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[In his own voice: recordings of a series of lectures by Dr. Vladimir J. Krajina on the Biogeoclimatic… Krajina, Vladimir J. Sep 1, 1975

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00:30 – K talks about climate comparisons among SWB zone (spruce-willow-birch), alpine, subalpine, and boreal areas. Mainly temperature (number of months with mean monthly temperature above 10 degrees C)
05:30 – [K mentions his secretary (Mrs. Svoboda, name not mentioned) is ill today and unable to make the photocopies he hoped to have for class]
06:05 – BWBS (boreal white and black spruce) SBS (Sub-boreal spruce). The two boreal zones.
06:50 – vegetation allows better distinction between zones than soils or climate (boreal vs sub-boreal) 08:40 – tree productivity in sub-boreal is ¼ to 1/3 better than in boreal.
09:20 – three zones occur in the Canadian Cordilleran Montane Forest Region. All three zones have DFc climate (less than 3 months with average 10 degrees C).
11:50 – Abies lasiocarpa occurs in boreal, sub-boreal, and subalpine, but is very rare in the Canadian Cordilleran Montane Forest Region.
13:10 – Engelmann spruce occurs on alluvial sites in montane forest zone, bottom of valleys. Occurs in sub-boreal, but not in boreal at all (completely missing).
14:50 – [K talks about the role of speculation in explaining why species occur in some areas but not others.  He admits that many of his ideas are speculation based on experience]
15:30 – Engelmann spruce occurs in areas of shorter day length; day length is shorter in valleys. 16:20 – photoperiodism is very important for trees.  Cannot simply transfer trees between high
elevations in tropics and high latitudes (possibly with similar temperatures) because of differences in photoperiods.
18:50 – in Europe, similar climate to ESSF can only produce krummholz, Pinus mugo. K has recommended Picea engelmannii as a good (high elevation) choice to European foresters. European spruce only grows below subalpine.
21:20 – In BC, Engelmann spruce is adapted to high elevations but grows best in lower sub-alpine forests.
22:20 – K reflects on dilemma for some people to understand/accept his zones. He claims it is lack of experience.
23:25 – Smithers (K is pointing to map)
23:55 – K talks about pressure for him to produce a map even though his information was incomplete [mild rant on being criticized after the fact]
25:50 – north of Smithers, Lagopus mountain area, can find Picea glauca, but not south of Smithers. 27:10 – cold air drainage prevents growth of Engelmann spruce but allows Picea glauca. This explains
why Engelmann spruce does not occur north of 57030’.
29:30 – Mackenzie River delta has “azonal” climate due to Mackenzie river flowing from south. Also see this for some areas in Siberia (N-flowing rivers). Not so in Alaska because no N-flowing rivers.
31:40 – BWBS zone. DFb climate is very rare. Only in Haines area due to close proximity to Pacific Ocean.
Boreal climate is DFc.
33:30 – average temps are sometimes misleading. Need to look at daytime and nighttime temps separately.
35:30 – lowland areas and valleys in Yukon are colder (-69) 36:40 – lowest temp in alpine is -45
37:00 – even occasional cold snaps, once in 20 years, can have significant effects for vegetation 38:40 – Picea glauca can withstand lower temps than Picea engelmannii.
39:25 – Douglas fir occurs in Alberta on eastern slopes of Rockies but not in valley bottoms because of cold air drainage
 
40:45 – K talks about # months >100 C, comparison between boreal and sub-boreal. Normally 3 months for boreal and sub-boreal. Maybe 4-5 months closer to Pacific Ocean. [K admits this can be problematic in some areas].
42:50 – Cariboo (CALP), IWH, IDF are the three Cordilleran montane zones. All are quite similar in “lesser” vegetation. Pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens) occurs in all three zones, but on drier sites in IWH.
44:30 – K mentions several mosses: Pleurozium schreberi, rare on coast but occurs in Camosun Bog (especially after drainage), Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Rhytidiopsis robusta, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (rare on coast)

48:35 – [new lecture] K talks about zones, pointing to coloured areas on map of BC
52:00 – influence of valleys in Rocky Mountains (problematic areas for distinguishing zones). Formerly recognized zone (Peace River-Aspen-White Spruce zone) is now “forgotten.” (actually an edaphic variation of the boreal zone).
53:40 – BWBS – Picea glauca (on rich soils, less shade tolerant), Picea mariana (less rich soils, more shade tolerant)
55:15 – need to consider that stagnant water may be “rich” in nutrients but plants can’t utilize 56:40 – Larix laricina (larch) can take advantage where nutrients are available (e.g. seepage water).
Larch is completely shade intolerant, may be “pushed-out” by other more shade tolerant species.
57:20 – Abies lasiocarpa (the most shade tolerant species) is very common in sub-boreal but not in boreal.
58:00 – Pinus contorta (highly shade intolerant). Pinus banksiana (rare in BC, common east of Rockies). [K admits showing P. banksiana in BC is his “wishful thinking”].
59:30 – Vaccinium membranaceum is uncommon in boreal, but common in sub-boreal (on mesic sites).
Rosa acicularis is common in boreal zone.
60:20 – Pleurozium schreberi is the most dominant moss (needs humus, reduced after fire) [K rants briefly on why do people smoke]
61:30 – hybrids between white and black spruce (hybrids have intermediate characteristics, crown width, glands on branches, etc.)
62:00 – tape ends abruptly

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