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Mapping climate initiatives and climate policy in Metro Vancouver Trinh, Teresa; Eadon-Clarke, Katie; O'Callahan, Brendan 2021-03-25

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Mapping climate initiatives and climate policyin Metro VancouverIn partnership with the Society Promoting Environmental Conservation (SPEC)and the Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning (CALP)Teresa Trinh, Katie Eadon-Clarke, Brendan O’CallahanUniversity of British ColumbiaDepartment of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric SciencesENVR 400: Community Project in Environmental ScienceAdvisor: Tara IvanochkoMarch 25th, 20212Table of ContentsAbstract 3Authors 31.0 Introduction 41.1 The Need for Climate Action 41.2 Categories of Climate Solutions 41.2.1 Mitigation 51.2.2 Adaptation 51.2.3 Justice 51.3 Filling the Gap 61.3.1 Advancement of Green Political Action 61.3.2 A United Effort 61.4 Project Partnership 71.5 Project Continuation 72.0 Objectives 73.0 Methods 83.1 Policy Collection 83.2 Initiative Collection 83.2 Google Form 93.3 Outreach Strategy 103.4.1 Climate Policies Mapping 113.4.2 Climate Initiatives Mapping 123.5 Automated Google Form 133.6 Climate Initiative Database 144.0 Discussion 144.1 Main challenges & limitations of mapping strategy 144.2 Future recommendations 155.0 Conclusion 166.0 References 177.0 Appendix 193AbstractAnthropogenic activities are the leading threat to the current global climate crisis. It isimperative that varied and extensive climate solutions including climate policy, climatemitigation, adaptation, and justice strategies are implemented to minimize furtherimpacts to natural and human systems (IPCC, 2018). Though many policy-makers andinitiatives are prioritizing climate action and justice in Metro Vancouver, ease of access tothis information and collaboration between initiatives, policy-makers, and the public canand must be strengthened. In 2019, a group of ENVR 400 students from the University ofBritish Columbia (UBC)  generated a map in collaboration with the Society PromotingEnvironmental Conservation (SPEC) and the Collaborative for Advanced LandscapePlanning (CALP) to showcase climate mitigation initiatives within the city of Vancouver.This map became one of two Collective Climate Mobilization Maps (CCMMs) created thisyear; the initiatives CCMM has been populated with additional climate mitigationinitiatives, along with climate adaptation and justice initiatives, and the policies CCMMhas been populated with climate policies. Both CCMMs now cover all Metro Vancouvermunicipalities. Research was conducted to generate a list of initiatives, and responses toa Google Form sent to these initiatives supplied the information presented in theinitiatives CCMM (descriptions of initiatives, where initiatives are active in, and websiteand social media links). The CCMMs will improve ease of access to information on localclimate initiatives and policy; this can increase both climate knowledge and climateaction in Metro Vancouver by connecting climate initiatives and increasing climatedialogue between the public, organizations, and policy makers.AuthorsThe research team for this project consists of three 4th year Environmental Sciences(ENSC) undergraduate students at UBC with unique interests and experience pathwayswho share a common interest in climate change and climate solutions.Teresa Trinh is a fourth year ENVR student with a concentration in Ecology &Sustainability. She has experience with coding in Matlab and R, scientific research writing,and oral presentations.Katherine Eadon-Clarke is a fourth year ENVR student with a concentration in physicalenvironmental sciences especially in water and air chemistry. She has experience with4ArcGis, and with coding in Matlab and R. Katie has also taken courses relating toenvironmental policy and is interested in the idea of spatially representing these policies.Brendan O’Callahan is majoring in Environmental Sciences with a concentration inSustainability Science. He has experience with data collection and analysis, constructivecollaboration, and effectively communicating science through his courses.1.0 Introduction1.1 The Need for Climate ActionHistorically, Earth’s climate has been in periodic variation in response to changes withinnatural systems (Fahey et al., 2017). Changes in solar radiance, volcanic eruptions, andthe El Niño Southern Oscillation all play a role in natural climate change. However,according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the global warmingthat's been observed since pre-industrial levels has been identified as a result of humanactivities (IPCC, 2014). Human sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are largelyresponsible for the increased frequency and intensity of climate impacts such as severeweather events, ocean acidification, rising sea levels, and ecological extinction threats(IPCC, 2014). The IPCC has indicated an urgency to limit global climate change to no morethan 2oC. Although, with the current rates of carbon emissions (50 Gt CO2 eq/year), weare on track to overshoot that limit in 20 years (IPCC, 2014). Energy consumption is by farthe largest source of anthropogenic GHG emissions as it relies on fossil fuels. Thus, thetransition away from fossil fuels and into more sustainable sources requires urgentaction (Matheson et al., 2011).1.2 Categories of Climate SolutionsThis project has identified three categories of climate solutions: mitigation, adaptationand justice. It is important to note that the fourth assessment report of the IPCC statesthat none of these actions alone can halt climate change impacts, though cansignificantly minimize risks when carried out together. Our project will use thesecategories of climate solutions as a way to differentiate initiatives included on theCollective Climate Mobilization Map (CCMM).51.2.1 MitigationThe transition away from a carbon dependent society relies on reducing the rateand magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions as well as enhancing ‘sinks’ thataccumulate and store these gases (such as oceans, forests, and soil) (Semenza etal., 2011). Innovations in renewable energy, green urbanization, zero waste,sustainable food systems, and green transportation have been techniquesadopted in urban mitigation (City of Vancouver, 2020). Ultimately, the goal ofmitigation is to abstain from significant human interference with the climatesystem, and stabilize greenhouse gas levels in a time span that allows ecosystemsto adapt naturally to climate change (IPCC, 2014).1.2.2 AdaptationThe impacts of anthropocentric climate change have altered the state of humanand natural systems so much so that reducing carbon emissions alone is notenough to avoid further ramifications (Semenza et al., 2011). Climate adaptationrefers to action driven from climate impacts (Natural Resources Canada, 2015).Adaptation can be reactive, in which action is in response to climate impacts, oranticipatory, in which action is taken before predicted impacts of climate changeare realized (Natural Resources Canada, 2015). In most cases, anticipatoryadaptation will result in lower long-term costs and can be more effective thanreactive adaptations (Natural Resources Canada, 2015).1.2.3 JusticeClimate justice action has spearheaded a global movement which shifts climatechange discourses to frame global warming as an ethical and political issue (Kluttz& Walker, 2018). The disproportionate social, economic, public health, andenvironmental impacts of climate change have been widely documented withinrelevant literature (UN Sustainable Goals, 2019). Many historically marginalized orunderserved communities are most vulnerable to climate impacts (McKendry,2015). The mobilization of climate justice in Metro Vancouver has led to protests,marches, and rallies demanding climate action and the protection of Indigenoussovereignty (Canning, 2018). Hundreds to thousands of people have congregatedby port extrances, city street intersections, major roads, institutions, and city hallsto amplify the need for climate justice.61.3 Filling the Gap1.3.1 Advancement of Green Political ActionRising sea level, warmer temperatures, and extreme weather events have allindicated the undeniable reality that a ‘business as usual’ regime and a sustainableand just future for all cannot exist in unison. Municipalities across the MetroVancouver region including Vancouver, Richmond, Burnaby, New Westminster,North Vancouver, West Vancouver and Port Moody have all declared a state ofclimate emergency. These declarations indicate the recognition that climate actionis essential to avoiding the worst impacts of climate change and overwhelmingsociety’s capacity to adapt. By electing the IPCC’s (2018) 1.5°C global warming limit,many municipalities have built climate emergency response reports and policies,outlining carbon pollution reduction strategies. However, in order to transformoutdated systems and build long-term sustainable change, action is required byall.1.3.2 A United EffortWhile personal action is more effective than no action at all, Greiger (2019) statesthat coordinated collective action is a more significant driver of change. Whenindividuals identify with a collective (e.g., organizations, school clubs, workplaces)with a common goal, they engage in empathic conversations around what theycare about, such as the climate crisis. Moreover, individuals tend to look towardstheir personal social networks for information that confirm their worldviews. Thus,publicly visible behaviours such as advocacy of one’s involvement in a climateinitiative have the ability to influence others within their community (Greiger,2019). As a result, these connections create networks to help recruit engagementand action (Kluttz & Walter, 2018). As the urgency for climate action persists,engagement among local and global populations are vital to creating sustainablechange.The work of organizations and community led initiatives play a major role in theongoing engagement of the public towards climate action. Over the last fewdecades, the Metro Vancouver region has amassed a plethora of organizationscommitted to climate change solutions and action. The lack of a singular platformto showcase all climate initiatives, whether organization-, community-, or7municipality-led, can make a Google search seem overwhelming for individuals,organizations, and policymakers. This project aims to increase the accessibility ofthis information and catalyze social mobilization by offering user-friendly mapsallowing users to navigate local climate initiatives and policies across MetroVancouver.1.4 Project PartnershipThis project is a cap-stone project within the ENVR 400: Community Project inEnvironmental Science course at UBC. It’s completion could not have been fulfilledwithout the guidance from course instructor, Tara Ivanochko and the collaborativepartnership with the Society Promoting Environmental Conservation (SPEC), anorganization that aims to empower local communities in the Lower Mainland towardsurban sustainability, and the Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning (CALP), aresearch group focussed on innovative solutions that target sustainability issues.1.5 Project ContinuationThis project is in its second year of development, and its continuation this year varies inthe project’s scope and deliverables. Last year, the ENVR 400 group and SPEC-CALPcommunity partners developed a map with 41 climate mitigation initiatives representedin Vancouver alone. This year, the map contains 58 climate mitigation, adaptation andjustice initiatives as well as climate-related policies across Metro Vancouver.2.0 ObjectivesThe CCMMs are intended to enhance awareness of climate solutions and mobilizecollective climate action. It’s accessibility and functionality has the potential to profoundlyimpact the reach and influence of climate initiatives in Vancouver. The addition ofrelevant climate policies into a streamlined online environment that is user-friendly willallow for further accessibility of information to empower citizens to engage and holdpolicy-makers to higher standards. The overarching goal of the new CCMM additions is topromote communication and action concerning the climate crisis among allstakeholders. The sub-objectives of this project are as follows:8➢ To increase the scope of the data presented on the CCMMs by adding climatepolicies, climate adaptation initiatives, climate justice initiatives, and more climatemitigation initiatives;➢ To widen the spatial scope of the CCMMs to include initiatives and policies withinall Metro Vancouver municipalities;➢ To conduct effective outreach in order to get the CCMMs into as many hands aspossible;➢ To make the CCMMs more self-sufficient so that data input into the database canbe automatically processed into the map.3.0 Methods3.1 Policy CollectionPolicies and sustainability/climate action plans within Metro Vancouver were gatheredfor each municipality through their individual official governance websites (See AppendixA). For simplicity and consistency of the information presented on the policies CCMM, themain focus of climate related policies and action plans included: carbon emissionreduction targets/goals, a breakdown of climate related policies and action plans andrelevant resources pertaining to climate and sustainability within each municipality.3.2 Initiative CollectionAs a continuation of last year’s collection of climate mitigation initiatives, this year’sefforts were to widen the scope of climate initiatives included on the initiatives CCMM.Therefore, climate adaptation and justice initiatives within Metro Vancouver werecollected in addition to climate mitigation initiatives (See Appendix B). Using the previousyear’s database, we compiled additional initiatives by inputting keywords and phrasessuch as ‘climate activism’, ‘climate justice’, and ‘environmental initiatives’ into onlinesearch engines. Additionally, resources such as The Canadian Directory of EnvironmentalGroups which offers information on environmental organizations across Canada wereconsulted. Each organization under the regional category of ‘British Columbia’ wasreviewed for relevant projects, initiatives, or branches of the organization that are activein Metro Vancouver. In order to expand the map’s breadth of initiatives to include those9not easily located using keywords, resources such as the Greenest City Grant winners,environmental donation websites, and volunteering websites were also employed.Through discussions with SPEC-CALP, and maintaining the project’s continuity from lastyear, a guiding framework was created to outline the project’s discernment of whatconstitutes an ‘initiative’.Guiding Framework For Defining Climate Initiatives:The climate initiatives included in the initiatives CCMM satisfy all of the followingrequirements:1. Be located in Metro Vancouver2. Be active within the last year3. Be organized by a non-profit, charity, NGO, government organization, orcommunity group (at least 2 people)4. Work to do one of the following:a. Climate mitigation: actively reduce and increase awareness on andengagement in the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissionsb. Climate adaptation: action driven in response to or anticipation of climatechange impactsc. Climate justice: action targeting climate change from an intersectionalperspective (i.e. ethically, politically)3.2 Google FormIn order to gather information from initiatives to be presented on the initiatives CCMM, aGoogle Form was created to ensure the initiative’s self-determination of theirrepresentation on the CCMM (See Appendix C). Thus, the goal of the form was to acquirethe following:1. Initiative & participatory organization(s) name(s)2. Initiative description3. The initiative’s climate solution categorization (mitigation, adaptation, and/orjustice)4. Location(s) of initiative5. Webpage & social media links/handles6. Target audience107. Year foundedTo ensure a mutual understanding of the project’s use of words such as ‘mitigation’,‘adaptation’ and ‘justice’, definitions were included in the Google Form as well as adescription of the CCMMs project.In order to create a thorough Google Form, a pilot form was sent out to ten climateinitiatives to gather feedback in regards to question-related concerns, the need forincreased clarity, or identifying gaps. Out of the 10 initiatives the pilot form was sent outto, 2 initiatives responded with concerns regarding not having a physical address to inputinto the form. Thus, to accommodate their feedback the Finalized Google Form allowedinitiatives to select which municipalities they are active in and up to 5 neighbourhoods ifapplicable.The Finalized Google Form was sent out to all initiatives in the database as well asSPEC-CALP contacts that were not included in the database. To incentivize initiatives torespond in a timely accordance with the project’s timeline, a closing date for responseswas included, followed by a reminder email after a week of the form being sent out. Intotal, 31 responses were received for initiatives active in 11 municipalities within MetroVancouver.3.3 Outreach StrategyThe goal of our outreach strategy is to distribute and publicize the map throughout avariety of relevant groups/organizations across dominant media platforms. By creatingpublish-ready content for Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and events for organizations,community members, news outlets and initiatives to use for advertising, we hope to havethe CCMMs in the hands of many (See Appendix B). In addition to our initiative database,an additional database of organizations was created as a starting point for SPEC-CALP toreach out to to help promote the CCMMs (See Appendix G).For news outlets in particular, we’ve written three separate op-eds to be submitted to theUbyssey, The Georgia Strait and Narcity alike (See Appendix E). For future SPEC-CALPproject presentations/conferences/meetings, a poster was created to communicate theproject’s importance, objectives, as well as promote the CCMMs (See Appendix F).3.4 Mapping11Following the collection of climate initiatives and policies, we created two online mapsusing ArcGis online to display the information in an easily digestible yet comprehensivemanner. Both the climate policies and climate initiatives are represented on a municipalscale, meaning they were grouped and displayed on the map based on what municipalitythey are active in. In doing this, we were able to accomodate the climate initiatives thatdo not operate in a single location or identify with any location at all. We determined thatmapping the exact location of each climate initiative would exclude many potentialinitiatives and could cause excessive crowding on the CCMMs. Therefore, instead ofusing an exact address to allocate points on the CCMMs, we grouped initiatives bymunicipality or municipalities where they’re active. Thus, users select a municipality andreceive a list of the climate initiatives active there.Since both climate initiatives and policies are grouped by which municipality they arepresent in, the basemap used for each CCMM is a world navigation map centered on theMetro Vancouver region. This allows autonomy for viewers to scale their spatial view(streets, neighbourhoods and municipalities) using the zoom tool on the map. To furtherhelp users view municipalities more clearly, an additional layer was created. The layercontains the municipal boundaries which were manually drawn onto the CCMMs usingmap notes. The municipal boundaries layer was added to both the policies and initiativesCCMM.3.4.1 Climate Policies MappingThe climate policies CCMM consists of the basemap, the municipal boundaries layer, anda municipal area layer where a ‘pop-up’ will appear when a polygon is selected. Theclimate policies added to the municipal area layer. The final policy map is referred to asFigure 1.12Figure 1: This CCMM is designed to display the climate policies implemented around Metro Vancouver. Theuser will see a map with the municipal areas shaded with a transparent pink layer. When the municipalarea is selected, the user will see a ‘pop-up’ with a list of all the municipality’s climate policies.3.4.2 Climate Initiatives MappingThe climate initiatives CCMM consists of the basemap, municipal boundaries layer, and alayer with the climate initiatives’ information derived from an uploaded CSV file renamedas ‘climate initiative response’. The ‘climate initiative response’ layer appears as a singularnumbered point in the center of each municipality. The number on the point representsthe number of climate initiatives in the respective municipality. Selecting the point willprovide information on the initiatives such as the organization name, description,category and link to the organization’s main webpage obtained from the Finalized GoogleForm. The final initiative CCMM is referred to as Figure 2.13Figure 2: This CCMM focuses on displaying the climate initiatives found in each municipality. The lines onthe map represent the municipality boundaries, the points with the numbers on them represent thenumber of initiatives in the municipality. Users can navigate through climate initiatives on the point byselecting the triangle located on the top right of the ‘pop-up’.3.5 Automated Google FormThe Finalized Google Form was redesigned to allow for the construction of an automateddatabase. In doing this, responses will be processed into uploadable data when a newresponse is added to the Google Form. This enables future volunteers or studentsworking on this project to send out the automated version of the Google Form to climateinitiatives which they could then upload the linked Google Sheet to ArcGIS Online withminimal editing of the responses required. The Automated Google Form varies from theFinalized Google Form as it utilizes a checkbox style answer opposed to a short responsestyle answer to acquire the location(s) of climate initiatives. Due to the nature ofprocessing initiatives’ responses onto a Google Sheet, the Automated Google Form haslimited character (350 character limit) and storage capacity. This poses restrictions on thenumber of questions that could be asked, as well as the word count available for aninitiative’s description. The automated Google Form can be found in Appendix C.143.6 Climate Initiative DatabaseThe process of converting the information obtained from the automated Google Forminto data points on the CCMM involved creating a Google Sheet which automaticallyprocesses responses into location coordinates that the map is then able to plot. Locationcoordinates are allocated to initiatives who select municipalities applicable to them via alocation specific question on the form. The coordinate points representing eachmunicipality were chosen based on visual aesthetic and overall consistency. With the useof complex Google Sheet equations and formatting, the initiative name, organizationname, description, category of climate solution, and webpage URL are organized in rowson a Google Sheet tab named ‘processed data’. This sheet would be automaticallyupdated with each new response on the form and can be readily uploaded manually toArcGIS Online via a CSV file.4.0 Discussion4.1 Main challenges & limitations of mapping strategyOne of the original objectives of the project was to create a map that informed the publicof climate initiatives in their neighbourhood. The initial plan was to create a map withspecific points indicating where the climate initiatives are located by using theiraddresses. However, responses from the pilot Google Form expressed concern regardingusing addresses due to some initiatives unable to identify a singular address or havemultiple locations that would cause crowding on the map. To address these challenges,the CCMM was redesigned to spatially represent initiatives by the municipality(ies) theyare active in. The redesign included a single numerical point on each municipality whichsuccessfully mitigates potential crowdedness, and accommodates representation ofinitiatives that are not location-specific by representing them in all municipalities.The Finalized Google Form sent out to climate initiatives did not use checkbox styledquestions to acquire an initiative's location. Instead, initiatives were required to provideshort-answer styled responses describing their location(s). Certain responses causedchallenges as it was unclear which municipality the climate initiative is active in. Forexample, some initiatives indicated that they are active in North Vancouver or in Langley,but it is unclear whether they were referring to the City of North Vancouver or District of15North Vancouver/the City of Langley or Township of Langley. The ambiguous answerswere treated by assigning the initiatives to all the locations that we deemed appropriate(i.e. both City and Township/District). However, changes made for the Automated GoogleForm mitigates this challenge by having initiatives check relevant municipality boxes tofulfill location requirements.Through the development of the CCMMs, we experienced a tradeoff between using anautomatically updating database and creating visually appealing maps for users. Beingable to manually configure the ‘pop-up’ that appears when users select a point on theCCMMs would employ a greater degree of control regarding what could be included onthe ‘pop-up’. Manual configuration of the ‘pop-up’ would enable a longer initiativedescription as well as pictures to make it more visually appealing. The functionality of theautomatic updating database requires descriptions to be approximately 350 charactersmaximum due to the word capacity within a single bin in Google Sheets. Futurevolunteers or students working on the project would need to monitor the character limiton the descriptions portion of the sheet. A set character limit or instructions to limitinitiative descriptions to a character limit can be included in the Google Form.4.2 Future recommendationsTo further improve the project, another map that displays the exact locations at whichclimate initiatives are located is recommended to allow users to determine the mostconvenient climate initiatives to engage with. For another map to be constructed,another Google Form and a database that stores the responses would need to be madesince ArcGIS Online cannot plot both coordinate and address points from the same CSVfile. The Google Forms for each CCMM could be included in the email sent toorganizations during the initiative-collecting phase and organizations could choose to fillout either or both surveys based on how they would like to be spatially represented. Anautomatically updating database for the Google Form is possible since ArcGIS  canconvert addresses into data points. An indication that an initiative is looking forvolunteers can also be included in initiative ‘pop-ups’ on the CCMM to help map usersthat are looking to volunteer.In addition, improvements to the initiatives CCMM should focus on the initiatives’presentation and user experience. As more initiatives are added to the CCMM, thenumbered points will become larger, and users will have to navigate through eachinitiative in a municipality individually. This will become tedious and time consuming for16users. Therefore, configuring a way to present the initiative’s on a larger scale (allowingusers to view more than one initiative at a time) will be most ideal. For instance, creatinga table to supplement the current ‘pop-ups’ so that users can also navigate by scrollingthrough multiple columns of initiatives. Initiatives can also be organized alphabeticallythrough the CSV connected to the CCMM to allow greater ease for users to find particularinitiatives/organizations they may be seeking.Updating the CCMMs in the future will be a challenge, as new climate policies andinitiatives will inevitably emerge and old ones will no longer be relevant. Futurevolunteers and students will therefore need to monitor current policies and update theCCMM accordingly. A possible project idea would be to archive the old climate policies onthe CCMM so that users can see the progression and evolution of climate policies overtime. Information on climate policies in each municipality is currently rather minimalistic,so including more links or descriptions on the ‘pop-ups’ on the map could also beincluded to make the policy CCMM more comprehensive. A similar approach could beused for climate initiatives that are no longer active, such as climate marches, so thatCCMM users can see the history of short and long-term initiatives in Metro Vancouver. Toaddress the ‘expiration date’ of climate initiatives, a question can be included in thesurvey that asks for the anticipated date when the climate initiative ends, if this isapplicable, therefore requiring less investigative work for future volunteers and students.This project has focused largely on the climate policy and initiative CCMM. As a result, thewebsite in which they are housed should be focused on in the future. This can includeembellishing the StoryMap to include information on the project, the goal of the maps,and how to navigate it would be productive in making it more informative, user-friendlyand visually appealing. Additionally, we recommend providing a land acknowledgementon this website to call attention to the stolen land on which the work of each initiativeoperates on. Although it may not be necessary to overlay or include another map oftraditional Indigenous territories around Metro Vancouver, it could be beneficial toinclude a link to the Native Land website.5.0 ConclusionAs the consequences of anthropogenic climate change continue to increase in severityand frequency from extreme weather events, rising sea levels and temperatures, to mass17extinctions, it is clear that a just transition away from ‘business as usual’ isnon-negotiable. While many municipalities in Metro Vancouver have declared a climateemergency, increased efforts from NGOs, grassroots organizations, communityinitiatives and civil society continue to advocate for more progressive climate changeagendas. These efforts include the emergence of climate mitigation, adaptation andjustice initiatives hoping to catalyze collective mobilization towards climate solutions.The development of the CCMMs, outreach strategy, and automation has contributed tothe expansion of the project’s scope, accessibility, and longevity. By offering a singlelocation to access climate policies and initiatives, the project aims to support collectiveaction. The online platform on which the CCMMs are located allows for ease of publicaccess to climate initiatives and policies not only in Vancouver, but within all of MetroVancouver. The project successfully represents thirty climate mitigation, adaptation andjustice initiatives from across Metro Vancouver.The CCMMs continued expansion can be optimized through the implementation of theoutreach strategy, which aims to reach the public through relevant venues such asclimate focussed organizations. Additionally, the automated Google Form connected tothe initiatives CCMM allows initiatives to be represented on the map with littleorganizational input from our partners. Thus, the project’s publication coupled with theoutreach strategy will further promote and amplify the map’s influence amongorganizations, climate activists, policy makers, and interested individuals as a resourceand tool for collective action, engagement, collaboration, and education.6.0 ReferencesCanning, P. C. (2018). I could turn you to stone: Indigenous blockades in an age ofclimate change. International Indigenous Policy Journal, 9(3).City of Vancouver. (2019). Climate Emergency Response. Retrieved from:, J., Oreskes, N., Doran, P. T., Anderegg, W. R. L., Verheggen, B., Maibach, E. W.,et al. (2016). Consensus on consensus: A synthesis of consensus estimateson human-caused global warming. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 1–7.18Fahey, D.W., Doherty, S.J., Hibbard, K.A., Romanou, A., & Taylor, P.C. (2017). Physicaldrivers of climate change. In: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth NationalClimate Assessment, Volume I [Wuebbles, D.J., D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J.Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change ResearchProgram, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 73-113.Geiger, N., Swim, J.K., & Leland, G. (2019) Spread the Green Word: A SocialCommunity Perspective Into Environmentally Sustainable Behavior.Environment and Behavior, 51 (5), 561-589.Natural Resources Canada (2015). Chapter 1: An Introduction to Climate ChangeAdaptation. Retrieved from:, 2014: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation ofClimate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth AssessmentReport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R.Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I.Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C.von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.IPCC, 2018: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts ofglobal warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related globalgreenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening theglobal response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development,and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner,D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R.Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy,T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)]. Retrieved from, J., & Walter, P. (2018). Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement.Adult Education Quarterly, 68(2), 91-107.Mathiesen, B. V., Lund, H., & Karlsson, K. (2011). 100% Renewable energy systems,climate mitigation and economic growth. Applied Energy, 88(2), 488-501.19doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.03.001McKendry, C. (2016) Cities and the challenge of multiscalar climate justice: climategovernance and social equity in Chicago, Birmingham, and Vancouver, LocalEnvironment, 21:11, 1354-1371.Semenza, J.C., Ploubidis, G.B. & George, L.A. (2011) Climate change and climate variability:personal motivation for adaptation and mitigation. Environ Health 10, 46.United Nations. (2019). Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from AppendixA. Metro Vancouver Climate Policies & Action Plans by MunicipalityB. Spreadsheet of initiativesC. Google FormD. Social Media OutreachE. Op-ed/blog for OutreachF. Poster for Outreach○ This poster can also be edited using the following link: Outreach organizationsH. ArcGIS online story maps: Mapping Instructions1. Updating Climate Policies CCMM2. Updating Climate Initiatives CCMM3. Recreating the Climate Policies CCMM4. Recreating the Climate Initiatives CCMM5. Recreating the automated Google Sheet201. Updating Climate Policies CCMM1.1 Once logged into ArcGis Online, go to the group for this project and select the‘Climate policies by municipality map'.  The group page should look like this:NOTE: You would need an ArcGIS organizational account to be able to edit content fromthis project. If you have a UBC organizational account, go to My Organization Groups and21scroll down to find the group created for this project.Click on SPEC & CALP Mapping Climate Initiatives and Climate Policies and add yourselfto the group.If you have an account from a different organization you’d need , you’d need the rightprivileges to join external groups and an invite to join a group created for this project.Refer to this bog page: Select a municipality to view a ‘Pop up’ (‘Pop up’ is an ArcGIS term for a text box thatappears when you click on a map notes feature) that contains the climate policies/actionplans. The hyperlinks within each municipality’s ‘Pop up’ direct viewers to the appropriateweb page of the municipality’s official website that outlines the climate policy/actionplan. Survey the website for each municipality to find new/updated climatepolicies/action plans implemented and add them to the directory for each municipality.1.3 Identify the policies/action plans that are no longer relevant and remove them fromall the ‘Pop ups’. Do this by clicking edit on the pop up and change the description.221.4 Save the map2. Updating Climate Initiatives CCMM:2.1 Go to the automated Google Form’s responses. Download the ‘Processed Data’ tabas a CSV file.2.2 Once logged into ArcGIS Online, locate the climate initiatives map. Untick the climateinitiatives response layer (or in the case of this figure, the ‘Climate initiatives mapping2021 (Responses)- Processed data (3)’ so that the old data is no longer visible.23Upload the new data to ArcGIS (Go to Add -> Add Layer from File -> import file).2.3 Once the points are added onto the map, select ‘more options’ located under thelayer, then configure ‘pop-up’. Select configure attributes and de-select the boxes ‘ObjectID’ , ‘latitude’, ‘longitude’, and ‘count’.More options is the triple dot symbol as shown:24Configure attributes:2.4 Under ‘ More options’, select ‘Manage labels’ and select ‘count’ located next to thetext box. Add a halo to emphasize the number.This is what the ‘Manage labels’ page should look like:252.5 Save the map.3. Recreate the Climate Policies CCMM:3.1 Log into ArcGIS then go to my maps. Scroll to the Metro Vancouver area, thenchoose a visually appealing yet relevant basemap from the ArcGIS Living Atlas. For thisparticular map, a world navigation map was used.263.2 Use Google Maps to figure out the boundaries of the municipalities in MetroVancouver. By defining certain streets, neighbourhoods, rivers municipal boundariescross in, use lines under map notes to draw in the municipal boundaries onto the mapitself. Make a copy of that layer and rename it as municipal boundaries initiatives and27save it to ‘Your contents’. Only use the municipal boundaries layer in the climate policiesmap since it will change if you edit it on a different map.(Creating the municipal boundaries)3.3 Create another map notes layer but use areas instead. Using the municipalboundaries layer as a guideline, create polygon areas that are the same shape and sizeas the municipalities. Selecting those areas, a blank text box should pop up. To make themap more visually appealing, you can change colors and adjust the transparency of the28lines and areas of the polygons.(Creating the Municipal boundary layer)3.4 In those empty text boxes, type in a brief description of the climate policies found inthe municipality and copy and paste in governmental links that lead to the webpagewhere these policies can be found. With that, the climate policies map is complete. Savethe map.4. Recreating the Climate Initiatives CCMM4.1 Follow the steps of step one from the ‘Recreating the climate policies map’instructions.4.2 Upload the Municipal boundaries initiative layer from my content made in the climatepolicies section to the map.4.3 Download the ‘Processed Data’ tab from the Google Sheet and then upload it toArcGIS (Go to Add -> Add Layer from File -> import file)4.4 Once the points are added, select ‘more options’ located under the layer thenconfigure ‘pop-up’. Select ‘configure attributes’ and de-select the boxes ‘latitude’,‘longitude’, and ‘count’.294.5 Under ‘options’, select on ‘manage labels’ and select ‘count’ located next to the textbox. Add a halo to make the emphasis the number.4.6 Save the map and add to story maps.5. Recreating the automatically updating databaseThere are three tabs used on Google Sheets:Form Response 1 sheet (where the data will first enter):30Coordinates (A library of values):Processed data (the sheet that would be uploaded to ArcGIS online map):5.1 Find coordinates that would be appropriate to represent each municipality. Createdfour columns as following on a tab called ‘Coordinates’:It is important to haveno spaces in themunicipality since we31will use the Vlookup function. The writing in the municipality column would need tomatch the ‘Municipalities String’ column on the Form Responses 1 sheet.5.2 Each survey response would answer the question ‘which municipalities are you activein?’ and that unprocessed response would appear like this:On the tab where the data will initially be imputed (Form Responses 1) write on the nextempty column ‘Municipalities List’.  Here, you will extract the multiple answers from asingle text box to make a list of municipalities so it’ll look like this instead:Using the formula =TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(JOIN(",",G2:G),",")) on column H2 will achieve this.5.3 After the municipalities list is made, all the spaces need to be removed. On the nextcolumn labelled ‘Municipals String’, the formula=ARRAYFORMULA(IFS(ROW(A:A)=1,"Municipalities no space",G:G="","",TRUE, SUBSTITUTE(G:G," ","")))was added on the bin I1 to achieve this. The writing inside the bins in column I will be thesame as the writing inside the bins on the coordinates page.Column I from FormResponses 1  sheet Coordinates sheet5.4 In the ‘Processed Data’ tab, add the following formula to F1.=ARRAYFORMULA(IFS(ROW(F:F)=1,"latitude",D:D="","",TRUE, VLOOKUP('Form Responses1'!I:I,Coordinates!A:B,2,0)))Then add the following formula to G1.=ARRAYFORMULA(IFS(ROW(F:F)=1,"longitude",D:D="","",TRUE, VLOOKUP('Form Responses1'!I:I,Coordinates!D:E,2,0)))32This would give you the data points that ArcGis can plot on the map.5.5 This section is to ensure that the ‘pop-up’ provides information that matches withthe data points. Go back to the Form responses 1 tab for the following steps. Next is tocreate the column ‘Municipalities no Space’  on column J where inside the bins look likethis:To achieve this, add = ARRAYFORMULA(IFS(ROW(A:A)=1,"Municipalities no space",G:G="","",TRUE,SUBSTITUTE(G:G," ",""))) to J1.5.6 For the next couple formulas to work, create a column P and in P2, add:=COUNTA(B2:B)5.7 To make the long list of metadata that matches with the list of coordinates use thisformula in K2=TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(JOIN("",ARRAYFORMULA(REPT(offset(B2,,,$P$2)&"/",len(offset(J2,,,$P$2))-len(SUBSTITUTE(offset(J2,,,$P$2),",",""))+1))),"/"))This would give you the list of organizations. If a surveyresponder said the climate initiative was found in all 21municipalities (or all of B.C/Worldwide), then theorganization name will be written 21 times.For initiative list use in L2:=TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(JOIN("",ARRAYFORMULA(REPT(offset(C2,,,$P$2)&"/",len(offset(J2,,,$P$2))-len(SUBSTITUTE(offset(J2,,,$P$2),",",""))+1))),"/"))For Webpage URL list use in M2:=TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(JOIN("",ARRAYFORMULA(REPT(offset(D2,,,$P$2)&",",len(offset(J2,,,$P$2))-len(SUBSTITUTE(offset(J2,,,$P$2),",",""))+1))),","))33For Initiative description list use in N2:=TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(JOIN("",ARRAYFORMULA(REPT(offset(E2,,,$P$2)&"/",len(offset(J2,,,$P$2))-len(SUBSTITUTE(offset(J2,,,$P$2),",",""))+1))),"/"))For Initiative category use in O2:=TRANSPOSE(SPLIT(JOIN("",ARRAYFORMULA(REPT(offset(F2,,,$P$2)&"/",len(offset(J2,,,$P$2))-len(SUBSTITUTE(offset(J2,,,$P$2),",",""))+1))),"/"))5.8Next to make the data presentable and easily uploaded as a csv file for ArcGIS. On the‘Processed Data’ tab, add the following formulas:In A1: =ArrayFormula('Form Responses 1'!L1:L)B1: =ArrayFormula('Form Responses 1'!O1:O)C1: =ArrayFormula('Form Responses 1'!N1:N)D1: =ArrayFormula('Form Responses 1'!M1:M)E1: =ArrayFormula('Form Responses 1'!K1:K)F1: =ARRAYFORMULA(IFS(ROW(F:F)=1,"latitude",D:D="","",TRUE, VLOOKUP('Form Responses1'!I:I,Coordinates!A:B,2,0)))G1: =ARRAYFORMULA(IFS(ROW(F:F)=1,"longitude",D:D="","",TRUE, VLOOKUP('Form Responses1'!I:I,Coordinates!D:E,2,0)))H2: =ARRAYFORMULA(COUNTIF('Form Responses 1'!I2:I,'Form Responses 1'!I2:I))


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