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The founding of Kamloops : A story of 100 years ago : A souvenir of the Kamloops Centenary Celebration… Wade, Mark Sweeten, 1858-1929 1912

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Array    OLD  HUDSON'S   BAY  FORT Hfyt Jfotmbmg of 3&mtloop*
A Story of 100 Years Ago
::   ::   By M.   S. Wade   ::   ::
A Souvenir of the Kamloops
j* Centenary Celebration >
September 17,18 and 19,1912
$rinttb bp ttje 3nlanb &tntinel |Jr«8
 ftamloops, JB.C	 ^>2>nopgig
<lf The first white man to visit Kamloops was David
Stuart in 1811.
<ff The first Trading Post at Kamloops was established
by David Stuart, of the Pacific Fur Company, in
1812:  the Founding of Kamloops.
<H The North-west Company established a Post at
the same place later in the same year.
. <j[ The North-west Company bought out the Pacific
Fur Company in 1813.
<f The North-west Company and the Hudson's Bay
Company Amalgamated under the last-named 1821 ®fje Jfomtbms of kamloops
he founding of Kamloops was not marked by any of
the. eclat that in the. present day attends the beginning
of a new town. The modern city is established deliberately, plans drawn, site surveyed, and sale of
lots advertised, and there suddenly springs into existence a new-born town. The beginning of Kamloops
was much more modestly brought to pass, and with
inSMtejly more romance.
The fur traders were the pioneers of the west. The Hudson's
Bay Company exercised their business over the .prairies, but the
North West Company extended their operations farther afield,
crossing the Rocky Mountains into what is now British Columbia, and built the first fort to ftre erected in the province. This
was done in the year 1805 when Simon Fraser founded Fort Mc-
Leod, the first permanent trading post in B. C. Confining their
operations at first to the northern part of the province, the
North West Company soon begjan to work their -way southward.
While they were so engaged another factor entered the fur trading field, the'Pacific Fur Company, who with the mouth of the
Columbia as their starting point, gradually extended their posts
northward. That they should meet and clash, as had the conflicting interests of the Hudson's Bay and Northwest Companies
on the prairies need occasion no wonder.
Before 1811, Kamloops district was the'home of Indians who
had never seen a white man.
The first white man to visit Kamloops was David Stuart, a
partner of the Pacific Fur Company, whose headquarters were
at Astoria, Ore. Although the Shuswaps had not seen a white
man prior to that date they had heard about them and the
wonderful things they could do with the 'firearms .they possessed
They had learned this from an Indian chief from Spokane
named Pilakamu'lahuh, connected through his mother with the
Indians of the Okanagan country, and whose wife,,'or one of his
several wives, came from the Similkameen country. r
ilakamulahuh, a member of a party of Indians engaged in a hufialo hunt, met a party of Canadian trap-
| pers at Hell's Gate Pass, near the present site     of
] Helena,     Montana.    Upon   the   return   of   the   Inns   across   tiie     Rocky      Mountains      two     of
I the trappers, Finan Maodonald, and Legace, accompan-
1 ied them as guests   of   the   Colville   chief who took
——' them to his winter quarters at Kettle Falls on the
Columbia river where they married two of his daughters.
Finan Macdonald subsequently, in 1812, was in charge of the
trading post established by the Northwest Company among the
Pilakamulahuh wintered at Penticton and entertained the Indians with tales of the white man and their doings. He became
famed as a story teller and was invited from village to village
to tell his wonderful tales and ultimately Tokane, chief of the
Kamloops Indians, invited him to visit his people and they
then heard of the white men.
s established in the spring of 1811 by the Pacific
i concern created by John Jacob Astor of New
Astoria w
Fur Company,
They at once established trading posts, or forts, in the Interior. One of these was Fort Okanagan, at the junction of
the Okanagan river with the ColumWa. David Stuart and Alexander   Ross, with others, were in charge.
It was accepted as a fact by many historians until a few
years ago that Kamloops was established by David Thompson
of the Northwest Company, hut his own journals show clearly
that he never was at Kamloops and never even saw the Thompson river, whioh was named after him by Simon Fraser, of ,the
same company.
n September 16th, 1811, four men left Fort Okanagan
on horseback on an expedition into the unknown' land
lying to the north. These men were David Stuart,
one of' the partners of the Pacific Fur Company; two
Canadian voyageurs, Montignyi and Boullard, and one
other whose name has not been handed down. They
had no special point in view; thedr mission was to
find a ifur country and' Indiiafcs with whom they could
trade, receiving furs for such goods as they hald to offer,. Ascending the valley of the Okanagan river, they reached Osoyoos  JOHN   TOD, Lake, thence followed, the west shore of Okanagan Lake, traversed Grand Prairie and emerged on the South Thompson near
Ducks. They then made their way to the large Indian village at
■the junction of the North and South Thompson rivers—Kamloops, which means "The meeting of the waters." They were
well received and as their journey had consumed several weeks,
winter came upon them .ere they were ready for the return
journey. They -spent the winter'wi'th 'the Indians and itiwas not
until February 1812 that they set out for Fort Okanagan where
they arrived in March. The visit had shown Stuart that the
Shuswap Indians were good hunters and profitable to trade
with, and he then and there decided to keep in .touch with them
and instructed Alexander Ross to take a fresh supply of merchandise to Kamloops and do what trading he could. Meanwhile
Stuart set out for headquarters at Astoria.
Early in 1*12, the first meeting of the partners in the Pacific Fur Company was held at Fort Astoria, and among the
resolutions passed was this one: "That Mr. David Stuart
proceed to his post at Oaklnacken, explore the country northward, and establish another post between that and New Caledonia.''' The new post suggested in this resolution was to be
at Kamloops, whither Mr. Stuart had, prior to leaving Fort
Okanagan' for Astoria instructed his subordinate, Alexander
Ross, to proceed to continue the trading and friendly relations
already established by himself. Ross thus describes the expedition:—
"On the 6th of May 1 started with Boullard and an Indian,
with sixteen horses, on a trading excursion, and following Mr.
Stuart's route of last winter, reached the She Waps on Thompson river, the tenth day, and there encamped at a place called
by the Indians Cumcloups, near the entrance of the North
Branch. From this stattoh I sent messages to . the different
tribes around, who soon assembled, bringing with them their
furs. Here we stayed for ten days. The number of Indians
collected on the occasion could not have been less than 2,000,"
(and the one white man, Ross, alone amongst them with his
trading outfit!')'. "Not expecting to see so many, I had taken
but a small quantity of goods with me; nevertheless, we
loaded all our horses—so anxious were they to trade, and so fond
of leaf tobacco, that one morning, before breakfast I obtained
one hundred and ten beavers for rpal tobacco, at the rate of
five leaves per skin, and at last, when I had but one yard of
white cotton remaining, one of the chiefs gave me twenty prime
beaver skins for it. Having finished our trade we prepared   to return home; but before we could get our odds and ends ready.
Boullard, my trusty second, got involved in a love affair, which
bad nearly involved us all in a disagreeable scrape with the Indians. He was as full of latent tricks as a serpent is full of
guile. Unknown to me, the old fellow had been teasing the Indians for a wife, and had already an old squaw at his heels,
but could not raise the wind to pay the whole purchase money.
With an air of effrontery he asked me to unload one of my
horses to satisfy the deanands of the old father-in-law, and because I refused him, .he threatened to leave me and to remain
with the savages. Provoked by his conduct, I suddenly turned
round and horsewhipped the fellow and, fortunately the Indians did not interfere. The castigation had a good effiect, it
brought the amorous gallant to frs senses—the squaw was left
behind." Shortly after Ross reached Fort Okanagan Stuart reached there from Astoria.
n the same year on August 25th, Mr. Stuart, with
men and merchandise, set out from Oakinacken for
"She Waps," to carry out the instructions issued at
I Astoria, to establish a regular trading post at that
point. His pack animals were laden with articles for
I trading and when he reached Kamloops rin September
I he lost no time in placing the goods within four solid
walls. The< exact location of this first trading post
can only he conjectured but if the testimony of old Indians is
trustworthy, it was built on the south bank of the Thompson,
on the site, in fact of the present city. Stuart had not arrived at Kamloops any too soon, for the Northwesters were not
idle. They kaew of every move the Astorians made and it was
their policy to "enter into vigorous opposition to them, much
as they> had done with respect to the older concern, the Hudson's Bay Company. Stuart did not let the grass grow under
his feet; he built his fort and established himself in it, but he
was not long left alone. One day arrived a party of Northr
westers and they in turn built a fort and opened up business,
one of the company's clerks, Joseph La Roque, toeing in charge,
■n December 20th, Mi. Ross, who had been again left
in oharge of Fort Oakinacken left the fort to pav
a visit to his chief at "Cumcloups," where he arrived on the last day of 1912. He found that Mr.
Stuart had just established himself in his winter
quarters, and that the Northwest Company following
hard on his heels, had built a post alongside of him. "so that," wrote Ross, "there was opposition there as
well as at Mr. Clarke's place, without the trickery and
manoeuvring. M.      Lp. Roque,  the    Northwest    clerk     in
charge, and Mr. Stuart' were both open and candid and
on friendly terms." With Mr. Stuart, Ross remained for five
days, and then returned to Fort Oalkinacken, following a new
route. He wrote: "But I chose a bad season in the year to
satisfy my curiosity. We got bewildered in the mountains and
deep snows, and our progress was exceedingly slow, tedious and
discouraging. We were five days in making as many miles." After suffering hunger and privations, shared by man and beast,
Ross reached an Indian camp where a day was spent to recuperate, "procured some furs, and then, following, the course of
the Similkameen river got to Oakinackem at the forks," reaching ihe fort on January 24th, 1813.
i n May 13th, Mr. Stuart, with his men and furs, ar-
I rived at Fork Okanagan from Kamloops. Later in
same year Stuart returned to Kamloops and while
was there, the Northwest Company purchased the
I entire property of .the Pacific Fur Company, the tran-
I saction being completed in November, 1813. Stuart
?as recalled and a Northwester named Macdonald left
a charge at Kamloops, until replaced in the spring
of 1814 by Alexander Ross, who had joined the Northwesters.
Ross remained in charge until 1817.
In 1815 a man named Oharette who had been left temporarily in charge of Kamloops by Ross was shot and killed by a
young Indian after a quarrel over a camping ground.
That winter, 181-5-6, Ross spent fur hunting between She-
waps and Okanagan, returning to Fort George, as was the cus
torn, in the spring for supplies, again going north to his old
post in time for the winter trapping. jHe recounts how on this
journey one of his men, named Brousseau, fell sick and was unable to continue. The only course left was to make him comfortable, place him in charge of another man, leave a supply of
food and let him remain untfil either recovery or death. As the
case was considered hopeless, the nurse was given a spade with
which to dig the grave should the sick man die. Ten days afterwards the nurse arrived at kamloops with the news of the
patient's death and as for the spade, the Indians had stolen it.
All this passed for truth, until some time afterwards, who
should turn up but poor dead Brousseau, escorted by some friendly Indians. The nurse had become frightened at the approach of Indians and had taken to his heels,, leaving the'poor sick trapper to his fate, and but for the kindly offices of some natives
he would have died.
The following year, 1817, Ross made a trip to Canoe River
in pursuance of orders from headquarters "to examine the eastern section, lying between She-whaps and the Rocky Mountains;
a large tract of wild country never trodden before by the foot
of any white man."
He went as far as Canoe river, did not think much of the
outlook and retraced his steps. Soon after his return to Kamloops
or Fort Thompson, as it was then called, Ross journeyed to
Astoria and did not again visit his old post.
Ross relates going on a bear hunt with some of the Kamloops Indian chiefs after his return irom the journey to Camoe
river. They only went ten miles from, the fort before they commenced operations and, in two days the party killed seven bears,
nine wolves and eleven small deer. "On these occasions," said
•Ross, ''they feel flattered by their traders accompanying them.
The party were all mounted on horseback, to the number of
seventy-three, and exhibited a fine display of horsemanship."
One of the party, "the chief Pacha of the hunting party," who
rejoiced in the name of Short Legs, was severely wounded in
the head by a female bear and Ross acted the part oE surgeon
with some skill and considerable success, removing several portions of the skull-from the wound, "I extracted a bone measuring two inches long, of an oblong form, and another of an inch
square, with several smaller pieces." In fifteen days the Indian
who was after all a good for nothing, was up and about, to
the delight of himself and his near relations, but to the disgust of the men at tthe font against whom he was constantly
■j he life led by these hardy pioneers was a rough and
arduous one but the records left by them do not 'indicate that they felt they were engaged in anything
out of the ordinary run. Ross throws much light
upon what were considered the duties, troubles and
I pleasures of the tfur trader's life. ''And one of the
J greatest pleasures, here alluded to, consists in .doing
J homage to the great. A chief arrives, the honor of
waiting upon- him in a servile capacity falls to your share, if
you are inot above your business. You go forth to meet him;
you invitef'him in; see him seated; and if need require it, you un- BOARD   OF   TRADE   OFFICES
L tie bis boots, and dry his socks. You next hand 'him food,
water and .tobacco, and you must smoke along with him. After
which, you must listen with grave attention to all he has got
to say on Indian topics, and show your sense of value of his
information by 'giving him some trinkets, and sometimes even
articles of value, in return. But Ihe grand point df all this
ceremony is to know, how far you should go in these matters,
and when you Should stop. By overdoing the tibinig, you may
entail on yourself endless troubles. When not employed in exploring new and unfrequented parts, involved in difficulties with
the 'natives or Indians everything goes on smoothly. Each trading post has its' leader, its interpreter, and its own complement Of hands;- and when things tare put in proper iaain, according to the customs of the country,' the 'business of the year
proceeds without much trouble, and leaves you sufficient time
for recreation. You take your gun on your back; you can instruct your family, or improve yourself in reading and reflection; you can enjoy the pleasures of religion to better advantage, serve your God to more perfection, and be a far better
Christian that were your lot oast in the midst of temptations
of a busy world.'''
n 1821 the Hudson's Bay Company, entered into iBrit-
iish Cotomlbia, not by Ihe building of trading posts of
their own in competition with those of Ithe Northwest
Company, but by the amalgamation of the two concerns under the name of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Kamloops was not founded by the Hudson's Bay Company as so manv assume, but that company has,
through its amalgamation with the (Nor-thwesiters,
who had purchased the Pacific Fur Company's business, acquired
in this roundalbout'way, a claim to be considered the legal representatives of its founders
The first pioneers received their supplies overland from
Montreal via Ft. Williami and across the continent by canoe and
portage; a long weairisome journey and they so continued to
get their supplies until the desirability of a more expeditious
mode became sufficiently recognized. The Pacific Fur Company
had shown the feasibility of taking supplies from the coast into
the Interior of the Thompson'district, She-whaps as 'Ross called
ity by way of the Columbia to Fort Okanagan and thence by
pack animals overland to their fort at Kamloops. In 1*21 this
route was adopted for carrying supplies to the forts in New
Caledonia, a   distributing station being established at Alexan- dria on.the Fraser. To that point the pack trains went from
Kamloops following the North Thompson to Little Fort and
thence to Bridge Creek, Liae la Hache and on to Alexandria.
Su|!>se<iuently.tbe route was ohanged and the trains (followed the
north shore of Kamloops Lake to Copper Creek, opposite Sa-
vona, ascending that stream across the hills- to Deadman's
Creek, and then toy way of Loon Lake and Green Lake on to
Alexandria. To Alexandria came the boats and canoes from the
post at Fort George, Fort James, etc., and received supplies
•brought by the pack trains, toy which in turn, the pelts ©altered at the northern forts were taken south and ultimately leached Fort Vancouver, which in 1824 had superceded the post at
Astoria. From Vancouver the furs were taken round the Horn
by the vessels that hrought the enormous supplies required for
the system of posts in Oregon,  Thompson and New Caledonia.
iter the amalgamation John McLeod was in charge
of Fort Thompson (Kamloops,) until 1826 and was
succeeded by Archibald McDonald for a short period.
When Sir George Simpson, governor of the Hudson's
Bay Company visited the post in 182'8, trader Francis
Ermatfaiger was its chief. Then.'followed Sn 18®2i Samuel Black,, formerly a Northwester. Black was a
Scotchman and .once entertained a distinguished fellow countryman, (David Douglas, the noted botanist, at the fort
in 1833. It is related that over the nightly cup -of toddy, probably replenished several times, the guest bluntly told his host
that in his opinion the fur traders had not a soul above a beaver skin, whereupon Black took.instant fire and challenged Mr.
Douglas to mortal oomfbat, but the latter took his departure
early in the morning and so avoided the duel. In 1841 Thompson district was added to New Caledonia. During the winter 0f
1841-2, Black was (foully murdered by a nephew of a deceased
chief, named Tranquille.
"Tranquitte, chief of an Indian tribe near the fort had
died lately, and the widow, in her grief and concern for ihe departed, had told her son, a fine youth of' 18, well disposed and
quiet, that the fether's spirit should be accompanied by the
spirit of some chief' of equal rank. This was urged daily1 until
.the youth, wohb by importunity and a supposed sense ofdutv
to his deceased father, seized his gun and sat himself down
•moodily in the 'ball of the Kamloops fort. Something in his appearance caused a servant to remark to Mr. Black that the .Indian looked dangerous, but the   latter said   that probably    the boy was ailing. Soon afterward, on Mr.. Black crossing the hall
from one room toward another, the Indian suddenly rose and
fired at his back, and the bullet passed through the victim's
'heart and body and lodged in the wall.
lack was buried at the fort, the body being wrapped
in a horse bide and enclosed in a box made of hewn
boards. When the next brigade set out for the trip
south it was decided to send Black's body to the
Dalles. Early in the journey it became necessary to
convey the furs and Black's body across a stream on
foot, a tree felled across it serving as a 'bridge. The
box was cumbersome and heavy, and one of the Indians bearing it slipped and bearers and box fell into the
stream. The effect was such as to render it impassible to carry out the plan of conveying the body to the Dalles and it was
buried at Ducks,, where it has since rested undisturbed.
Word of the murder was taken to 'Fort Alexandria, 270
miles distant, by a French Canadian, who told John Tod, the
trader in charge there, that all the men,at Fort Kamloops bad
fled. Next morning Tod, with the French Canadian and two
others set out for Kamloops, which they found deserted save
for Black's widow and children.
Armed parties of Hudson's Bay- men soon reached Kamloops
from -Forts Columbia and Vancouver and these began to terrorize the Indians. Tod returning to Vancouver. Later the
armed force was withdrawn and Tod placed in charge at Kamloops with permission to use his discretion in handling the
situation. 'lie soon re-established the old friendly feeling with
the Indians who furnished a guide to the murderer's camp, but
it was several months before he was captured. Placed in a
canoe by his captors, he-upset it midstream and tried to escape but was shot and killed.
amloops was the capital of the Thompson district
and the fort was strongly palisaded; .within the stockade there was room for the large brigade employed
in the transportation of furs and goods. These pack
trains were large affairs, numbering from 200 to 300
animals. In the winter season they were turned out
on the hills near the fort where there was then abundant ' pasture and in the spring the band was gathered in, fat and sleek
■The original building on the south side of the Thompson
had long ago been dispensed with and replaced by a fort built near the Indian village, on the present reserve on the east side
of the North Thompson. The only trace left of that fort are a
few stones that had (formed part of the chimney, and the hearth
stone. When the latter was uncovered, August of this year, on
it were ashes and pieces of calcined bones.
Tod built a new one on the opposite side of the stream, differing little from the forts afterwards built at other points by
the Hudson's Bay Company. It consisted of several buildings,
used as stores, dwellings and shops, enclosed within palisades
15 feet high, with gates on two sides and bastions at two opposite angles. To the older building were added strongly stockaded corrals for the hundreds of horses bred and kept at this
post. Within thefort dwelt the chief trader with his Indian
wife ,and their three children, half a( and a halfbreed
boy. Protected only- by this small force, a large stock -of trinkets and supplies o* all kinds were kept on band with which to
trade with' the Indians, to the number of several hundred, who
made Kamloops their trading point. Seven tribes traded' here,
coming from Kootenay, Okanagan, Similkameen, and other distant illahies for that.purpose.
Tod was resourceful, without knowledge of fear and thoroughly understood the native character. Informed on one occasion
by a friendly Indian of' a conspiracy to attack the fort, murder Its inmates and seize the contents, by a band of Indians
then on the Eraser, Tod set out to where they were assembled,
He rode alone towards them and throwing has sword and pistols to the ground, aroused their curiosity by making 'his horse
perform all manner of evolutions, and wound up by charging
into their midst, demanding what they wanted. "We want to see
Lolo; where is he?" ithey ■ emanded in turn. Then he told them
Lolo had the small pox (which was untrue,) assured them of
his love for his red brothers and proceeded to vaccinate them.
They feared small' pox more than death itself and hailed Mm
as their saviour. The vaccinating was done none too gently with
a blunt knife and the conspirators were soon incapable of further mischief.
he changes, and rumors of ohanges, in the company's
business. in the western department consequent upon
the Oregon Treaty of 1846, tended to disturb <fthe Indian mind as to the future, though these changes,
practically, did not affect a band of Indians trading
usually at the fort, but which did not affiliate with
the Indians of any "nation" permitted by Tod to en-
oamp in the neighborhood while waiting to proceed to MPERIAL   BANK NEW HOSPITAL, formally opened by H.R.H.  Duke of  Connaught,
September 17,   1912 a distant hunting ground on a further opening of the     spring
The news tpread widely, even so far as Okanagan Forks
over 200 miltes distant south. "Nicola," a very great chieftain
and a hold man, for he had 17 wives,-' naively writes the trader,
'■'ruled the Indians there, and claimed lordship over a territory
as big as #«■ half of Scotland, stretching far into the present
British Oolumtoia, an administrative district which still bears
his name. The band permitted to encamp was, unfortunately,
the hereditary enemy of Nicola's people. The old chief sat for
two days pondering, then jumped up and spoke to his warriors
of the misdeeds of the encamping tribe which had ventured into
land under his'own (claimed) jurisdiction, and be urged them
•if they had the hearts of men and not of women, to wipe out
those people. ''Let us march!" exclaimed the young men. ''Nay,
not yet!" interposed Nicola, for we lack, ammunition."
What happened is thus related by Tod:
"My first hint of impending mischief was the desire of an
Indian for a gun and a quantity of ammunition as the price of
ten-skins, instead of, as usual, taking blankets and oloth as pay
of the barter. We are going, to the Blackfeet country,' said he.
Next week; another came with the same story, tout toy, that
time I had heard of Nicola's speech and said I had no ammunition to spare, whereupon, leaving his (bundle of furs in ihe store,
the Indfeai'hurried toackt to Nicola to report progress, or rather
failure, which so confounded the old chief that he again sat, for
several days,, I,was .told, in meditation. 'This man of the Kamloops fort,' finally said he 'in a great speech, 'shelters our enemies and refuses to trade; we will take the fort and all there
•is in it and have our reverse on our enemies.' Spies told me
of this decision and of the approach of the Nicola war party,
painted and prancing along the bank of the South Thompson
river, which caused the half-dozen French Canadians at the fort
to flee hurriedly—thou$i the wife of one upbraided him as a
coward—and caused many other white men who were near to
depart, as also the encamped band that was the cause of the
t was now my turn, like j the old chief, Nicola, to sit
down and ponder, but my pondering occupied minutes
instead of days. Seizing an Indian, who passed the fort
gate on foot, I dragged him roughly inside and compelled him to bring from the store a barrel of gunpowder and place it near the door. Then, opening the
barrel, I spilled the contents all over the doorway and
directed the Indian to bring me a flint and steel, on Iff"
which request he bolted, but I caught him, saying: 'Not yet; '•!
only wish to see that the flint will act.' We tried several and
at last got a good apparatus. Thrusting the man out of the fort
I then laid ,a train'ef po.wder to the mass of' it and sat down
to wait. In about an'hour the local v Indian, Lolo, or Paul, with
a Nicola Indian from -the war party—the latter whitewashed as
when not meditating a war parley—approached in a canoe. These
I addressed from the bank of the river at the fort, driving .them
off with reproaetoes: 'Begone, and quick!, I 'want you no-ti; where
is. that woman chief of yours? -Where is he, lam alone here,
and Nicola fears bis tribe to attack a single man," and so forth.
'•'Nicola, to whom the Indian twho had,seen .the powder spilling ran, held councils tout did not risk an attack. The Indians
knew the efflect of a flask exploded, tout a toarrel, they conceived
might devastate the whole district." And this, ended the incident.
Tod iremained fa charge of Kamloops until l'8'5-0 when his
place was takes by Paul Fraser, a son of the oelebrated Simon
Fraser. He: was born at Glengarry, Ontario, and entered, the
service of the Hudson's Bay Company when nineteen yeasrs <of
age. He was not a popular officer, being rfcoo curt and overbearing, not ialone towards his subordinates, hut to his torotiher
officers as well. The Hudson's Bay, people toad a method of their
own for enforcing discipline and punishing misdemeanors', toyflhe
indiscriminate flogging and beating of the Indians and haM-
breeds. Piaul- Fraser had ample in ihe efficiency of this
summary administration of "club" law, and was considered a
capable officer, for this reason, by his superiors. For some offence, not recorded but probably trivial enough, Fraser administered to Falardeau, one of his men, a French Canadian, so
severe oastigation that death resulted. It fell to one Batiste,
an Iroquois, to make the coffin for the murdered man, for no
other term adequately oovers the unode of Falardeau's death.
While so engaged, planing and shaping the boards, Fraser passed by him and'observing Ms, occupation, roughly told him that
"rough, unplaned boards are good enough for that rascal."
Baptiste stared at Fraser a moment in amazement and then
exclaimed with characteristic blumtness, .-"When you die you may-
not have even rough boards to be buried in." As though a
spirit of prophesy had prompted the frank reply, two months
later Fraser was suddenly killed while camping on Mason's
Mountain, Similkiameen, and buried'on the spot without ooflin
of any description'. He was sitting in his tent reading, while
bis men were preparing their camp.   Some of these were engag-
1 A Few of
Residences ,£^.
1*\ w L  !
,                -•""••
sgji i {lilyp^
1 i:yH«j|
■ ?3b&
'..;.:-    -          :rr?-»-™-_—^__
l.*--i F
■Hxk^   pi i It
? -
Illj|r |il|llll>ll-l- '             fk.          «#*.-'-"                      -JT
t*0009"^       ^f^a^'SS^.
^H^  m*rzss^\
tevn j B    m
WEl.Jw sUF   1 A JSt
•'! \«S!';:-yw*»*»*»«j r.^1
IPfefr ^~^^^^^^^^^^^T^^^»^m^|   ed in 'felling a large tree, which by some mischance crashed into
the tent, crushing the life out of him.
Chief Trader Donald McLean followed Fraser, toeing in charge
from 1-854 to 1861 and was   succeeded by J. W. McKay
In 1863 the Hudson's Bay -Company once more moved their
quarters, this time to the south side of the main Thompson,
just 'beyond the westerly limits of the present city. Some of
the old building® are still standing. Since that time the company'have moved their quarters but the move of 1863 was the
last time there was'any semblance of the old time trading post.
Prior to the discovery of gold; in 1*58 on the Thompson and
Fraser rivers, (the Hudson's Bay Company reigned supreme, but
that discovery (brought a new class of people and created new
conditions and new interests. Ftom a -mere trading post it became a village. Then came the Canadian Padific railway in 1885
and Kamloops became a town; next followed incorporation as a
cfty and the dawn of a new era.
Erratum.—Page 11, par. 3, line 3, read Alexahdria for Vancov jr  L


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