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[In his own voice: recordings of a series of lectures by Dr. Vladimir J. Krajina on the Biogeoclimatic… Krajina, Vladimir J. [unknown]

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00:10 – [background noise from engine of garbage truck outside lecture room]. Calypso bulbosa – beautiful orchid, frequent in Boreal and sub-Boreal zones on sub-hygric and mesic sites. 00:50 – (inaudible river name?) alluvial deposits. Coarse sands forming dry ridges. 01:20 – dry ridges with Pinus banksiana (K talks about differences in branches and cones between P. banksiana and P. contorta; longer branches in P. banksiana, and cones face forward vs shorter branches and backward facing cones in lodgepole pine) 03:50 – (Fort Nelson area) Possible inbreeding between Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana. 04:15 – Picea mariana in bogs (white spruce occurs on bog margins).  Sphagnum fuscum is major sphagnum species. 05:00 – (Fort Nelson area) Permafrost layer is frequent. 06:00 – lichens invade and grow over sphagnum on the higher and drier hummocks in bogs. Cladina (=Cladonia) alpestris, Icmadophila ericetorum. Sphagnum photosynthesis is blocked (smothered) causing sphagnum to decay resulting in collapse of hummocks and occurrence of lichens in the low, wet hollows. After some time, Sphagnum reinvades and hummocks build up again (termed hummock-hollow cycle). 08:40 – Larix occurs in more nutrient-rich bogs (pH 6.5-7.5 circum-neutral and slightly alkaline). Ledum (name since changed to Rhododendron) groenlandicum occurs on decaying wood in bogs (possibly on windthrown larch). 09:45 – Fort Nelson River. Deposits calcium-rich sediments carried from eastern Rockies. 10:45 – [K adjusts tape recorder] 11:00 – dried river sediments are alkaline and support Hordeum jubatum. This grass (“halophytic”) also occurs on solonchak-like (salty) soils in the BC interior. 12:00 – terraces along river are nutrient-rich and support good tree growth (mainly white spruce, too rich for black spruce). Trees may grow 100-120 feet tall in 100 years. Understory shrubs include Cornus stolonifera, Ribes, Viburnum edule, Rubus parviflorus (on rich sites), devil’s club (rare in Boreal but very common in sub-Boreal). 14:00 – Rosa acicularis, Sorbus scopulina 14:20  –  Alnus sinuata or Alnus  tenuifolia  (related  to  European  Alnus  incana). Sambucus  pubens (not Sambucus racemosa [K rants briefly]. S. racemosa blooms before leaves develop). 15:40 – boreal lakes. Edges support Betula pumila, Calla palustris, Sphagnum magellanicum. 16:50 – Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant, insectivorous). 17:50 – some areas of boreal have hot springs. Salt deposits attract animals, especially moose (termed “licks”). [K rants that such licks should be protected from hunting as in Europe. K says we are living in a “time of confusion”] 19:35 – pictures of moose (cow and bull). 20:00 – Peace River area. Sedimentary materials from Rockies. Vegetation shows “edaphic effect” (not a separate zone). Boreal has two sub-zones: “Dry” (10”-13” precip.). Telegraph Creek. Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper) and Juniperus horizontalis are both common); Juniperus communis is occasional. Stikine River canyon [K hopes it will become a reserve, or possibly a National Park. Promised by BC Government Minister, Bob Williams]. Rocky Mountain juniper grows as krummholz form. New hybrid: Juniperus scopulorum x virginiana [K comments that he is publishing on this (1976?)]. Prunus virginiana, Rosa (?), Stipa commata, Agropyron spp. 25:00 – “Wet” subzone. Well forested. Picea glauca and P. mariana. Hybrid (glauca x mariana) not very common.   25:39 – Atlin Lake area. Volcanic. South end of Atlin Lake is very dry. Black spruce cones remain on tree for many years. Opened by fire similar to Pinus contorta. 26:50 – Picea glauca cones are longer and deciduous (cones drop in spring of following year). 27:00 – [K describes the hybrid]. Retains cones for 2-3 years. Hybrids are common around Atlin area, especially in bogs. 29:00 – [K rants about previous report that hybrids were a type of glauca (“foolish”). These are hybrids, glauca x mariana]. 30:00 – [K comments on Atlin Park as a beautiful area. Mentions “Steve” (Steve Buttrick, Botany grad student and course TA who is working on PhD thesis of vegetation of Teresa Island in Atlin Lake)]. 30:50 – Castilleja unalaschkensis 31:30 – (subalpine) Engelmann spruce, Vaccinium membranaceum. 32:10 – (lower latitudes of sub-boreal zone). Main trees: Pinus contorta, Abies lasiocarpa, Picea glauca, Picea engelmannii (and glauca x engelmannii hybrids), Douglas fir (on rich soils). 34:25 – secondary forest (~150 years). Mesic site. Vaccinium membranaceum, Vaccinium myrsinites (K relates this species to dry sites; questionable occurrence in northern BC?), Pinus contorta. [K refers to theses of his former students: Drs. Revel, Wali, and Annas]. 36:00 – Seepage habitats. Abies lasiocarpa, Betula papyrifera (requires high calcium), aspen (leaves are slightly alkaline due to Ca content), Picea (leaves are acid). 37:30 – [K reaffirms his conviction that Boreal and Sub-Boreal are good (well-defined) zones]. 38:00 – [K comments that some Douglas fir trees are too big for the mills…”foresters don’t like them”]. 38:30 – Takla Lake Ecological Reserve. Most northern distribution of Douglas fir. 39:00 – end of lecture  39:08 – Sub-Boreal Spruce Zone. Streptopus roseus (indicates rich sites; does not occur in Boreal). Douglas fir can also establish on richer sites. 40:20 – Aspen can grow quite large on richer sites. Abies lasiocarpa may become the “edaphic” (not “climatic”) climax species on rich sites in the Sub-Boreal zone. 41:25 – bog (low moor, less acid) areas (surrounding areas may be high moor, more acid due to accumulation of organic matter). Larch (Larix laricina, tamarack) may occur in pure stands in centre of low moor bogs. Picea mariana occurs on decaying wood (e.g. larch blowdown). Larch is highly shade intolerant and requires high soil nutrients (does not grow on decaying wood). 43:35 – Listera borealis (rare in BC). Found in low moor bogs. 43:50 – top view (from helicopter) of larch community. Circum-neutral to alkaline conditions. 44:30 – larch with epiphytes (Alectoria americana, black colour; Alectoria sarmentosa is whitish and occurs on coast). 45:00 – black spruce in low moor (low moor may change to high moor in 100 years). 45:28 – Alluvial sites: Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern). Has two types of leaves – vegetative (green) and sporophytic (brown). 46:00 – aquatic communities: Polygonum viviperum, Carex rostrata, Carex chordorrhiza (some, but mainly in boreal zone, especially Northwest Territories), Andromeda polyfolia (acid conditions, high moor). 47:35 – Gaultheria hispidula (creeps over decaying wood, similar to G. shallon along coast). [K talks briefly about Gaultheria fruit anatomy]. 48:30 – low moors: Sphagnum magellanicum (pinkish), Picea mariana, Sanguisorba sitchensis (Rosaceous) 49:25 – high moors: Ledum groenlandicum 50:00 – (Smithers area). On shallow soils get forest “steppe.” Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper) grows as a shrub (“scrubby”) in this area. 51:25 – Rosa woodsii, Juniperus scopulorum.   51:58 – (grasses) Stipa richardsonii, Stipa occidentalis. Stipa commata is missing here (found in dry habitats in Boreal). 52:40 – Disporum trachycarpum (most northern distribution in Smithers area) 53:00 – Habenaria unalascensis (indicates “steppe” conditions). Habenaria viridis (occurs at lower elevations in BC than in Europe). 54:00 – Castilleja miniata. Very frequent in steppe meadows of boreal forest (hemi-parasite, difficult to cultivate). Cypripedium montanum (beautiful orchid). 54:55 – Owen Lake area (SW part of sub-boreal zone). Shallow soils “brunisols” (strongly melanized). 56:00 – Williams Lake: Ponderosa pine, Ceanothus sanguineus (has deciduous leaves, whereas C. velutinus has persistent leaves). [K comments that large Douglas fir trees are not harvested as they are too big for the mills. They become infested by Dendroctoni fungi. K talks about forest management in Prince George area using “pulled-down” Douglas firs]. 57:45 – Lightning Creek area (near Quesnel). Douglas fir. Luvisols, resemble podzols but not as strongly leached [K talks briefly about soils]. 59:10 – Habenaria orbiculata (orchid, indicates proximity to Interior Western Hemlock zone). 59:25 – pictures of Picea engelmannii x glauca hybrids [K talks about differences from parent species]. 60:30 – another zone: Cariboo-Aspen-Lodgepole pine-Douglas fir (“CALP”) 61:20 – [K refers to upcoming field trip to BC interior] 61:33 – tape ends abruptly.

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