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The effects of hearing experience on early voice and word recognition Chen, Katy; Shum, Crystal; Orena, Adriel John; Chia, Ruth; Werker, Janet F. 2020-04

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The effects of hearing experience on early voice and word recognitionKaty Chen1, Crystal Shum1, Adriel John Orena1, Ruth Chia2, Janet F. Werker11Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia; 2Cochlear Implant Clinic, B.C. Children’s HospitalBackground• In the first few years of life, children rapidly develop the ability to track both talker information (i.e., who is speaking) and linguistic information (i.e., what is being said) [1,2]• The ability to integrate these two types of information is important for social and language development [3] • Children with cochlear implants face a difficult challenge, as their device outputs a qualitatively degraded signal which masks important cues for important identifying voices (temporal envelope, range of low frequencies) [4]• Here, we are investigating the developmental trajectory of voice and word recognition in children with typical hearing and children with cochlear implantsParticipants xMethods Preliminary ResultsCI NHMother Unfamiliar Mother Unfamiliar−0.50−0.250.000.250.50Trial TypeChange in proportion looking to target objectWord RecognitionCI NHFirstSecondMom Woman Child Man Mom Woman Child Man−0.50−0.250.000.250.50−0.50−0.250.000.250.50Trial TypeChange in proportion looking to target personVoice RecognitionAttention getter (3 sec silence) “book!”(2 sec)Window of Analysis”Look…it’s a…”(2.5 sec)Word Recognition Task • The word recognition task used a preferential looking paradigm• 10 trials x 2 blocks• Stimuli included 2 familiar objects on either side of the screen• After a 3 second period of silence, with 1 second baseline, participants will hear one of the voices (mother, unfamiliar woman) labeling the objectParticipant 1: Cochlear ImplantAge at Testing 2;10,6Age of Implantation 1;9,11Right Ear Severe to profound hearing lossRight Ear Device Cochlear ImplantLeft Ear Moderate to severe hearing lossLeft Ear Device Hearing aidParticipant 2: Cochlear ImplantAge at Testing 3;9,19Age of Implantation 11,19Right Ear Severe to profound hearing lossRight Ear Device Cochlear ImplantLeft Ear Severe to profound hearing lossLeft Ear Device Cochlear Implant• To be eligible for the typical hearing (H) group, a child must be between 12 to 48 months • To be eligible for the CI group, a child must:• Have a severe to profound hearing loss identified prior to 1 year of age• Be implanted at or before 36 months of age• Be at or before 48 months at time of testing• Target sample size is 24 children per group – ongoing recruitment still in progress (H: N=2, CI: N=2)Discussion• Preliminary data suggests that:• Children with typical hearing perform well on both the word and voice recognition task• Children with CIs perform well on the word recognition task, buthave difficulty with voice recognition. Particularly, they do not show recognition of their mother or other unfamiliar voices, but show signs of recognizing the unfamiliar child’s voice. One possible interpretation is that they are tapping into the phonetic properties of the child’s voice• Data collection and analysis is ongoing• We will explore other factors (e.g., age of implantation, device configuration), and relate them to their performance in the task These data will provide important information about the developmental trajectory of speech processing in children with CIsHHAttention getterMomUnfamiliar womanUnfamiliar manUnfamiliar child”I’m over here… (2 sec)First Window of AnalysisSecond Window of AnalysisVoice Recognition Task  • The voice recognition task used a visual world paradigm• 8 trials x 2 blocks• Stimuli included 4 faces, each in one corner of the screen (mother, unfamiliar woman, unfamiliar man, unfamiliar female child)• After a 3 second period of silence, they will hear one of the voices Silence (1.5 sec)Look at my nose!”(2 sec)Silence (3 sec)Silence (1.5 sec)REFERENCES[1] Bergelson, E., & Swingley, D. (2012). At 6-9 months, human infants know the meanings of many common nouns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(9), 3253-3258. [2] Johnson, E.K., Westrek, E., Nazzi, T., & Cutler, A. (2011). Infant ability to tell voices apart rests on language experience. Developmental Science, 14, 1002-1011. [3] Cleary, M., & Pisoni, D. B. (2002). Talker discrimination by prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants: Preliminary results. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 111(5), 113-118.[4] Vongpaisal, T., Trehub, S. E., Schellenberg, E. G., van Lieshout, P., & Papsin, B. C. (2010). Children with cochlear implants recognize their Motherʼs voice. Ear and Hearing, 31(4), 555-566.[5] Ralph, M. (Photographer). (August, 2007). A child wearing a Cochlear Nucleus Freedom implant [Online Image].Retrieved May 24, 2020 from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Child_wearing_Cochlear_Nucleus_Freedom.jpg. Copyright 2007 by Matt Ralph. Reprinted with permission as per https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis research is supported by a FRNQT research grant to A. Orena. We thank all of our participants for their participation, as well as the Cochlear Implant Clinic at the BC Children’s Hospital for their assistance with conducting the experiment and recruitment of the CI participants. Figure 1 [5]

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