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Study of UBC’s current snow removal practices, and their possible effects Choi, Kathryn; Delumeau, Solène; Liang, Khris; Xu, Lisa 2020-04

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 Study of UBC’s current snow removal practices, and their possible effects   ​Kathryn Choi, Solène Delumeau, Khris Liang, Lisa Xu      ​   ​ Course: ​ENVR 400         ​ Date:​ April, 2020    Executive Summary          ​Introduction  This report details our team project in collaboration with UBC Building Operations            and the SEEDS Program, from September 2019 to April 2020. Our project partners             have expressed their desire to examine some ways to improve UBC’s current            methods of dealing with the snow seasons, particularly in the realm of reducing             negative environmental impacts of snow and ice removal. The main aim of this             project was to recommend changes in UBC’s current snow removal practices by            observing and documenting their existing protocols, and then exploring alternative          methods that are used in other communities.       ​   Methods  Our project had three main components; ​(1) soil collection and analysis, ​(2)            surveying UBC patrons, and​ (3) ​documenting the current snow removal protocol.   Soil samples were collected from six different locations on campus, before and after             salting. The samples were analysed for pH and salinity values at the UBC Soil Lab.               This was done in order to discern a change in these parameters before and after a                salting event.   A survey was conducted in order to investigate the views of the UBC public on               Building Operations’ snow response. This was approached by soliciting UBC          patrons across the academic campus to complete a survey.   Several interviews with the Building Operations crew were conducted in order to            gain a full understanding of the current protocol. We attended a snow response day              in January 2020 to get a first-hand experience of snow removal with the Building              Operations crew.     1                 Findings & limitations  A statistical test suggests that the differences in soil pH and salinity were not              statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. However, the mean values of pH             are visibly lower after salting, and those of salinity are higher after salting, as would               be expected. The lack of statistical significance is likely due to the very small sample               size, which was the main limitation of the soil collection design.   The survey results indicate an overall satisfaction of UBC patrons with the present             snow removal response. They also point toward some “problem areas” on the            campus which patrons found to be slippery. Participants generally reported feeling           safer when walking rather than driving. The sample size of 100 people suggests that              the survey results are not necessarily representative of a campus with over 70,000             patrons like UBC.   We estimated that UBC uses around 350 tonnes of salt in a standard snow season.               This remains a very approximative number, as many assumptions were made and            the raw numbers communicated to us by Building Operations were estimates           themselves. By observing the snow response and interacting with crew members,           we noted an area of improvement for the current snow removal method, specifically             in terms of training crew members.          Conclusions  Despite a lack of statistical significance of the soil results, we cannot conclude that              road salt poses no harm to the environment due to this study’s limitations. Many              studies and observations point toward the various negative implications of road salt.            Further studies should re-execute the soil collection and analysis with a larger            sample size.   By surveying UBC patrons, we have learned that people are mostly satisfied by the              speed and the efficacy of the work done by the Building Ops immediately following              snow events.   Our personal observations and survey results suggest that there is variation in the             level of salt application among crew members, which can sometimes result in            unnecessary and excessive salt piles.  2   Recommendations  In consideration of the project findings, our team makes the following           recommendations for UBC Building Operations:  ● To develop a training manual ​for crew members which emphasizes a           more conservative use of road salt, and avoiding unnecessary salting of           roads.  ● To begin testing an ​organic based liquid de-icer such as beet juice. The             alternative de-icer should be used in conjunction with road salt, to try and             limit the total amount of salt needed throughout the season.                 ​ Author Bios     Solene, Khris and Lisa are all Environmental Science students at UBC,           specializing in Land, Air and Water. Kathryn is completing a double major in             Environmental Sciences and Psychology.        3  Contents   Introduction 5  Methods 6 Tables 1, 2 Figures 1 - 4  Results 11 Table 3 Figures 5 - 11  Discussion 19  Recommendations 22  Conclusions 23  Acknowledgements 24  References 25  Appendix 27  Figures A1 - A6  Tables A1 - A3 Survey results     4       ​  Introduction   This project was driven by the following research question: ​can we make practical             recommendations to improve the sustainability of UBC’s snow removal protocol?   The main reason snow and ice are removed is to reduce accidents, for both vehicles               and pedestrians alike. However, the environmental impact of snow removal should be            considered alongside road safety. Salt and brine are the most commonly used agents             for snow and ice removal. Ideally, these should be applied to roads in predetermined              optimal amounts based on the amount of snow and ice to remove, as well as the level                 of pedestrian and/or vehicle traffic experienced in the given zone. Salt and brine pose              various negative environmental impacts, including roadside vegetation mortality (Liem         et al., 1985), nearby forest mortality (Fan et al., 2013), and alters soil enzyme activities               (Gutner & Wilke, 1983). Road salt, once applied, seeps into groundwater and makes its              way into rivers (in the case of Vancouver, into the Georgia Strait). In the aquatic               environment, these common de-icing salt compounds were found to have various           negative impacts on fish, zooplankton, and amphibians (Hintz & Relyea, 2017). This fact             is especially relevant in British Columbia, where salmonid fish species are of high             economic and cultural importance. Aside from the environmental impact, the corrosive           nature of salt causes damage to road surfaces (Fay & Shi, 2012) and vehicles (Ke et                al., 2019). As such, limiting and mitigating the level of salting is preferable from various               perspectives. UBC’s current snow and ice removal practice has room for improvement            on the environmental front. This project hopes to serve as a starting point in shifting the                future of UBC’s practices to be more environmentally conscious.   There are various other snow removal methods other than salt and brine. However, not              all of them would be realistically suited for implementation at UBC. Therefore,            improvements to UBC’s snow response should include not only exploring alternative           methods, but also potential areas in which the current methods can be more efficiently              applied.         5                                              ​Methods   1.    UBC’s current snow removal practice   Because UBC’s current snow and ice removal is not formally outlined, the first step was               to investigate this in more detail. The information on page 9 ​was uncovered mainly by               conducting unstructured interviews with crew members that directly carry out the snow            removal process. This includes crew members from Streets and Operations Support,           Soft Landscape, and other relevant staff from Building Operations. The crew have            shared some common challenges faced in snow removal, such as notable ‘problem            areas’ characterized by observed environmental damage. These areas were taken into           consideration for soil testing.   In addition to the interviews, in order to experience the process first-hand, two of the               authors physically attended a day of snow removal in January to make observations of              the Building Operations staffs’ duties.   Quantifying the total amount of salt used during the yearly snow season is important.              However, as Building Operations does not keep detailed records of this information, an             estimate was made by calculating the difference between the amount of salt ordered             and the amount of salt leftover after the snow season.   2.    Soil sampling & analysis  2.1 Soil Sampling  To observe possible effects of salting on the soil at UBC, soil samples were collected               from the campus and analyzed. The parameters of interest were pH and salinity             (measured as electrical conductivity), both of which are expected to change after the             application of salt for snow removal due to the addition of ions present in salt (Kissel &                 Vendrell, 2012).   With the help of the Soft Landscape crew, six locations of interest were identified from               which to collect soil samples. These locations include a mix of heavily salted areas              (priority roads) and less salted areas (side roads). ​Figure 1 ​is a diagram of the soil                sampling set-up, and ​Table 1 clarifies which sample relates to what distance from the              roadside. ​Figure 2 indicates the location of sites, and ​Table 2 ​provides a general              description of each site.  6    Table 1.​ Indication of the distances from the roadside at which samples were collected. Sample Distance from roadside A Directly adjacent B About 1 m C About 2 m   Figure 1. ​General set up of soil sampling for each site. Samples A, B and C are mixtures                  of 3 soil cores (drawn as X’s in the diagram) taken from different respective distances               from the road or sidewalk. Each site has a total of 3 samples, corresponding to different                distances from the road/sidewalk. ​Figure by Solene D.  Samples were collected using a soil coring tool. For each of the samples A, B and C,                 three replicates were collected. The replicates were mixed together to provide a more             representative soil sample at each distance from the roadside.    There were two rounds of soil sample collection:  1.​    ​November 29, 2019  →  prior to salting 2.​    ​January​ ​17, 2020  →  after 2-3 days of salting   7                Figure 2. ​This is a partial map of the UBC Vancouver Campus. The numbers indicate               the approximate locations where soil samples were collected. (UBC, n.d.)   Table 2.​ ​Overview of the six sites where soil samples were collected from.  Site Location Level of salting Positioning 1 Norman MacKenzie House, flower bed Heavy  Adjacent to UBC president’s driveway 2 Wyman Plaza, flower bed Heavy  Adjacent to main road 3 In front of Hennings Building Heavy   Adjacent to main road 4 In front of Neville Scarfe Building Heavy  Adjacent to main road 5 Behind Beaty Biodiversity Museum Low / moderate  Adjacent to side road 6 Adjacent to MacMillan Building Low / moderate Adjacent to side road  Photos of each site can be found in the Appendix. 8  2.2 Soil Sample Analysis   Soil samples were analysed for pH and salinity at the UBC soil lab. Each sample was                ground and sieved so that only particles ≤ 2 mm remained. For each soil sample, two                duplicates were set aside, each weighing 10 g (+/- 0.05g). 20 mL of distilled water was                added to each sample. To prepare for conductivity and pH testing, the contents were              stirred and left to sit for 20 minutes and 1 hour respectively. For each sample, one                duplicate was tested for pH, and the other for conductivity (salinity).   To test for conductivity, we used a Radiometer Copenhagen Conductivity Meter Type            CDM 2e, shown in ​Figure 3​. To test for pH, we used a Mettler Toledo SevenCompact,                shown in ​Figure 4​. Both meters were calibrated before use, and electrodes were rinsed              with distilled water between each sample.     Figure 3. ​Radiometer Copenhagen Conductivity Meter, used for conductivity readings.  Photo by Khris L.               Figure 4. ​Mettler Toledo SevenCompact, used for pH readings. Photo by Khris L.    9   3.​    ​Surveying UBC patrons   For a better understanding on how snow removal efficiency and efficacy are perceived             by UBC patrons, and to use it to give feedback to UBC Building Operations, we               conducted a survey and collected data from exactly 100 participants across UBC.   Prior to this survey data collection, the survey questions were first drafted in             consultation with Calvin Cheung, Manager of Building Operations’ Municipal Services,          and an application to the Behavioural Research Ethics Board was submitted. After a few              revisions, the final set of survey questions were approved to be administered (see             Appendix for the full set of questions used in the survey).  Some of the questions consisted of general perceptions of safety while walking and/or             driving on campus, as well as how participants perceived Building Operations’ efficiency            and efficacy. There were questions using a heat map feature which allowed us to              visualize the frequently identified problem areas of either excessive or insufficient           snow/ice removal. Lastly, participants were asked to provide basic demographic data in            case further analysis was necessary.   On January 22​nd​, a few days after the snow day, we took some iPads and visited the                 Forest Sciences Centre, Earth Sciences Building, Henry Angus building, Irving K.           Barber Learning Centre, and Buchanan A. These sites were chosen purposely, so that             participants were more representative of the entire stretch of the campus. In total, we              collected responses from 100 participants, who were invited to join a draw for a $25               UBC Bookstore gift card.             10   ​  Results   1.​    ​UBC’s current snow removal practice  The following information was gathered through interviews with Building Operations          crew members and Calvin Cheung, Building Operations Manager. There are two           divisions of Building Operations that deal with snow and ice removal; Streets and             Operations Support (SOS) deals with main roads, while Soft Landscape (SL) deals with             sidewalks. During a snow event, normal business hours will have around 70 crew             members working on snow and ice removal; roughly 25 from SOS and 35 from SL. To                increase snow removal efficiency, Building Operations staff can be expected to start as             early as 3 AM to make sure snow and ice is cleared before campus activities begin. If                 conditions are severe, other teams may join to offer support.  Their main chemical methods are the use of road salt (NaCl) and brine, and physical               methods include shovelling and plowing. Brine is a solution of salt in water (typically              22-24% of salt concentration), used as a preventative measure for ice formation. It is              applied on to a dry road surface before anticipated snowfall or frost events. Once              applied, it forms a film on pavement surfaces which can last for 2-3 days. Salt is applied                 once snowfall has already occurred to melt the remaining snow layer after plowing.             Regular bulk salts are used, with no additives. Sand may be applied to facilitate traction               of vehicles if the temperature drops below -7 degrees Celsius. However, it is hard to               clean and becomes dusty in spring. Salt and brine are applied using Kubota tractors              (shown in ​Figure 5​), which also shovel and plow excess snow from roads and sidewalks               before salting. Shoveling is done on narrow sidewalks and paths that plow vehicles             cannot enter.         Figure 5.  Kubota tractor used for snow plowing and salt/brine application (Gifford, 2018).    11 Building Operations is responsible for clearing roads, sidewalks, plazas, and stairs. Salt            is not directly applied to any vegetated areas, but inevitably reaches them during             snowmelt, and when salty snow is shoveled into these areas. Shoveling and salting of              snow around a 10-foot radius outside building doors is taken care of by UBC’s custodial               services. There are several areas of particular concern, including the main roads (Main             Mall, West Mall, Agricultural Road) and sidewalks, and all roads and sidewalks in the              Bus Loop area, which receive high daily pedestrian traffic. Such areas of concern will              have much more salt applied to them to reduce the risk of accidents, compared to minor                roads. UBC has a service that allows calling to report emergencies, as well as an online                service request system in the case of problematic snow/ice conditions.  There were two periods of snowfall this season. They occurred in the second week of               January, and the first week of February. Most salting and de-icing occurred during these              times. Some salting also occurred outside of the main snow response periods, in order              to prevent the freezing of roads.  We attempted to estimate the amount of road salt used in a typical snow season at                UBC. Building Operations orders salt once a year from Mainroad (https://mainroad.ca/)           a highway maintenance company in BC. When the first round of snow began (around              January 10th), Building Operations was still using leftover salt from the previous year.             An estimated 40 to 60 tonnes of salt was left over. On January 8th, a new order was                  placed for around 400 tonnes of salt (personal communication, January 10, 2020).            Assuming that the same amount was ordered the previous year, then an estimated 340              to 360 tonnes of salt would have been used that season.                    12 2.​    ​Soil sampling & analysis  The results of the soil analysis for pH and salinity (conductivity) are shown in the               subsequent graphs. The raw data from pH and salinity testing can be found in the               Appendix.  Figure 6 shows an overall comparison of soil pH of before and after salting. The mean                value has shifted towards a lower pH after salting. ​Figure 9 shows the same              information, but for conductivity (the proxy used for salinity). The values have shifted             towards higher conductivity after salting. We note that for both pH and conductivity, the              post-salting data has a wider range than the pre-salting data.  For both parameters of interest, the differences before and after salting were most             notable for samples collected directly adjacent to the road. As seen in ​Figure 7​, the               largest pH decreases were observed closest to the roadside. As expected, ​Figure 10             shows that the largest conductivity increases were also closest to the roadside. A             comparison of pre and post-salting data between the six sites are shown in ​Figure 8 and                Figure 11​, for pH and salinity respectively. From ​Figure 8 we can see that the largest pH                 decrease was observed at Site 3, which is located next to a heavily salted priority road.                 Figure 6. Box and whisker plots comparing soil pH before and after salting, across all               sites and samples.     13             Figure 7. Bar graph showing mean differences in soil pH (across all 6 sites) before and                after salting, at different distances from a salted roadside. Samples A were taken             directly adjacent from the salted road. Samples B and C were taken about 1 and 2                meters  away from the roadside, respectively.                   Figure 8.​ Bar graph showing differences in soil pH before and after salting, for each site and distance from the roadside. 14  Figure 9. Box and whisker plots comparing soil salinity (measured as conductivity)            before and after salting, which includes all sites and samples.                Figure 10. Bar graph showing mean differences in soil conductivity (a proxy for salinity)              across all 6 sites, before and after salting.   15    Figure 11. ​Bar graph showing differences in soil conductivity (a proxy for salinity) before              and after salting, for each site and distance from the roadside. The value for sample 2A                was disproportionately large; its real value is shown by the number on top of the bar.    As shown in Figure 11 ​above, sample A from site 2 seems to be an outlier, with a                  disproportionately high conductivity value. This was noted in the lab, so we repeated the              conductivity test in case of an error. However, the repeat gave the same conductivity              reading, so we assume that this is the correct value. It is worth noting that site 2 was a                   flower bed at the intersection of two main roads, so this high value may not be so                 surprising.            16 3.​    ​Survey results  The results collected from the survey are generally more positive than we anticipated in              terms of UBC patrons’ ratings on the speed and efficiency of snow removal done              immediately after the snow events (detailed results can be found in Appendix). From the              survey comments regarding problems due to insufficient salting, many people          mentioned that sidewalks,slopes and stairs are usually slippery, icy and slushy in            mornings, as shown in ​Figure 12​. Also in ​Figure 13​, problems areas due to insufficient               snow or ice removal identified by participants are generally along the Main mall and              Buchanan area, specific buildings such as ESB, BUCH, IKB are also identified and             mentioned both on maps and in comments. In addition, the survey results also showed              rankings of different categories of concerns in ​Table 2​, public safety is ranked as the               most concerning, accessibility as second and damage to personal items as third. Our             project is trying to find a sustainable solution to the current snow removal methods,              however, results suggest environmental impacts by de-icing salts is least concerning to            UBC patrons.                      Figure 12.​ A word cloud composed of relevant words from the survey comments regarding problems due to insufficient salting. Larger words indicate greater frequency. 17 Figure 13. ​Heat map showing all the problems areas due to insufficient snow or ice               removal identified by participants, the warmer color dots indicate that those areas have             been identified more frequently.  Table 3. Table summarizing the relevant areas of concern ranked in order from most              concerning (1) to least concerning (7). Percentages are shown in gray, and actual             counts in black. The top two concerns were public safety and accessibility.             18   Discussion    1.​    ​UBC’s current snow removal practice  In January, we observed Building Operations’ snow response firsthand. We noted that            some areas had piles of salt that were clearly in excess. A crew member explained that                some (crew members) don’t necessarily turn the salting mechanism off when they are             driving on roads that have already been dealt with (personal communication, January            10, 2020). This implies there is no specific part of the training that encourages crew               members to be conservative in their use of salt.    From the interactions with several Building Operations crew members, it became clear            to us that liability plays a big part in snow removal. If patrons slip and get injured on                  campus due to improper de-icing, they are able to sue the university. In order to avoid                this, Building Operations tends to use an excess of salt to be on the safe side (personal                 communication, January 10, 2020).  2.1​    ​Soil sampling & analysis  As seen in ​Figures 7 and 8​, pH values were generally lower after salting, with a few                 exceptions. A one-way ANOVA test concluded that the differences in soil pH before and              after salting are not statistically significant at a significance level of 0.05. However, even              a small change in pH may be significant for some plants and soil enzymes. According to                the University of Vermont, most plants are suited for a pH range of 5.5 - 7.0 (Perry,                 2003). This is a generalisation as each plant has a specific suitable pH range. Among               the data, drops in pH out of this range have been observed, such as in Site 3.   Salinity (measured as conductivity) was higher after salting, for most instances.           However, a one-way ANOVA test concluded that again, the differences are not            statistically significant at a significance level of 0.05. According to the FAO, a salinity              range of 0 - 4.5 mMHOs/cm refers to a non-saline soil (FAO, n.d.). All of the measured                 salinity values, both before and after salting, are below 4.5 mMHOs/cm, which would             indicate that the soils are still not considered saline even after salting. However, this              does not mean that the plants growing are not affected by an increase in salinity. As salt                 concentration in the soil increases, water uptake is reduced due to the interference of              ions (FAO, n.d.). Some particularly sensitive plants can be hindered by salinity levels in              the upper range of “non-saline” soil (FAO, n.d.)​. 19  Although statistical tests conclude that the differences in conductivity and pH are not of              statistical significance, this should not be interpreted as “UBC’s salting activities are not             harmful to the environment”. Statistical tests do not dictate what is actually harmful or              not for the soil and plants. Site 3, which was a heavily salted priority road, experienced                the largest pH decrease of over 1.5 adjacent to the road. Even a smaller change in pH                 than this could be consequential for plants and bacteria in the soil. The same reasoning               applies to changes in salinity. Since UBC Soft Landscape has observed plant mortality             near heavily salted roads in the past (personal communication, November 2019), we            can speculate that changes in pH and/or salinity are notable enough to be harmful to               the environment- at least in some parts of campus.   2.2​   ​ Limitations of soil sampling  Soil samples were collected at two intervals; before any salting had occurred            (November) and after a major snow event (January). The number of samples collected             was clearly limited by personnel and time constraints. Had there been more support, it              would have been worthwhile to increase the number of sites to collect samples from,              and to collect more replicates at each site. The small sample size was a clear limitation                of the project, and could be a main reason for the results not being statistically               significant. Therefore, we recommend that future studies increase the number of           samples collected.  In addition, soil types were not taken into account due to time constraints. It was clear                that some sites had differing soil types, which may have impacted properties such as              permeability and sensitivity to pH and/or salinity changes. For instance, salt can            accumulate near the surface or travel further down depending on the soil type (FAO,              n.d.). Thus, in future investigations it would be worthwhile to identify soil types and              account for this in the results of the data.  The second round of samples was collected while there was still snow cover over the               soil. When taking samples, the snow was pushed aside so that only soil was collected.               This meant there was surely some salt contained within the snow cover that was not               accounted for. Normally, the snow would have melted, and percolated through the soil             along with the ions from the salt. There is a high chance that the samples collected after                 salting were not truly representative of how much salt would have entered the soil after               salting. Perhaps collecting the samples right after snowmelt would have produced a            more representative data set.   20  3.​    ​Survey Results  We can learn from the data summarized in ​Table 3 that most people are not deeply                concerned about the negative effects of salt on the environment. Rather, public safety             and accessibility are of greatest concern. When given the opportunity to provide a             comment, many participants noted observing excessive salt on sidewalks and roads.           From the word cloud (​Figure 12​), the words that stand out seem to spell out the fact that                  sidewalks, entrances, and stairs are slippery and slushy in the mornings, and that the              Bus Loop, Totem Park Residence, Buchanan, Main Mall, and ESB are areas of             concern. This feedback can be delivered to the Building Operations crew so that they              can investigate further in preparation for next winter.  In terms of how people view Building Operations’ performance on snow and ice             removal, the results were generally positive. On a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being the lowest),                 about 50% of participants rated the speed of snow removal as 4/5 and the same score                was given to efficacy by 36% of participants. In addition, when asked how comfortable              they felt when walking or driving around campus, results indicate people were less             comfortable with driving than they were with walking. This suggests that perhaps more             attention should be directed to the main driving roads. More figures and raw data from               the survey results can be found in the Appendix.  UBC is a large university hosting over 60,000 students and 16,000 employees. Our             sample size of 100 cannot possibly be representative of all UBC patrons, especially             given that most of our respondents were students. As most students have similar daily              routines and tend to visit the same high-occupancy buildings, the results may be             incomplete. In addition, when approaching potential participants, we identified ourselves          as Environmental Sciences students which may have affected the responses to certain            sustainability-related questions. Furthermore, as these surveys were conducted        in-person and in the presence of the researchers, the respondents may have answered             according to what is socially acceptable (response bias).          21     Recommendations   As many studies have suggested, excess salting has various environmental          implications. With this in mind, we recommend that UBC Building Operations crew try to              incorporate an organic-based liquid de-icer into the snow removal protocol. A common            example of an organic de-icer is beet juice, a byproduct of beet sugar production.              Beet juice was adopted by Michigan State University (MSU) as a de-icer. The university              claims that beet juice was able to effectively melt snow and ice, even at lower               temperatures. MSU covers 5,300 acres of land (MSU, n.d.), while UBC only covers 988              acres (UBC, n.d.). Considering the size difference, it is conceivable for UBC to             incorporate beet juice successfully if MSU has done so.   Incorporating an organic-based de-icer does not mean getting rid of road salt            completely. Beer juice is usually used in conjunction with road salt, to help reduce the               total amount of salt used throughout the season. For example, the city of Merritt, BC,               reduced its road salt use by 40% by incorporating beet juice (Hume, 2014). Therefore,              we recommend that UBC starts testing out beet juice by incorporating it progressively.   Besides beet juice, the Minnesota Department of Transportation has listed alternatives           to chloride deicers, and their trade-offs. This information is shown in ​Table A3 of the               Appendix. UBC Building Operations could consider some of the alternative de-icers           listed, along with their trade-offs.  Another recommendation is for Building Operations to develop a training manual for its             crew which emphasises a more conservative use of road salt. We observed first-hand             that not all crew members turn off the salting mechanism when they are driving on               roads that have already been salted. This results in piles of excess salt in some               locations, which was also noted in some of the survey comments. Even if there is no                economical motivation to limit salt use, we would recommend that all crew members are              trained to conserve salt. Specifically, by turning off the salting mechanism of vehicles             when driving in areas that are not target roads in need of salting.         22           Conclusions   Snowy and icy roads are often a cause of inconvenience and can be dangerous for               people during their everyday travels. Salting is an effective snow and ice management             method which is used to reduce the incidence of people getting injured or otherwise              inconvenienced. Despite its effectiveness, road salts impact natural environments and          should be considered in the context of both safety and sustainability.  After comparing pH and salinity in soil samples collected before and after salting, it was               found that the soil adjacent to the road exhibited the greatest difference as opposed to               soils further from the road. Although these results were not statistically significant, it is              not enough to conclude road salts pose no harm to the environment due to this study’s                limitations. Further studies should take in consideration of soil types and characteristics            when analysing soil samples, as well as re-execute this study with a larger sample size.   Through surveying UBC patrons, we have learned that people are mostly satisfied by             the speed and the efficacy of the work done by the Building Ops immediately following               snow events. However, participants generally reported feeling safer when walking rather           than driving, suggesting that more work may need to be directed to main roads and               parkades. Based on the written comments, stairs, sidewalks, and slopes are usually            slushy, icy and slippery in mornings. Most participants also indicated areas around            BUCH (Buchanan), ESB (Earth Science Building), IKBLC (Irving K. Barber Learning           Centre), and BIOL (Biological Sciences Building) as lacking sufficient salt application.           Other areas have similarly been indicated as having been over-salted. In a ranking             question, sustainability and environmental impacts of the current snow removal method           were ranked to be less of a concern than safety and accessibility.   In conclusion, to transition UBC’s snow response towards a more sustainable practice,            our major recommendation is that the Building Operations’ crew should collectively           receive training guidelines to promote more conservative salting. Our personal          observations and survey results suggest that there is variation in the level of             conservation in salt spreading among crews, which can sometimes result in           unnecessary and excessive salt piles. To reduce the potential damage to natural            landscapes due to road salts, alternative agents can be considered. Beet juice is an              alternative product that is more environmentally-friendly and easily applied, but the           feasibility of these types of products should be tested in following years to see how they                perform compared to conventional methods.   23            Acknowledgements   We would like to give a special thanks the following people who helped us              throughout the project:   ● Calvin Cheung from Building Operations (project partner) ● David Gill from SEEDS (project partner) ● Christopher Langford from Soft Landscape ● Dale Low from Soft Landscape ● Lewis Fausak from the UBC soil lab ● Michael Lipsen (faculty supervisor) from EOAS ● Tara Ivanochko (faculty supervisor) from EOAS ● Ross, Jaz, Bob and the rest of the Building Operations crew             24           References   Boeckmann, C. (2019). Optimum soil pH levels for trees, shrubs, vegetables and flowers. Retrieved from https://www.almanac.com/plant-ph  Crop Nutrition. (N.d.) Soil pH: Soil acidity. Retrieved from https://www.cropnutrition.com/nutrient-management/soil-ph  Fan, Y., Weisberg, P.J., & Nowak, R.S. (2013). Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Remotely-Sensed Forest Mortality Associated with De-icing Salts. ​Science of the Total Environment, 472, ​929-938.  FAO. (N.d.) ​Chapter 7- Salty soils. ​Retrieved from ​http://www.fao.org/3/r4082e/r4082e08.htm  FAO. (N.d.) ​Chapter 3- Saline soils and their management. ​Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/x5871e/x5871e04.htm   Fay, L., & Shi, X. (2012). Environmental Impacts of Chemicals for Snow and Ice Control: State of the Knowledge. ​Water, Air, & Soil Pollution​, ​223​(5), 2751–2770. doi: 10.1007/s11270-011-1064-6  Geisberg, B. (2019). ​UBC Cancels February 12 classes as transit to campus hits major delays. ​[Online image]. Retrieved from ​https://ubyssey.storage.googleapis.com/media/images/2016/12/20161205-2.jpg  Gifford, R. (2018).​ Kubota Utility Vehicle.​ [Online image].  Retrieved from: ​https://compactequip.com/utility-vehicles/truckin-tool-carriers/  Hintz, W. D., & Relyea, R. A. (2017). Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters. ​Environmental Pollution, 223​, 409-415. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.01.040  Hume, M. (2014). BC town uses beet juice on snowy roads. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/bc-town-uses-beet-juice-on-snowy-roads/article16274717/   Jin, Z. Q., Zhao, T. J., Gao, S., & Zhang, S. Y. (2014). Ice-Formation Expansion of Salt Solution and its Effect on Frost Damage of Concrete. ​Key Engineering Materials​, ​633​, 281–285. doi: 10.4028/​www.scientific.net/kem.633.281   Ke, G., Zhang, J., & Tian, B. (2019). Evaluation and Selection of De-Icing Salt Based on Multi-Factor. Materials, 12​(6), 912.​ ​https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060912   Kissel, D. & Vendrell, P. (2012). ​Soil Testing: Soil pH and Salt Concentration. ​Retrieved from               https://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=C875   Liem, A. S. N., Hendriks, A., Kraal, H., & Loenen, M. (1985) Effects of De-icing Salt on Roadside Grasses and Herbs. ​Plant and Soil, 84​, 299-310.  MSU. (n.d.). Improving snow removal operations with sustainable practices. Retrieved from https://sustainability.msu.edu/get-involved/staff-resources/improving-snow-removal.html 25  MSU. (n.d.). MSU Facts. Retrieved from ​https://msu.edu/about/thisismsu/facts.php  Pearson, K. E. (n.d.). Basics of Salinity and Sodicity Effects on Soil Physical Properties. Retrieved November 23, 2019, from ​http://waterquality.montana.edu/energy/cbm/background/soil-prop.html​.  Perry, L. (2003). pH for the garden. Retrieved from ​http://pss.uvm.edu/ppp/pubs/oh34.htm   Rocha, R. (2015). A look at the alternatives to rock salt for de-icing roads. Montreal Gazette. Retrieved November 28, 2019, from: https://montrealgazette.com/news/local-news/a-look-at-the-alternatives-to-rock-salt-for-de-icing-roads   SCU, & The University of the West of England, Bristol. (Eds.). (2017). Additives used in alternative road salts may affect aquatic ecosystems. Retrieved November 28, 2019, from: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/additives_in_alternative_road_salts_affect_aquatic_ecosystems_496na1_en.pdf.  UBC. (n.d.). UBC Vancouver Campus. Retrieved from ​https://www.ubc.ca/our-campuses/vancouver/  Wahlin, J., & Klein-Paste, A. (2014). The effect of common de-icing chemicals on the hardness of compacted snow. ​Cold Regions Science and Technology, 109​, 28-32.  Warrence, N. J., Pearson, K. E., & Bauder, J. W. (2003). Basics of Salinity and Sodicity Effects on Soil Physical Properties. Retrieved from http://waterquality.montana.edu/energy/cbm/background/soil-prop.html#Texture   Western Transportation Institute. (2017). ​Field Usage of Alternative Deicers for Snow and Ice Control​. Minnesota Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://dot.state.mn.us/research/TRS/2017/TRS1706.pdf    Woodrow, P. (2011). Salinity Stress and Salt Tolerance. ​Abiotic Stress in Plants: Mechanisms and Adaptations. ​Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/abiotic-stress-in-plants-mechanisms-and-adaptations/salinity-stress-and-salt-tolerance  Tait, C. (2018). Sand, salt and beet juice: How Canada wages war against ice and snow. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/salt-sand-and-beet-juice-how-canada-wages-war-against-ice-and-snow/article37673031/  Tayag, Y. (2017). Chemistry explains how beet juice makes ice and snow melt. Retrieved from https://www.inverse.com/article/39632-beet-juice-melt-snow-ice      26           ​  Appendix   Photos of the sites where soil samples were collected.                    Figure A1. (left) Photo of Site 1. Figure A2. (right) Photo of Site 2.                Photo by Khris L.           Photo by Khris L.         Figure A3. (left)​ Photo of Site 3. Source: Google Maps, street view (2020).      27     Figure A4. (left)​ Photo of Site 4. Source: Google Maps, street view (2020).             Figure A5. (left)​ Photo of Site 5. Source: Google Maps, street view (2020).               Figure A6. (left)​ Photo of Site 6. Source: Google Maps, street view (2020).    28  Raw data from the soil sample analysis:    Table A1-1​ Raw data values of the soil pH, ​before​ salting.     Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6      A 6.68 6.41 6.72 6.38 6.16 5.15      B 7.04 7.44 6.49 6.29 6.66 4.84      C 6.69 7.57 6.01 6.61 7.04 4.95   Table A1-2​ Raw data values of the soil pH, ​after​ salting.       Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6      A 5.91 5.86 5.11 6.35 6.82 4.56      B 6.92 6.90 6.08 6.43 6.57 4.53      C 6.83 7.33 5.66 5.87 6.66 5.01    Table A2-1​ Raw data values of the soil conductivity (in mMHOs/cm),​ before​ salting.       Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6      A 0.065 0.061 0.053 0.032 0.030 0.028      B 0.035 0.132 0.056 0.029 0.033 0.027      C 0.040 0.182 0.045 0.034 0.032 0.021   Table A2-2​ Raw data values of the soil conductivity (in mMHOs/cm), ​after​ salting.       Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6      A 0.128 3.2 0.105 0.311 0.033 0.314      B 0.041 0.315 0.101 0.041 0.042 0.029      C 0.029 0.081 0.045 0.06 0.04 0.02    29   Summary of alternative de-icing chemicals from the Minnesota Department of          Transportation:  Table A3 Summary of non-chloride deicer working temperature range, relative cost and            toxicity, key environmental impacts, and known impacts to infrastructure. Boxes highlighted           in orange are rated high which in this case is negative. (Direct quote from Western               Transportation Institute, 2017)  Deicer Type Lower Functional Temperature Relative Cost Relative Toxicity Environmental Impacts Infrastructure Impacts Chlorides NaCl: 15°F  MgCl2: -5°F CaCl2: -15°F Low High Accumulate in the environment. Impact water quality, aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna. Pavements and metals Acetates KAc: -26°F  NaAc: 0°F  CMA: 0°F Moderate Moderate Moderate Biochemical Oxygen Demand Pavements and galvanized steel Formates NaFm: 0°F  KFm: -20°F High Moderate Moderate Biochemical Oxygen Demand Pavements and galvanized steel Glycols -20°F Moderate High High Biochemical Oxygen Demand Limited Succinates -4°F (unknown) High (Unknown)  Moderate Moderate Biochemical Oxygen Demand None known            Survey questions and results begin on the next page.    30   Version 04/01/20 Page 1 of 14 ENVR 400 Snow Removal  Survey Flow Block: Start page (1 Question) Standard: Main questions (11 Questions) Standard: Demographic (5 Questions) Page Break      Version 04/01/20 Page 2 of 14   Start of Block: Start page  Consent     Study: IDENTIFYING AREAS OF FEASIBLE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF SNOW REMOVAL AT UBC         Primary Investigator: Dr. Tara Ivanochko, tivanoch@eoas.ubc.ca Primary Contact: Kathryn Choi, kathryn@alumni.ubc.ca Co-Investigators: Michael Lipsen, mlipsen@eoas.ubc.ca; Solene Delumeau, solene.delumeau@alumni.ubc.ca; Lisheng Xu, lisheng.xu@alumni.ubc.ca; Shu Ying Liang, cliang1997@alumni.ubc.ca   Introduction and Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to collect qualitative data on how UBC students, staff, and faculty feel about snow removal processes at UBC. The summarized data will be used to develop a Recommendations Report for UBC Building Operations which may be available publicly.    Study Procedures: You will be asked to complete a 5-10-minute survey on your perceptions of effectiveness and efficacy of snow removal by UBC Building Operations. We will ask you to think about your travels around the Academic Core of the Vancouver Campus during the snow season. There will be no personally identifying information in the survey.    Confidentiality: All of the information you provide will be kept strictly confidential. Your data will be combined with other participants’ data and summarized in your peers’ research reports. These reports may be made public (with the paper author’s permission). Once the data are downloaded, these files will be stored in a locked location in the Primary Investigator’s office or locked storage room in the EOS-South Building for 5 years following the end of this study. At that time, all data will be destroyed.    Remuneration: Participants will be offered a chance to enter a draw for a $25 gift card to the UBC Bookstore at the end of the survey. Providing an email address is optional, and will be collected separately from the survey responses. Participants will be offered the chance to enter the draw regardless of whether they have fully or partially completed the survey.    Contact Information: Any questions about the details of the study or interview process can be directed to the researchers using the contact information listed above. If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604.822.8598, or if long distance email RSIL@ors.ubc.ca or call toll free 1.877.822.8598.   Version 04/01/20 Page 3 of 14    Consent: Participation is entirely voluntary, so you may withdraw your consent for any reason. However, please note that once your survey is submitted, your data cannot be withdrawn from the data pool due to the anonymous nature of the platform. Partially completed surveys will be discarded from analysis. Whether or not you take part in and complete the project has no bearing whatsoever on your treatment or academic standing.    By clicking through the first page of the survey, you are indicating that you are releasing your data to be used in the study and that you have received a copy of this consent form.        Human Ethics H19-03681         End of Block: Start page  Start of Block: Main questions  Q1 Please ensure that your responses pertain to only the academic core of the campus (i.e. excluding the University Neighbourhood Association/Residential areas).    Q2 I feel comfortable walking around campus during and immediately after snow events. o Always  (1)  o Most of the time  (2)  o About half the time  (3)  o Sometimes  (4)  o Never  (5)       Version 04/01/20 Page 4 of 14 Q3 I feel comfortable driving around campus during and immediately after snow events. o Always  (1)  o Most of the time  (2)  o About half the time  (3)  o Sometimes  (4)  o Never  (5)  o Not applicable  (6)     Q5 On a scale of 1-5, how would you rate the UBC Building Operations staff in their response to snowfall with regards to...  1 (1) 2 (2) 3 (3) 4 (4) 5 (5) Speed (e.g. how fast they clear snow) (1)  o  o  o  o  o  Efficacy (e.g. how well they clear snow) (2)  o  o  o  o  o        Version 04/01/20 Page 5 of 14 Q6 My major areas of concern relating to snow removal/management are (please drag to rank in order from most to least concerning): ______ Public safety (e.g. making sure sidewalks and roads are not slippery) (1) ______ Accessibility (e.g. ease of transportation for people with mobility impairments) (2) ______ Damage to grasses & plants (soft landscape) (3) ______ Damage to pavement (hard landscape) (4) ______ Damage to personal items (e.g. footwear, tires) (5) ______ Broader environmental implications (e.g. fish, groundwater) (6) ______ Other (if applicable): (7)     Version 04/01/20 Page 6 of 14 Q7 Please click on any areas on campus that you have experienced or noticed problems with due to insufficient snow or ice management (up to 10 clicks). Examples include areas that are slippery or have snow piled up due to insufficient salting or plowing.    Version 04/01/20 Page 7 of 14    Q8  Please describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as time of observance, whether the problem was noted at a sidewalk or a street, etc. would be helpful for our analysis.       Examples:   1. Bus Loop: slippery sidewalk in the mornings   2. Sidewalk outside IKB: icy sidewalk during the afternoon ________________________________________________________________      Version 04/01/20 Page 8 of 14 Q9 Please click on any areas on campus that you have experienced or noticed problems with due to excessive snow or ice management (up to 10 clicks). Examples include excessive salting and plowing causing damage to plants, grasses, shrubs, roads, sidewalks, etc. as a result.    Version 04/01/20 Page 9 of 14    Q10  Please describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as time of observance, whether the problem was noted at a sidewalk or a street, etc. would be helpful for our analysis.       Example:   1. Bus Loop: too much salt on sidewalk in the evenings ________________________________________________________________    Q11 How has this year's snow response to date compared to previous years (if applicable)? o Much worse  (47)  o Somewhat worse  (48)  o About the same  (49)  o Somewhat better  (50)  o Much better  (51)  o Not applicable  (52)     Q12  Please provide any additional comments, questions, or feedback you have regarding snow removal practices on campus. Constructive feedback will be passed on to UBC Building Operations as recommendations to improve on current practices.   Version 04/01/20 Page 10 of 14   Please also feel free to use this space to expand on your answers to previous questions. ________________________________________________________________  End of Block: Main questions  Start of Block: Demographic  Q13 Please select all that apply: ▢ I am a UBC student  (1)  ▢ I work at UBC  (2)  ▢ I live on campus (UNA)  (6)  ▢ I live on campus (student housing)  (3)  ▢ I frequently drive to campus during snow events  (4)  ▢ I frequently ride a bicycle or skateboard on campus during snow events  (5)       Version 04/01/20 Page 11 of 14 Q14 If you drive, which parkade(s) do you use on campus? Please skip this question if not applicable. ▢ North  (1)  ▢ West  (2)  ▢ Rose Garden  (3)  ▢ Health Sciences  (4)  ▢ Fraser  (5)  ▢ Thunderbird  (6)    Display This Question: If Please select all that apply: != I live on campus (student housing) Or Please select all that apply: != I live on campus (UNA)  Q15 Around what time do you typically get to/leave campus? o I arrive on campus around (e.g. 10:30am)  (1) ________________________________________________ o I leave campus around (e.g. 5:45pm)  (2) ________________________________________________     Version 04/01/20 Page 12 of 14 Display This Question: If Please select all that apply: = I live on campus (student housing) Or Please select all that apply: = I live on campus (UNA)  Q22 Around what times do you typically travel around campus? o I leave my room around (e.g. 10:30am)  (1) ________________________________________________ o I return to my room for the day around (e.g. 5:45pm)  (2) ________________________________________________      Version 04/01/20 Page 13 of 14 Q14 Please click on the buildings that you have most frequently visited during the snow season (up to 10 clicks):     Version 04/01/20 Page 14 of 14 End of Block: Demographic Default ReportENVR 400 Snow RemovalJanuary 30, 2020 9:19 AM MSTQ2 - I feel comfortable walking around campus during and immediately after snowevents.AlwaysMost of the timeAbout half thetimeSometimesNever0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35# Field Minimum Maximum MeanStdDeviationVariance Count1I feel comfortable walking around campus during and immediatelyafter snow events.1.00 5.00 2.62 1.21 1.47 99Showing rows 1 - 6 of 6# FieldChoiceCount1 Always 18.18% 182 Most of the time 36.36% 363 About half the time 20.20% 204 Sometimes 16.16% 165 Never 9.09% 999Q3 - I feel comfortable driving around campus during and immediately after snow events.AlwaysMost of the timeAbout half thetimeSometimesNever0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22# Field Minimum Maximum MeanStdDeviationVariance Count1I feel comfortable driving around campus during and immediatelyafter snow events.1.00 5.00 3.56 1.28 1.65 50Showing rows 1 - 6 of 6# FieldChoiceCount1 Always 8.00% 42 Most of the time 20.00% 103 About half the time 6.00% 34 Sometimes 40.00% 205 Never 26.00% 1350Q5 - On a scale of 1-5 (1=low, 5=high), how would you rate the UBC Building Operationsstaff in their response to snowfall with regards to...123450 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50Speed (e.g. how fast they clear snow)Efficacy (e.g. how well they clear snow)# Field Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Variance Count1 Speed (e.g. how fast they clear snow) 1.00 5.00 3.67 0.85 0.73 992 Efficacy (e.g. how well they clear snow) 1.00 5.00 3.48 1.03 1.06 99Showing rows 1 - 2 of 2# Field 1 2 3 4 5 Total1 Speed (e.g. how fast they clear snow) 1.01% 1 8.08% 8 28.28% 28 48.48% 48 14.14% 14 992 Efficacy (e.g. how well they clear snow) 4.04% 4 12.12% 12 31.31% 31 36.36% 36 16.16% 16 99Q6 - My major areas of concern relating to snow removal/management are (please dragto rank in order from most to least concerning):123456Public safety (e.g. making sure sidewalks and roads are not slippery)Accessibility (e.g. ease of transportation for people with mobility impairm...Damage to grasses & plants (soft landscape)Damage to pavement (hard landscape)Damage to personal items (e.g. footwear, tires)Broader environmental implications (e.g. fish, groundwater)Other (if applicable):70 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90# Field Minimum Maximum MeanStdDeviationVariance Count1Public safety (e.g. making sure sidewalks and roads are notslippery)1.00 4.00 1.29 0.57 0.32 862Accessibility (e.g. ease of transportation for people with mobilityimpairments)1.00 6.00 2.12 1.02 1.03 863 Damage to grasses & plants (soft landscape) 1.00 7.00 4.09 1.15 1.32 864 Damage to pavement (hard landscape) 2.00 6.00 4.93 0.99 0.97 865 Damage to personal items (e.g. footwear, tires) 2.00 6.00 4.02 1.27 1.60 866 Broader environmental implications (e.g. fish, groundwater) 2.00 6.00 4.56 1.32 1.73 867 Other (if applicable): 6.00 7.00 6.99 0.11 0.01 86# Field 1 2 3 4 5 6 71Public safety (e.g.making suresidewalks and roadsare not slippery)75.58% 65 20.93% 18 2.33% 2 1.16% 1 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 02Accessibility (e.g.ease of transportationfor people withmobility impairments)20.93% 18 62.79% 54 6.98% 6 4.65% 4 2.33% 2 2.33% 2 0.00% 03Damage to grasses &plants (softlandscape)3.49% 3 3.49% 3 19.77% 17 36.05% 31 29.07% 25 6.98% 6 1.16% 14Damage to pavement(hard landscape)0.00% 0 1.16% 1 6.98% 6 24.42% 21 32.56% 28 34.88% 30 0.00% 05Damage to personalitems (e.g. footwear,tires)0.00% 0 6.98% 6 40.70% 35 12.79% 11 22.09% 19 17.44% 15 0.00% 0Showing rows 1 - 7 of 7# Field 1 2 3 4 5 6 76Broaderenvironmentalimplications (e.g. fish,groundwater)0.00% 0 4.65% 4 23.26% 20 20.93% 18 13.95% 12 37.21% 32 0.00% 07 Other (if applicable): 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 1.16% 1 98.84% 85Q7 - Please click on any areas on campus that you have experienced or noticedproblems with due to insufficient snow or ice management (up to 10 clicks). Examplesinclude areas that are slippery or have snow piled up due to insufficient salting or plowing. Q8 - Please describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as time ofobservance, whether the problem was noted at a sidewalk or a street, etc. would behelpful for our analysis. Examples: 1. Bus Loop: slippery sidewalk in the mornings 2.Sidewalk outside IKB: icy sidewalk during the afternoonPlease describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as...Unpaved walkwaysicy during the morningSnow accumulation on grass is not removed, the road track is covered by the snow.Bus loop: slipper always Sidewalk all over cmapus: icy1. BIOL: slippery sidewalk in the mornings 2. GEOG: snow not cleared in the X-shape crosswalk behind the building during the day2nd last stop 99: North sidewalk slippery. Between aquatic and old sub: wet and slushy South side of woodward: slushy East of Allard Law: wet andslipperyThe areas I clicked are largely sidewalks that were very slippery. The area indicated right outside the Biology building was covered in black ice that wasunnoticeable. Many students fell prey to that area.sidewalk at the back of geog building was not cleared or salted.university Boulevard near Ponderosa is very slippery especially there's a slope1. ANSO: some areas of the stars weren't cleared off at all 2. Main mall: the shortcuts wrre so slipperySlippery stairs covered in snow that turns into ice. Bus loop wasn't cleared immediately.Stairs outside LIFE building(and most outdoor stairs in general) get VERY slippery1. path from ESB to swng: steep slope and no ice clearedBus loop slush was difficult to get around1. Old Auditorium:snow not cleared (ramp slippery) 2. Indoor stairs and sidewalk:people fallingmornings and afternoons on the sidewalk towards music buildingLong lineup for bussesPlease describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as...roads were very icy very dangerous to driveSnowy walkways around totem1. bus loop 2. sidewalk along the boulevard1. Diagonal path from Buch to IKB: still cover in snow all day 2. Sidewalk around Fraser river parkade: icy sidewalk at nightThe bricks outside the building get very slippery whenever wet.the front door of LSK: slippery sidewalkIKB super slippery Bus loop no salt on side walk Old auditorium no snow removal1. Main entrance to Vanier in the mornings, hard to go through 2. Sidewalk towards ESB side entrance, slippery in the morningssidewalk outside LSK: icy sidewalk in the morningsnoneAll highlighted areas are super slippery and icy, especially during morning classes.main mall is one of the busier streets and there are a lot of icy patches that are dangerous to students and occasional cars that go by.slippery and icy stairsoutside totem:very icy in the mornings bus loop:never usually sanded pretty icy road from West mall to main mall: stairs never usually cleared or sanded1. sidewalk between ikb and life usually has a lot of wet snow 2. exiting rose garden parkade is sometimes difficultstreets a bit slipperySlushy iceSnow is not cleared at the rose garden in the morningnear pharmacy and orchard, slippery sidewalksWalking street: Downward slopeicy and choppy frozen terrainBUCH:slippery in the morningResidences - extremely slushy and slipperyn/aPlease describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as...Fair view student housing: hard to walk in the morning Life building: wet shoesvery wet and slushy outside math building and just inside the entranceMuddy after snowaround the chem building/ fountain area: slippery and icyThere was snow on the pathslippery sidewalkStreet: too slipperyhard to walk and too wetorchard commons: stairs are icy and half filled with snowTotem small roads have slippery surfaces because of the snow being crushed underfoot. It was there for a long time.sidewalk: not fully cleared and lots of slushBUCH the floor is very very very slipery!1. between Life building and aquatic centre; 2. path toward WOODBus loop to Lasserre Building via east mall and memorial road slippery in mornings.N/athe path is very slushyslippery sidewalk to the parkadeSide walk outside North parkade: slippery in the morningBuch and law: too much snow - difficult to access; ikb and sauder: a bit slipperysidewalk outside Buchanan:icy sidewalk during the afternoonToo much snow outside of the Chem building, hard to elf. Same for ESBroad between Scarfe and Angu: there is a big slope, which is very slippery after snowing.In front of library Koerner: Large packs of snow below some trees that were icy due to w recent warming weather.Q9 - Please click on any areas on campus that you have experienced or noticedproblems with due to excessive snow or ice management (up to 10 clicks). Examplesinclude excessive salting and plowing causing damage to plants, grasses, shrubs, roads,sidewalks, etc. as a result. Q10 - Please describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as time ofobservance, whether the problem was noted at a sidewalk or a street, etc. would behelpful for our analysis. Example: 1. Bus Loop: too much salt on sidewalk in the eveningsPlease describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as...N/ARather poor spreading of salt around Marine; piling up in specific spotstoo much salt1. Main Mall: too much salt on sidewalk during the dayn/atoo much salt1. rose garden: there was so much saltThe shrubs by the totem pole only ever look good for 1 month per year. Usually dead and brownUphill towards fountain and other steep areas felt slipperydidn't noticeToo much saltNo noticeable damageBusloop: 痛哦牧场sa'l'tsaltploud grass insteadbus loop too much salt rather than removing snowmain mall right in front of Keorner library has too much saltnonea lot of salt near chem buildingtoo much salt at the nest throughout the dayPlease describe the areas you clicked on in further detail. Details such as...Near ikb: too much salt after evening classToo much salt down university blvdtoo much salt on stairs to wood processingN/ANighN/Aexcessive saltRoads: too much saltToo much salt on main pathGrasses were plowed overN/aToo much saltTbf everything is okaysidewalk to ESB:pigeon eating salt on the sidewalkOrchard commons residence and areas near Maths building: plants dying from cold snow.Q11 - How has this year's snow response to date compared to previous years (ifapplicable)?Much worseSomewhat worseAbout the sameSomewhat betterMuch betterNot applicable0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35# Field Minimum Maximum MeanStdDeviationVariance Count1How has this year's snow response to date compared to previousyears (if applicable)?47.00 52.00 49.91 1.41 1.98 98Showing rows 1 - 7 of 7# FieldChoiceCount47 Much worse 2.04% 248 Somewhat worse 10.20% 1049 About the same 36.73% 3650 Somewhat better 21.43% 2151 Much better 5.10% 552 Not applicable 24.49% 2498Q12 - Please provide any additional comments, questions, or feedback you haveregarding snow removal practices on campus. Constructive feedback will be passed on toUBC Building Operations as recommendations to improve on current practices. Pleasealso feel free to use this space to expand on your answers to previous questions.Please provide any additional comments, questions, or feedback you have reg...I don't really notice much because I'm from a place with a lot of snow so I don't care lolI didn't notice anything in particular with regards to how they handled the snow this year. It felt the same as it always has. The routes were slippery asusual.The snow response was about the same as the previous year, but in the previous year it was good. The only thing that bothers me about UBC snowremoval is the amount of salt entering water/soil every time it snows.the day after a snow day should be better managed since all the sidewalks and roads are still relatively full of snow.UBC is much more better regarding snow removalEverything goes well this year.n/aneed to remove snow and ice fasterI feel the removal of snow is really quickI'm pretty satisfied with it!Q13 - Please select all that apply:I am a UBC studentI work at UBCI live on campus(UNA)I live on campus(student housing)I frequently driveto campus duringsnow eventsI frequently ride abicycle orskateboard oncampus during snowevents0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Showing rows 1 - 7 of 7# Field Choice Count1 I am a UBC student 69.06% 962 I work at UBC 5.04% 76 I live on campus (UNA) 3.60% 53 I live on campus (student housing) 14.39% 204 I frequently drive to campus during snow events 5.76% 85 I frequently ride a bicycle or skateboard on campus during snow events 2.16% 3139Q14 - If you drive, which parkade(s) do you use on campus? Please skip this question ifnot applicable.NorthWestRose GardenHealth SciencesFraserThunderbird0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14Showing rows 1 - 7 of 7# FieldChoiceCount1 North 22.22% 82 West 36.11% 133 Rose Garden 22.22% 84 Health Sciences 5.56% 25 Fraser 5.56% 26 Thunderbird 8.33% 336Q15 - Around what time do you typically get to/leave campus?I arrive on campus around (e.g. 10:30am) I leave campus around (e.g. 5:45pm)9:00am 5pm9 am 59am 4pm11:00am 4:00pm10 am 7 pm10 4pm10 5:309am 6pm9:30am 4pm8:30am 5:00pm2:00pm 5:00pm9.30 17.0010 6pm11:30 7:307:40am 10pm10:30am 6:00pm10:00am 6:00pm8:20 am 3:00 pm8:30am 3pm9:50am 2:00pm845 am 4 pm9:30 6:30I arrive on campus around (e.g. 10:30am) I leave campus around (e.g. 5:45pm)11 411 49:30 7:309:30am 7:00pm12p'm 5p'mpm8:50am 9:008am 7pm8:00am 1:00pm9:20am 2pm9:00am 6:00pm9:30 am 2:00 pm9:50am 4:00pm9:30 6:308:30am 3:30pm8:30am 5-7pm11:00am 5:00pm9am 2pm9am 7pm8:00 AM 5:00 pm9am 5pm945am 7pm8:30am 5 pm9 4arrive around 9 am leave around 5pmI arrive on campus around (e.g. 10:30am) I leave campus around (e.g. 5:45pm)1030 6009 29.00 am 7.00 pm8:00am 5:008:30am 4:00pm9am 3pm9:00am 7:00pm10 49am 6pm9am 5pm8:00 am 8:00pm8 am 4pm8am 6pm9am 8:30pm7:30 am 6:30 pm8:00 6:008:00AM 7:00PM8:00am 7:00pm7:30 17:00On Residence On residence9am 6pm8:40am 8pm8am 3pm6:30am 10:00pmI arrive on campus around (e.g. 10:30am) I leave campus around (e.g. 5:45pm)9:30am 7pm10am 6pm9:30am 3:30pm10:00am 3:00pm9:30 3:309:20am 3:00pm9am 5pm9am 4pm11am 5pm11:30 5:303:00pm 7:00pm9:00 am 2:00 pm10:00am 5:00pm10:00am 17:00Q22 - Around what times do you typically travel around campus?I leave my room around (e.g. 10:30am) I return to my room for the day around (e.g. 5:45pm)8:30am 3:30pm8:50 5:003 78.30am 5pm8 am 3-5pm10:30am 6:00pm11 48 am 5:15 pm9:20 6:408:30 5:009am 7pm7:30 am 6 pm8am 5:45pm8;30am 4;00pm9am 5pm7:30am 4:30pm10 57:40am 6:00 pm7 69am 6pm12 pm 8 pm9am 4pmI leave my room around (e.g. 10:30am) I return to my room for the day around (e.g. 5:45pm)11am 5pmQ14 - Please click on the buildings that you have most frequently visited during the snowseason (up to 10 clicks):End of Report 

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