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[In his own voice: recordings of a series of lectures by Dr. Vladimir J. Krajina on the Biogeoclimatic… Krajina, Vladimir J. Sep 1, 1975

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00:45 – coastal subalpine zone “Mountain Hemlock zone” (K is referring to a slide picture) 01:40 – [noise caused by K changing cassette tape]
02:00 – K shows picture of Mr. (later Dr.) Peterson, Brooke (PhD students) and himself(?) with Gov’t Deputy Minister (Thompson?)
02:40 – snow still present up to August (“parkland” forest)
03:30 – deep snow pack is obstacle for tree establishment. Trees only grow on isolated clumps where snow melts earlier.
05:20 – Green Mountain: Abies lasiocarpa (rare on VI, occurs on eastern slopes, shade intolerant on coast).
06:00 – Abies amabilis is the most shade tolerant species (unclear if he means for all coastal trees?) [K rants that many foresters do not distinguish between Abies species, call them all “balsam” despite big ecological differences]
06:50 – snow holes (“pots”) around trees. K explains them as warmer temperature zones around tree base.
07:20 – Abies amabilis (Pacific silver fir) seeds can germinate on snow but roots must find soil for survival.
08:00 – Tsuga mertensiana, Chamaecyparis (blooms in wintertime, pollen released)
09:00 – good size mountain hemlock tree on Grouse Mountain (cut down since picture taken) [K rants on skiers; they like to “run down” but don’t like to go up on their own skies. Equipment costs up to $1000 now (chuckles from students). Skiers are doing too much damage]
10:40 – Vaccinium alaskaense is very important shrub in subalpine and wettest subzone of CWH zone.
Has nearly black fruits. Vaccinium ovalifolium has more bluish fruits.
12:00 – hanging lichens: Alectoria sarmentsoa (sometimes misidentified as Usnea). Common on mountain hemlock. Abies occurs on better soils (more calcium) than mountain hemlock. Abies growth is stunted where insufficient calcium.
12:40 – climatic climax condition is mainly mountain hemlock with lesser Abies lasiocarpa. On rich soils
Abies can dominate.  Hemlock occurs where decaying wood (less rich soil).
14:30 – Abies amabilis in Ecological Reserve on East Redonda Island (15,000 acres). Abies lasiocarpa may “dry out” in exposed areas where ground freezes.
16:04 – Garibaldi Park. “Park-like” formation (or “savanna-like”).

16:50 – [next lecture]
17:00 – fall colours in coastal subalpine zone [tape has background noise, possibly from a garbage truck engine outside the lecture room]
17:50 – Garibaldi Park. Rhododendron albiflorum (yellow colour), Vaccinium deliciosum (pinkish colour) 19:25 – Britannia mining area. Slow forest recovery from fire 100 years ago.
20:20 – [K rants on broadcast slash burning: “ecological nonsense.” Burns all the organic matter which is almost the only soil]
20:15 – Cladothamnus pyroliflorus (light yellow colour, depends on unfrozen ground during winter),
Vaccinium membranaceum, V. deliciosum, Rhododendron albiflorum, Sorbus sitchensis
23:44 – Tsuga mertensiana, Chamaecyparis. Phyllodoce empetriformis occurs where snow lies longer. 24:45 – Tsuga mertensiana has longer cones [K rants about suggestion that T. mertensiana arose as a
hybrid between Picea and Tsuga heterophylla]
25:25 – Tsitika drainage area (mount Golden Hinde, Strathcona Park)
26:00 – Prince Rupert area. Tsuga mertensiana sometimes grows as a “scrub form” at highest elevations and in low elevation bogs (“krummholz”) [K apologizes about his earlier miss-spelling of
 
krummholz; says students are maybe too kind to their teacher, but urges students to correct right away if they see any mistakes]
27:30 – Dodecatheon jeffreyi (on richer soils), Siphula ceratites (lichen, relatively rare, occurs where snow lies longer, on very wet soil)
29:00 – K talks about his edatopic grid diagrams for showing tree growth in relation to moisture (hygrotope, 1-8) and nutrient (trophotope, A-E) conditions. “Edatope” or “ecotope”. Mesic refers to areas that get water only from precipitation.
32:30 – K acknowledges that Pogrebniak (Russian forester, still alive) was “inventor” of the edaptopic grid approach
33:10 – (student asks question about tree symbols used in grid diagram)
34:30 – Pinus albicaulis occurs but better growth in ESSF (Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir) zone. K talks about the growth of several trees in the MH (mountain hemlock) zone.
36:20 – Garibalidi area: eastern part might be considered transition to ESSF (but no Picea engelmannii here). Abies lasiocarpa does very well where ground freezes [K sees this as a variation of the coastal subalpine; reminds students about the publication he handed out on this “transition” zone].  Main limitation for Abies amabilis is frozen ground before snow cover.
40:00 – [K starts moving quite quickly through slides. Sometimes difficult to follow] 40:45 – “candelabra” tree growth
41:30 – Hardscrabble Creek area near Terrace. Deciduous shrubs on northern slopes (Alnus sinuata, Salix barclayi). Krummholz – layering of Abies lasiocarpa.
43:00 – Saxifraga tolmiei (shows coastal influence) 44:00 – [K rants on high elevation logging]
44:45 – Pinus albicaulis (Nanika Mountain near Terrace).
45:55 – Picea engelmannii at 5200 feet elevation, shows frost damage
46:20 – Smithers area (Boulder Creek) Ranunculus scouleri is common in seepage areas (snowbeds) 47:20 – Mt. Bell Irving: MH zone but no Abies amabilis
48:40 – willows and birch
50:20 – “nanotsugetum” (hemlock where heavy snow)
50:55 – mention of ESSF zone (up to 57.5 degrees latitude). Higher latitude is Spruce-Willow-Birch zone. 51:05 – Manning Park area. Snag-like trees are Larix lyalii
52:33 – (mesic sites, Spa Hills area) Rhododendron albiflorum.
53:10 – Menziesia ferruginea replaces Rhododendron albiflorum in more “arctic” conditions. 54:00 – Revelstoke area, Tsuga mertensiana. Also in Glacier area.
55:25 – Pinus albicaulis in Manning Park
55:48 – Larix lyalli – subalpine species, occurs on rich soils
56:58 – Engelmann spruce – most important commercial tree species in interior subalpine zone 58:00 – [K does extended rant on planting Douglas fir in subalpine as job creation… “need to properly
organize the world so that everybody can get employment.” Strikes are legitimate but K states that he is strongly against unscrupulous people driven by greed]
60:00 – Pinus albicaulis and Pinus monticola are affected by blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. [K gives background on introduction of this fungus into North America around 1900 on seedlings imported into New York from the Netherlands]
61:50 – tape ends abruptly.

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