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[In his own voice: recordings of a series of lectures by Dr. Vladimir J. Krajina on the Biogeoclimatic… Krajina, Vladimir J. [unknown]

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01:20 – Douglas fir regenerating under Ponderosa pine (a pioneer tree), Lupinus sericeus (common in springtime, adds nitrogen through symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium leguminosarum) 02:20 – limestone in Pavilion Lake area (Ponderosa pine does very well), Calamagrostis rubescens, Agropyron 04:45 – Columbia River area near Golden. Douglas fir, Picea glauca, Picea engelmannii, aspen (indicates a cooler climate) 06:10 – lichens: Letharia spp. (on dry branches). Grand Forks. Larix occidentalis (most shade intolerant species). Douglas fir is most shade tolerant species in IDF. Western larch is often the most common tree 07:45 – precipitation 16” – 22” 08:58 – Salmon Arm & Sicamous. Wettest part of IDF zone 10:00 – fire is fairly frequent (from lightning) 11:00 – Mara Lake – transition IDF/IWH. Cypripedium calceolus, Epipactis gigantea (orchids) 12:20 – Lobelia kalmii 12:50 – Pavilion Lake area. Ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, Agropyron spicatum, Calamagrostis rubescens (pinegrass, most prominent grass) 14:00 – back chernozemic soils built from aeolian deposits. Greenwood area. Ponderosa pine occurs in valleys 17:00 – Cariboo zone is distinct from Ponderosa Pine zone. Krajina disagrees that Cariboo and PP zones should be merged. Solonetz soils (no solonchak soils in Cariboo zone). Cariboo has very cold winters (no Ponderosa pine). BSk climate (after Kὃppen) 19:50 – no “arid” in BC (only semi-arid). Larix occidentalis requires shade in Ponderosa Pine zone (Krajina says this is surprising). Found in isolated wetter pockets near Osoyoos 21:50 – sagebrush is promoted by (cattle) grazing (especially over-grazing). Lillooet area – cattle even chew on sagebrush.  Nicola Valley – erosion of lacustrine deposits (“badlands”) 24:00 – Similkameen River area. Orchards near Osoyoos (fog adds moisture, especially in fall) 25:10 – Kootenays. Lacustrine soils. Purshia 25:30 – Ecological reserve. [rant about motor cycles causing damage in grasslands near Kamloops] 27:25 – Ecological Reserve near Summerland. Formerly grazed but not now. Has some ~200 yr old trees Sagebrush is retreating with exclusion of grazing 28:00 – Tranquille area.  10” precipitation. Trees are small but old (~250 yr) 29:00 – quick restoration of grasslands is possible (1-2 yr) if protected from grazing. Chrysothamnus nauseosus (shrub) is promoted by grazing disturbance 29:50 – [K rants about people doing what they wish to do] 30:24 – Tranquille area – Chrysothamnus nauseosus 30:40 – Balsamorrhiza sagittata (cattle do not eat). Summerland area 31:50 – Krajina has memory lapse for a species; voice of Steve Buttrick (TA) prompts Lithospermum ruderale 32:10 – picture of healthy grassland in Indian reserve about 10 years earlier [K rants about white people after “big bucks” causing damage to grasslands] 33:10 – Agropyron spicatum, Artemisia frigida (becomes more frequent at higher elevations), Juniperus scopulorum 34:00 – past grazing mainly by horses in Nicola area 34:30 – near Cache Creek sage brush has been chewed by cattle 35:20 – need to have less cattle. Cattle even chew the humus, so little to eat 36:30 – Salsola kali, Bromus tectorum   38:00 – fine soils have been blown away. Lacustrine soils near Kamloops 40:00 – [Krajina rants against motor cycles and unscrupulous people] 41:15 – enclosure from 1935 by Professor Tisdale. Grasses reestablished and wiped out the sage brush. 42:50 – Stipa comata, Festuca scabrella. [a student asks about fire but K questions what would be gained by fire. May lead to spread of Balsamorrhiza, ”beautiful for tourists”] 44:30 – winter snow protects some areas from grazing 46:08 – Kalamalka Lake separates IDF and PP zones 46:30 – Lac du Bois (non-saline) 47:30 – [K jokes with students] 48:00 – trees don’t grow well if soils are too fine 48:50 – Krajina forecasts that trees will eventually disappear (in one thousand, or one million years) as soil continues to weather (becomes less coarse) 49:10 – Arnica sororia, Phlox longifolia 49:40 – Tetradymia canescens (not very common) 50:00 – Purshia tridentata (common name is bitterbrush), sagebrush with Letharia vulpina (lichen), Opuntia polyacantha, Phlox longifolia, Opuntia fragilis [Krajina jokes with students]. 51:50 – rattlesnakes, Rhus glabra, Rhus radicans (near Osoyoos) 52:40 – rattlesnake picked up on stick 53:30 – Field’s Lease Reserve. Purshia tridentata community. Gilia aggregata (red flower). 54:20 – Purshia was removed by Indians. Aristida pungens (soil circum-neutral to slightly acidic). Not eaten by cattle. Ponderosa pine (dry, shallow soil) 55:20 – Astragalus purshii (poisonous) 55:30 – brief comment about overflow after rain – can get solonchak or solonetz soils 55:50 – end of lecture.  Announcement re upcoming field trip. Contact Mr. Steve (Steve Buttrick, TA).

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