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[In his own voice: recordings of a series of lectures by Dr. Vladimir J. Krajina on the Biogeoclimatic… Krajina, Vladimir J. Sep 1, 1975

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00:24 – K talks about how the Cariboo Zone differs from the Ponderosa Pine – Bunchgrass Zone (much cooler, frequent lightening fires)
01:50 – main trees: Douglas fir, lodgepole pine, spruce (on moist sites), Picea mariana (rare, occurs on low moors)
03:00 – Fraser River valley. Douglas fir subzone of the Cariboo Zone. Douglas fir is shade tolerant in this area
03:45 – lightening fires are very frequent (K shows several pictures of the Cariboo Zone) 04:50 – similarities between Cariboo and Interior Douglas fir zones
05:40 – Interior Western Hemlock Zone. Has 2nd highest productivity (after Coastal Douglas fir Zone). 06:40 – [K talks about how he argued against the building of the Mica dam. Comments on damage
caused by dams]
08:00 – comments on precipitation amounts. IWH (20”-60”), CWH (much higher), IDF (15”-22”), PPBG (<15”)
08:30 – asks: Why are there two wet zones in BC (coastal and interior)? Interior has shorter vegetative season.
10:00 – lots of snow. Water available to trees year-round on Coast but not in Interior. Snowmelt permits tree growth to 135-145 feet per 100 yr in Interior.
11:25 – [K rants about loss of productive sites due to dams]
11:45 – IWH drier subzone trees: Douglas fir (glauca, on drier sites in wet areas), larch (Larix occidentalis) makes good growth (does not occur in wetter subzone).
13:00 – Indian paint fungus (Echinodontium tinctorium) (conks on affected trees, especially hemlock).
Pinus monticola is affected by Cronartium ribicola (white pine blister rust). IWH is one of richest areas for tree species.
13:50 – Picea engelmannii occurs in valleys (on floodplains) 14:00 – Picea glauca is not very common.
14:35 – wet subzone – higher productivity.
15:00 – [K comments about fungi, and need for studies by mycologists on harmful as well as beneficial fungi]
15:25 – moss type, very common in IWH zone
15:45 – old snags are mainly Douglas fir (earlier succession stage) 16:10 – climax species is western hemlock
16:40 – Paxistima myrsinites (boxwood, very important shrub in IWH) 17:30 – Linnaea borealis, Cornus canadensis, Maianthemum canadense
18:00 – Tiarella unifoliata (prefers ammonium; cf. T. trifoliata prefers nitrate) 18:20 – podzols – well developed Ae (whitish) layer
18:45 – Indian paint fungus (fructification along lower margins of conk) 19:30 – Orchis orbiculata (=Plantanthera orbiculata)
19:44 – Columbia River valley (1950s). Hemlock and Thuja.
20:25 – Douglas fir grows best on drier sites (well drained ridges). Hemlock doesn’t grow as well. 20:55 – Chimaphila umbellata
21:20 – Paxistima myrsinites
21:35 – Engelmann spruce (on higher elevations)
22:00 – Abies lasiocarpa is highly shade tolerant in Interior but not in Coastal zone. 22:15 – Dr. Ogilvie (University of Calgary)
22:35 – white flowering plants: Clintonia uniflora and Cornus canadensis
22:55 – seepage habitats (site index ~120). Gymnocarpium dryopteris is dominant.
 
23:30 – [change to new slide magazine]
23:40 – another “devastating” fungus – Fomes (=Phellinus) pini (on hemlock)
24:00 – Thuja occurs in seepage site with higher calcium (but even on dry sites over limestone) 24:30 – Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Aralia nudicaulis, Oplopanax, oreganum(? name not clear) 25:10 – Oplopanax site (rich); counterpart on coast is Polystichum munitum
25:40 – Athyrium felix-femina (accumulates nitrates and returns to soil in fall; no other fern does this) 26:10 – majestic Thuja trees in Revelstoke area [K laments they are all gone now, probably shingles in
houses or burnt]
26:40 – Adiantum pedatum (in high nutrient areas, especially calcium)
27:30 – [K again laments loss of majestic trees due to Mica dam. ~200 feet tall, 450 yr old] 28:20 – [End of lecture]

28:38 – [start new lecture after weekend field trip to BC Interior. K sounds tired or possibly has a cold].
Oplopanax pictures (blooming and in fruit)
31:00 – K thanks drivers on the field trip (mentions George [Krumlik], PhD student in Forestry)
32:00 – “shakes” (=bark plates?) of Engelmann and white spruce are different sizes, helps to distinguish the two species. P. glauca has glabrous branches; Engelmann has pubescent branches. [K says most foresters don’t distinguish – just “spruce”; however, they are ecologically different]
33:30 – hemlock “needs” decaying wood [K reflects on being “pressed to the wall” (class chuckles) that he should be more accurate…but makes comment “that’s how the nature operates”]
34:50 – [K comments on logging effects in Revelstoke area “…still carrying out but very very poorly.” He also laments about loss of sites to dams, ”would not be allowed in Quebec or Ontario.” K rants about short-sightedness of politicians…should think 100 years ahead, not just to ends of their noses]
36:30 – [K comments on mosquitoes. Says he doesn’t like killing any insects… but is guilty of killing over one million mosquitoes (laughter from class)]
37:40 – skunk cabbage site. Wet but moving water. If stagnant then bog. 38:20 – Saccharomycetes are very prominent in black muck.
39:20 – Lysichiton americanus (skunk cabbage)
39:40 – Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood, a race of balsamifera) on alluvial sites
40:00 – spruce (both Engelmann and white as well as hybrids). Engelmann is strongly pubescent on branches; hybrids are weakly pubescent on branches.
40:40 – glauca is more hardy than Engelmann
41:00 – alluvial habitat with Cornus stolonifera (red-osier dogwood); also expect to see Corylus
(hazelnut, requires calcium)
41:50 – Martha Creek area south of Revelstoke. Glacial outwash.
42:25 – Thuja is the final (=”climax”) tree in skunk cabbage sites. Shallow roots allow respiration to continue in wet sites.
43:00 – spruces (Engelmann and white) can get established in skunk cabbage sites
44:00 – Athyrium felix-femina leaves decay in Fall whereas Dryopteris austriaca leaves decay in following Spring (allows some photosynthesis during winter)
45:00 – Pinus monticola is not well understood [K talks about “discoveries” in his lab which may be found after his death]. P. monticola requires quite a lot of calcium…is the most sensitive of all interior trees to calcium deficiency. Thuja is also sensitive to low calcium.
47:40 – Calcium die-back (leaf-tip wilting) [K rambles about leaf-wilting in P. monticola. Shows humour: “…one morning…or maybe one evening…it makes no difference…death comes quickly”.
Problem is root cells collapse because central (=middle) lamella doesn’t develop properly if Ca deficiency.  “We tortured the trees but never heard any noise.”  Also, roots smell badly].
 
51:50 – “White pine pole blight” – foresters think due to a pathogen; K thinks otherwise, due to calcium deficiency. Root cells collapse and soil gets in.
53:00 – Manning Park. Many white pines affected by Cronartium ribicola (branches have red colour). 54:25 – Salmo area – limestone [K pauses to check his slides; seem to be out of order]
55:45 – wherever seepage water occurs over limestone then Pinus monticola does well.
56:00 – drier subzone of IWH. Larix occidentalis (a pioneer tree). Does not occur west of Okanagan Valley. Leaves turn yellow and drop with mid-October frosts.
57:45 – example of higher elevation “calcification”. Caused by seepage water.
58:20 – drier subzone of IWH (22” – 35(40)”). Can even get chernozemic-type soils that support ponderosa pine (on basaltic rocks)
61:00 – Kaslo area (rain shadow). Can find ponderosa pine (but not on other side of Kootenay Lake). 61:28 – tape ends abruptly.

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