, page 61, it is spelled Clackamas.
In Cones' edition of Lewis and Clark's "Expedition," Vol.
3, page 924, there is a foot-note relating to the name Clackamas, where it is said: "Preferably now Clackama, pi. Clackamas .... The Clackama is one of the best known
Upper Chinookan tribes."    That the name is Clackama and History of the Counties of Oregon
19
not Clackamas, seems to have been adopted by the United
States Bureau of Ethnology.   The name is given as Clackama
in its "Hand Book of American Indians North of Mexico,"
Vol. 1, page 302.    If the name be Clackama, then the final
syllable, "mas," should be pronounced as the plural of "ma"
and not as though spelled "mass."    It is true that writers of
early reports, journals, and books on Oregon usually gave the
name of the Indians of a tribe and not that of the tribe itself,
so they are given in an English plural form, e. g.: Clatsops instead of Clatsop; Multnomahs, instead of Multnomah, etc. But
the Indians did not form plurals of their names by adding a
final "s".   Camas is the Indian name of an edible root and is
not a plural of cama, if there be such a word as cama.   At
least I never heard of it.    It will be noted that Lewis and
Clark, in their "Journals," say the name is that of the river
as well as that of the tribe, as I have already shown by quotations from their "Journals."   In their "Estimate of the Western Indians", giving names of tribes west of the Rocky Mountains and drawn up by Lewis and Clark during the winter of
1805-6, while they were at Fort Clatsop, the names of many
tribes are given.    On their return journey, they came into
further contact with the tribes and learned more of those southward on the Willamette River.   This information they added
to the original draft of said "Estimate."   This is shown in an
editorial note by Reuben Gold Thwaites in the "Original Journals," Volume 6, pages 113 and 114.   The complete "Estimate"
is set forth in Volume 6, pages 114-120.   In this "Estimate"
the names of one hundred and thirteen tribes are given.   Of
these fourteen only are spelled with a final "s".   Of the other
ninety-nine, a few have a final "s", but used with an apostrophe.   On page 118 of Volume 6, it is said:
"CLARK-A-MUS Nation reside on a large river of the
Same name which heads in Mt. Jefferson and discharges itself into the Multnomah", etc.
In Coues' Henry and Thompson's "Journals," Vol. 2, pages
810-811, it is said, as I have already quoted, that the river is 20 Frederick V. Holman
"called the Clukemus, from a numerous tribe who dwell up it".
So, notwithstanding the eminent authority of Elliott Coues
and of the Bureau of Ethnology, I am of the opinion that the
name is Clackamas and not Clackama.
Clackamas County is now bounded: on the north by Multnomah County; on the east by portions of Hood River and
Wasco Counties; on the south by Marion County; on the
west by Marion County, Pudding River, and portions of Yamhill and Washington Counties. Its county seat is now, and
has been always, Oregon City, the original Capital of the
Provisional Government and of Oregon Territory.
Champooick District.
Champooick District, as originally created was described
as:
"Fourth district, to be called the Champooick District, and
bbunded on the north by a supposed line drawn from the
mouth of the Anchiyoke [Pudding] River, running due east
to the Rocky Mountains, west by the Willamette, or Multnomah River, and a supposed line running due south from said
river to the parallel of 42°, north latitude; south by the boundary line of the United States and California, and east by the
summit of the Rocky Mountains." "Approved by the people,
July 5th, 1843."    ("Oregon Archives." page 26).
By an Act of the Provisional Legislature, approved December 28, 1847, a new southern boundary of Champooick County
was established. The Act provides: "That the southern
boundary of Champoeg County be located in the following
manner: Commencing in the middle of the channel of the
Willamette River, opposite the mouth of the Santiam River,
thence up said River to the North Fork; thence up said Fork
to the Cascade Mountains; thence due east to the summit of
the Rocky Mountains." (General and Special Laws of 1843-
9, pages 55 and 56). This Act also created Linn County,
making the latter all of the original Champooick District south
Lyii History of the Counties of Oregon
of said new southern boundary of Champooick County and
east of Benton County.
While the name was sometimes spelled Champooick and
Champoick in early Oregon days, it is usually spelled Cham-
poeg in the Journals of the Provisional Legislature.   The name
is now spelled Chdmpoeg.    It is now the name of a small
town in Marion County, on the east bank of the Willamette
River.   Its main point of interest is that it is the place where
the Provisional Government was started.   The first mission in
Oregon was the Methodist mission, established in 1834, by
Revs. Jason Lee and Daniel Lee, at a place about ten miles
north of Salem, and a few miles south of Champoeg.  In "Ten
Years in Oregon," by Revs. Daniel Lee and J. H. Frost, at
page 126, Lee says, of his first trip up the Willamette River:
"We struck the river at the lower point of the settlement
[French-Canadian] called Campment du Sable, that is, 'Sandy
Encampment.'   The Indian name is Chumpoeg."   It is spelled
Shampoic in  Palmer's  "Journal,"   pages  96  and   116,  and
Champa&mg in Wilkes' "Narrative," Vol. 4, pages 347, 349
and 360.
Willard H. Rees, an Oregon pioneer of 1844, who located
near the Town of Champoeg, in the Annual Address before
the Oregon Pioneer Association, June 17, 1879, said: "Champoeg was the principal Indian village between Chemeketa
[Salem] and Willamette Falls [Oregon City] and the home
of the Champoeg chieftains from time immemorial." ("Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association" for 1879, page
In a letter written by Rev. P. J. De Smet, S. J., to Bishop
F. N. Blanchet, dated at St. Francis Xavier, Willamette
[St. Paul], Oregon, June 20, 1845, Father Die Smet gives the
name of the village as Champois. ("Oregon Missions," page
97). On a map attached as a part of the book "L'Oregon et
les Cotes de l'Ocean Pacific du Nord," by M. Fedix, and published at Paris in 1846, the name is spelled Champoing.
December 1 ith of this year, I had an interview with Francois Frederick V. Holman
Xavier Matthieu, the noted Oregon Pioneer, who is now staying in Portland, with his son.   Mr. Matthieu was born April
2, 1818, in Terrebonne, Canada.    In   1838  he  came to the
United States, escaping from Canada, where he had taken part
in what is called the Canadian Rebellion of 1837-8.   He was
engaged as a fur trader by the America Fur Company, and
lived in the Indian country until, at Fort Laramie, he joined
the Oregon immigration of 1842.    He settled about three
miles east of Champoeg.    He became well acquainted with
Dr. W. J. Bailey.    Dr. Bailey was an Englishman of birth,
breeding, and education, and was an educated physician and
a skillful surgeon, but, by association with wild companions in
London, he became almost a dipsomaniac.   In an endeavor to
reform he came to America with his mother and three sisters.
Without their knowledge he shipped as a common sailor on a
vessel bound for California.    On reaching California he deserted and stayed in different places there, for several years,
until he came to Oregon, overland, in 1835.    His party of
eight was attacked by the Indians, two of the party were
killed, two mortally wounded,  and Bailey, badly wounded,
arrived at the Methodist mission not far from Champoeg.   He
settled at Champoeg, where he reformed, married Miss Margaret Smith, one of the Methodist missionaries, and resumed
the practice of his profession and became a man of affairs.
In May, 1844, he was elected one of the Executive Committee
to frame a Constitution and laws for a provisional government, in place of Rev. F. N. Blanchet, who declined to serve.
In May, 1844, he was elected one of the Executive Committee
of three, of the Provisional Government.   He was a member
of the last Provisional Legislature.    He died February  5,
1876, at Champoeg.
Dr. Bailey, as a man of education, inquired into the origin
of Indian names. From Michel La Framboise, a well known
employe of the Hudson's Bay Company, stationed at Chamr
poeg, Dr. Bailey learned that the name of the place was derived from the Indian word Champoo or Shampoo, the Indian History of the Counties of Oregon 23
name of a weed growing on the west side of the Willamette
River, opposite Champoeg.   This information Dr. Bailey gave
to Mr. Matthieu.   While this is hearsay, based on hearsay, I
believe it is true.    Spelling the name Champooick is more in
accordance with the origin of its name and its pronunciation
by the Indians than Champoeg.    It is difficult or impossible,
with Roman letters, to spell Indian names as pronounced by
the Indians.    The use of "C" instead of "S" as the initial
letter of the name was due to the French influence in the
spelling of names and other words e. g., Willamette.   Willamette is an Indian name, with French spelling and English pronunciation.    French was largely used by the Hudson's Bay
officers and employees, including voyageurs, the latter speaking French almost exclusively, as they were French-Canadians.
Champoeg is the most convenient natural place near French
Prairie, to reach the Willamette River.    It is a sandy place,
on a prairie which extends to the river, and is above the
ordinary freshets of the river.   This led to its selection as a
camping place by the Indians, and as a convenient point for
them to cross the river.   Its advantages also led to its selection
by Dr. John McLoughlin as the site of a Hudson's Bay Company  warehouse.    It  enabled  the  former  Canadian-French
employes of that Company, whom he had induced to settle at
French Prairie, to deliver their wheat to the Company there.
They could go to Champoeg with their heavy wooden carts,
having log wheels, without cutting a road through a heavy belt
of timber and digging out the stumps.
Mr. Matthieu, although nearly ninety-two years old, and
almost blind, is still in good bodily health for a man of his
age and retains his mental faculties, including a remarkable
and accurate memory.
I trust I may be pardoned the digression in giving Mr.
Matthieu's account of the voting on the formation of the Provisional Government, May 2, 1843. In my interview I asked
him to tell me about the matter. He told in substance the following facts:   When the result of the viva voce vote was 24
Frederick V. Holman
uncertain, and a division was called for, Joseph Meek called
on all who desired to establish a provisional government to
line up with him.    There were fifty persons all Americans
[citizens of the United States], including Meek, standing for
the affirmative.   There were fifty-one standing for the negative,
all "Hudson's Bay men", as Mr. Matthieu called them, i. e.
French-Canadians, almost all former employes of the Hudson's Bay Company, who had settled in the Willamette Valley,
Mr. Matthieu not being of the latter class.   He stood at first
with the Hudson's Bay men in an endeavor to have one or
more of them join with the Americans in the vote.    Mr.
Matthieu said that his experience with British rule in Canada
had made him in favor of government by the United States.
Mr. Matthieu, during the winter of 1842-3, had lived with
Etienne Lucier at the latter's place on French Prairie.   Lucier
was the first settler in the Willamette Valley, having located
on French Prairie about the year 1829.    During the winter
Matthieu had had many conversations on the subject with
Lucier.    When the other French-Canadians refused to join
the Americans, Matthieu went to the American line-up and
Lucier followed him and thus the vote was made fifty-two
for the establishment of the Provisional Government to fifty
against.
After I wrote out this interview I read it to Mr. Matthieu,
when he made a few corrections, and as thus corrected I here
set it forth.
Champooick County as existing September 3, 1849, was
named Marion County by an Act of that day, passed by the
Territorial Legislature. (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 53).
For present boundaries see Marion County.
Clatsop District.
Clatsop District was created by the Provisional Legislature
by an Act passed June 22, 1844. It comprised parte of the
northern and western portions of Twality District.    After a History of the Counties of Oregon
25
long and careful search I have not found the original Act
creating this County. I found, in the Journal of the Provisional Legislature, under date of June 22, 1844, that the Act
creating Clatsop District was passed that day. ("Oregon
Archives," page 43). December 19, 1845, there was approved an Act of the Provisional Legislature defining the line
dividing Clatsop and Twality Districts. This Act provides:
"That the line dividing Clatsop and Tuality districts shall
commence in the middle of the main channel of the Columbia
river, at Oak Point mountain on said river; thence south to a
supposed line dividing Yamhill and Tuality districts; thence
west along said line to the Pacific Ocean; thence north along
said; line to the mouth of the Columbia river; thence up the
middle of the main channel to the place of beginning." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 36.)
The Act of June 27, 1844, which I have already quoted from,
cutting off all parts of Districts north of the Columbia River,
passed five days after the Act creating Clatsop District, so it
probably became necessary to again define its boundaries. By
the Act of December 19, 1845, Clatsop District became all of
the northern portion of Twality District, south of the Columbia
River, and all of the western portion of Twality District,
including what is now Tillamook County.
Its name is that of a small Indian tribe whose habitat was
south of the mouth of the Columbia River and near the adjacent shore of the Pacific Ocean. This tribe is mentioned many
times in the Journals of Lewis and Clark. Their winter quarters, on Lewis and Clark River, in 1805-6, was named Fort
Clatsop by Lewis and Clark.
In the "Original Journals" of Lewis and Clark it is spelled
in several ways: Clatsop, Vol. 3, pages 241, 258, 311, 312, 313,
317 and numerous other places; Clat-sop, Vol. 3, pages 258,
282; Vol. 4, page 278; Vol. 6, page 117; Clap-sott, Vol. 3,
page 238; Clot-sop, Vol. 3, pages 244, 294.
Patrick Gass was a sergeant in the Lewis and Clark expedition.   He kept a Journal, which was published in Pittsburgh, 26
Frederick V. Holman
Pennsylvania, in 1807. It was the first publication of an
authoritative book concerning the expedition. The first edition
of the "History" of the Lewis and Clark expedition was published in Philadelphia in 1814. All prior books, purporting to
be by them are spurious. I have a copy of the Gass "Journal"
re-printed in London in 1808. I quote from the latter volume.
On page 244, under date of November 23, 1805, he spells the
name Clot-sop. He spells it Clatsop on pages 257, 261, 274
and 276.
In Coues' Henry and Thompson's "Journals" the name is
spelled Clatsop, only, in numerous places in volume 2 from
pages 756 to 815, inclusive.
Gabriel Franchere, a Canadian-Frenchman, was one of the
clerks of the Astor expedition which came around Cape Horn
on the ship Tonquin and founded Astoria, April 12, 1811. He
declined to enter into the employ of the Northwest Company
when the Astor establishment was treacherously sold to the
latter Company in October, 1813, by Duncan McDougal, a
partner of John Jacob Astor. Franchere returned overland to
Montreal in 1814, arriving there September first. He kept a
private Journal which was written in French. This "Journal"
was published in French, at Montreal, in 1820. Its title is
"Relation d'un Voyage a la Cote du Nord-Ouest de 1' Amer-
ique Septentrionable". On page 86 of this book the name of
this Indian tribe is spelled Clatsoppe,
The name is spelled in several ways in early books and letters
relating to Oregon: Clatsop, by Alexander Ross, who came to
Astoria with the original Astor expedition, in 1811, in his book
"Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia
River" (1849), page 87; Clatsop, by Ross Cox, who came to
Astoria in 1812 on the Beaver, in his book "Adventures on
the Columbia River" (1831), page 116; Clatsop, in Wyeth's
"Journal" of his first expedition, page 177; Klatsap, in Town-
send's "Narrative," page 175; Claisap, by Sir Edward Belcher,
whose expedition visited the Columbia River in 1839, in his
"Narrative" (1843), Page 307; Clatsop in Com. Wilkes' "Nar- History of the Counties of Oregon
27
rative," Vol. 4, pages 322; in Gustavus Hines* "Oregon,"
page 195; and in Farnham's "Travels" (1843), page 273. In
Rev. P. J. De Smet's "Letters and Sketches" (1843), in a letter dated September 28, 1841, he spells the name Klatraps,
page 231, but in a letter dated August 15, 1842, he spells it
Classop, page 220. In Dunn's "History of the Oregon Territory" (second edition, 1843), page 114, the name is spelled
Clatsop. Dunn came to Oregon in 1830 from England as an
employe of the Hudson's Bay Company. He stayed with the
Company for eight years, when he returned to England. For
some time he was in charge of Fort George, now Astoria. The
first edition of his book was published in London in 1844.
I have a very rare book, printed in French, published in
Brussels, in 1847, entitled "Notice sur le Territoire et sur la
Mission de l'Oregon."    It contains  180 pages, of which 65
are taken up by a preface, evidently written by a Catholic
priest, living in Oregon, and 105 pages made up of copies of
letters by Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur, written in the
years 1844-6,   excepting  one   short  letter  written  by   Rev.
Modeste Demers.   January 9, 1844, Rev. P. J. De Smet, S. J.,
left Belgium on the Bark L'Indefatigable for Oregon with
four Catholic priests, a lay brother, and six Sisters of Notre
Dame de Namur, all missionaries to Oregon.    They arrived
at Astoria July 31,  1844.    October  19,   1844, these  sisters
opened a school for girls in a house built for that purpose
at St. Paul on the French Prairie, between Salem and Champoeg in Marion County.    In a letter dated at Sainte-Marie-
de-Wallamette (the name of their mission school at St. Paul),
November 15, 1844, written to Mother Constantine by Sister
Loyola, telling of their arrival and the establishment of their
school, and printed in this book, she writes that at Astoria
the Chief of the Clap sap es brought them some salmon, and she
also writes of the Indians there as Clap sap es (page 106).   In
the preface of this book, page 33, the name of the Indians at
Astoria is spelled Tlatsaps.
Solomon Howard Smith, came to Oregon as one of Na- 28
Frederick V. Holman
thaniel J. Wyeth's party, in 1832, and settled on Clatsop Plains.
In his biography, published in the "Transactions of the Oregon
Pioneer Association" for 1887, page 85, the name is spelled
Tschlaktsoptschs. As Smith's wife was Celiast, daughter of
Kobaway, the Chief of that tribe, this spelling undoubtedly
gives the name as nearly correctly as it can be spelled.
Clatsop County is now bounded: on the north by the Columbia River; on the east by Columbia County; on the south by
Tillamook County; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its
county seat is now, and has been always, Astoria.
Polk District or County.
Polk District was created December 22t 1845, by the Provisional Legislature. (General and Special Laws of 1843-9,
page 38). It comprised all that portion of the original Yamhill District, south of the south line of the latter District, as
established by the Act of December 19, 1845, to ^e California line. Before Benton County was created, December 23,
1847, tne south line of Polk County had been re-established,
presumably at or near its present location. After a careful
search I have been unable to find any description of the latter
south line, in the "Oregon Archives," in the General and
Special Laws of 1843-9, or elsewhere.
This County is named for James K. Polk, then President of
the United States.
Col. J. W. Nesmith, in the "Occasional Address," delivered
by him, before the Oregon Pioneer Association, June 15, 1875,
told of being a member of the Provisional Legislature in
1847, 01" which Dr. Robert JNewell was the presiding officer,
called "The Speaker". Col. Nesmith said he was not then
well learned in parliamentary law, but he found a copy of
Jefferson's "Manual," which he had never heard of before, but
he studied it and learned there was such a thing in parliamentary usage as "the previous question." The Provisional
Legislature consisted of one house.    It held its meetings in History of the Counties of Oregon
29
the old Methodist Church at Oregon City. Near the Church
Barton Lee had constructed a ten-pin alley, which was frequented by members of the legislature, for various purposes
"including refreshment from their legislative toils". Col.
Nesmith then said:
"I had a bill then pending to cut off the southern end of
Yamhill,   [County]   and   to   establish   Polk   County,   which
measure had violent opposition in the body. One morning while
most of the opponents of my bill were amusing themselves at
'horse billiards' in Lee's ten-pin alley, I called up my bill,
and, after making the best argument I could in its favor, I
concluded with: 'and now, Mr. Speaker, upon this bill I move
the previous question'.    Newell looked confused, and I was
satisfied that he had no conception of what I meant; but he
rallied, and, looking wise and severe (I have since seen presiding officers in Washington do the same thing), said:    'Sit
down, sir!   Resume your seat!   Do you intend to trifle with
the Chair! when you know that we passed the previous question two weeks ago?   It was the first thing we done!'   I got
a vote, however, before the return of the 'horse billiard' players, and Polk County has a legal existence today, notwithstanding the adverse  ruling  upon   a   question   of  parliamentary
usage."    ("Transactions of Oregon Pioneer Association" for
1875, page 59).
Col. Nesmith was in error in saying the bill passed was for
the establishment; of Polk County. That bill passed the Provisional Legislature December 19, 1845, ("Oregon Archives,"
page 151) and was approved by Governor George Abernethy
December 22, 1845, (General and Special Laws of 1843-9,
page 38). Col. Nesmith was not a member of the Provisional
Legislature until 1847. That session was held at Oregon City,
beginning December 7, 1847. Col. Nesmith was a member
from Polk County. ("Oregon Archives," page 221). The
bill he referred to must have been the bill, which I have been
unable to find, entitled "An Act to define the boundaries of Frederick V. Holman
Polk County" which was passed by the Provisional Legislature December 20, 1847 ("Oregon Archives," page 237).
Polk County is now bounded: on the north by Yamhill
County; on the east by the Willamette River, its common boundary with Marion County; on the south by Benton County,
and a small portion of Lincoln County; and on the west by a
portion of Lincoln County and a small portion of Tillamook
County.   Its county seat is Dallas.
As I have said, by an Act of the Provisional Legislature,
approved Devember 22, 1845, the name District was changed
to County. Thereafter all former Districts were called Counties. This Act was approved the same day the Act creating
Polk District was approved.
Benton County.
Benton County was created December 23, 1847, Dv the Provisional Legislature. (General and Special Laws of 1843-9,
page 50.) It comprised the southern portion of the original
Yamhill District out of which Polk District had been created.
Benton County, at the time of its creation, was all of the
original Polk District from the re-established southern line of
Polk County to the California north line. Prior to the creation of Umpqua County, January 24, 1851, a new southern
line of Benton County was established by an Act of the Territorial Legislature passed January 15, 1851. The description
of this line in Section 1 of said Act is as follows:
"The southern boundary of Benton [County] shall be located as follows: commencing in the middle of the channel of
the Wallamet River, at a point where a line, running west, will
pass three miles south of the ford on Long Tom [River]
(near Roland Hinton's field), and running due west to the
Pacific Ocean."   (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 34).
It is named for Senator Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri,
who, for many years, had been a strong advocate for Oregon.
Benton County is now bounded: on the north by Polk History of the Counties of Oregon
3i
County; on the east by the Willamette River, its common
boundary with Linn County; on the south by Lane County;
and on the west by Lincoln County. Its county seat is Cor-
vallis, originally named Marysville.
Linn County.
Linn County was created December 28, 1847, hy the Provisional Legislature. (General and Special Laws of 1843-9,
page 55). It comprised all that portion of the original
Champooick District south of a line commencing in the middle
of the channel of the Willamette River, opposite the mouth
of the Santiam River, thence up the latter river to its north
fork, thence up said north fork to the Cascade Mountains,
thence due east to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. Its
original southern boundary was a part of what are now the
California and Nevada north lines.
By an Act of the Territorial Legislature, passed January
4, 1851, a new southern line of Linn County was established.
The description of this line in Section 1 of said Act is as
follows:
"The south line of Linn County shall commence as follows:
Commencing at west point, lying south of William Vaughn's
claim, and running a westerly course to a point of the Wallamet
River, at a distance of eight miles below Jacob Spoors',
[Spore's], then at the place of beginning, due east to the
Rocky Mountains."    (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 33).
It is named for Senator Lewis F. Linn, of Missouri, a
great friend of Oregon, and the originator of the Oregon
donation land law.
Linn County is now bounded: on the north by the Santiam
River and Marion County; on.the east by Crook County; on
the south by Lane County; and on the west by the Willamette
River, Its common boundary with Benton County. Its county
seat is Albany. 32
Frederick V. Holman
Washington County.
The name of Twality County was changed to Washington
by the first Territorial Legislature by an Act passed September 3, 1849. It was only after a long and tedious search that
I was able to find this Act. After going through, page by
page, the Journals of the House of Representatives and Council for the session of the Legislature begun and held at Oregon City, July 16, 1849, and also the compilation of the laws
of that session, I was unable to find that this Act passed both
Houses, or to find the Act itself. I did find that the Act had
passed the Council. The Local Laws for the session of 1850-1
has no index and I went through this book, page by page, and
was rewarded by finding on pages 53 and 54 the three Acts,
each passed by the Territorial Legislature September 3, 1849,
changing the names of the Counties of Twality, Champooick
and Vancouver. One of said Acts provides: "That the name
of the county commonly called 'Faulitz' or 'Falatine' be and
the same is changed to Washington." (Local Laws of 1850-1,
page 54).
Of course this County is named for George Washington.
Washington County is now bounded: on the north by Columbia County; on the east by Multnomah County and portions of Columbia and Clackamas Counties; on the south by
Yamhill County, a small portion of Clackamas County, and a
very small portion of Tillamook County; and on the west by
Tillamook County.   Its county seat is Hillsboro.
Hillsboro is situated on the Donation Land Claim of David
Hill, and was named for him. David Hill was a member of
the Executive Committee of three of the Provisional Government elected by the people on July 5,, 1843, to serve one year,
the other two being Alanson Beers and Joseph Gale, who were
practically the first governors of Oregon. The name of the
town has been Hillsboro ever since it was platted. Prior to
the time it was platted it was apparently called Columbus. In
a letter now in the possession of the Oregon Historical Society, History of the Counties of Oregon
33
dated January 6, 1850, written by David Hill to S. R. Thurston, then delegate to Congress from Oregon, Mr. Hill
wrote: "The name of our county has been changed to Washington and the county seat is located at Columbus, the northeast corner of my claim."
Marion County.
September 3, 1849, the Territorial Legislature changed the
name of Champooick County (which had come to be spelled
"Champoeg") to Marion.   The Act provides:
"That the name of the County of Champoeg be, and the
same is hereby changed to Marion". (Local Laws of 1850-1,
page 53). This County then comprised all that part of Oregon bounded on the north by Clackamas County, on the east
by the Rocky Mountains, on the south by Linn County, and
on the west by the Willamette River.
This change of name was made in honor of General Francis
Marion of the American Revolutionary war. The Weems-
Horry life of Marion was then largely read in Oregon and
other frontier settlements. The praise of Marion in this book
greatly appealed to these people.
Marion County is now bounded: on the north by Clackamas
County and the Willamette River, the latter being its common northern boundary with Yamhill County; on the east by
portions of Crook and Wasco counties; on the south by Linn
County; and on the west by the Willamette River, its common boundary with Polk and Yamhill Counties. Its county
seat is Salem, the capital of the State.
Lane County.
Lane County was created January 28, 1851, by the Territorial Legislature. (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 32). It comprised "all that portion of Oregon Territory lying south of
Linn County and south of so much of Benton County as is
east of Umpqua County".   Its eastern boundary, presumably, 34
Frederick V. Holman
was the Rocky Mountains. December 22, 1853, the Territorial Legislature passed an Act to define the southern boundary of Lane County. It is there defined as follows: "Commencing on the Pacific Coast, at the mouth of the Siuselaw,
[River] on south bank, thence following up the south bank
of said stream, to a point fifteen miles west of the main traveled road, known by the name of the Applegate road, thence
southerly to the summitt of the Calapooya mountains, thence
eastward, along the summit of said mountains to the summit
of the Cascade range."   (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 13).
Lane County is named for Joseph Lane, the first Territorial
Governor of Oregon, who had been a distinguished Brigadier-
General in the Mexican war. He was a Territorial Delegate
to Congress from Oregon, and one of its first United States
Senators. He was a candidate for Vice-President, with John
C. Breckenridge, for President, in i860. He also took a prominent part, and was the head of the Oregon Volunteer forces
in the Rogue River Indian war of 1853.
Lane County is now bounded: on the north by Linn, Benton and Lincoln Counties; on the east by portions of Crook
and Klamath Counties; on the south by Douglas County; and
on the west by the Pacific Ocean.   Its county seat is Eugene.
Douglas County.
January 24, 1851, the Territorial Legislature created
Umpqua County. (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 33). Umpqua
is the name of a river which flowed through that county and
also of an Indian tribe, whose habitat was near that river. It
comprised: "All that portion of Oregon Territory lying within the following boundaries: Beginning at the southwest
corner of Benton County, and running due east along the
south line of Benton County to the dividing ridge of the Cala-
pooiah mountains, thence along the ridge of the said Calapooiah
mountains, to the source of the main fork of the Calapooiah
creek, thence down said creek to its mouth, thence due west to History of the Counties of Oregon
35
the Pacific ocean, and thence along the Coast to the place of
beginning".
Douglas County was created January 7, 1852, by the Territorial Legislature, out of the eastern portion of Umpqua
County. (Local Laws of 1851-2, page 18). It comprised all
that portion of Umpqua County lying east of the Coast Range.
A portion of Umpqua County was given to Coos County
when the latter was created, December 22, 1853. October 16,
1862, what was left of Umpqua County was added to Douglas
County (General Laws of 1862, page 59) and Umpqua County
ceased to exist.
Douglas County is named for the distinguished Stephen A.
Douglas.
Douglas County is now bounded: on the north by Lane
County; on the east by Klamath County; on the south by
Jackson and Josephine Counties; and on the west by Coos
County and the Pacific Ocean. Its county seat is Roseburg.
Jackson County.
Jackson County was created January 12, 1852, by the Territorial Legislature. (Local Laws of 1851-2, page 19). It
comprised all of Oregon south of Umpqua County to the
California line and west of the Cascade Mountains to the
Pacific Ocean.
It is named for the great Andrew Jackson.
Jackson County is now bounded: on the north by Douglas
County; on the east by Klamath County; on the south by the
State of California; and on the west by Josephine County. Its
county seat is Jacksonville.
On or near the common boundary line of Jackson and
Klamath Counties, is situated the beautiful snow-covered
mountain named Mount McLoughlin. It was named for Dr.
John McLoughlin, by early residents of Oregon prior to the
year 1838. It is so designated on a number of early maps of
Oregon.    Its   name   was   officially   declared   to   be   Mount 36
Frederick V. Holman
McLoughlin by House Concurrent Resolution No. 27, which
passed both Houses of the Oregon Legislature in February,
1905 (House Journal, page 916; Senate Journal, page 789).
This is the mountain called "Mount Pitt" by the ignorant
Tillamook County.
Tillamook County was created December 15, 1853, °y the
Territorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 6).
It comprised parts of the western portions of Yamhill and
Clatsop Counties and, possibly, of Polk County.
As an instance of how loosely the boundary lines of counties
were described in Acts of the Legislature, in early days, the
following is the description of the boundaries of Tillamook
County as given in the legislative Act creating that County:
"All that portion of Yamhill and Clatsop Counties, embraced
within the following boundaries, towit: Commencing at a
range of hills near the Pacific ocean, north of the Nehalem
river, known as Saddle mountain, thence east following the
summit of said range of hills to the summit of the coast range
of mountains, thence south following the summit of said coast
range of mountains, to the southern boundary of Polk Gounty,
thence due west to the Pacific ocean, thence along the sea
shore to the place of beginning".
Possibly instead of the southern, the northern boundary of
Polk County was intended, for the latter is the southern
boundary of Yamhill County, and Polk County is not otherwise mentioned as having a portion of it included in Tillamook
County. I
Its name is derived from a small tribe of Indians, whose
habitat was near and south of Tillamook Head. In the "Original Journals" of Lewis and Clark the name is spelled Kilamox
and Killamuck, Vol. 4, pages 12, 49, and 183; Vol. 6, pages 71
and 117. In Patrick Gass' "Journal," (London edition, 1808),
page 260, he spells it CaUemeux and, page 274, Cal-a-mex. In
Coues' Henry and Thompson's "Journals," Vol. 2, page 858, History of the Counties of Oregon
37
it is spelled Callemex. In other early books on Oregon it is
spelled in different ways: Killimux, in Ross' "Adventures,"
page 87; Kallamook, in Slacum's "Report," page 42, House
Rep. 101, 25th Congress, 3d. Session; Killemook, in Town-
send's "Narrative," page 175; Kilemoob, in Lee and Frost's
"Ten Years in Oregon," page 307; Killamuck, in Hastings'
"Description," page 60; Killamook, in Warre and Vavasour's
"Census" as printed in Martin's "Hudson's Bay Territories";
and Kilamook, as printed in Schafer's article in Oregon Historical Quarterly, March, 1909, page 61; Killimous, in Duflot de
Mofras' "Exploration," Vol. 2, page 335; Kilamook, in Palmer's "Journal," page 105; and Killamuke, in Wilkes' "Western America", page 88, quoting from Hale.
In Hall J. Kelley's book or pamphlet of eighty pages, "A
Geographical Sketch of that part of North American called
Oregon", published in 1830, on page 40, it is said: "Killamuck
river is one hundred yards wide, has no falls, and no difficult
rapids. It opens into Killamuck bay, ten miles South of the
creek of the same name, and forms a communication, for a
considerable Indian trade, with the Multnomah valley; there
being a short portage from the head of this river to the
Multnomah".
In House Report 101, ordered to be printed February 16,
1839, is bound a finely engraved map, showing what is called
the "Territory of Oregon". It was "compiled in United States
Bureau of Topographical Engineers from the latest authorities under the direction of Col. J. J. Abert by Wash. Hood,
1838". On this map the name of Tillamook River is spelled
Killimoux. On this map the Rocky Mountains are called
"Rocky or Oregon" Mountains.       ,
Lieut. Neil M. Howison, U. S. N., came to Oregon in July,
1846, in command of the United States Naval schooner Shark.
October 10, 1846, his vessel was wrecked, and became a total
loss, on South Spit, near the Columbia River bar. A portion
of the hull, with three carronades attached to it, was found by
Midshipman Simes on the beach below Tillamook Head.   He 38
Frederick V. Holman
succeeded in getting one of these carronades ashore above
high-water mark. From this circumstance that beach is still
called "Cannon Beach". In his Report, dated February i,
1847, House Miscellaneous Report No. 29, 30th Congress, 1st
Session, ordered to be printed February 28, 1848, Lieut. Howi-
son mentions Tillamook Head as "Killimuk's Head".
A. N. Armstrong, for several years a government surveyor
in Oregon, published a book entitled "Oregon", in 1857. In
this book, page 74, he calls the bay, Tillamook. On page 101
he calls the Indians "Tillamooks (or Killamooks)". These are
the earliest mentions I have found in early books on Oregon of
the name Tillamook.
I have been unable to ascertain when the name was changed
to begin with a "T" instead of a "K". Judging from the date
of books, mentioning the name, it was about or at the time the
County was created.
Tillamook County is now bounded: on the north by Clatsop
County; on the east by Washington and Yamhill Counties, and
by a small portion of Columbia County; on the south by Lincoln County; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its
county seat is Tillamook.
Coos County.
Coos County was created December 22, 1853, by *he Territorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 13). It
comprised parts of the western portions of Umpqua and Jackson Counties, and south of the Umpqua River. Its western
boundary was the Pacific Ocean.
Its name is derived from a tribe of Indians of the Kusan
family, whose principal habitat was at what is now called Coos
Bay, in that County. The name of the tribe and of the Bay
was the same. In Lewis and Clark's "Journals" the name is
spelled Cook-koo-oose, ("Original Journals," Vol. 6, page
117).   This name they obtained from the Clatsop Indians.
In Slacum's Report (1837) he gives the name of Coos River
as Cowis.   In Wilkes' "Western America," page 73, he spells History of the Counties of Oregon
39
the name of the river Cowes, and on page 101, quoting from
Hale, he called the Indians Kaus and says they are "on a
small river called by their name, between the Umpqua and
Klamet" [Rivers].
In Armstrong's "Oregon," pages 68-70, he says the name of
the Bay is Kowes, but that it is usually written Coose, and he
quotes from a letter by C. Clark, dated Empire City, April 23,
1855, in which the name of the Bay is spelled Coose. On page
116 he writes of the "Kouse Indians."
Coos County is now bounded: on the north and east by
Douglas County; on the south by Curry County; and on the
west by the Pacific Ocean.   Its county seat is Coquille.
Wasco County.
Wasco County was created January 11, 1854, by the Territorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 26). It
comprised all of Eastern Oregon, that is, all that part of
Oregon Territory east of the Cascade Mountains, from the
Columbia River to the north lines of California and Nevada.
It is the name of a small tribe of Indians, who lived at a
place which is now Dalles City, but colloquially called "The
Dalles," although it is several miles from them. This tribe
seems to have had more of a local habitation than a name.
The name is not mentioned by Lewis and Clark, nor by Henry,
nor Thompson, nor by many of the authors of early books on
Oregon. This is, probably because these Indians were few in
number, and a miserable lot. Most of the early travellers
passed by The Dalles in the fishing season when sometimes
thousands of Indians, of various tribes, were congregated
along the river, from the falls of the Columbia at Celilo, to a
point where the Wasco Indians lived. The latter were therefore overlooked as a tribe. In Com. Charles Wilkes' "Narrative," under date of July 1, 1841 (Vol. 4, page 382), he says
of these Indians, without giving their name: "There are only
a few Indians residing near the mission during the winter, and 40
Frederick V. Holman
these are a very miserable set, who live in holes in the
ground, not unlike a clay oven, in order to keep warm. They
are too lazy to cut wood for their fires."
Rev. Daniel Lee says in his book, "Ten Years in Oregon,"
that he and Rev. H. K. W. Perkins went to The Dalles in
March, 1838, to establish a mission there. He made his home
there for more than two years. While he gives the names of
other Indian tribes, he refers to the local Indians at the mission only as "the Dalls Indians." Dr. Elijah White, on page
192 of his book, "Ten Years in Oregon," says that on December 25, 1843, ne reached Wascopum, meaning the Methodist
mission at The Dalles. Rev. Gustavus Hines in his book,
"Oregon," says of these Indians, under date of May 5, 1843
(page 159) : "They are known by the name of the Wasco
Indians, and they call their country round the Dalls, Wasco-
pam," but on page 143 he calls them the Wascopam Indians,
and, on page 151, he says they belong to the Wascopam tribe.
De Saint-Amant, an Envoy of the French Government,
made a trip to Oregon in 1851-2. His book, "Voyages en
Californie et dans Oregon," was published in Paris in 1854.
On page 241, in enumerating Indian tribes east of the Cascade Mountains, he mentions the Wascos, and, on page 282, he
writes of arriving at the mission of the Wascos.
In 1852 there was published at Portland by S. J. McCor-
mick an anonymous dictionary of the Chinook jargon. A
copy of the second edition, published in 1853, is in the possession of the Oregon Historical Society. On page 14, in an
enumeration of Indians the Wascoes are mentioned. In Armstrong's "Oregon," page 111, he writes of these Indians as the
Dalles tribe. *
Elizabeth Laughlin Lord, wife of Wentworth Lord,
Esq., of Dalles City, wrote a very interesting book entitled
"Reminiscences of Eastern Oregon." It was published in
Portland in 1903. She came to what is now Dalles City with
her father and mother in the immigration of 1850. The only
place she mentions the name of the Wasco Indians is on page History of the Counties of Oregon
4*
142, where she says: "In June, 1855, a treaty was held out
on Three Mile [Creek] by General Joel Palmer with the
Wasco, Deschutes and John Day Indians."
On page 16 of the preface to "Notice sur le Territoire et
sur la Mission de l'Oregon," what is now called The Dalles
is called "les Grande Dalles ou Wascopom."
Concerning the meaning of the word dalles, Rev. P. J. De
Smet, S. J., in a letter to the Father Provincial, dated at St.
Paul's Station, near Colville, May 29, 1846, wrote: "Dalle is
an old French word, meaning a trough, and the name is given
by the Canadian Voyageurs to all contracted running waters,
hemmed in by walls of rock" (De Smet's "Oregon Missions,"
page 214). J. G. Swan in his "Three Years' Residence in
Washington Territory" (1857), page 123, speaks of his visit
to The Dalles and says that the word dalles is "a corruption
of the French d'aller, a term, as I am informed, applied by the
Canadian French to the raceway of a mill, which this part of
the river resembles. The Dalles are rapids formed by the
passage of the water between vast masses of rock."
Wasco County is now bounded: on the north by the Columbia River; on the east by the Deschutes River, Sherman
County, and John Day River, the latter being the boundary
between Wasco County and Wheeler County; on the south by
Crook County; and on the west by Hood River County and
portions of Clackamas and Marion Counties. Its county seat
is Dalles City.
Columbia County.
Columbia County was created January 16, 1854, by the Territorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 32). It
comprised the northeast part of Washington [Twality]
County as it was after Clatsop County had been created.
It is named for the Columbia River, which is its eastern
and northern boundary.
Columbia County is now bounded: on the north and east
by the Columbia River; on the south by Multnomah and 42
Frederick V. Holman
Washington Counties; and on the west by Clatsop County and
a small portion of Tillamook County. Its county seat is St.
Helens.
Multnomah County.
Multnomah County was created December 22, 1854, by the
Territorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1854-5, page 29).
It comprises a part of the eastern portion of Washington
County and a part of the northern portion of Clackamas
County. It is the smallest, but the most populous and wealthy
County in Oregon.
Its name is the Indian name of the Willamette River from
the falls, at Oregon City, to its mouth.   It was also the name of
a tribe of Indians whose principal habitat was at the upper
end of Wappatoo (now Sauvie's) Island, near the mouth of
the Columbia River.   Multnomah was not the name of a Chief
nor of any one Indian, but it may have been used as a nickname.    In the "Original Journals" of Lewis and Clark the
name of the tribe and of the lower Willamette is spelled Mulk-
nomau, Vol. 3, page 198; Mult-no-mah and Multnomah, Vol.
4, pages 221, 233, 242, and Vol. 6, page 116; Volume 4, page
241, the name is spelled Multnomar.   It is also spelled in several ways in early books on Oregon: Multnaba, by Franchere in
his "Relation," page 84, under date of May 6, 1811; Molt-
noma, by Ross in his "Adventures," page 87; Multonomah, by
Wyeth, in the "Journal" of his first expedition, page 178, under
date of November 29, 1832; Multnomah, by Townsend, in his
"Narrative," page 175; Multnomah, by Parker in his "Journal," page 141.   On the same page, under date of October 17,
1835, Parker writes of the island, which he calls Wappatoo
[Sauvie's], and says: "It was upon this island the Multnomah
Indians formerly resided, but they have become, as a tribe,
extinct."   The name is also spelled: Multonomah, by Peter H.
Burnett, Appendix of George Wilkes' "History of Oregon,"
page 98; and Multinoma, in Palmer's "Journal," page 87.   Sir
George   Simpson,  Governor-in-Chief  of the  Hudson's   Bay History of the Counties of Oregon
43
Company, was at Fort Vancouver, in 1841, on his trip around
the world. His book, "Narrative of a Journey Round the
World," in two volumes, was published in 1847. On PaSe I74
of Volume 1, he gives the name Multonomah as being the
name of the island now called Sauvie's. The name is spelled
Multonomah in Slacum's "Report," (1835), and in Hall J.
Kelley's "Memoir" (1839).
In De Saint-Amant's "Voyages" he also spells the name
Multonomah, and, on page 153, he gives it as the original name
of the Willamette River. On pages 153, 368, and 372 he says
it is the name of the island [now called Sauvie's Island]. On
page 327 he writes of the Multonomah tribe of Indians.
I have the Second Edition, published in Paris in 1863, of
"Six Ans en Amerique, Californie et Oregon," a book written
by Abbe L. Rossi, a Catholic Missionary. He left Brussels in
July, 1856, and returned to the same place in November, 1862.
In December, 1856, he arrived at Vancouver, Washington,
from San Francisco. On page 59 he gives the name of Sauvie's Island as Multonomah.
The text of Coues' edition of the "History" of the Lewis and
Clark Expedition is that of what is called the "Biddle edition"
(sometimes called the "Paul Allen" edition). It was published in 1814, and is the first authentic history of the expedition. The author of this book was Nicholas Biddle, whose
work was edited by Paul Allen. In the preface of this edition
Allen says that, in addition to the original Journals of Lewis
and Clark, they "were carefully perused in conjunction with
Captain Clark himself, who was able, from his own recollection of the journey ... to supply a great mass of explanations." The following excerpts are taken from this
edition, but they do not appear in this exact form, although
to the same effect, in what I have called, in this address, the
"Original Journals" of Lewis and Clark (Dodd, Mead and
Company edition). Speaking of Wappatoo [Sauvie's] Island,
it is said:
"The nations which inhabit this fertile neighborhood are 44 Frederick V. Holman
very numerous.   Wappatoo Inlet [Willamette Slough] extends
300 yards wide, for ten or twelve miles to the south, as far as
the hills, near which it receives the waters of a small creek
[probably Scappoose Creek], whose sources are not far from
those of the Killamuck River.   On that creek reside the Clack-
star nation, a numerous people of 1200 souls, who subsist on
fish and wappatoo, and who trade by means of the Killamuck
River with the nation of that name on the Seacoast.   Lower
down the Inlet, toward the Columbia, is the tribe called Cath-
lacumup.    On the sluice which connects the Inlet with the
Multnomah are the tribes Cathlanahquiah and Cathlacomatup;
on  Wappatoo  Island,  the  tribes   of  aannahminamun  and
Clahnaquah.    Immediately opposite, near the Towahnahiooks
[i. e., an Indian tribe living on the Cahwahnahiooks or Cath-
lapotle or Cathlapootle River, now called Lewis River] are
the Quathlapotles; higher up on this side of the Columbia
[north side] the Shotos.   All these tribes, as well as the Cath-
lahaws, who live somewhat lower on the river, and have an
old village on Deer Island, may be considered as parts of the
great Multnomah nation, which has its principal residence on
Wappatoo Island, near the mouth of the large river to which
they give their name All the tribes in the neighborhood of Wappatoo Island we have considered as Multno-
mahs—not because they are in any degree subordinate to that
nation, but as they all seem to regard the Multnomahs as most
powerful.   There is no distinguished chief, except the one at
the head of the Multnomahs; and they are, moreover, linked
by a similarity of dress, manners, and language, which, much
more than the feeble restraints of Indian government, contribute to make one people.    These circumstances also separate them from nations lower down the river."   ("Biddle edition," Vol. 2, pages 226 and 227 \ "Coues' edition," Vol. 3,
pages 931-933.)     For comparison see "Original Journals,"
Vol. 4, pages 216, 222, 238; Vol. 6, pages 116 and 117.
The aggregate number of Indians composing these tribes,
as estimated by Lewis and Clark, was 5490, of which the History of the Counties of Oregon 45
Multnomah tribe had 800.    All these tribes were practically
exterminated by the epidemics of 1829-32.
Daniel Williams Harmon was a partner in the Northwest
Company. He left Montreal in 1800, in the employ of that
Company, and did not return until 1819. From the autumn of
1811 until the spring of 1819 he was in charge of the Northwest Company's affairs in what was then called New Caledonia, in the northern interior of British Columbia. While
Harmon did not keep a continuous journal, he made many
entries in a book, of incidents occurring during the time he
was in the Indian Country. These were published at Andover
in 1820, under the title of "A Journal of Voyages and Travels
in the Interiour of North America." In the original edition
of this book is a map of North America. On it is shown a
river, called Multnomah River, rising at a lake, in what is
now the State of Nevada, and flowing northwesterly into the
Columbia at a point about where the Willamette flows into
the Columbia.
In connection with Multnomah Rwer, as set forth on the
map in Harmon's book, I call attention to Report number 213
of the House of Representatives, dated May 15, 1826, of the
19th Congress, 1st Session, being a supplemental report of
the Select Committee on the bill to authorize the establishment
of a military post or posts within the Territory of the United
States, on the Pacific Ocean, and to provide for the exploration of its Coasts and Waters. This Report sets forth some
fictions as well as facts.
In this Report particular attention is called to the fact that
the Committee "has obtained some interesting information
respecting the geographical character of the Territory of the
United States on the Pacific Ocean. This information was
derived from Samuel Adams Ruddock, who, in the year 1S21,
performed a journey by land from the Council Bluffs to the
mouth of the Columbia River. Ruddock was one of a trading
party, which left the Council Bluffs after the 12th of May."
In this Report it is said that, after reaching Lake Trinidad, 46
Frederick V. Holman
Ruddock's party "then pursuing the same direction across the
upper branches of the Rio Colarado of California, reached
Lake Timpanagos, which is intersected by the 42d parallel of
latitude, the boundary between the United States of America
and the United States of Mexico. This lake is the principal
source of the river Timpanagos, the Multnomah of Lewis and
Clarke. They then followed the course of this river to its
junction with the Columbia, and reached the mouth of the
Columbia on the first day of August, completing the journey
from the Council Bluffs in seventy-nine days.
"Many geographers have placed the Lake Timpanagos in
latitude 40, but they have obviously confounded it with the
Lake Theguayo, which extends from 390 4c/, to 41 °, and from
which it is separated by a neck or peninsula; the two lakes
approaching in one direction as near as 20 miles.
"The river Multnomah, the great Southern tributary of the
Columbia, of which, heretofore, so little has been known, is
represented as navigable for any vessels which can enter the
Columbia, for a distance of one hundred and fifty miles from
its junction with the Columbia, where it is obstructed by a
rapid. At the distance of about seventy miles, it receives the
Clatmus [Clackamas], a considerable river from the East, and,
at the distance of the eighty miles, it receives the Callapoio, a
large river, which has its sources near the ocean, and South of
latitude 42.
"From its first rapid to the Lake Timpanagos, the distance
is about three hundred and twenty-five miles, making the whole
distance from that source to the Columbia, four hundred and
seventy-five miles. Throughout the whole length it is represented as navigable for vessels of eight feet draught at certain
seasons of the year, no rapid (and there are several), being
worse than the rapid of the Ohio at Louisville.
"The other branches of the Multnomah or Timpanagos
interlock with the branches of Lewis's river."
Ruddock was a good and circumstantial liar. History of the Counties of Oregon 47
In Hall J. Kelley's "Geographical  Sketch," published in
1830, there is a map of Oregon, showing the Multnomah
River, substantially the same as on the map in Harmon's Journal, excepting a larger lake in Nevada, as its source, and showing more tributaries, especially near its source.   None of these
tributaries is named.   On page 35, Kelley says: "Multnomah
river receives its name, as do many others, from the Indians.
Its origin is from the union of two branches: one springing
from a spur of the Rocky Mountains, in lat. 41 °  N.    The
other issuing from Lake Timpanogos.   It traverses about 500
miles through a country of extreme fertility, and empties itself
into the Columbia, opposite Wappatoo island.   The first part
of the country through which it runs, is level and open; but
the last,  and much  the  greater part,  is  covered  with the
thickest and loftiest forests on the globe.    This river is 500
yards wide, and furnishes five or six fathoms of water at its
mouth.   Excepting a sand bar, immediately at its entrance, it
is free of all obstructions to navigation, 70 miles, to a place,
where there are rapids, and considerable falls.   This navigable
section of the river furnishes a number of delightful islands,
and widens into bays, where shipmasters from the ocean might
find secure and commodious harbours. There are nine branches
to the Multnomah.   1. Clackamus.   4. Callalipoewah.   8. Timpanogos."
Hall J. Kelley was a Boston school teacher who was an
Oregon enthusiast. From the year 1815, for many years, he
wrote and published pamphlets, some of which may be called
books, on Oregon and its advantages. He came to Oregon, in
1834, from California, where he arrived, in 1833, by the way
of Mexico. He stayed in Oregon several months and returned
home by sailing vessel by way of Cape Horn. His "Geographical Sketch," which I have mentioned, is a mixture of
information taken from early books and from that which he
had obtained from other sources, but not from personal observation. In his description of the Multnomah River he evidently relied on House Report number 213, dated May 15, 48
Frederick V. Holman
1826, from which I have quoted. This book and map show
how little was known of the geography of Oregon, especially
west of the Cascade Mountains, in 1830, by persons not living
in that part of Oregon.
In Hall J. Kelley's Memoir to Hon. Caleb Cushing, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of
Representatives, dated January 31, 1839 (Appendix O, of
House Rep. 101, February 16, 1839), Kelley makes a brief
statement of his trip to Oregon in 1834, and gives a fairly
accurate description of the Willamette River and says: "This
river has been sometimes misnamed the 'Multonomah.' " (Page
55.) On page 61 he says: "The Multonomahs, who formerly
occupied the Wappatoo islands, and the country around the
mouth of the Wallamette, and who numbered 3,000 souls, are
all dead, and their villages reduced to desolation."
One of the rarest books relating to Oregon is the "Narrative
of Zenas Leonard," published at Clearfield, Pennsylvania, in
1839. Only three or four copies of the original edition are
known to be in existence. A limited edition of it was reprinted,
in 1904, by The Burrows Brothers Company of Cleveland,
Ohio. I have a copy of this reprint. Leonard was one of a
trapping party under command of Captains Gant and Black-
well, which left St. Louis, Missouri, in April, 1831. In September, 1832, the party arrived at the headwaters of the
Willamette River, which Leonard calls "the Multenemough
river." (Pages 123 and 124 of the Reprint). In the summer
of 1833 Leonard joined the party of Capt. Bonneville (page
147 of the Reprint).
What was originally called Wappatoo Island, near the
mouth o£ the Willamette and lying between the Columbia
River and Willamette Slough, is now known as Sauvie's
Island. Sauve, for whom it is named, was a French-Canadian
employe of the Hudson's Bay Company, who lived on the
Island. The earliest public mention of the change of its name
from Wappatoo, I have found, is in the following act of the
Provisional Legislature, passed August 15, 1845, and approved History of the Counties of Oregon
49
August 19, 1845. It is entitled "An Act to locate a Road from
Twalaty Plains to Sauves Island." Section 1 of this Act
appoints Charles McKay, Robert Poe and John Flett "commissioners to lay out and establish a Territorial road to start
from some point on the Twalaty Plains and in the road leading to Smiths Ferry on Yam Hill River to be settled on by
said commissioners and terminate at Sauves Island." ("Manuscript copies of Laws of 1845," pages 17 and 18).
Multnomah County is now bounded: on the north by the
Columbia River and a portion of Columbia County; on the
east by Hood River County; on the south by Clackamas
County; and on the west by Washington County. Its county
seat is Portland.
Curry County.
Curry County was created December 18, 1855, by the Territorial Legislature. (General Laws of 1855-6, page 49). It
comprises a part of the southern portion of Coos County. It
was bounded on the south by the California north line; on
the west by the Pacific Ocean; and on the north and east
"beginning at a point on the Pacific Coast at the mouth of
New River, thence east to the dividing ridge of the waters
of the Coquille river and Horse creek; thence following said
divide which separates all of the waters of the Coquille river
from those which discharge themselves directly into the ocean,
until such ridge connects itself with the dividing ridge between
the waters of the Coquille and Rogue rivers; thence east along
said ridge or divide forming the eastern tributaries of John
Mule creek; thence south to the parallel of 42 degs. north
latitude."
It is named for George L. Curry, the last Territorial Governor of Oregon. It is the southwestern County of Oregon.
Curry County is now bounded: on the north by Coos
County; on the east by Josephine County; on the south by
the State of California; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Its county seat is Gold Beach. 5o
Frederick V. Holman
Josephine County.
Josephine County was created January 22, 1856, by the
Territorial Legislature. (General Laws of 1855-6, page 30).
It comprised a part of the western portion of Jackson County.
It is named for Josephine Rollins, a daughter of an early
miner in that part of Oregon.
Josephine County is now bounded: on the north by Douglas
County; on the east by Jackson County; on the south by the
California line; and on the west by Curry County. Its county
seat is Grant's Pass.
Baker County.
Baker County was created September 22, 1862, by the State
Legislature. (General Laws of 1862, page 112). It comprised the eastern part of Wasco County, bounded on the
north by the forty-sixth parallel of latitude, the boundary line
there between Oregon and Washington, on the east by Snake
River to the mouth of the Owyhee River, thence south to the
boundary line between Oregon and Nevada, on the south by
the latter line to the one hundred and eighteenth parallel of
west longtitude, and on the west by the latter longitude and
the summit of the Blue Mountains.
It is named for Col. E. D. Baker, who was a brilliant orator.
He came to Oregon from California in the spring of i860
with the intention of being elected an United States Senator
from Oregon. In this he was successful, being elected in the
autumn of i860. He was killed at the battle of Ball's Bluff,
Virginia, October 21, 1861, while leading a spectacular but
ill-advised charge against the Confederate forces.
Baker County is now bounded: on the north by Union
and Wallowa Counties; on the east by Snake River, the
boundary between Oregon and Idaho; on the south by Malheur County and a portion of Grant County; and on the west
by Grant County.   Its county seat is Baker City. History of the Counties of Oregon
5*
Umatilla County.
Umatilla County was created September 27, 1862, by the
State Legislature. (General Laws of 1862, page 91). It
comprised a part of Wasco County east of the mouth of
Willow Creek, south of the Columbia River and the north
line of Oregon, west of the summit of the Blue Mountains,
and north of the divide between the middle and south forks
of John Day River. It was bounded on the west by the
divide between the middle and south forks of John Day River,
and the divide between the latter river and Willow Creek.
It derives its name from the river which flows through the
county and empties into the Columbia.
The first mention of the name is in the "Original Journals"
of Lewis and Clark, Vol. 4, page 327, under date of April 27,
1806, on their return trip east, up the Columbia River.   It is
there spelled Youmalolam.   It is spelled in various ways in
early books on Oregon:   Umatallow, by Ross in his "Adventures," page 125, under date of August 11, 1811; Otillah, by
Wyeth in the "Journal" of his first  expedition, page  184,
under date of February 14, 1833; Utallah, by Townsend in his
"Narrative," page  151, under date of September 2,  1834;
Umatilla, by Hastings in his "Description," page 39; Umatillo,
by Palmer in his "Journal," page 58, under date of September
19, 1845 > Umatilla, by Farnham in his "Travels in the Great
Western Prairies," page 284.    Gustavus Hines, in his "Oregon," page 163, under date of May 8, 1843, spells the name
Utilla, while in his "Summary," page 322, he spells it Una-
Hlla.   Fedix in his book, "L'Oregon" (1846), page 48, spells
the name  Umotella.    Hall J.  Kelley, in his "Geographical
Sketch," pages 27 and 37, adopts the name Youmalolam as
given by Lewis and Clark.    On the United States map of
1838, and on the British map of 1840 compiled by J. Arrow-
smith, the name of the Umatilla River is spelled Umatallow.
In the autumn of 1834, Captain Louis Eulalie de Bonneville,
U. S. A., known as Captain Bonneville, was at the headwaters I
52
Frederick V. Holman
of the Umatilla River. On page 206 of Volume 2 of "The
Rocky Mountains," by Washington Irving, published in 1837,
and being an account of the adventures of Captain Bonneville, the name of this river is spelled Ottolais. On the map
in this volume the river is shown and spelled Ottolais.
Medorem Crawford was an Oregon immigrant of 1842. In
his manuscript Journal, kept by him on his journey across
the plains, and published by the University of Oregon in 1897,
he says that on September 20, 1842, the party "crossed the
Unadilla" (page 21) meaning the Umatilla River.
It is popularly supposed that there is a tribe of Indians
whose name is Umatilla. This is erroneous. This name, as
applied to Indians, arises from the fact that Indians live on
the Umatilla Indian Reservation and are therefore called
Umatillos. The tribe, whose habitat was partly on the Umatilla River, is the Cay use, a branch of the Shahaptian family.
This family includes the Nez Perce, Walla Walla and other
tribes. The Cayuse was a powerful but treacherous tribe in
early Oregon days, with whom was fought the Cayuse War
of 1847-8, caused by the Whitman massacre.
Umatilla County is now bounded: on the north by the Columbia River and the State of Washington; on the east by Union
County; on the south by Grant County; and on the west by
Morrow County.    Its county seat is Pendleton.
Grant County.
Grant County was created October 14, 1864, by the State
Legislature. (Special Laws of 1864, page 43). It comprised
parts of the eastern portion of Wasco County and of the
southern portion of Umatilla County as those two Counties
then were.
It is named for General U. S. Grant, who, at the time of its
creation, was the most popular Union general in the Civil
war.
Grant County is now bounded: on the north by Umatilla History of the Counties of Oregon
53
County and portions of Morrow and Union Counties; on the
east by Baker County and a small portion of Malheur County;
on the South by Harney County; and on the west by portions
of Wheeler County and Crook County. Its county seat is
Canyon City.
Union  County.
Union County was created October 14, 1864, by the State
Legislature (Special Laws of 1864, page 37). It comprised
a part of the northern portion of Baker County.
Its name was given during the Civil War, when the word
Union was popular and used as a name without particular
regard to its fitness. The motto on the seal of the Territory
of Oregon was "Alis Volat Propriis—she flies with her own
wings. The motto on the seal of the State of Oregon, "The
Union," was adopted June 2, 1859. As was sa^ Dv Judge
M. P. Deady, in a foot-note on page 627, of his compilation
of the Laws of Oregon 1845-1864, "It is to be regretted that
this seal [Territorial Seal] was not continued as the seal of
the State, by simply substituting 'the State of Oregon' for
'the Territory of Oregon.' In design and propriety, it is in
every way superior to the obscure and meaningless one of the
State."
Union County is now triangular in shape, Wallowa County
having been created out of the eastern portion of Union
County. The apex is at the north, on the Washington State
line. By an act of the State Legislature, approved February
18, 1899 (General Laws of 1899, Pa£e ID9)> there was annexed to Wallowa County "all that portion of Union County
lying east of the summit of the Blue Mountains and north of
what is known as Elbow Gulch." Where the forty-sixth parallel of latitude crosses the summit of the Blue Mountains
was the beginning point of the original north line of Union
County.
Union County is now bounded on the north by the Washington State line; on the east by Wallowa County; on the 54
Frederick V. Holman
P
south by portions  of Baker  and Grant  Counties;  and  on
the west by Umatilla County.   Its county seat is La Grande.
Lake County.
Lake County was created October 24, 1874, by the State
Legislature (General Laws of 1874, page 38). It comprised
the southern portion of Wasco County as the latter then was.
It was bounded on the south by the California State line;
on the west by Jackson, Douglas, and Lane Counties; on the
north by the south line of township number twenty-two south
of the Oregon Base line, the present south line of Crook
County; and on the east by the east boundary of township
cumber twenty-three east of the Willamette Meridian.
It derives its name by reason of the numerous lakes within
its boundaries.
Lake County is now bounded: on the north by a portion
of Crook County; on the east by a portion of Harney County;
on the south by the California and Nevada State lines; and
on the west by Klamath County. Its county seat is Lake-
view.
Klamath County.
Klamath County was created October 17, 1882, by the State
Legislature. (Special Laws of 1882, page 107). It comprises
the western portion of Lake County as the latter was originally.
Its name is derived from Klamath Lakes. Upper Klamath
Lake is in Klamath County. Lower Klamath Lake is partly
in that county and partly in Siskiyou County, California.
From the fact that the country around Upper Klamath Lake
is the habitat of an Indian tribe it is usually called the Klamath
tribe.
The name is spelled in various ways in early books on
Oregon: Clammat, in Wyeth's Journal of his first expedition,
page 181; Clamath, in Lee and Frost's "Ten Years in Oregon,"
page 177; Klamac, in Duflot de Mofras' "Exploration," Vol. History of the Counties of Oregon
55
2, page 335; Klamet, in Appendix of George Wilkes' "History
of Oregon," page 102; and Clamet, in Dr. Elijah White's
"Ten Years in Oregon," page 259, and in Farnham's "Travels
in California and Oregon" (1852), page 338. In Farnham's
"Travels" (1843) at pages 246 and 247, the name is spelled
Klamet. In many early books and reports on Oregon the
name is spelled Klamet.
Capt. John C. Fremont, in his exploring expedition to Oregon and north California in 1843-4, went from The Dalles to
California overland, east of the Cascade Mountains and by
Upper Klamath Lake. In his report, dated March 1, 1845,
he writes of this Lake and the Indians living near it, spelling
the name Tlamath. On page 196 of this report, under date
of November 18, 1843, he: says: "The first of these points
was the Tlamath lake, .... from which lake a river
of the same name makes its way westwardly direct to the
ocean. This lake and river are often called Klamet, but I
have chosen to write its name according to the Indian pronunciation."
Mr. T. C. Elliott, of Walla Walla, Washington, who has
a copy of Peter Skene Ogden's Journal, has informed me
that Ogden was at or near Klamath Lake in the autumn of
1826. In this Journal the name is spelled Clamitte. The
Lake and Indians had been named or the name ascertained
previous to Ogden's trip, presumably by Hudson's Bay Company's trappers, under Finan McDonald, who were there in
1825.
Report No. 31, House of Representatives, 27th Congress,
3rd Session, was ordered to be printed January 4, 1843. It
is the report of the Committee on Military Affairs on the
establishment of military posts from Council Bluffs to the •
Pacific Ocean. An Appendix of this Report (pages 56-61 )T
consists of extracts from the Journal of Capt. Spalding, who
was in command of the ship Lausanne, which brought to
Oregon, in 1840, what is called "the great re-enforcement" to 56
Frederick V. Holman
the Oregon Methodist Missions.   In this Journal Capt. Spalding calls these Indians, Climath.
In Wilkes' "Western America," pages 57 and 58, he calls
the Klamath River "The Klamet or Tootootutna River." On
page 101, quoting from Hale, he says: "On the lower part
of the Klamet River are the Tototune, known by the unfavorable sobriquet of the Rogue or Rascal Indians," and also
says that the name Klamet is probably "a term of Chinook
origin." On the map in the Atlas of Wilkes' "Narrative" and
on the map bound in Wilkes' "Western America," the Indian
tribe near Klamath Lakes is designated as "Klamet or
Lutuami."
In Volume 1, page 712 of "Handbook of Indian Tribes
North of Mexico," being a report of the Bureau of Ethnology
of the Smithsonian Institution, dated July 1, 1905, it is said
of the Klamath Indians: "A Lutumanian tribe in S. W.
Oregon. They call themselves Eukshikni or Auksni, 'people
of the lake', referring to the fact that their principal seats
were on Upper Klamath Lake."
Klamath County is now bounded on the north by portions
of Crook and Lane Counties; on the east by Lake County; on
the south by the California State line; and on the west by
Jackson and Douglas Counties and a portion of Lane County.
Its county seat is Klamath Falls.
Crook County.
Crook County was created October 24, 1882, by the State
Legislature. (Special Laws of 1882, page 178). It comprises
a part of the southern portion of Wasco County, as the latter
was after Lake County was created. Crook County's northern
line begins at the western boundary line of Wasco County
where it "is intersected by the line between townships eight
and nine south." This northern line of Crook County runs
east to the John Day River. The line then runs up the main
channel of said river to the west line of Grant County. The
rest of the east line of Crook County is the line then between History of the Counties of Oregon
57
Grant and Wasco Counties. The southern line is the line then
between Lake and Wasco Counties to the east line of Lane
County. The western line is the line as it then was between
Lane and Linn Counties, and Wasco County.
It is named for Major-General George Crook, U. S. A., who
had command, at one time, of the Department of the Columbia.
He was an officer who had greatly distinguished himself in
the Civil war. After this war he won great fame by his
successful compaigns -against the Indians, in Idaho and Arizona, and later against the Sioux and Cheyennes. In every
Indian campaign he was successful. After the Custer Massacre, June 26, 1876, Gen. Crook fought the Indians engaged
in that massacre, inflicting a severe defeat on them in Dakota
and completely reduced them to subjection. In 1882 he went
to Arizona and carried on another successful campaign against
the Indians. There never has been another Indian fighter
more successful than Gen. Crook. He belonged to the class
of "rough and ready" fighters of Indians. He was humane
to the Indians in time of peace and was highly respected by
them. Throughout the country, west of the Mississippi
River, his fame is established for all time. It is fitting that
a county of Oregon should be named for him.
Crook County is now bounded: on the north by Wasco
County; on the east by portions of Wheeler, Grant, and
Harney Counties; on the south by Lake County and a portion
of Klamath County; and on the west by Linn, and portions
of Lane and Marion Counties.   Its county seat is Prineville.
Morrow County.
Morrow County was created February 16, 1885, by the
State Legislature. (Special Laws of 1885, Pa€Te 239)- It
comprises a part of the western portion of Umatilla County,
as the latter then was.
It is named for Jackson L. Morrow, who is an old
resident of what was created Morrow County. He was a
member of the Oregon Legislature when the bill passed. 58
Frederick V. Holman
Morrow County is now bounded: on the north by the
Columbia River; on the east by Umatilla County; on the south
by portions of Grant and Wheeler Counties; and on the
west by Gilliam County and a small portion of Wheeler
County.   Its county seat is Heppner.
Gilliam County.
Gilliam County was created February 25, 1885, by the
State Legislature. (Special Laws of .1885, page 404). It
comprises the northeastern portion of Wasco County, as the
latter then was, and a part of the western portion of Umatilla
County, as the latter was prior to the creation of Morrow
County, nine days previous to the creation of Gilliam County,
the latter being west of Morrow County.
It is named for Colonel Cornelius Gilliam, an Oregon
pioneer of 1844, who was accidentally killed at Wells Springs,
March 20, 1848, while in command of the Oregon Volunteer
forces in the Cayuse Indian war. This war was fought
against the Indians wholly under the Oregon Provisional Government by Volunteers from the Willamette Valley. He was
worthy of having an Oregon county named for him.
Gilliam County is now bounded: on the north by the Columbia River; on the east by Morrow County; on the south by
Wheeler County and a very small portion of Morrow County;
and on the west by the John Day River, the common boundary of Gilliam and Sherman Counties and a very small portion
of Wasco County. The small portions of Morrow County
on the south, and of Wasco County on the west is due to the
south line of Gilliam County being one mile south of the
First Standard Parallel south.    Its county seat is Condon.
Wallowa County.
Wallowa County was created February 11, 1887, by the
State Legislature. (General Laws of 1887, page 142). It
comprises a* part of the eastern portion of the original Union
County.   It is the northeastern County of Oregon. History of the Counties of Oregon
59
The name is that of the beautiful Wallowa Lake and its
outlet, the Wallowa River.
The part of Oregon which comprises Wallowa County, in
early days was isolated. It was far from the usually travelled
route of early travellers, fur-traders, and immigrants. In
October, 1805, and in May, 1806, the Lewis and Clark expedition was at the mouth of the Clearwater River, which
Lewis and Clark called the Kooskooskee. Lewiston, Idaho,
is situated at the junction of the Clearwater with the Snake
River. Wallowa County is a short distance south of Lewis-
ton. Lewis and Clark's expedition did not go into what is
now Wallowa County.
In the winter of 1811-2, Wilson Price Hunt and his party
en route, overland, to Astoria, attempted to descend the Snake
River. They started in canoes, but they were compelled to
abandon their canoes, and proceed down the banks of the
river, some of the party being on the east side, the others on
the west side of the Snake River. The whole party nearly
perished from hunger and other hardships. December 24,
1811, the party left the Snake River and proceeded westward
to the Columbia River, which they reached January 21, 1812,
at a point not far south of the Walla Walla River. On the
way from the Snake River to the Columbia, the exact route
of the party is not described nor can it definitely be ascertained,
but undoubtedly it was through what is now Wallowa County,
probably south of Wallowa Lake. The only river or stream
between the Snake River and the Columbia which is mentioned by name, except Walla Walla River, it is said "was
called by the natives Eu-o-tal-la, or Umatalla." (living's
"Astoria", Vol. 2, page 65).
In 1833 and J834> Capt. Bonneville and his party were in
what is now Wallowa County. He does not mention the name
Wallowa. He does mention the Imnaha River, which he calls
the Immahah, and the Way-lee-way which is the Nez Perce
name of the Grande Ronde River.
The eastern and southern parts of Wallowa County, in- 6o
Frederick V. Holman
eluding the Wallowa Valley, were the habitat of the Lower
Nez Perce Indians, at the time of the beginning of the noted
war with them, which began in June, 1877, and ended in
October of the same year. Their Chief was the famous
Indian known as Chief Joseph.
To be certain of the meaning or origin of the name, I
wrote to A. C. Smith, now living at Enterprise, in Wallowa
County.    For may years he lived with the Indians, in that
vicinity, and speaks one or more of the tribal languages.   He
kindly wrote me saying that he had learned from the Umatilla
and the  Nez  Perce  Indians that the Wallowa River was
named by the fact that, many generations ago, the Nez Perce
Indians placed the first fish trap in that river, and the salmon
failed, from some cause unknown to them, to go into the trap
and, after leaving the trap set in the river until time to go
into their  winter  quarters,  they  arrived  at  a  superstitious
notion that some charm had intervened to prevent the fish
from going in.    And so, when they went away, they left the
trap standing in the river, to be destroyed by the floods, although in other rivers it had been their constant practice to
haul the most valuable timbers out of the river for use the
next summer and to save them from destruction from the next
spring's floods.    Thereafter the river was always called by
them by the name "fish trap," an Indian word for which is
Wallowa.
Wallowa County is now bounded: on the north by the
State of Washington; on the east by the Snake River; the
boundary between the States of Oregon and Idaho; on the
south by Baker County; and on the west by Union County.
Its county seat is Enterprise.
Malheur County.
Malheur County was  created  February  17,  1887, by the
State Legislature.    (General Laws of 1887, page 138).    It
comprises  what  was the  southern  and  middle portions  of
Baker County.   It is the southeastern county of Oregon. History of the Counties of Oregon 61
It is named for the Malheur River, which runs through the
County, flowing into Snake River. Malheur is a French word
meaning misfortune; bad luck; disaster. Literally it means
"evil hour." In French its meaning is opposite to that of the
word "bonheur." The origin of the name as applied to the
River, I have obtained through the courtesy of Mr. T. C.
Elliott of Walla Walla, Washington, who is an historical
student, well versed in the history of Oregon and Washington.
He has a copy of the manuscript Journal of Peter Skene
Ogden, the original of which is in the possession of the
Hudson's Bay Company at its headquarters in London, England. In Ogden's "Journal" of his second trip to the Snake
River country in 1825-6, under date of February 14, 1826, is
the following entry:
"Started early; sent my two Snake hunters out with six
traps each and 2 horses to North side of river. I also gave
them two scalping knives % doz rings, % doz buttons to
trade and 20 balls to hunt. I have now all my trappers in
motion; we encamped on River au Malheur (unfortunate
River) so called on account of goods and furs hid here discovered and stolen by the natives. Gervaise killed 2 small
deer, 3 beaver."
After a very careful study of the matter Mr. Elliott is of
the opinion that the name Malheur was given to the river by
Donald McKenzie, one of the officers of the Hudson's Bay
Company, who, previous to Ogden's trip in 1826, had charge
of a party of trappers in that part of the country. McKenzie
had maintained a temporary trading post, for about a year,
at the mouth of the Payette River, a short distance from the
mouth of the Malheur River. The entry in Ogden's "Journal"
indicates that the river had been named before he arrived
there.
I have the very rare pamphlet, published at Washington,
D. C, in 1846, entitled "Route and Distance to Oregon and
California," written by J. M. Shively, an Oregon pioneer of
. */P** Journal is published in full in the Quarterly of the Oregon Historical
oociety for December, 1910. 62
Frederick V. Holman
1845, whose donation claim is a part of the present City of
Astoria, platted as Shively's Astoria. Shively went to the
Eastern States in 1846 and returned to Astoria in 1847. It is
a guide book for Oregon immigrants intending to cross the
plains and is replete with good advice, which must have been
of great aid to immigrants as it sets forth what supplies should
be taken, the kind of wagons and animals to be used, where
good camping places and water could be found, and a table of
distances. On page 10, in two places, he speaks of the Malheur River and calls it the Mallair River.
Malheur County is now bounded: on the north by Baker
County and the Snake River; on the east by the Snake River
and the State of Idaho; on the south by the State of Nevada;
and on the west by Harney County and a small