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Exploring Teacher Attributions of ADHD Type Behaviour in Elementary Classrooms Cote-Dear, Madison; Smit, Sophie; Mikami, Amori Yee; Owen, Julie Sarno 2020-04

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University of British Columbia, Department of PsychologyOhio University, Department of PsychologyExploring Teacher Attributions of ADHD Type Behaviour in Elementary ClassroomsMadison Cote-Dear, Sophie Smit, Dr. Amori Yee Mikami, PhD, Dr. Julie Sarno Owen, PhDIntroductionAttribution Theoryq Teachers make various attributions about their students, which may affect their teaching.§ How we attribute others’ behavior impacts our beliefs, affect and how we behave in return.1§ Attributions are guided by our perceptions of locus/controllability and stability of a behavior.1Teacher Attributions and Teacher Characteristics q Past research indicates that certain teacher characteristics may be associated with specific attributions of students.§ Teachers with more experience viewed students’ learning difficulties as more internal and stable compared to teachers with novice experience.2,3 § Special education teachers rated student difficulties as more unstable than general education teachers.4Teacher Attributions and Teaching Practicesq Specific teachers’ attributions of challenging student behaviour have been associated with the use of different teacher practices. § Teachers who attributed disruptive behaviour as stable and under the student’s control engaged in more corrective feedback and negative behaviour.5§ Teachers who attributed challenging behaviours as not under students’ control engaged in more:§ Emotional perspective taking of the student and believed calmly speaking to the student about behaviour was more effective than yelling.6§ Increased satisfaction with interventions and positive interactions with their students.7Teacher Attributions of Challenging Student Behaviour and Teacher-Student Interactionsq Specific teachers’ attributions of challenging student behaviour have been demonstrated to positively or negatively impact teacher-student interactions.§ Teachers’ attributions of students’ misbehavior as stable and under the child’s control were positively associated with disruptive behaviour ratings.8§ Teachers who believed students were in control of their social misbehaviors reported a stronger negative effect on the closeness of their relationship.9§ Teachers’ who attributed disruptive student behaviour as not under the student’s control reported a closer teacher-student relationship.6The Current StudyResearch Questions1. Are teacher characteristics (teacher certifications and years of experience) associated with teachers’ attributions of ADHD type behaviour?2. Are teachers’ attributions of ADHD type behaviour associated with effective teacher practices (empathy, checking in with students, and corrective style), and the quality of the teacher-student relationship?Hypotheses1. Teachers with special education certifications or fewer years of teaching experience are more likely to attribute student ADHD type behaviours as unstable and not under the child’s control.2. Teachers who attribute student ADHD type behaviours as unstable or uncontrollable will have higher quality teacher-student relationships, and will use more empathy, check ins with students, and discreet corrections, as well as fewer public corrections.Participantsq Participants were a part of an intervention trial focused on making inclusive classrooms based in British Columbia and Ohio. § N = 34 elementary teachers, N = 529 Students § Number of Years as Teacher Range: 0.2 – 36 years(M = 11.42, SD = 8.96)§ Certified in General Education (n = 28), certified in Special Education (n = 6)Measures & Designq Written Analogue Questionnaire (WAQ)§ Assesses teacher attributions of student ADHD type behaviour using 10-point Likert Scale.§ Attribution of Controllability + Locus (α = .86), Attribution of Stability (α = .81)q Classroom Life Measure (CLM)§ Averaged student reported quality of teacher personal support using five-point Likert Scale (α = .65).q Classroom Observations of teacher, proportion score: total coded by total periods observed for year: § Empathy, Check-ins with student, Public corrections, and Discreet corrections.q Teachers reported WAQ in the Fall, students reported CLM in the Spring, teacher practices coded in classroom by trained observers throughout the school year.VariablesAttribution of NonresponsibilityAttribution of Reoccurrencer p r pEmpathy .09 .668 .16 .382Personal Check-ins .02 .899 -.31 .082Public Corrective Feedback -.21 .249 .05 .777Discreet Corrective Feedback -.07 .692 -.64* .000*Quality of Teacher Personal Support .07 .694 .25 .170Table 1. Correlations between Teacher Attribution of ADHD Type Behaviour, Teacher Practices, and Student-Reported Teacher Personal SupportFigure 1. Relationship between teachers’ attribution of stability of student ADHD type behaviours and teacher use of discreet corrective feedback.Results§ Partial correlation (controlling for intervention) demonstrated teachers who attributed ADHD type behaviours to unstable factors engaged in more discreet corrections (r = -.64, p < .001).§ Partial correlation indicated attributions were not associated with any other teaching practice or the teacher-student relationship. T-tests and Pearson Correlation indicated that teacher characteristics were not associated with teacher attributions.Discussion and Future Directions§ Teachers who believe ADHD type behaviours are unlikely to reoccur or that behaviour may change over time may exert more effort to discreetly correct such behaviours.§ Discreet corrective style is considered a valuable strategy when correcting student misbehavior.10 Future directions may consider teacher attributions as an effective intervention target to increase teacher use of discreet corrective style. § Future directions may explore if teachers with unstable attributions are more receptive to intervention efforts considering they may be already engaging in helpful practices, such as discreet corrective feedback. § Results indicated that teachers, irrespective of attribution type, utilized the practices of checking in with students, empathy, and public corrective style a similar amount. Perhaps these specific practices are not associated with attributions, and teachers engage in these practices regardless of their attribution type. References1. Weiner, B. (1980). A cognitive (attribution)-Emotion-Action Model of Motivated Behaviour: An Analysis of Judgements of Help-Giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(2), 186-2002. Brady, K., & Woolfson, L. (2008). What teacher factors influence their attributions for children's difficulties in learning? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(4), 527-544.3. Georgiou, S. N. (2008). Beliefs of experienced and novice teachers about achievement. Educational Psychology, 28(2), 119-131.4. Woolfson, L., Grant, E., & Campbell, L. (2007). A comparison of special, general and support teachers' controllability and stability attributions for children's difficulties in learning. Educational Psychology, 27(2), 295-306.5. McAuliffe, M. D., Hubbard, J. A., & Romano, L. J. (2009). The role of teacher cognition and behavior in children's peer relations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(5), 665.6. Kevin F. McGrath & Penny Van Bergen (2019) Attributions and emotional competence: why some teachers experience close relationships with disruptive students (and others don’t). Teachers and Teaching, 25(3), 334-3577. Mikami, A. Y., Smit, S., & Johnston, C. (2019). Teacher attributions for children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder behaviors predict experiences with children and with classroom behavioral management in a summer program practicum. Psychology in the Schools, 56(6), 928-944.8. Yoder, M. L., & Williford, A. P. (2019). Teacher perception of preschool disruptive behavior: Prevalence and contributing factors. Early Education and Development, 30(7), 835-853.9. Thijs, J., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2009). Toward a further understanding of teachers’ reports of early teacher–child relationships: Examining the roles of behavior appraisals and attributions. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(2), 186-197.10. Duzey, G., & Caganaga, C. (2017). Strategies used in changing and correcting student misbehaviours in classrooms regarding evaluation of teachers of secondary education. Oalib, 4(8), 1-14.Attribution of StabilityDiscreet Corrective Feedback

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