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An Educational Permaculture Experience in the Vancouver Westside Community Corridor McElhinny, Megan; Wong, Emily; Hu, Yahan; Wong, Augusta; Fisher, Mallory 2020

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Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor         An Educational Permaculture Experience in the Vancouver Westside Community Corridor  ENVR 400 (2019-2020) Team Members​: Megan McElhinny, Emily Wong, Yahan Hu, Augusta Wong, Mallory Fisher     1 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Executive Summary  Human influence on the earth’s biosphere and atmosphere is undeniable; anthropogenic activities, such as resource extraction and urbanization are the driving force behind a multitude of earth-system changes, including soil loss, ecosystem destruction, mass extinction, and global warming (IPBES, 2019; IPCC, 2018). Among a plethora of anticipated negative impacts, these activities affect ecosystem services on which humans rely and thus threaten public health, personal livelihoods, social justice, economic growth, water supply, and food security (IPCC, 2018). Human actions and lifestyles have caused natural resources to be unequally distributed across global communities, which impacts many institutions, one being food provision (IPBES, 2019). This raises concerns regarding the production of healthy and culturally appropriate food produced in ecologically mindful ways. Permaculture, a method of sustainable, socially aware gardening/agriculture, aims to address this issue by employing specific social principles and design tenets to create self-sustaining systems that benefit both people and nature (Mollison et al., 1991).   Founded in the 1970s by David Holgrem and Bill Mollison, the permaculture movement has blossomed into a global community building phenomenon. Permaculture theory promotes the development of self-sustaining communities and agricultural systems by focusing on functional, locally relevant diversity and de-emphasizing practices that value monetary gain and high-turnover crops (Mollison et al., 1991)  This project aims to effectively communicate the principles and practices of permaculture and sustainable agriculture to Vancouver’s Westside community. This goal can be broken down into the following three objectives:   1. Design educational signage for the Westside Permaculture Corridor that will attract the attention of viewers; effectively communicate information to a diverse demographic; garner interest among community members to engage with Village Vancouver programs; incorporate scientific knowledge into permaculture practices; and promote the incorporation of permaculture theory into personal lifestyles.  2. Develop a guided and self-guided walking tour that encourages a variety of visitors to engage with several gardens throughout Vancouver’s Westside; discusses the relationship between permaculture techniques and natural processes; and describes how a permaculture garden can be implemented in an urban space.  3. Incorporate aspects of digital media into the Permaculture Corridor through the use of online content and online playlists on platforms like Soundcloud and Anchor so that information is accessible in various ways.   2 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor This project began with the creation of a conceptual framework that relates permaculture design principles to sustainable pedagogy. By considering the theory behind the practice of teaching, this project aims to disseminate permaculture theory and practice to the local community audience in an accessible manner. The deliverables of this project can be broken down into two parts, namely the creation of a walking tour and garden signage.  The walking tour consists of ten permaculture gardens throughout the Vancouver Westside. The accompanying ​Google My Maps​ includes directions on how to navigate between permaculture gardens as well as descriptions of garden sites derived from information provided by the caretaker(s) of each location (Fig. 1). The entire route was created according to proximal distance between garden locations, with locations A through E comprising the shortest walking tour route; the intermediate route additionally including sites F, G, and H; and the longest route encompassing all ten gardens. Furthermore, a walking tour script, intended to be presented by Village Vancouver representatives or listened to through audio playlists, was developed to discuss how communities can incorporate permaculture into their everyday lives. The script content was translated into Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese to promote inclusion of diverse local communities into the educational experience. English, Cantonese, and Mandarin versions of the script were recorded and uploaded as audio playlists to Soundcloud and Anchor where they are publically accessible to visitors who want to enjoy a self-guided version of the walking tour.   Figure 1.​ A walking tour map created on Google My Maps provides general information of permaculture gardens and delineates the intended walking tour route.  In the gardens comprising the walking tour, over eighty small plant identification signs feature the common and latin name of a given plant and briefly highlight the plant’s relevance to permaculture gardening practices. A system of icons (Fig. 2) was developed so that common permaculture-related characteristics of the plants could be visually identified. These signs feature a minimalistic design so as not to overwhelm visitors with information.  3 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  Figure 2. ​Icons included on small plant identification signs depicting characteristics of various plants that are relevant to permaculture theory.   In addition to small signs, a total of 10 large signs were produced on topics including an introduction to Village Vancouver, location specific garden descriptions, and various permaculture concepts. The Village Vancouver sign briefly describes the values of the organization and its role as a collaborator in this project. The sign itself is featured at each participating location of the walking tour to increase the recognition of Village Vancouver initiatives among the Vancouver community and to promote citizen engagement with the organization. For each location of the walking tour, garden description signs provide visitors with background information on the site and important details to look out for in the garden, as well as a brief description of the Westside Permaculture Corridor project. The legend of the twelve permaculture design principles is included so that the visitors can connect permaculture concepts to the rest of the garden and to permaculture theory. Additional large signs highlight important permaculture concepts and practices in each garden. The specific topics include drought-resistance, companion planting, the climate emergency, vertical gardening, herb spirals, and hugelkultur.   From these deliverables, there are five primary takeaways that can be used by environmental educators and other environmental education initiatives and to engage the public in sustainability action:   1. Contextualize environmental initiatives and their potential impacts in the scheme of local to global scale issues.  2. Use questions or other types of prompts to encourage community members to actively think about concepts, implications, and applications of the sustainability movement.  3. Share practical and actionable information describing how individuals can implement sustainability knowledge in their everyday lives. 4 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  4. Present theoretical information that supports practical applications to convey expertise and authority.   5. Promote inclusivity by using diverse approaches to education, e.g. use visual and auditory content; use graphics to appeal to all age groups; consider translating content into multiple languages.  By applying these recommendations, movements that aim to promote sustainable alternatives to contemporary environmentally degrading processes may be able to more effectively reach the goals set by the initiative.   5 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Author Biographies This document was written by the UBC student members of the Vancouver Westside Permaculture Corridor Project group. The team comprises five students in the course ENVR400 - Community Project in Environmental Science, with a variety of backgrounds that contribute experience and knowledge to the project.  Mallory Fisher​ is an experienced science-educator for school-aged children and as such contributed significant knowledge to the permaculture pedagogy aspects of the project.   Yahan Hu ​ has interests lying in the realm of digital media, which contributed significantly to the production of sign templates and permaculture signs throughout the project  Emily Wong​ has past experience educating children as well as a working understanding of sustainable agriculture. She used a combination of these skills to conceptualize permaculture principles and inform permaculture didactics.  Megan McElhinny ​ is experienced in the realm of agriculture and systems thinking and applied this knowledge to understanding the implications of permaculture techniques and aspects of permaculture design in order to effectively describe them in the walking tour script.  Augusta Wong​ is interested in photography, photoshop, and video editing, which are skills that were applied when developing permaculture signage and the audio aspects of the digital walking tour.   6 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Author Biographies 6 Table of Contents 7 Project Background 8 Global Context 8 Agricultural and Social Principles of Permaculture 8 Community Environmental Education 9 Research Objectives 11 Project Development and Deliverables 12 Project Locations and Digital Walking Tour Map 13 Village Vancouver Sign 14 Garden Description Signs 14 Permaculture Concept Signs 15 Small Plant Identification Signs 15 Walking Tour Script and Audio 16 Translations 17 A Permaculture Experience 18 Conclusion 23 Acknowledgement 24 References 25 Appendix A - Walking Tour Map 28 Appendix B - Large Signs 28 Appendix C- Small Signs 34 Appendix D - Wood Transfer 48 Appendix E - Script 48 English Version: 48 Traditional Chinese Version: 68 Simplified Chinese Version: 82 Appendix F - Online Audio Playlist 97 Appendix G - Tour Bingo Cards 98  7 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Project Background  Global Context Human influence on the earth’s biosphere and atmosphere is undeniable; anthropogenic activities, such as mineral extraction and urbanization, are the driving force behind a multitude of earth-system changes, including soil loss, ecosystem destruction, mass extinction, and global warming (IPBES, 2019; IPCC, 2018). Among a plethora of anticipated negative impacts, these activities affect ecosystem services on which humans rely and thus threaten public health, personal livelihoods, social justice, economic growth, water supply, and food security (IPCC, 2018). Human actions and lifestyles have caused natural resources to be unequally distributed across global communities which impacts many institutions, one being food provision (IPBES, 2019). This raises concerns regarding the production of healthy and culturally appropriate food produced in ecologically mindful ways.   Agricultural and Social Principles of Permaculture In the 1970s, David Holmgren and Bill Mollison outlined a set of principles and theories to guide a form of permanent agriculture, termed “permaculture”, in response to building evidence of anthropogenic degradation on natural systems (Mollison et al., 1991). As a method of sustainable and socially aware gardening/agriculture, permaculture aims to address many of the above mentioned issues by employing specific social principles and design tenets to create self-sustaining systems that benefit both people and nature (Mollison et al., 1991). Permaculture theory is founded on the three core ethics of Earth Care, People Care, and Fair Share, which guide twelve design principles (Fig.1) (Holmgren, 2007). The theory promotes longevity in agricultural systems by focusing on functional, locally relevant diversity and de-emphasizing practices which value monetary gain and high-turnover crops (Mollison et al., 1991).   Despite being a globally recognized practice, permaculture has traditionally been isolated from scientific inquiry (Ferguson & Lovell, 2014). Agroecology is a scientifically rooted form of sustainable agriculture which shares overlapping ideologies with permacultural theory. Exploration of such similarities suggests that permaculture practices, like land design and water management, present valid opportunities to transition from extractive industrial farming to sustainable agriculture and gardening (Ferguson & Lovell, 2014). A 2018 review conducted by Krebs and Bach (2018) concludes that all twelve of the permaculture design principles proposed by Holmgren (2007) can be supported by scientific evidence. Rigorous academic study of permaculture has been gaining traction and, as such, the validity of permaculture standards cannot be discounted.  The grassroots movement aspect of permaculture highlights the fact that it is as much about social engagement as it is about environmental solutions. It is important to consider that while engagement of various age and gender demographics has historically been diverse, ethnic diversity in the permaculture movement remains low (Ferguson & Lovell, 2015). 8 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Permaculture has a long history in food production, and can empower a variety of communities to approach food sovereignty challenges using their own expertise (Millner, 2017). Introduction of permaculture systems into urban settings offers citizens local exposure to permaculture design, reduces local air pollution, promotes community engagement, and offers a source of food, thus addressing the core motivation of permaculture: benefit to both humans and nature (Pandey et al., 2016).    Figure 1.​ Permaculture ethics and design principles from permacultureprinciples.com, Creative Commons license.   Community Environmental Education The process of transitioning from environmentally degrading practices to sustainable activities is one that requires long standing political and social norms to be dismantled. Contemporary environmental decision-making is heavily influenced by industrial sectors, such as agriculture, due to strong political and social ties that arise from their role in the economy and job provision (Hill and Connelly, 2018). The current rhetoric perpetrated by these sectors suggests that there cannot be environmental and ecological sustainability without damage to global economies. This portrayal often outcompetes contrasting messages 9 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor from sustainable industrial sectors and groups that suggest there are alternatives to environmentally degrading resource extraction.   Research by Hill and Connely (2018) suggests that there is a correlation between the number of sustainability-minded initiatives in an area, and public support for sustainable industrial practices and policies. The researchers found that this correlation is derived from expanding the scope of environmental debate previously bound by industrial rhetoric, which allows the public to engage with more ideas and perspectives on topics such as agriculture versus permaculture. This results in increased political engagement as the voting body becomes more aware of the alternatives that can be put in place to support public needs while addressing environmental concerns (Massicotte & Kelly-Bisson, 2019). The resulting bottom-up political and market-based pressures encourages investigation into alternative technologies and processes that will eventually change the normal rhetoric surrounding relationships between humans and the environment. Relevant to permaculture, this research shows that teaching the concept of sustainable agroecology on the community scale may cause people to question the normative practices of traditional agriculture, and thus participate with permaculture activities on a variety of scales, from investigating the issue to active engagement with permaculture practices.  Building a base of support for sustainable initiatives is the first step in creating societal transition, and educational didactics (i.e. the science of teaching) is an important aspect of effectively disseminating information on sustainability. A study conducted by Meyer (2019) evaluated the ways in which didactical approaches have been used by researchers to encourage pro-environmental behavior. In this study, Meyer identified 12 types of learning that could be categorized into ecological, social, and emotional dimensions of understanding. Interestingly, the twelve permaculture design principles and its three core ethics (Fig. 1) closely mimic the learning categories identified by this study.  This research suggests that by appealing to the three dimensions of understanding, individuals are more likely to sympathize with an environmental movement and support/participate in actions taken to achieve the initiative’s goals. To practically engage ecological understanding, descriptions of species and the role they play in systems provides sufficient context for individuals to understand an ecological issue. This is followed by engaging emotional responses by suggesting the negative impacts certain anthropogenic processes have on the species or ecological system presented. Finally, by showing that other peers in a given community (e.g. neighborhood, political group, friend group) support a pro-environmental transition, individuals can be effectively convinced to participate in said transition. This research is further supported by Cialdini (2004), Hammarsten et al. (2019), and Musa et al. (2018) who evaluate the factors that are most likely to motivate environmental engagement. Using psychological and socio-political tools increases the likelihood that grassroots permaculture movements, like the Village Vancouver Westside Permaculture Corridor, will effectively communicate permaculture practices and ideals to a wider audience. 10 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Research Objectives The aim of this project is to effectively communicate the principles and practices of permaculture and sustainable agriculture to Vancouver’s Westside community. In doing so, this project intends to harmoniously integrate people and nature so that ecological processes are considered when addressing anthropogenic needs. This will be done by:  a) Designing educational signage for the Westside Permaculture Corridor that will attract the attention of viewers; effectively communicate information to a diverse demographic; garner interest among community members to engage with Village Vancouver programs; incorporate scientific knowledge into permaculture practices; and promote the incorporation of permaculture theory into personal lifestyles.  b) Developing a guided and self-guided walking tour that encourages a variety of visitors to engage with several gardens throughout Vancouver’s Westside; discusses the relationship between permaculture techniques and natural processes; and describes how a permaculture garden can be implemented in an urban space.  c) Incorporating aspects of digital media into the Permaculture Corridor through the use of online content and online playlists, on platforms like Soundcloud and Anchor, so that information is accessible in various ways.    11 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Project Development and Deliverables  Connecting Permaculture Principles to Sustainable Pedagogy The first step in the Westside Permaculture Project was to create a framework for understanding how permaculture theory is best disseminated to community-based audiences (Fig. 2). The conceptual framework was developed by creating two separate lists, one each for permaculture design principles and sustainable pedagogy. The data for the permaculture design principles list was sourced from the ​Essence of Permaculture​ (Holmgren, 2007) and data collected on permaculture didactics was developed from literature review of sustainable pedagogy research. After collating this data, the lists were analyzed for overlap between items. The points of overlap were then used to derive the ways in which educational didactics can inform the optimal method for presenting permaculture tenets. For example, the permaculture design principle of “Integrate Rather than Segregate” suggests that humans must use and value the ways in which plants, animals, and humans benefit one another, also known as symbiosis. One key aspect of educational didactics suggests that diverse perspectives increase investment in learning due to conversations that arise surrounding the various ways of interpreting a given topic (Hammarsten et al., 2019). By connecting the design tenet to pedagogical understanding, we can derive results that suggest comparing the symbiosis of permaculture design to monoculture methods encourages a critical analysis of the aspects of each process so that a judgement can be made on the ecological ramifications of each agricultural approach.  12 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Figure 2​. A conceptual flowchart model depicting a small example of how the guided tour and permaculture signage was derived from sustainable pedagogy and permaculture principles. The permaculture principles are depicted in blue boxes, educational didactics are depicted in orange boxes, and project deliverables derived from permaculture and education theories are depicted as green boxes.  Project Locations and Digital Walking Tour Map Following the conceptualization of permaculture didactics, locations were selected to perform place-based teaching of the permaculture movement. The Village Vancouver Westside Permaculture Corridor project takes place in ten locations spread throughout Vancouver’s Westside labeled A-J on the digital walking tour map (Fig. 3 & Appendix A). The map delineates one route of three possible lengths that community participants can use to engage with permaculture sites. The entire route was created according to least distances between permaculture sites, with locations A through E comprising the shortest walking tour route, the intermediate route additionally including sites F, G, and H, and the longest route encompassing all ten gardens. Variety in route length provides flexibility that allows visitors to choose their preferred walking tour based on interest, physical capability, and mode of transportation between sites. Additionally, the map was designed to be accessible through Google My Maps​ and provides directions to navigate between permaculture sites alongside informative descriptions of each location.  The walking tour route is an important step in engaging permaculture learning in the Westside Community Corridor. Firstly, the tour route identifies locations throughout the region where permaculture spaces can be found. Additionally, it promotes social engagement by encouraging participants to discover green spaces in their environment and to do so in groups through the guided walking tour. Research suggests that such connection to physical ecosystems in a group setting creates interest and engagement with the initiative, making it more likely that individuals will want to participate in the movement (Meyer, 2019; Hammarsten et al., 2019). 13 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  Figure 3.​ A walking tour map created on ​Google My Maps ​, provides general information of permaculture gardens and the walking tour route as a guide (​Appendix A ​). The blue line delineates the route.   Village Vancouver Sign To demarc the locations of the walking tour route contributing to the Permaculture Corridor, a sign discussing Village Vancouver, the leader of the project, was developed to connect permaculture sites. Using information on the history and goals of the Permaculture Corridor provided by the Village Vancouver partners, the sign describes the key values of the organization and its participation in the Transition Network: a consortium that promotes community-level engagement to address large-scale challenges, such as global climate change, ecosystem destruction, and mass extinction (Transition Network, 2016). Additionally, his sign raises community awareness about Village Vancouver and permaculture as a whole, and follows the community environmental education theory that grassroots awareness creates change in larger scale industrial processes and methods (Hill and Connelly, 2018) (Appendix B).  Garden Description Signs Garden specific signs were created for each of the ten locations on the walking tour to present the history and notable aspects of each location (Appendix B). The information from these signs was collected through questionnaires and discussions with the caretaker(s) of each garden and provides the audience with background information and points of interest as they investigate the space. The legend of the twelve permaculture design principles is displayed on these signs and can be used by community members to identify the ways in which permaculture theory is exemplified by various permaculture techniques as denoted by permaculture concept signs. 14 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  The pedagogical theory driving the creation of these signs is that social ties influence individuals to participate in environmental movements. By showing how permaculture is involved in the history of communal locations and identifying the individuals involved with those spaces, these signs create a sense that permaculture is welcomed and used in the Westside Corridor, incentivizing others to consider participating in associated activities.   Permaculture Concept Signs Additional signs highlight important permaculture concepts and practices in each garden (Appendix B). The specific topics include drought-resistance, companion planting, climate emergency, vertical gardening, and hügelkultur. Content for these signs was informed by consultation with various experts, scholarly literature review, and books from the permaculture movement.   In addition to presenting a brief description of a given permaculture concept, practical steps for reproducing the technique are provided so that community members can incorporate permaculture theory and sustainable living practices into their everyday lives. In order to clearly connect the permaculture technique with permaculture theory, icons are incorporated into each sign to show the most relevant permaculture design tenets for the given permaculture concept. For example, a sign for vertical gardening would contain icons for the principles of “Use and Value Renewables” and “Obtain a Yield” because this method of gardening makes use of underutilized garden spaces while producing various plants, herbs, and vegetables for the gardener.   The final aspect of the permaculture concept signs is the logo of the City of Vancouver. The City of Vancouver has shown support for upcoming Village Vancouver projects by presenting them with a “Greenest City Grant”, a portion of which will be directed towards the Permaculture Corridor budget. The City of Vancouver will benefit from the promotion of sustainability literacy and action as it moves towards its Greenest City goals.   Small Plant Identification Signs Over eighty small plant signs were developed to include the common name of the plant, the latin name of the plant, a 5-8 word description depicting the plant’s use in permaculture gardening, and any relevant icons (Appendix C & D). Plants were chosen based on their importance in the context of permaculture, or if they appeared frequently among the garden sites.   A system of icons was developed to identify the most common properties of the plants that make it suitable to permaculture cultivation. This system includes symbols for edible, pollinator friendly, insectary, companion, wind breaking, and nitrogen fixing plants (Fig. 4).  15 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor It is important to highlight plants which are edible because they relate to the permaculture design principle of “Obtain a Yield”. By providing food for humans and other animals, edible plants promote food security and self-sustainability. Pollinator friendly plants promote pollination in the garden by attracting specific insect species that consume nectar and transfer pollen between plant individuals. Insectary plants attract beneficial insects that act as a predator to common insect pests that can reduce yields in botanical settings. Companion plants encourage gardeners to reap the benefits of symbiotic relationships, a concept embodied by the “Use and Value Diversity” permaculture design principle.  Similarly, wind breaking plants promote diversity by slowing incoming wind drafts that may be detrimental to certain vulnerable plant species. Finally, nitrogen fixers benefit neighbouring plants by converting atmospheric nitrogen into a plant-useable form. All of the iconed characteristics are plant properties that promote self-sustainability of the garden, and value the inclusion of diverse species.   By incorporating education, which is both graphic and literate, these signs appeal to multiple demographics within the community, from children to adults. Additionally, these signs encourage visitors to think about the multi-dimensional value of each plant and the benefits of designing a garden with the goal of functionality in addition to aesthetic appeal.    Figure 4. ​Icons included on small plant identification signs depicting characteristics of various plants that are relevant to permaculture theory.   Walking Tour Script and Audio The walking tour script was developed to be a place-based education tool to discuss the ways in which permaculture contributes an answer to issues facing contemporary local and global communities (Appendix E). Such issues include soil loss, desertification, deforestation, toxic pollution, extinction, and climate change. The script was designed in a modular format so that text for each garden location and text for transitions between gardens can be discussed without the context of other locations. This means that the introduction and conclusion alone provide sufficient background information to support any individual garden text. However, each location is arranged in an order so as to build upon the knowledge from previous garden 16 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor locations delineated by the tour route to create a well-rounded picture of the permaculture movement.  The text for each garden focuses on a key aspect of permaculture exemplified at the given location. These key aspects were identified during visits to the permaculture spaces and/or described by garden caretakers. Some garden focuses include food forests, pollination, companion plants, industrial permaculture, vertical gardening, and hügelkultur. In between the gardens, transition text explains permaculture principles, sets up the context for the text of the next garden location, or describes aspects of permaculture that are not exemplified in the Vancouver Westside Community Corridor, but are important to the permaculture movement as a whole.   The information presented in each section of the walking tour was derived from data comprising information from experts in permaculture gardening as well as from peer reviewed literature analysing the effectiveness of permaculture techniques and comparing them to traditional methods of gardening and agriculture. This data was then synthesized into text appropriate for audiences new to the permaculture movement and reviewed by Village Vancouver as well as an expert in sustainable agriculture.  This script was recorded and uploaded to Soundcloud and Anchor for public audio access (Appendix F). Download links are available for offline access via Village Vancouver’s website, alongside a link to the walking tour map.   Translations The script content was translated into Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese, and these translated versions of the walking tour script were also audio-recorded. The Cantonese and Mandarin versions of the script are available for public access via Soundcloud and Anchor (Appendix E & F). As the ethnic diversity in the permaculture movement has been critiqued as being low (Ferguson & Lovell, 2015), providing the Vancouver community with translated versions of permaculture content may help to expose this knowledge to otherwise unreached populations in Vancouver. The script content was translated into Chinese languages because it is the mother tongue of 16% of the Vancouver population (Statistics Canada, 2017). Translating permaculture contents into these languages allows the information to be more accessible to non-English speaking populations, and encourages the involvement of non-Caucasian ethnicities in the permaculture movement.     17 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor A Permaculture Experience  This section of the report will take readers on a literary adventure through the first two gardens of the walking tour, presenting a taste of the ways in which the project deliverables work together to present the permaculture movement. To begin, imagine you are starting the walking tour just east of Kitsilano Beach Park:   We are now standing on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Coast Salish peoples in front of a house located near the southeastern corner of Kitsilano Beach Park. The Village Vancouver tour guide or the online audio playlist that you are listening to has just told you that the permaculture movement began in the 1970s in response to the building evidence that humans are degrading the surroundings that they rely on. Additionally, you are told that the permaculture movement is a method of sustainable, socially aware gardening/agriculture which employs techniques to improve the sustainability and resilience of a garden community by mimicking patterns of naturally productive ecosystems. It is explained to you that, at its core, permaculture is a method of caring for the earth and people in an equitable way. The children participating in the tour are handed bingo cards that they can complete while visiting eah garden (Appendix G).   As you look at the garden, the first thing you see is a sign describing the Village Vancouver organization (Fig. 5). It discusses how Village Vancouver is a transition society, which is a movement of communities coming together to reimagine and rebuild our world. The sign states that the organization builds resilient and sustainable communities by promoting social, environmental, and economic change through community events, projects, and workshops.  Figure 5.​ Informative large sign about the Village Vancouver organization. 18 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  As you move into the garden, you are told that the land you now stand on used to be a temperate rainforest containing some of the largest tree species on the British Columbian Coast. Although the historic forest is now gone, you are presently in a food forest. As the tour continues, you learn that a food forest contains vertical layers of food-producing plants that each play an essential role in supporting the garden ecosystem. The vertical layers of the forest include the canopy as well as smaller trees, shrubs, herbs, ground cover plants, root plants, and a vertical layer like climbers or vines. As the tour goes on, the audio or in-person tour-guide describes the roles that these layers play. For example, the large trees that comprise the canopy are important for pulling water from underground reservoirs so that it becomes accessible to plants with shallow roots. You are told that this type of permaculture garden mimics the ways in which natural forest layers interact and benefit one another to create a healthy and thriving ecosystem. After all, forests have been evolving over 5 million human lifespans, so it is no wonder that weeding, pesticides, irrigation and all the other human techniques for botanical production are not required. In this specific garden, you learn that magnolia trees, comfrey trees, and kiwi plants make up the forest canopy, the shrub layer is comprised of blueberry, honey berry, and currant plants, herbaceous plants include lavender and purple coneflower and the ground cover layer includes strawberry plants.   Before you leave, you notice signs distributed throughout the garden. These signs tell you the common and latin name of the plant as well as a short description of the role the given plant plays in a permaculture space. You also note that these small plant signs have icons telling you their use as a pollinator friendly plant, companion plant, nitrogen fixer, windbreak, insectary, and/or an edible plant. One of the signs that you see is for the Kiwi plant. This sign tells you that the latin name for kiwi, or Chinese Gooseberry,  is ​Actinidia deliciosa​, and that this botanical provides a high source of vitamin C when consumed, as well as providing shade for other plants (Fig. 6). The children completing the bingo cards get to cross off Kiwi on their sheet.  Figure 6.​ Sample of the physical plant identification sign and a graphic sample of the identification sign for the kiwi plant.  19 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  As you transition to the next garden, you are prompted to think about which plants you might choose to grow if you started your own food forest and the vertical layer of the forest structure those plants would comprise.  The next garden you reach is at the Billy Bishop Legion Hall, right across the street from the first permaculture space. The first thing that comes into view is a large sign, similar in design to the one describing the Village Vancouver organization, but this one discusses the Billy Bishop garden (Fig. 7). You read that this is a collaborative garden developed over a 10 year period with Village Vancouver and the Legion Hall, and is a particularly good example of companion planting and pollinator attractants. Beside this sign is another one of similar size that describes companion planting (Fig. 8). The sign states that companion planting is a gardening and agricultural technique used to boost the yield and health of planted vegetation, mainly by repelling herbivorous insects. As you move into the garden, the guided tour informs you that this occurs when certain plants, such as mint, produce a natural chemical, known as a volatile organic compound, that repels herbivorous pests because it presents an unpleasant taste or acts as a toxin for those that attempt to eat it. The guided tour goes on to say that this alone protects plants located nearby mint by deterring pests, however, there is an added benefit: chemicals released by the mint induce a defense response in plants within the vicinity so that they begin to protect themselves even if they are not being eaten, thus pre-emptively protecting themselves from harm. You learn that permaculture techniques like this are a natural replacement to toxic insecticides, like DEET.   Figure 7.​ A large sign describing one of the gardens (Billy Bishop) participating in the Westside Permaculture Corridor Project. 20 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor   Figure 8.​ A large sign describing the companion planting technique and the ways in which it benefits botanicals involved in the process.  As you continue to walk, you notice that many of the small plant signs indicate that this garden contains an abundance of pollinator friendly plants. One of the plant identification signs that you read is for purple coneflower (Fig. 9). The sign informs you that the latin name for this plant is ​Echinacea sp​., meaning that the plant comes from the genus of ​Ecinechea​, and that the exact species is unspecified. The text explains that the species is known in particular for being drought tolerant, native to North America, and a pioneer species. Additionally, the iconography indicates that purple coneflowers attract pollinators, as well as other beneficial insects.   Figure 9.​ Small graphic identification sign for the purple coneflower plant.  21 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  The guided tour informs you that this garden contains plant species that flower sequentially throughout the growing season so that pollinators will have nectar supplies for the entirety of spring and summer. Pollinators thus consistently return to the space, pollinating the range of plants that can be found. The tour dialogue prompts you to think about which pollinators might be found in this garden and then tells you that flies, moths, butterflies, and even mosquitos can be found in addition to bees. As you begin to leave the garden, you are informed that it is important to think about the benefits that can be accrued for both humans and their surroundings when planning and planting a permaculture garden, and that this is one of the main permaculture principles.   As you walk to the next garden, the tour dialogue discusses some of the other permaculture principles that are core to sustainable gardening and agriculture. You are told that the first one is to “Observe and Interact”. This principle is a reminder to design a garden that suits the situation you are in. For example, you would design gardens differently if they were on flat ground versus on a slope. This principle is also a reminder that everyone has different perspectives that can be used to build a functioning, unique, and fruitful permaculture space.   Although this is the end of the literary tour, you can continue on the actual tour to learn more about permaculture principles, design, and implementation through the tour dialogue and accompanying signs.     22 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Conclusion  The permaculture corridor project combines scientific knowledge with digital media and graphic design to communicate permaculture and sustainable agriculture to Vancouver’s Westside community. Development of a Village Vancouver sign, garden location signs, plant identification and use signs, a walking tour route, walking tour script and an online audio playlist in three languages creates a concrete learning environment for individuals to engage with permaculture theory and practices. This type of place-based learning connects communities to their immediate environment by presenting scientifically supported perspectives on the ways in which human and agroecosystems can interact through mutually beneficial relationships.   The design and implementation of a permaculture space within an urban community described by this document has implications for environmental educators and sustainability initiatives in other cities throughout Canada and around the globe. Those that wish to implement similar initiatives in their own communities may learn from the major findings of this study so as to effectively and efficiently disseminate information on ecological sustainability:  1. Contextualize environmental initiatives and their potential impacts in the scheme of local to global scale issues.  2. Use questions or other types of prompts to encourage community members to actively think about concepts, implications, and applications of the sustainability movement.  3. Share practical and actionable information describing how individuals can implement sustainability knowledge in their everyday lives.  4. Present theoretical information that supports practical applications to convey expertise and authority.   5. Promote inclusivity by using diverse approaches to education, e.g. use visual and auditory content; use graphics to appeal to all age groups; consider translating content into multiple languages.  By applying these recommendations, movements that aim to provide sustainable alternatives to contemporary environmentally degrading processes may be able to more effectively reach the goals set by the initiative. Of paramount importance is recognizing that humans are not separate from the environments that they inhabit and finding ways that humans can interact with their surrounding that is equitable for all people as well as nature is at the core of the the Vancouver Westside Permaculture Corridor Project and other like-minded projects.  23 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Acknowledgement  This document acknowledges the extensive work contributed by Dr. Yael Stav (President) and Ross Moster (Executive Director) from the Village Vancouver team in providing background information, suggesting project ideas, and reviewing deliverable content. The participation of Kitsilano Community Centre Collaborative Garden, Society Le Village, MLA David Eby’s office, and Lawrence Boxall provided the Corridor with several additional garden locations, which helped us build a more extensive and informative walking tour. We also wish to acknowledge Dr. Tara Moreau in providing expert opinion on the best way to engage a variety of audiences in permaculture topics through walking tours and signs. Maayan Kreitzman played a significant role in guiding the project through suggestions of academic resources, topics of interest, and review of produced material. Finally, without funding from the City of Vancouver Greenest City Grant, this project would not have been possible. Thank you to all those mentioned who helped in creating and disseminating permaculture content.    24 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor References  Cialdini, R.B. (2004). The science of persuasion. ​Scientific America, 14​(1), 70-77.  Ferguson, R. S., & Lovell, S. T. (2014). Permaculture for agroecology: design, movement, practice, and worldview. A review. ​Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34​(2), 251-274.  Ferguson, R. S., & Lovell, S. T. (2015). Grassroots engagement with transition to sustainability: diversity and modes of participation in the international permaculture movement. ​Ecology and Society, 20​(4), 39.  IPBES (2019). ​ Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services​. S. Díaz, J. Settele, E. S. Brondízio E.S., H. T. Ngo, M. Guèze, J. Agard, A. Arneth, P. Balvanera, K. A. Brauman, S. H. M. Butchart, K. M. A. Chan, L. A. Garibaldi, K. Ichii, J. Liu, S. M. Subramanian, G. F. Midgley, P. Miloslavich, Z. Molnár, D. Obura, A. Pfaff, S. Polasky, A. Purvis, J. Razzaque, B. Reyers, R. Roy Chowdhury, Y. J. Shin, I. J. Visseren-Hamakers, K. J. Willis, and C. N. Zayas (eds.). IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 56 pages. https://ipbes.net/sites/default/files/2020-02/ipbes_global_assessment_report_summary_for_policymakers_en.pdf  IPCC (2018). ​Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)]. In Press. Hammarsten, M., Askerlund, P., Almers, E., Avery, H., & Samuelsson, T. (2019). Developing ecological literacy in a forest garden: children’s perspectives. ​Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 19 ​(3), 227-241. doi: 10.1080/14729679.2018.1517371  Hemenway, T. (2000). ​Gaia’s garden a guide to home-scale permaculture​. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Company. Hill, D. & Connelly, S. (2018). Community energies: exploring the socio-political spatiality of energy transitions through the Clean Energy for Eternity campaign in New South 25 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Wales Australia. ​Energy Research and Social Science, 36​, 138-145. doi: 10.1016/j.erss.2017.11.021 Holmgren, D. (2007). ​Essence of permaculture​. Hepburn: Holmgren Design Services. Krebs, J., & Bach, S. (2018). Permaculture—Scientific evidence of principles for the agroecological design of farming systems. Sustainability, 10(9), 3218. Massicotte, M., & Kelly-Bisson, C. (2019). What's wrong with permaculture design courses? Brazilian lessons for agroecological movement-building in Canada. ​Agriculture and Human Values, 36​(3), 581. doi:10.1007/s10460-018-9870-8  Meyer, J. (2019). ​" The owl hugs me in the forest": Children's Experiences and Educators' Perceptions of Learning in a Swedish Mini-Forest Garden​ (Publication No. 1331140). [Master’s thesis, Linköping University]. DiVA. Millner, N. (2017). The right to food is nature too: food justice and everyday environmental expertise in the Salvadoran permaculture movement. ​Local Environment, 22​(6), 764-783. doi:10.1080/13549839.016.1272560 Mollison, B., Slay, R. M., Girard, J. L., & Girard, J. L. (1991). ​Introduction to permaculture​. Tyalgum, Australia: Tagari Publications.  Musa, H.D., Yacob, M.R., Abdullah, A.M., & Ishak, M.Y. (2018). Enhancing subjective well-being through strategic urban planning: development and application of community happiness index. ​Sustainable Cities and Society, 38​, 184-194. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2017.12.030  Pandey, M., Pandey, A.K., & Tripathi B.D. (2016). Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city. ​Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 134​(2), 358-354. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.08.028.  Permacultureprinciples.com (n.d.) ​Permaculture Ethics and Design Principles​ [Graphics]. Retrieved from https://permacultureprinciples.com/downloads/Principle_Wheel_with_type.jpg.  Statistics Canada. 2017. ​Vancouver [Census metropolitan area], British Columbia and British Columbia [Province]​ (table). Census Profile. 2016 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-X2016001. Ottawa. Released November 29, 2017. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E (accessed March 09, 2020).  26 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor UNESCO, U. (1977). The Tbilisi Declaration. In ​Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education​ (pp. 14-26). Tbilisi: USSR.   Transition Network (2016). About Transition Network. Available at https://www.transitionnetwork.org/about (accessed 26 November 2019)      27 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Appendix A - Walking Tour Map See the attached link for an interactive walking tour map:  https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=1k0mBQfzBsHBry-oosDYe6yYjzWOEB0-Y&usp=sharing   Appendix B - Large Signs See the attached link to view all large signs in Canva (the website they were designed on): https://www.canva.com/design/DAD2dlVGbIo/share/preview?token=fOgihZLBBTg_WN8gnDDROw&role=EDITOR&utm_content=DAD2dlVGbIo&utm_campaign=designshare&utm_medium=link&utm_source=sharebutton 28 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 29 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 30 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 31 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 32 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor    33 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  Appendix C- Small Signs See the attached link to view all small signs in Canva (the website they were designed on):  https://www.canva.com/design/DAD4c0IOp4Y/PPqBuuAzq-Db1M2zdB5f3g/view?utm_content=DAD4c0IOp4Y&utm_campaign=designshare&utm_medium=link&utm_source=sharebutton      34 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       35 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       36 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       37 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       38 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       39 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       40 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       41 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       42 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       43 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       44 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       45 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       46 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor       47 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor     Appendix D - Wood Transfer See the attached link for the methodology associated with transferring ink-on-paper to wood material: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1actNxe43G_wulqp_ftMxE6Q7S3fy1JEuBNBIpPCECJA/edit?usp=sharing   Appendix E - Script English Version: Introduction to the Walking Tour and Permaculture Before we begin the walking tour, it is important to acknowledge that in Vancouver we are on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Coast Salish peoples, including the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), Stó:lō and Səl̓ílwətaʔ/Selilwitulh (Tsleil-Waututh) and xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam) Nations. This land has been used for time immemorial by these groups to support livelihood and cultural activities through sustainable human-nature relationships. Geologists have labeled periods throughout Earth’s history, like the Cambrian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Carboniferous eras, based on the dominant species of the time and the locations where they lived. Today, many geologists and other scientists have labeled the current era the Anthropocene, denoting a time when humans are the driving force behind change on Earth, including mineral extraction, urbanization, soil loss, ecosystem destruction, mass extinction, and of course human-caused global warming. These impacts threaten a multitude of coupled human and natural systems: some of these are biophysical, like water filtration, pollination, and food provision and some of these are less tangible cultural services like aesthetics or recreation. All of them are being affected and will no longer function in the same way as global temperatures rise. The breakdown of ecological systems that people depend on has significant ramifications for human life and well-being, particularly with 48 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor regards to freshwater availability and food security. This has severe implications for the production of healthy and culturally appropriate food produced in ecologically mindful ways. In the 1970s, David Holmgren and Bill Mollison began to champion the idea of permanent agriculture and permanent culture, a.k.a. permaculture. The concepts they were developing were a response to the building evidence that humans were degrading the surroundings that they rely on, a situation which has only become more severe in the decades since. Permaculture is a method of sustainable, socially aware gardening, agriculture, and design that employs techniques to improve the sustainability and resilience of a garden community by mimicking patterns of naturally productive ecosystems. Its principles offer potential solutions to contemporary over-extraction that risks food security and community resilience. We will talk about some of these principles and  techniques as we look at permaculture gardens spread throughout Vancouver’s Westside Corridor.   The permaculture movement is founded on three core ethics: Earth Care, People Care, and Fair Share, which guide twelve design principles that we will discuss later on.   “What do people think the meanings of Earth Care, People Care, and Fair Share are?” These ethics show that the permaculture movement is as much about social engagement and environmental justice as it is about ecological solutions.   Village Vancouver, the organization leading this tour, is a great way to engage both socially and ecologically with permaculture. Village Vancouver is a transition society, which is a movement of people coming together to reimagine and rebuild our world. One of the ways that transition occurs is through permaculture, which presents a practical and theoretical framework to move away from destructive agricultural practces. The organization hosts a multitude of activities and events throughout the year, many of which are food oriented, such as seed saving workshops, vertical gardening workshops, a food festival, creating seed libraries, and working in permaculture gardens, all of which can be found in a schedule on the Village Vancouver website at www.villagevancouver.ca. Our organization welcomes all new gardeners, regardless of level of experience, and with that in mind, let’s take a look at our first garden.   1. Front Yard Food Forest At one time, the land we are now standing on was temperate rainforest, boasting conifers, maples, alder, and swampland. The forest was mainly comprised of Douglas fir, western red cedar, and western hemlock, which were some of the largest tree species on the British Columbia Coast. In fact, the largest trees in Vancouver’s old-growth forest were thought to be found in what is now Gastown. Although the tree giants of the past are no longer here, you can still find forests throughout Vancouver’s city limits, like the food forest present in this garden.   “When you think of a natural forest, what comes to mind?” 49 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor One of the common characteristics of natural forests is that they don’t need humans to thrive! This means that they are self-sustaining due to the interactions and relationships between forest plants, fungi, and soil dwelling insects and microbes that comprise various forest layers.   “The top layer of a forest is the canopy, can anyone else think of other forest layers?”   Below the canopy are smaller trees, shrubs, herbs, ground cover plants, tubers, and a vertical layer like climbers or vines. Each layer of the forest plays an essential role that lets other species thrive. For example, the large trees that make the canopy are important for pulling water from underground reservoirs so that it becomes accessible to plants with shallow roots. Plants in the ground cover layer contribute the majority of decaying leaves and other detritus that provides nutrients to the rest of the system. Beneath the ground, tubers, like carrots or potatoes, break up compact soils so that other plants can set seed and grow. If you recall our brief introduction to geologic periods, trees evolved during the Carboniferous period, around 400 million years ago. That is approximately 5 million human lifespans to perfect the forest-design, so it is no wonder that weeding, pesticides, irrigation and all the other human techniques for botanical production are not needed for natural forests to grow. Just like any natural forest, a food forest contains these same layers, but there is an emphasis on edible plants, particularly perennials. This approach mimics natural patterns of forest growth and thus reaps the same benefits that occur from having a multi-layered structure. In this garden, magnolia trees and fig trees make up the forest canopy, the shrub layer includes blueberry, honeyberry, currant plants, and comfrey plants, herbaceous plants include lavender and purple coneflower, the ground cover layer includes strawberry plants, and the climbers/vines layer consists of a kiwi plant. Just like a natural forest, the plants in this food forest benefit one another as well as animals including pollinators, and us humans.   Transition to next Garden “If you were going to start your own food forest, what plants would you like to grow?”   “What layer of the forest would these plants be a part of?”     2. Kits Village Collaborative Garden/Billy Bishop Legion Hall The permaculture movement is guided by 12 design principles, one of these principles being Integrate ​. The core meaning of the principle is to use and value the ways in which plants, animals, and humans benefit one another, also known as symbiosis. This garden – the Kits Village Collaborative Garden – embodies the ​Integrate​ principle in many ways. To begin with, there is a human connection between Village Vancouver and the Billy Bishop Legion Hall. This garden has been developed for over 10 years through a collaboration between these two groups. 50 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Companion plants in the garden illustrate another aspect of the ​Integrate​ design principle. Companion planting is a gardening and agricultural technique to boost the yield and health of planted vegetation. The primary way a companion plant can benefit another species is by repelling harmful pests that eat it, but it can also provide some physical protection against harsh weather conditions. An example of companion planting in this garden is mint and kale. Some plants produce chemicals called volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that deter herbivores and other pests because the chemical tastes bad or acts as a toxin that pests do not want to ingest. Mint produces an aromatic VOC known as menthol, which repels pest like aphids, ants, and cabbage moths. Some plants only produce VOCs when they are in danger of being eaten, but mint produces menthol all the time, whether it is being eaten or not. When mint is planted in close proximity to other plants, the menthol that is constantly being released protects those plants, but something interesting happens to nearby plants as well. Plants in the Brassicaceae family, like kale, can detect the VOC produced by mint and they think that the mint plant is being eaten, even though it is not. To avoid being eaten themselves, kale will induce a defense response in their own genes that also deters pests. This relationship is similar to the way that antelopes on the savannah will make a warning call when they spot a lion so that other antelopes begin to run away. Companion plants like mint, are a natural replacement to toxic insecticides, like DEET, and also result in higher yield from gardens and agricultural fields. The ​Integrate​ principle is also exemplified in this garden through the symbiotic relationship between plants and pollinators. In this garden there is an abundance of flowering species that attract pollinators such as blueberry bushes, raspberries, cherry trees, pear trees, heritage apple trees, and cardoons. Bees and other pollinators drink the nectar and/or feed off of pollen from these plants, which are a source of food that helps them survive and reproduce. While they feed, they fortuitously pollinate the garden by transferring pollen between male and female flowers or between different flowering plants of one species so that the plants can produce fruit and seeds that help keep the garden thriving in following seasons.   “Does anyone know what other pollinators might be found in this garden?” Other pollinators may include flies, moths, butterflies, and even mosquitos.   An important part of the design in this garden is that the gardeners chose plant species that flower at different times during the growing season. For example, apple trees flower first, followed by blueberries, then raspberries. Planting species with sequential blooming periods means that pollinators will have nectar supplies throughout the spring and summer and thus they will be consistently drawn to the garden, pollinating a variety of plants throughout the growing season. As you can see, permaculture design principles, like ​Integrate​, can be interpreted and implemented in a garden in many different ways. It is important to think about the benefits the space provides to both humans and their surroundings when planning and planting a permaculture garden. While we walk to the next garden we can talk about some of the other 51 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor permaculture design principles and what they might look like in a garden setting. There are 12 in all, which you will hear about as the tour continues.   Transition to next Garden The first principle of permaculture design is to ​Observe​ and ​Interact​. This principle is a reminder to design a garden that suits the situation you are in. For example, you would design gardens differently if they were on flat ground versus on a slope. This principle is also a reminder that different people may have different perspectives, priorities, and preferences that they may wish to apply to build a functioning, unique, and fruitful permaculture space. In fact, many permaculture designers recommend observing a space for an entire year to experience daily, monthly, and seasonal cycles and associated sun exposure, water cycles, wind, and temperature among other variables.  The second principle is to ​Catch and Store Energy​. This means that a permaculture garden should take advantage of resources when they are abundant so that they can be used in times of need.   “Can anyone think of some of the ways that this design principle might play a role in a garden?” Some examples are: picking fruits and vegetables during harvest and then canning them for use during the winter, or using a water storage system, like a rain barrel, to catch water during a rainstorm and then use the stored water during periods of drought.   The third principle is to ​Obtain a Yield​. This principle basically says humans have the willpower to do things that they might not want to do, but they are a lot more likely to accomplish a task, like producing and maintaining a permaculture garden, if they are also rewarded with things like food and flowers.  The fourth permaculture principle is to ​Self-Regulate and Accept Feedback​.   “Does someone want to talk about what they think this means?”   This can mean a variety of things; one interpretation is to use the knowledge of others to improve a permaculture garden, but it can also reference some less obvious patterns in nature. There are many feedbacks in nature that can be positive or negative. That is not to say the positive feedbacks are good and negative feedbacks are bad, but to say that positive feedbacks amplify an effect while a negative feedback counteracts an effect. For example, a common negative feedback loop would be that when we get hot, we sweat, and then we cool down. A positive feedback loop is that global warming causes ice at the poles to melt. This ice normally reflects solar radiation back into space, so when it is lost, more solar radiation reaches Earth’s surface, resulting in more warming. In gardens, positive and negative feedbacks can also arise and it is important to notice them and then work with them in ways that benefit the garden. 52 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  The fifth permaculture principle is to ​Use and Value Renewables​. This one is pretty self-evident, but it is a key difference between permaculture and typical agriculture. This design principle is a reminder that some resources on Earth are finite and a permaculture garden can only be truly sustainable if we use resources that are abundant and cannot be used up. In industrial agriculture, an example of a non-renewable resource is gasoline and other petroleum products used to run machinery like tractors.   “What is a renewable alternative to tractors?” One renewable alternative to tractors is zero emissions tractor equipment. There has been recent development in sustainable industrial farming machinery that allows farmers to power agricultural equipment without the use of fossil fuels. For example, New Holland has come up with a fuel cell powered by hydrogen harnessed from renewable biomethane sources.   The sixth design principle is to ​Produce No Waste​. Many aspects of a garden can be repurposed when they reach the end of their life: plant clippings can be used as fertilizer, dead branches can be used to make a fence, the possibilities are endless.  As we walk between some of the other gardens later on the tour, we will talk about the remaining six permaculture design principles.      3. Apartment Building Blvd. Garden This next garden, known as the Apartment Building Blvd. Garden, is the first one that we will visit that is not organized by the Village Vancouver group. There are four other gardens on this tour that fall under the purview of other organizations or individuals. All of them maintain a friendly and cooperative relation with Village Vancouver and we collaborate with them in a variety of ways.   “In the scheme of permaculture principles that we have discussed so-far, which permaculture principles embody the relationships demonstrated by local gardens working towards sustainability and community resilience?”  The principles that are related to this symbiotic network are ​Observe and Interact​ and Self-Regulate and Accept Feedback​. These principles relate the fact that the gardens in the Westside Permaculture Corridor can benefit from one another, for example to share ideas and insights, share plants and seeds, collaborate on an annual Organic Gardening Open House, and to potentially create new gardens in the Corridor.   Right now, we are in front of a housing co-op, which is the site of the Blvd. Garden. This space was first created in 2012, and has expanded and evolved each year. Lawrence, the founder and coordinator of the garden, feels that the garden is now "fully realized" as of the harvesting season in 2019. 53 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  Being on a boulevard, this garden is highly visible to the public and thus the focus in this space is to create a mix of aesthetically pleasing plants, like flowers, with edible plants, which are sometimes perceived as less attractive when they are being grown on their own in a setting such as this.  With the mix of plant species seen in this garden, it is a perfect time to talk about annuals and perennials.   “Does anyone know what the difference is between annuals and perennials?”   Annual plants complete their entire life-cycle, from germination to seed production, within one growing season and then they die. Some annuals are self-perpetuating, a.k.a. they self-sow, which means they drop their seeds into the soil so that new plants of the same species will grow in the next growing season without human intervention. However, there are some annuals that are sterile or that don’t self-sow, which means that no new plants will grow after they die. For these annuals, which include most vegetables, re-planting is required. Alternatively, perennials are any plants that live for more than two years. Colloquially, people often use the term perennial for plants that live five years or more. Unlike annuals, perennials do not necessarily produce seeds every year; for example, strawberries produce seeds every year, but a plant like agave only produces seeds every 100 years.   Contemporary global agriculture is approximately 80% annual food crops, but in nature, nearly 90% of plants are perennials. As mentioned in the introduction to this tour, permaculture attempts to mimic natural patterns in nature and thus permaculture gardens incorporate a high percentage of perennials. This also plays a role in the amount of work that needs to be allocated to caring for the garden, since in general, perennials require less tending than annual plants, once they are well established. Although perennials are characteristic of permaculture gardens, annuals can, and often do, play a significant role in a productive and useful space. The third permaculture principle, Obtain a Yield​, suggests that human caretakers of gardens are more likely to do well if the garden is beautiful and provides them with food. Annuals can help create this ideal situation, especially in the early years of a garden before perennials are mature, and thus can be found in most permaculture gardens, even if perhaps less frequently than other forms of gardening/agriculture. When it comes down to it, one of the key considerations is what do you like to eat and what do you like to grow?  In discussing the use of annuals and perennials in permaculture design, it is important to know that plants that fall in these categories have different needs. For example, annuals tend to have shallow roots, which means they need more frequent watering since water quickly seeps into deeper soil. The same thing happens with nutrients, which are typically found at depth in garden substrates. When designing a permaculture garden, it is important to think about where to place plants in a garden so that they are more or less accessible depending on their level of care. Annuals are good to plant at the borders of permaculture gardens because they can be easily accessed, but can also create a beautiful and vibrant outer 54 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor shell to a space. Remember this when we discuss the eleventh permaculture principle after the next garden.   “Before we leave this space, does anyone notice a difference between the fruit trees grown here compared to the last two gardens?”  The Blvd. space is considered to be the property of Vancouver and thus to meet with municipal regulations, the trees in this space have to be in pots. This may seem like a restriction  to what can be accomplished in the garden, but as you can see, the desired plants were still able to be cultivated by getting a little bit creative.   Transition to next Garden Let’s go back to the topic of permaculture design principles and what they mean for a garden. The seventh design principle is to ​Design from Pattern to Detail​. The food forest is an amazing example of this principle: a natural pattern is observed and then replicated in permaculture gardens. Natural patterns have evolved over a millennia and thus represent years of trial and error to find the best solution to some of nature’s problems.  The eighth design principle is ​Integrate​, which we discussed in detail at the Billy Bishop garden. The ninth design principle is to ​Use Small and Slow Solutions​. The main message behind this principle is that tackling a huge issue can be daunting and result in failure when people become overwhelmed with the amount that has to be done. However, if you approach a problem by setting small goals that eventually culminate in a solution, it is much more effective in producing results. For example, when starting your own garden, it is not necessary to have a fully functioning permaculture garden designed and implemented in one season. It takes time to build the appropriate relationships between people and plants in order to have a successful space. If the goal is to start your own garden, after observing the space over a period of time to gain a better understanding of it, one first step might be to find other people who want to work on the garden with you. A second step could then be to pick the plants that will go in the garden with consideration given to the needs of the gardening group. Next, you might come up with a plan about how those plants will be oriented, thinking about companion plants, vertical layering, whether they like sunlight or shade, etc. Another step might be to decide on non-vegetative components of the garden, like a rain barrel or fence. Taking these and other considerations into account will help you reach the goal of having a fully functioning and fruitful permaculture space.   “Does anyone have some ideas about where they want to start a permaculture garden? And with who?”     4. Square Foot Gardening at Kits Neighbourhood House Rooftop Garden The small space that we'll look at in next garden is run by the same people as the Blvd. garden, but was started about 4 years earlier. In the first iteration of this space known as the 55 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Westside Collaborative Garden, Village Vancouver played a role in starting the garden, along with four or five other groups - again exemplifying how a strong social network is beneficial, or even crucial, to creating permaculture spaces. Eventually, major building renovation at Kits House resulted in the garden being moved to the rooftop, where the square foot garden box is stewarded by Lawrence, who we mentioned previously.  The focus of this garden box is utilizing techniques that maximize yield in a relatively small space. (We will see a few more examples of this in later gardens on the tour that use practices such as vertical gardening). In this space, Lawrence has implemented raised beds, which are wooden structures that build upward to maximize space use and create appropriate soil depth for the plants being grown. This is a type of Square Foot Gardening, which is the separation of a growing space into small sections, can grow a variety of plants quite intensively.  Another important thing to note is that this type of container plant production can result in fast drainage that leaves the soil too dry for plants to grow well. One way that this can be approached is to place absorbent materials at the bottom of the gardening container, such as sponges or woodchips, because this facilitates water movement through the plant bed. In fact, this garden has experienced drainage challenges and Lawrence has had to try a variety of techniques to deal with this exact issue. Using a ​Small and Slow Solutions ​approach to issues like this are important so that radical changes are not implemented before knowing if they will work – for example, it would make no sense to take the time to build something like eaves troughs for your garden if all that work goes to waste when the drainage structure does not work. On that note, in the following leg of the tour, we will talk about the last three permaculture design principles.   Transition to next Garden The tenth design principle is to ​Use and Value Diversity​. Biodiversity is the reason that the Earth is as beautiful and vibrant as it is. Biodiversity is all the different types of life in the world, from the five million trillion trillion bacteria on the planet, to the 5,000 mammal species, to the nearly 400,000 plant species, and much, much more. Additionally, human diversity is the different ways that people think, the different ideas and innovations they have, the art people produce, and the cultures around the world, just to name a few things. This design principle suggest that a variety of plants and a variety of perspectives is important to meet the social and ecological requirements of a permaculture garden. The eleventh design principle is to ​Use Edges and Value the Marginal​. In agriculture, a term called the ‘edge effect’ is used to denote the space at the edge of a crop where weeds are more abundant and crops are less productive. In permaculture, this space can be used to grow hardy plants, create a path, or place artwork, like painted stone, so that it becomes a valuable place in the garden. This can also be a location to build a vertical garden or place other types of infrastructure such as drainage or irrigation. The twelfth and final permaculture design principle is to ​Creatively Use and Respond to Change​. This means finding opportunity or the silver lining when a challenge arises, and turning that challenge into a situation that benefits the permaculturalist and the environment. 56 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor   “Can anyone think of an example of how you might respond if your garden started experiencing seasonal drought?” If your garden begins to consistently experience dry climate during the growing season, it may be prudent to add more drought tolerant plants, add water reservoirs and apply efficient irrigation systems such as drip irrigation.     5. Green Street Garden This garden is part of the Green Streets Program in Vancouver, which aims to enhance public spaces by making them more beautiful and healthy. This garden is being re-developed, and is perhaps one of the most interesting of the Village Vancouver permaculture spaces. As mentioned in the introduction to this tour, it is at the core of permaculture theory to design a self-sustaining garden. This means that the most time is spent working on the garden in the initial stages to create a permaculture design that promotes longevity and requires less work as the interactions in the garden develop and the plants begin to produce a yield.  At this location, we will discuss the ways in which this garden can be designed so that everyone can get a sense of how they might design their own permaculture garden at home. We can start with sheet mulching, which is a way of prepping and maintaining the growing environment. Sheet mulching is a permaculture technique in which a substrate material like cardboard, newspaper, straw, woodchips, leaves, grass clippings (which should be weed free), moss, kitchen scraps, gravel/stones, or bark chips is layered over the surface of a garden. These materials retain water, regulate soil temperature, and prevent weed growth. Mulching materials create a physical barrier between sunlight and the soil which reduces evapotranspiration (water leaving the soil as steam) so that water remains available to plant roots in the garden soil. The mulch also absorbs water from rainfall and then releases it back into the soil when the soils become dry through a process known as diffusion.   “Does anyone recall which permaculture design principle this technique might fall under?” Catch and Store Energy​, the second permaculture design principle, drives this technique. The mulch accumulates and retains water during periods of rain, when the water resource is abundant. When there has been a dry-spell, the water will leach out of the mulch into the soil, helping the garden to thrive even when water is scarce.   So how does mulching regulate soil temperature? Essentially, mulching works the same way that a greenhouse does. High intensity energy from the sun passes through the mulch layer into the soil. As the heat travels, it loses energy and the most energy is lost when it enters and interacts with the ground. Some of the energy that reaches the soil is then reflected and attempts to pass back through the top of the soil. However, it has a much lower intensity, also known as long-wave radiation, which does not have enough energy to penetrate through the mulch layer. The energy thus stays in the soil resulting in warming. It is important to note that the mulch barrier also reflects some sunlight as well before it has a chance to reach the soil, 57 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor which means that the temperature below the mulch is not constantly rising, but remains at a relatively stable temperature.  Mulching also acts as a physical barrier to weeds. It prevents weeds from growing by smothering them and not letting enough sunlight or air reach the seeds that are trying to emerge. Mulching can do many other things as well, including providing nutrients as the mulch decomposes and preventing erosion by protecting soils from rain runoff and wind.  So now that mulching is done, what else might we consider when designing this garden? Village Vancouver is considering planting B.C.-native plants in this garden because they will already be adapted to the weather in the area.   “Can anyone think of some plants that are native to B.C. that might go in this garden?” Some plants may include blackberries, bear berries, Oregon grape, fire weed, goldenrod, mustard, miner’s lettuce, thistle, black morel, and oyster mushrooms.   Another significant aspect of beginning a permaculture garden is the people that will interact with it. Village Vancouver may perform a permaculture blitz on in this location to get it started. A permablitz is an attempt to build a permaculture garden in one day using the power of a congregation of community members to share knowledge, plant plants, and have fun. If anyone is interested in joining the Blitz, or any of the other permaculture-related activities that Village Vancouver hosts, you can visit the organization website to find events days and times. Some of the things we have just talked about are the very start to permaculture gardening: the techniques that will be used, the plants that will be grown, and the people who will do it. Of course, more thought can always be put into designing a permaculture refuge by applying some of the techniques we have talked about and will talk more about as the tour continues.     Transition to next Garden So far, all the aspects of permaculture that we have discussed have revolved around humans and plants, but animals are also an integral part of the permaculture movement. There are obvious limits to the animals that can be integrated into a permaculture garden in the city, but in larger permaculture areas, animals can play in integral role in the health of a human-made ecosystem.   “What are some animals that people think could benefit permaculture gardens and why?” Fish, bees, ducks, geese, chickens, rabbits, goats, sheep, pigs, cows, worms and even microorganisms are some of the animals that can be used to improve the functioning of a permaculture space.   The main relationship that occurs from placing animals in a permaculture space is that they consume some aspect of the garden and then produce a natural fertilizer to benefit the growth 58 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor of the remaining plants. This is even true for fish, who can feed off of insects and then whose feces is an excellent source of nutrients.  Although a permaculturalist may ideally want the animals to consume weeds or designated feed plants only, it is likely that these animals will also eat other plants unless they are monitored in some way. There are multiple ways that this situation can be approached, such as containing the animals in a pen, using portable fencing to move them around the garden, choosing to share the garden with the them and planting enough for both humans and animals, planting certain species that the animals will not eat, or limiting the amount of time that the animals can spend in the garden. Obviously fish and worms would be there all of the time.     6. Kitsilano Community Centre Collaborative Garden Although there are no animals in this next garden either, it is still a great place to visit and is the third location on the tour that is run by an organization other than Village Vancouver. This garden is known as the Kitsilano Community Centre Collaborative Garden, and is coordinated by Noah Thrush and run by a group of collaborative gardeners in association with the Community Centre who started the project in 2014. This space received some help from the Village Vancouver group in the planning phase as well as the group Can You Dig It for the implementation phase.  The main permaculture technique implemented in this space is the food forest, which includes many edible or berry producing plants, several herbs, and a variety of plants indigenous to the Pacific Northwest. We discussed food forests in depth in the first garden that we visited, however, this food forest is unique in that there are often extra herbs, berries, and vegetables left over for freezing, which are used by community centre food programs.  Being at a community centre location, it is pertinent to think about how all members of the Kitsilano community and beyond can be welcomed into a permaculture space. It also is important to think about the variety of palates and tastes that might benefit from sustainably sourced food. If you recall earlier in the tour, the tenth permaculture design principle is to ​Use and Value Diversity​, which pertains to both plants and humans. One way to cultivate diversity in a permaculture garden is to grow species from different regions of the world that are used in food from different cultures. It is important when growing non-indigenous plants to think about whether or not they will survive in the climate where they are being grown and also if they pose a risk of becoming an invasive species. With this in mind, a few examples of plants that do well in Vancouver are saffron, which is often used in southern Asian Indian food as a spice, and lima beans which are often used in South American cooking in countries like Chile.  Another way to encourage diversity in community or personal gardens is to host events during cultural celebrations throughout the year. This garden has several quiet spots where people can sit and enjoy the space and these same spaces are perfect for hosting celebrations like Cinco de Mayo, Diwali, Easter, Chinese New Year and many more. 59 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor If anyone feels like getting involved with this garden, the Community Centre is always accepting new gardeners and they also offer gardening and other food related workshops, many of which are provided by Village Vancouver.     Transition to next Garden As we walk to the next garden we will continue to talk about diversity. All the permaculture gardens that we have visited so far are, obviously, located in Canada, but permaculture is being done all over the world.  In Ecuador, there is a permaculture garden near Los Encuentros that functions as a sort of commune where people cultivate plants on the land, turn those plants into meals, and perform handy tasks to keep infrastructure and tools up-and-running. In return, members of the commune have a place to sleep, meals throughout the day, access to hiking, and access to language lessons for non-Spanish speakers. The climate in Los Encuentros is conducive to growing a huge variety of plants, like coconuts, cacao, soursop, jackfruit, babaco, breadfruit, passionfruit and many other plants. The infrastructure on the farm is built with bamboo, toilets are all compostable, and water resources come from a nearby river.  In Vietnam, an example of a permaculture garden can be found along the Mekong Delta. This permaculture space is a family-owned farm that has been running for three generations, and is built around a long series of trenches that serve as a water source. The trenches are filled with life including algae, insects, snails, frogs, and intentionally cultivated catfish, some of which are used as a source of protein for the family farmers. Along the edge of the trenches, a variety of fruit trees grow including rambutan, dragon fruit, sapodilla, papaya, avocado, banana and mango. Underneath the trees, many other plants can be found, including taro, sweet potato, and watercress. These lower-storey plants are protected from the harsh rays of the mid-afternoon Vietnam sun via the dappled shade cast by the fruit trees’ canopies.   “Can anyone identify what type of permaculture technique is being utilized here?”  This is an example of a food forest.   And in fact, this type of agriculture is quite common in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam and is the traditional way of farming, though it is quickly being replaced by rice paddies to support foreign exports. In Sweden, there is a permaculture garden that is actually marketed as a foodie’s paradise. Located on the shores of Lake Halla in the province of Lapland, Sweden, the permaculture space boasts 14 glass and wood cabins made of slow-growing and durable Vaxjo fir that sequester a relatively high amount of carbon. All the food is locally sourced, including some ingredients that are picked up from nearby hunters and fishermen, but the majority of the plants are actually cultivated in the undergrowth of the local forest and then foraged later during harvest. While serving gourmet meals made from local resources, the retreat advertises biodynamic farming techniques and integrated knowledge frameworks due 60 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor to the variety of architects, philosophers, farmers, designers, and other visitors that come from around the world. As you can see, permaculture is happening all over the globe. In some places, like the Mekong Delta, it is the common way of life. In other regions, like Sweden, it replaces the more prevalent monoculture farms. It seems like one of the keys to making permaculture more impactful is making it the accepted norm rather than the exception.     7. VPL Le Village Courtyard Garden at Kits Branch VPL As we arrive at the fourth garden run by a Village Vancouver community partner, we can see how permaculture can be integrated into everyday life and everyday spaces so that it becomes the norm.  This permaculture space is run by Society Le Village on the patio of the Vancouver Public Library (VPL) Kitsilano Branch. This garden began in 2013 when a group of friends were looking to grow organic herbs and vegetables and conveniently, at the same time, VPL–Kitsilano was looking to revamp their patio space. The garden is comprised of 5 sections in the middle of a cement patio where library patrons and volunteers water the garden and use the patio to relax, eat lunch, and read. Anyone enjoying the space is welcome to take herbs and vegetables as needed, with the idea in mind that if you take too much, others cannot enjoy the same resources.  In the vein of making permaculture a norm, public spaces, like libraries, are the perfect place to expose a diverse set of people to the ideas, techniques, and tenets of permaculture in contrast to contemporary agriculture. One view in the field of agriculture is that urban spaces are separate from industrial agriculture spaces, but something different, and complementary, could also be envisioned. Imagine a city where boulevard spaces, public parks, front yards, rooftops, fields, and more all incorporated a permaculture garden into the space. The permaculture gardens could be designed so that there were still open areas to move around and do other activities like sports, walking, or picnicking while simultaneously filling unused space with diverse plants, some of which produce food. The gardens would, of course, need to be tended, but this could be done by local individuals.  This idea may seem quite ambitious, but only because it is not what people in North America are used to seeing. Having permaculture in spaces all around them, would both benefit people with beauty and nutrition, but also raise awareness about the ludicrousness of having most of our food produced in monocultures that are typically hundreds if not thousands of kilometers away. In fact, this can be exemplified by the Beacon Food Forest Permaculture Project in Beacon Hill Seattle, a seven acre permaculture space that combines aspects of native habitat rehabilitation with food provision for surrounding communities.     Transition to next Garden When thinking about gardens, most people think about the above-ground greenery, the flowers, the leaves, and the trees. But for all of those things to start in a garden, we need to 61 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor think about seeds. Village Vancouver and other permaculture initiatives use seed libraries to distribute seeds collected from their gardens, and from other gardeners and local seed companies, to share and exchange seeds in order to increase the diversity of their permaculture spaces. This next garden is the last one run by someone other than Village Vancouver and is located at MLA David Eby's Community Office. This location also gives out free seeds from a Village Vancouver seed library to people stopping by the office.     8. Box in front of David Eby’s Office Seed saving is an important part of permaculture for a variety of reasons, a major one being that you do not need to go out a buy seeds every year if you have saved them from previous seasons!    “Can anyone think of which permaculture principle(s) seed saving may be related to?”  Principle number three: ​Obtain a Yield​ and principle number 6: ​Produce No Waste​ are the first tenets that come to mind. When growing a garden you want to benefit from the things that are produced and that includes seeds. It is also a huge waste to compost seeds which can be used to expand or improve upon the current garden landscape.   Another reason to save seeds is to have more control over the quality of plants that are being put into a permaculture space. If you collect and save your own seeds, you can choose to save from the most productive plants, the plants the produce the best fruits and vegetables, or the plants that have any number of other desirable characteristics. The genetics of those top tier plants are then reintroduced to the garden when the saved seeds are planted, so that over time, you build a more beautiful and productive permaculture space.  Saving seeds is ofttimes easier than you might think. For example, the process for bean seeds is waiting for the bean pods to ripen on the plant until they dry and turn brown, with the seeds rattling inside, after which they can be collected from the pods. Alternatively, with lettuce, the best practice is to cut the whole plant when the seed head is at its fluffiest, then upend the plant in a dry bucket for approximately a week before cleaning the chaff from the seeds. For tomatoes, the best practice is to keep seeds and pulp in a glass jar until it is fermented – has froth on top, and then wash the seeds away from the pulp and dry in open air before storing in a paper bag. Be sure to save seeds from Open Pollinated varieties (look for an OP on seed packets) and not from hybrid varieties (look for an F1 on seed packets), otherwise you might find that you're growing some pretty weird (and not very good tasting) plants! As you can see, there are intricacies to seed saving that may seem daunting, however, it is also a lot of fun to do and there are many blogs out there that can assist you. For more professional experience with seed saving, Village Vancouver offers seed saving workshops, usually in the summer and early fall, which can be found on their website, and is a great place to start for anyone who wants to give this sustainable practice a go.   62 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor   Transition to next Garden As you have come to see, the Permaculture Movement is about addressing the ecological and social issues surrounding unequitable and undemocratic practices that over exploit resources resulting in soil loss, desertification, deforestation, pollution, ecosystem destruction, and extinction alongside global warming. Let’s investigate how permaculture is or could be applied to real world events.   This is not dialogue for the script, but instructions for what to do during the transition:​ In this space, we suggest that the conversation on climate change, permaculture, and food security be started by discussing a news article, like this recent one on the Australian bushfires: https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/12/australia/australia-extreme-climate-bushfire-intl-hnk/index.html​. This article should be updated accordingly to match any recent topics of interest. Any article that the tour leader has read recently pertaining to permaculture and associated issues can be used here to start a discussion on the importance of permaculture from the tour members’ perspectives. Some questions to start/continue the dialogue may include:   “Has anyone themselves experienced the impacts of climate change, in Canada or elsewhere?”   “Are there any foods you eat in the grocery store now that you think might not be available anymore as climate change progresses?”   “Do you think food will get more expensive as climate change progresses?”   “Do you think there is a way to produce more food in the city?”   “Do you think there is a way to produce food in urban spaces on institutional scales?”)     For the script recording,  the dialogue will be as follows:​ there are many ways that humans immortalize important aspects of life so that they can be remembered in perpetuity. One of the best ways of doing so is with art and stories. For this leg of the permaculture tour, we suggest that you listen to the poem ​Rise: From One Island to Another​ on Youtube as you walk to the next garden. This poem was written by Kathy Jetnl-Kijiner from the Marshall Islands and Aka Niviana from Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland) - two Indigenous women who connect the realities of rising sea levels and melting glaciers.     9. McBride Park Field House The McBride Park Field House may not have a huge permaculture garden, in fact, it is quite small, but it is also the perfect place to show that permaculture can come in any size, from a 63 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor single pot to a farmer’s field. The work that Village Vancouver does is largely on a variety of individual to community sized gardens with different foci, plants, and permaculture techniques, but permaculture is also possible on scales large enough to feed entire populations.  In industrial agriculture, the main reason that pesticides and monocultures are used is that it is the easiest thing to do for the types of equipment and methods employed by contemporary, large-scale food production. However, some of the main pesticides used in agriculture today, like glyphosate (commonly known as Roundup), are beginning to become ineffective at getting rid of weeds because the weeds have evolved to resist the chemicals. There are many research projects that are aiming to find a solution for this problem, and people are beginning to realize that biocontrol measures, like companion planting or insect predators, and mechanical measures, like hand digging weeds, may be necessary. This is concerning to the agriculture sector because those methods require a lot more work than is currently being allocated to farming. Permaculture, however, provides a solution to this issue. To talk about the ways that permaculture can work at large-scales we can look towards an example of what a permaculture farm may look like. In this example, the permaculture farm is designed as a set of concentric circles, like a target, with each ring of the target supporting different types of growth. At the centre of the garden, there is a farmhouse or other type of farming building that a farmer/farming community can operate out of. The most high maintenance sections of the permaculture farm will be placed in the area closest to the centre because they need to be accessed the most frequently and the lower maintenance plants are grown the furthest from the building. The aspects of the farm closest to the centre would include annual flowers, fruits, and vegetables as well as herbs that require regular harvesting. These plants need to be picked, watered, or fertilized on a regular basis and so they need to be easily accessible to the permaculture farmers at the centre, or might also used in daily activities such as cooking. The area one step further away from the centre of the farm would include perennial plants that also need to be harvested, but are picked less frequently or require less hands on care. The next furthest circle would be a grazing area for any animals incorporated into the farm. This would mostly be covered with grasses, but may also have some shrubs or herbaceous plants that are suitable for animal feed. Beyond this, an area would be designated for an orchard, including fruiting trees, like apples or pears, but also fruiting shrubs, like blackberries and raspberries. The layer furthest from the centre of the farm would be larger arboreal species, which could be trees or a hedgerow that act as a natural border for the entire permaculture farm. Within different areas of the farm, there may also be ponds, marshes, or other aquatic features that support fish, aquatic plants, and provide a source of irrigation for the farm as a whole.     Transition to next Garden In the introduction, we mentioned that over exploitation and associated political-economic structures that propagate inequality affects water availability as much as it does food 64 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor sovereignty, but we have not talked in much detail about the ways in which permaculture can address issues of water shortages.  There are many techniques that can be employed in a permaculture space to catch and store water that would typically run off into areas inaccessible to most plants. One of the ways that this can be done is with swales. A swale is a trench dug in the soil of a permaculture garden that guides runoff from the soil surface to deeper soil layers so that it becomes accessible to plant roots. A swale will also hold excess water that is not absorbed by the soil during rainfall so that it can continue to nourish plants over a longer period of time than is possible with typical soil water retention.   “Can anyone think of which permaculture principle this might be related to?”  Swales fall under the ​Catch and Store Energy ​permaculture design principle. Since swales are typically dug into higher ground and distribute water downhill using gravity, swales are capturing the energy of natural water movement so that pumping mechanisms and other sources of powered irrigation are not required.    Another option is a rain barrel. A rain barrel can either passively collect rain, by sitting outside during a storm or actively collect rain using a gutter system to funnel additional water into the barrel, just like the gutters of a house. Multiple rain barrels can store vast amounts of water so that there is enough to support plants during drought.  A Keyline design is a method that creates an artificial stream through a permaculture space. Following the natural topographic grooves of an area, a permaculturalist can enhance these depressions to store more water by making them deeper and channel them throughout the garden so that water flow is in close proximity to as many plants as possible.  The Vallerani System is particularly useful in drought prone areas or in areas where desertification has occurred from over-grazing. This system employs a vertical structure for water storage that allows water to penetrate deep into dry soils while simultaneously breaking up compact soil through the process of digging the system. The structure resembles a vertical tube with soccer ball sized water storing spaces placed at appropriate distances along its length  so that water becomes accessible to plants with different root structures. The final technique that we will discuss employs the ​Use Edges​ ​and Value the Marginal​ permaculture design technique. This method is to create a moat around a permaculture space, which acts as a physical barrier to weeds and some other pests, but also provides a source of irrigation that can be brought from the edge of the space into the centre. All of the techniques that we have discussed are ways of collecting and storing water, but this water also has to get to all the plants in the garden. One of the best methods of doing this is with drip irrigation. A drip irrigation system slowly feeds water to plants from above or beneath the soil surface, drop-by-drop. Often, this takes the form of a hose with small holes punctured through it that control the rate of water flow to specific locations in a garden. Drip irrigation uses 30-50% less water than most water-allocation systems and supports constant water content. A constant source of water improves plant growth because the plants do not 65 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor need to go through physiological changes like opening and closing stomata, which are pores that allow water to exit a plant body, as the environment fluctuates between wet and dry.   “Does anyone know of any other water harvesting techniques?” There are probably many other innovative ways to harvest water at home and in gardens. If anyone knows some more techniques they can implement them in their own spaces and hopefully share them with community members.   The water-related topics that we have discussed are largely separate from the plants grown around them, but there are also systems that conserve water, grow plants, and support aquatic animals all at once. Aquaponics is an aquatic system that grows plants in symbiosis with fish and results in a self-sustaining ecosystem where fish feces provide nutrients to plants and plants filter the water for fish. This permaculture technique has a body of water, like a pond or stream, where plants float directly on or are held suspended above the water surface so that the roots dangle in. Fish feces are full of nutrients that are great for plants, but can actually cause fish to become oxygen-deficient if they are swimming in it. When fish poop in an aquaponics pond, that material remains in the system until it is filtered out by the plant roots above the water. The plants take up water to hydrate themselves and simultaneously uptake particles of fish feces. Plants need these nutrients to survive so not only are they removing them from the pond, but they are also accumulating molecules that help them grow. New, clean water is placed back in the system, from rain or a water reservoir,  and creates a healthy environment for fish to grow. In this system, both plants and fish thrive.   10.​  ​Aberthau Permaculture Garden The Aberthau Permaculture Garden is one of the most developed of the Village Vancouver spaces and in this last location on the tour, we are going to talk about a few permaculture techniques that are present in this garden.  One permaculture technique that is particularly relevant to urban gardening is the vertical garden. This technique allows you to grow upwards rather than outwards and thus conserves space that would otherwise be occupied by plants. It is important to note that this is essentially a container garden, so plants have limited root volume because depth is hindered by the support structure, and they also require more frequent watering because the majority of moisture is close to the soil surface. In order to address the moisture issue, the material used for the vertical garden pockets is non-permeable and therefore retains soil moisture. Note that the plants in the top part of the vertical garden are less accessible for watering and maintenance and it is therefore a good idea to select low-maintenance plants for the top pockets.  Another common permaculture technique that is used in this garden is hügelkultur. Hügelkultur is the process of gardening on a mound or ridge of soil covering woody debris, such as branches, logs, leaves, and twigs. This process works similarly to mulching in terms of water retention: the wood under the mound absorbs excess moisture during rainfall and 66 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor then releases it into the surrounding soil through the process of diffusion as the surrounding soil becomes drier than the central wood. This technique also mimics the process of nutrient cycling found in natural woodland systems: typically, detritus from trees and shrubs falls to the ground in natural systems and is decomposed over time by microbes, fungi, and animals like worms. This same decomposition process takes place in a Hügelkultur mound, but is more concentrated to specific locations in the garden than in a natural system. Although a wide variety of plants can be placed on a hügelkultur mound, it is best to plant species that have high water and nutrient requirements, like squashes, cucumbers, potatoes, and beans, because they will benefit the most, especially if hügelkultur space is limited. In this garden, you can see a partial Hügelkultur, where there is wood under the ground, but a mound was not formed.  This garden also contains a herb spiral. A herb spiral is another type of mounded gardening technique that creates microclimates in different locations on the mound that benefits different types of herbs. The slopes of the herb spiral face all directions, but the south-facing slope will be hotter than the north-facing slope and the east-facing slope will be drier than the west-facing slope since it is exposed to morning sun. Over the entirety of the spiral, the bottom of the mound is wetter than the top because water runs down the slopes and collects in the crevice between the mound and flat soil. Based on these microclimates we plant species that will thrive under the different available conditions. Oregano, rosemary, and thyme thrive in hot dry climates and thus are located at the top and south of the spiral. Parsley and chives prefer cooler and damp climate and are best situated mid-way down the north facing slope. Plants that enjoy sunny, but moderate temperatures, like sage, lavender, and basil, can go on the west-facing slope where there is a lot of afternoon sun and at the very bottom of the spiral are the plants that like cooler, shady, and wet climes such as cilantro and dill. Using this gardening technique ensures that each herb can be planted in its most ideal environment within the garden As you can see, in addition to a variety of permaculture techniques, this garden also contains a wide variety of plant species,  including some plants used in dyeing fabric. Future plans for the garden include installing a woven willow fence on one side of the garden, and making flags utilizing dyes from plants in the garden and flying them from the top of the vertical garden.   “Can anyone identify some of the species in this garden?”   “Which ones might you plant in your own permaculture garden after this tour is over?”     Conclusion We are going to end this tour with a call to action. Village Vancouver is a Transition Society, which in a broad definition is a group of people that create locally initiated opportunities for re-imagining life in neighbourhoods and communities in order to help solve large-scale issues like climate change, peaking resources, and social inequality. Transition societies operate at a 67 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor variety of spatial scales, from individual to societal, and there are different opportunities for action at each of these levels. An individual that creates their own garden is promoting societal change by choosing to produce their own food in an ecologically and socially mindful way. An organization like ours, that promotes change towards more sustainable food systems can also influence industrial scale food production if we can show that there is support, desire, and ability to produce food for everyone in a way that protects human and environmental interests. The permaculture movement can also be thought of in terms of the way it relates to a changing world. Those that champion the permaculture movement may see it as a way to create change before we encounter more irreversible impacts from anthropogenic activities. On the other hand, it can also be seen as a movement that imparts knowledge and skills upon people who may have to deal with the fallout of collapsed food production and dissemination systems as resource extraction and resulting global destabilization continue. The most important message, however, is that something definitely needs to be done, regardless of the ways in which Transition operates, permaculture is a great way for people to engage in both the social and environmental justice aspects of a changing world.     We are always looking for people interested in working in permaculture gardens throughout the corridor, no matter the level of gardening experience. In fact, this three year project is looking to develop more permaculture sites in the community with funding provided by the Greenest City Grant from the City of Vancouver. If you want to become connected with Village Vancouver, you can find events and information at​ ​www.villagevancouver.ca​.   Thank you everyone for coming out and participating!   Traditional Chinese Version: Introduction to the Walking Tour and Permaculture 引言  在開始樸門走廊花園之旅之前,我們必須承認,我們處於原住民Coast Salish peoples的傳統,祖傳和未割讓的領土上, 這包括Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish)、 Stó:lō,Səl̓ílwətaʔ/Selilwitulh (Tsleil-Waututh) 同xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam)等部落。他們一直通過維持一種可持續的人與自然的關係,用這片土地維持生計和開展文化活動。  地質學家根據不同時期的主要物種和它們所處的位置推測出了地球歷史上的各個時期,例如寒武紀、侏羅紀、白堊紀和石炭紀。如今,許多科學家已將當前時代稱為為“人類世(Anthropocene)”,意思是這個時代,人類是推動地球變化主要驅動力,並帶來了包括礦物開採,城市化,土壤流失,生態系統破壞,物種大規模滅絕,以及人為造成的全球變暖等一系列影響。這些影響在許多層面上威脅著人與自然系統的關係:其中一些是生物物理的,如水過濾、植物授粉和食物供應,而另一些則是無形的文化服務,如美學上或娛樂方面。它們都隨著全球氣溫上升受到影響,並將不再以同樣的方式發揮作用。人們所依賴的生態系統崩潰會對人68 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 類生活同福祉有重大影響,特別是在淡水供應和食品安全方面。這對於以生態意識方式生產概健康且又符合文化要求的產生了嚴重的影響。   在1970年代,David Holmgren大衛.洪葛蘭和Bill Mollison比爾.莫利森開始倡導永久農業同和永久文化的理念,即永續栽培或樸門。他們當時發展的概念是人類在這幾十年嚴重破壞他們賴以生存的環境的回應。樸門是一種可持續、具有社會意識的園藝、農業和設計方法,它通過模仿自然生態系統,採用技術以提高花園社區的可持續性和彈性。他的原則為當代因過度開採而導致的問題提供潜在的解决方案,從而解決粮食安全問題和恢復社區發展。我們將會通過遊覽溫哥華西區樸門花園去討論樸門其中的一些原則和技術。   樸門運動建立於三個核心道德規範之上:Earth Care關懷地球、People Care照顧人類和Fair Share公平分享,並指導著我們稍候討論的12項設計原則。   “人們認為關懷地球、照顧人類和公平分享的意義是什麼呢?” 這些倫理表明,樸門運動不單止關乎生態解決方案,亦同時關乎社會參與等環境正義。   這次溫哥華西區樸門之旅是由VillageVancouver溫哥華村組織,為社區提供一個機會透過樸門建立更好的社會和生態環境。溫哥華村是一個轉型社會,即是指它將大家聚集一起重新想象和重建我們的世界。其中一個方式是通過樸門,提出一個實踐和倫理框架,去擺脫破壞性農業。這個組織舉辦著各種活動,其中許多係圍繞食品,例如種子保存研討會、垂直園藝工作坊、美食節、建立種子庫、和樸門花園相關的義工活動。這些活動的資料和日程都能在溫哥華村網站www.villagevancouver.ca找到。溫哥華村不論經驗,歡迎新園丁和義工加入。現在就讓我們參觀這個旅程的第一個花園。     A - Front Yard Food Forest 前院食物森林   我們現在身處的地方曾經是溫帶雨林,養育著針葉樹,楓樹,榿木和沼澤地。這個樹林主要由花旗松,西部紅柏和西部鐵杉等卑詩沿岸最大的樹種組成 。實際上,人們認為在曾經的Gastown位置可以找到溫哥華原始樹林中最大的樹種。雖然大樹已經消失,但我們仍然可以在溫哥華找到不同的樹林例如在這個花園裏的Food Forest食物森林。   『當您想象大自然森林時,會想到什麼?』 大自然森林其中一個特點就是它不用人類也能繁衍生息 ! 這意味著它們能透過植物,真菌以及土壤棲居昆蟲和微生物之間的相互作用和關係而得以自我維持。   『樹林的最頂層是canopy樹冠,大家還知道樹林的其他層嗎?』 樹冠層下方是較小的樹木,灌木,草本植物,地被植物,塊莖植物和攀緣植物。每一層都在森林裡發揮出重要的作用。例如構成樹冠層的大樹樹根能延伸到地下水庫吸收水分並與淺根植物分享。地面覆蓋層中的植物則是腐爛的葉子和其他碎屑,為樹林提供了養分。在地面下,塊莖植物如胡蘿蔔或土豆能與分解土壤以便其他植物能夠結果並生長。   如果你還記得之前提過的地質年代,樹木是在4億年前的石炭紀演化而產生的。它已經用了很長的時間去完成樹林設計,因此,毫無疑問,天然樹林是不需要除草,殺蟲劑,灌溉等人類技術去成長。 69 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor   就如其他大自然森林,這個食物森林有著不同層,只是這裡的重點是多年生食用植物。這裏模仿了大自然森林生長的模式,從多層結構中獲得相同的收益。在這個花園中,玉蘭樹和無花果樹組成了樹冠層,而灌木層則包括藍莓,藍靛果,醋栗和聚合草,草本植物包括薰衣草和紫錐花/紫錐菊/松果菊,地被植物包括草莓,以及由奇異果組成的攀緣植物。就像天然樹林,這裡的植物甚至pollinators傳粉者和我們人類都彼此受益。   而重點當然是養育著美味的果實給我們吃。     Transition to next Garden 過渡到下一個花園   「如果你想建立你的食物森林,你會想種植什麼呢? 這些植物會在哪一層呢?」     B - Kits Village Collaborative Garden/Billy Bishop Legion Hall   樸門是以12條設計原則為基礎,其中一個就是Integrate群落整合。它的重點就是利用並重視植物,動物和人類怎麼互相合作,即是共生。這個Kits Village Collaborative花園正正在各方面將群落整合這個原則具體化。   首先這個花園是由Village Vancouver和Billy Bishop Legion Hall 合作而建成。要不是有Village Vancouver 提供樸門永續設計的相關資訊,還有和Billy Bishop Legion Hall對花園的照料,這個花園才不能發展長達10年。   第二就是這個花園裏的共生植物。這個花園用了一種叫“伴植”的栽種技巧來提高植物的健康和產量。這種栽種方法利用某幾種植物的特性去驅除害蟲,也可以為植物在抵禦惡劣天氣中提供保護。這個花園裏共中一些共生植物就是薄荷和羽衣甘藍。薄荷會產生一種稱為薄荷醇的揮發性有機化合物去驅除蚊子,蒼蠅,蚜蟲和螞蟻等害蟲。雖然有些植物在收到威脅時才會產生揮發性有機化合物,但薄荷在任何時候都會產生薄荷醇。而且在十字花科的植物中,例如羽衣甘藍會檢測到薄荷產生的薄荷醇並以為受到威脅而產生防禦反應去驅除害蟲。比起使用對環境有害的毒性殺蟲劑,共生植物如薄荷可以用作天然的殺蟲劑,同時又可以為花園帶來更高的產量。   植物和授粉昆蟲的共生關係也能體現到​Integrate群落整合​這個樸門設計原則。這個花園裏栽種著藍莓樹、覆盆子樹,櫻桃樹,梨樹,蘋果樹和刺苞菜薊等吸引授粉昆蟲的植物。蜜蜂或其他授粉昆蟲採集花蜜同時會在雌性和雄性植物之間傳播花粉,為授粉昆蟲提供食物同時也使植物結果並在在不同的季節都繼續茂盛成長。   『有誰知道除了蜜蜂以外還有什麼授粉昆蟲嗎?』  其他授粉昆蟲有烏蠅、飛蛾、蝴蝶和蚊子等等。   這個花園的另一個設計重點就是不同植物都有它們的開花季節。蘋果樹會先開花,然後是藍莓樹,接著是覆盆子樹。這裏的植物都有不同的開花季節就是意味著整個春季到夏季都能為授粉昆蟲提供花蜜。這樣的話授粉昆蟲就能在整個開發季節為各種植物傳播花粉。   70 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 在此可見,樸門設計原則例如​Integrate群落整合​可以從不同方面運用在花園裏。在規劃和種植樸門花園時,必須考慮到這個空間為人類及其周圍環境帶來的好處。當我們走到下一個花園時,我們可以繼續談其他樸門設計原則以及它們怎麼運用在在花園環境中。隨著遊覽,我們會繼續講解樸門所有的12個設計原則。     Transition to next Garden   第一個樸門設計原則是​Observe and Interact觀察並與之互動​。這個原則是用作提醒我們要設計一個適合您所處環境的花園。例如,在平地上和在斜坡上的花園應有不同設計方式。該原則也提醒人們在建立一個功能齊全,獨特且豐富的永續耕種空間是會有不同的觀點,優先事項和偏好。 實際上,許多樸門設計師建議先花一整年的時間去觀察整個空間,以了解每日,每月和季節性的循環以及相關的日照,水循環,風和溫度等變化。   第二個樸門設計原則是​Catch and Store Energy捕捉並儲存能量​。這意味著一個樸門花園應在資源豐富時充分利用資源,以便可以在需要時使用。例如在收穫期採摘水果和蔬菜,,然後將其裝在罐頭以便在冬天使用,,然後將其裝在罐頭以便在冬天使用或使用如雨桶的儲水系統在暴雨期間收集水,然後在乾旱期間使用儲存的水。   第三個樸門設計原則是​Obtain a Yield獲取邊際效益​。該原則基本上是說,人類有意願去做他們可能不想做的事情,但是如果他們也得到諸如食物和鮮花之類的獎勵,那麼他們更願意完成如建造並樸門花園的任務。   第四個樸門設計原則是​Self-Regulate and Accept Feedback自我規範並接納回饋​。   『有誰知道這項原則的意思是什麼嗎?』 這個原則有很多個解釋;其中一個解釋是運用不同人的知識來改善樸門花園,但是它也可以是參考自然界中一些不太明顯的模式。在大自然裡有不同的回饋 :負回饋能抵消效果而正回饋則能放大效果。 一個常見的負回饋是,當我們感到熱時會通過出汗降溫。另外正回饋的一個例子是全球暖化導致兩極的冰融化:冰通常會將太陽輻射反射回太空,因此當冰融化時,更多的太陽輻射會到達地球表面,從而導致變暖。大家可以注意一下花園中的負回饋和正回饋並好好在花園裡讓它們。   第五個樸門設計原則是​Use and Value Renewables對可重複運用資源的善用與增值​。這個原則主要區別了樸門和典型農業。它提醒我們地球上的某些資源是有限的,而樸門花園亦有在我們使用豐富且無法消耗的資源時才能真正實現可持續發展。   在工業農業中,不可再生資源的例子就是使用汽油和其他石油產品的機器。   『有什麼設備是拖拉機的更環保的替代品呢?』 其中一種可再生替代品就是零排放拖拉機設備。最近在可持續工業農業機械的新發展讓農民無需化石燃料的農業設備。例如,New Holland Agriculture研發了一種由可再生生物甲烷來源的氫氣驅動的燃料電池。   第六個樸門設計原則是​Produce No Waste無廢料的生產​。花園裏很多所謂的廢物都是可以重新利用的,例如植物剪枝可用作肥料,枯萎的樹枝可以用來做籬笆 71 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor   在稍後的遊覽中,我們會逐一講解其餘六個樸門設計原則。     C- Apartment Building Blvd. Garden   下一個花園,被稱為公寓樓大道花園,是這個導覽裏第一個不是由Village Vancouver溫哥華村組織的花園。這趟旅程中還有另外四個花園是由其他團體組織或個人的建立和管轄的。他們都與溫哥華村保持著友好的合作關係,我們也以各種方式與他們合作。   『在我們到目前為止討論過的樸門原則方案中,哪些樸門原則體現了當地花園為實現可持續性和社區恢復力所展示的關係呢?』 與這個共生網絡相關的原則是​Observe and Interact 觀察並與之互動​,和​Self-Regulate and Accept Feedback自我規範並接納回饋​。這些原則涉及到這樣一個事實,即溫西的樸門走廊花園可以相互受益,例如,分享想法和見解,分享植物和種子,合作舉辦年度有機園藝開放日,並有可能在走廊上創建新的花園。   現在,我們正站在一個住房合作公寓前,這是大道花園所在的地方。這個空間創建於2012年,並逐年擴大和發展。花園的創始人和協調人Lawrence認為,到2019年收穫季節,樸門花園已經“完全實現了”。   坐落在林蔭大道上,這個花園對公眾是高度可見的,因此該空間的重點是創造出各種美觀的植物,例如將鮮花與獨自生長時被認為沒有吸引力的可食用植物放在一起。   這裡有各種各樣的植物,是談論一年生植物和多年生植物的最佳時機。   『有人知道一年生植物和多年生植物的區別嗎?”』 一年生植物在一個生長季節內完成從萌芽到製種的整個生命週期,然後死亡。有些一年生植物是自我延續的,也就是它們自己播種,這意味著它們把種子撒到土壤裡,這樣同類的新植物就能在沒有人類干預的情況下在下一個生長季節生長。然而,有些一年生植物是不育的或不自播的,這意味著它們死後不會再長出新的植物。對於這些一年生植物,包括大多數蔬菜,是需要重新種植。   或者,多年生植物是指任何壽命超過兩年的植物。通俗來說,人們通常用“多年生植物”這個詞來指代那些活了五年或以上的植物。與一年生植物不同,多年生植物不一定每年都有種子;例如,士多啤梨能每年產生種子,但龍舌蘭等植物則每100年才產生種子。   當代全球農業生產著約80%的年度糧食農作物,但在自然界中,近90%的植物是多年生植物。正如導言中提到的,樸門試圖模仿植物生長的自然模式,因此樸門花園包含了高比例的多年生植物。這也在照料花園的工作量中起作用,因為一般來說,多年生植物一旦種植好就會比一年生植物需要更少的照料。   雖然多年生植物是樸門花園的特徵,但一年生植物也可以,在一個產量豐厚和有用的空間中扮演重要的角色。第三個永續農業原則​Obtain a Yield獲取邊際效益表明​,如果花園很漂亮,並為人類提供食物,那麼人類的花園管理員會願意做得更好。一年生植物可以幫助創造這種理想的環境,特別是在多年生植物尚未成熟的花園的早期,這種設計可以在大多數的樸門72 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 花園中找到。歸根結底,關鍵的考慮因素之一其實你的個人喜好-你喜歡吃什麼,喜歡種植什麼?   在討論樸門農業設計中使用一年生和多年生植物時,要知道屬於這些類別的植物有不同的需求是很重要的。例如,一年生植物的根往往較淺,這意味著它們需要更頻繁地澆水,因為水很快就會滲入更深的土壤。同樣的事情也發生在營養物上,這些營養物通常深埋在花園基質中。當設計一個樸門花園時,重要的是要考慮在花園的什麼地方放置植物,這樣它們就或多或少取決於它們的護理水平。一年生植物很適合種植在永久農業花園的邊緣,因為它們很容易栽種,但也可以為空間創造一個充滿活力的美觀外貌。當我們在下一個花園討論第十一個樸門原則時請記住這一點。   『在我們離開這裏之前,有人注意到這裡生長的果樹與前兩個花園有什麼不同嗎?』 大街上的空間被認為是溫哥華市的財產,並要符合市政法規,這個空間裡的樹必須放在花盆裡。這似乎是一個限制了在花園裡可以完成什麼,但正如你所看到的,只要有創意就能培養想要的植物。     Transition to next Garden   現在就讓我們讓我們回到樸門設計原則的話題和它們對花園的意義。第七個設計原則是​Design from Pattern to Detail從設計模式到細節規劃​。食物森林就是這一原則的一個驚人的例子:一個自然的模式被觀察到,然後復製到永久培養花園中。自然模式已經進化了數千年,因此代表了多年的嘗試和錯誤,以找到一些自然問題的最佳解決方案。   第八個設計原則是​Integrate群落整合​,這個我們在Billy Bishop花園詳細討論過。   第九個設計原則是​Use Small and Slow Solutions採取小而慢的解决方案​。這一原則背後的主要信息是,處理一個巨大的問題可能是艱鉅的,當人們變得不知所措,有大量的工作要做很容易導致失敗。然而,如果你通過設定小目標來解決問題,那麼在產生結果方面會更有效。例如,當你開始自己的花園時,沒有必要在一個季節裡設計和實施一個功能齊全的樸門花園。建立一個在人和植物之間建立適當的關係的空間是需要時間的。如果你的目標是開始建立你自己的花園,在經過一段時間觀察空間的以獲得更好的理解之後,第一步可能是找到其他想要和你一起打理花園的人。第二步是根據園藝組的需要,選擇將種植在花園裡的植物。接下來,你可能會想出一個計劃,關於這些植物將如何定位,考慮同伴植物,垂直分層,他們是否喜歡陽光或樹蔭,等等。另一個步驟可能是決定花園的非植物成分,比如一個雨桶或籬笆。考慮這些因素將有助於您實現擁有一個充分發揮作用和富有成效的永久農業空間的目標。   『有人知道自己想在哪里建立一个樸門花園嗎?”和誰?』     D – Square Foot Gardening at Kits Neighbourhood House Rooftop Garden   下一個花園中看到的小空間與大道花園有著相同的管理人,但這裏早了四年開始。在這個被稱為WestsideCollaborative Garden西邊合辦花園的空間的第一次迭代中,溫哥華村與其他四到五個團體一起在花園扮演了創建者的角色——再次證明了一個強大的社會網絡對創建73 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 永久農業空間是多麼有益和重要。最終,Kits Neighbourhood House的主要建築翻新把花園移到屋頂,在那裡,我們之前提到過的Lawrence負責著一平方英尺的花園盒子。   另一件需要注意的重點是,這種容器可能導致快速排水,令土壤過於乾燥,以致植物無法生長。一種解決方法是將吸收性材料比如海綿或木片放在園藝容器的底部,因為這樣可以促進水分通過植物床流動。事實上,這個花園已經經歷了排水的挑戰而Lawrence不得不嘗試各種各樣的技術來處理這個問題。   使用一個小和緩慢的解決方案處理這種問題是很重要的,這樣在知道方法可行前就不會採取激進的改變——例如,才知道排水結構不可行前建造類似簷槽的設施是毫無意義的。關於這一點,我們將在接下來的參觀中討論最後三個樸門設計原則。     Transition to next Garden   第十個樸門設計原則是​Use and Value Diversity多樣性的運用與加值​。生物多樣性是地球既美麗又充滿活力的原因。生物多樣性是指地球上有著不同類型的生命,從5五萬億兆細菌,五千多個哺乳動物物種,到四十萬種植物等等。此外,人類多樣性是人們有著不同的思考方式,理念,創意。這個設計原則表明,多種植物和多角度思考對於滿足樸門花園對社會和生態的要求是非常重要。   第十一個樸門設計原則是​Use Edges and Value the Marginal運用邊界;從交界處找到價值​。在農業學裏,‘edge effect’邊緣效應是指花園或農場裏雜草較豐富而農作物生產力較低的邊緣空間。在樸門設計裏,這些空間可以總值比較強壯的植物創建路徑或用作藝術創作,令這些空間變得有價值。這些空間也可以建造垂直花園或放置其他類型的基礎設施,例如排水或灌溉的設備。   第十二個樸門設計原則是​Creatively Use and Respond to Change創造性運用並對外界變遷有所回應​。這是指展望可能性,並採有效率涉入方式,遇到困難時可以將這些情況轉變成對樸門和環境有利的條件。   『有沒有人能想出一個例子,如果你的花園開始經歷季節性乾旱,你會如何應對?』 如果您的花園在生長期時持續經歷乾燥氣候,增加更多的耐旱植物,增加水庫並應用有效的灌溉系統,例如滴灌,可能是明智的選擇。     E - Green Street Garden   這個花園是溫哥華綠色街道計劃Green Streets Program的一部分,該計劃旨在活化公共空間。雖然這個花園還在開發階段,但這裡可能最能讓大家體驗到樸門永續設計的意義。就如之前提及過,樸門其中一個重點就是設計一個可以自給自足的花園。這就意味著在此階段花比較多的時間和耐心去設計一個樸門花園,就可以讓這裡以少量的人力物力去長久地維持著一個植物間能自給自足,互相合作的花園。   我們會在這個花園講解一些樸門永續設計的技巧,讓大家可應用在家裡的花園,試做一下樸門花園。我們先從厚土種植法吧!厚土種植法是樸門永續設計技巧的一種,它是利用報74 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 紙、紙板廚餘、、樹葉、碎石或樹皮屑等基質材料層疊而成。這些材料可以保持土壤濕潤,調節土壤溫度,又能防止雜草生長。有了它就不用擔心土壤貧瘠而不能栽種花草。   『有人知道這個種植技巧和哪個樸門的設計原則有關?』 這個厚土種植法和套用了​Catch and Store Energy 捕捉並儲存能量​,即是待能量富餘時採收這個樸門永續設計的原則。那些疊層可以在雨水充足時儲存水份,並在乾旱時,水分會從疊層浸到土壤中,讓花園蓬勃發展。   這些疊層如何調節溫度呢 ?本質上,厚土種植法的作用與溫室相同。某些通過大氣層而減弱的熱能會被土壤吸收並反射回地面。然而,這些已經減弱的長波輻射沒有足夠的能量穿透疊層,讓能量留在土壤中,維持土壤溫度。這些疊層還可以反射陽光,而讓土壤維持溫度同時溫度不會持續升高。   厚土種植法同時可以防止雜草生長。疊層下低氧和陽光的環境不利於雜草的生長。它也可以在分解時提供營養,並防止土壤受雨水和風的侵蝕。   除了厚土種植法,我們在設計這個花園時還有什麼應該考慮呢?Village Vancouver溫哥華村打算種植本土植物,因為它們已經適應了這類的天氣。   『誰能想出一些原產於卑詩省的植物可以種在這個花園裡嗎?』 卑詩的本土植物包括黑莓,熊莓,俄勒岡州葡萄,雜草,菊科植物,芥末,礦工生菜,薊,黑羊肚菌和杏鲍菇。   這個樸門花園的另一個重點就是讓人們可以活動。溫哥華村 可能會在這裡進行突擊活動,利用社區成員的力量透過樸門花園共享知識,種植植物並獲得樂趣。 如果有人有興趣參加任何溫哥華村舉辦與永續文化有關的活動,則可以訪問組織的網站去搜尋日期和時間。   我們剛才談到的一些事情只是樸門的開始。當然,通過應用一些我們已經提過的技術,讓我們想更多不同的方法去應用樸門設計。     Transition to next Garden   我們之前都只是圍繞著人類和植物去講解樸門,但動物也是不能忽視的部分。雖然動物在應用樸門設計上有明顯的限制,但動物可以在較大的地區為人造生態系統發揮不可或缺的作用。   『人們認為哪些動物可以使永久農業花園受益?為什麼?』  魚、蜜蜂、鴨子、鵝、雞、兔子、山羊、綿羊、豬、牛、蠕蟲,甚至微生物都是可以用來改善樸門空間功能的動物。   有什麼動物可以為樸門花園提供好處呢?魚,蜜蜂,鴨,鵝,雞,兔,山羊,綿羊,豬,牛,蟲甚至微生物都可以改善樸門耕種空間。動物可以在消耗一些樸門耕種的產物同時提供天然肥料,以使其餘植物的生長受益。甚至魚能在捕食昆蟲同時其糞便也是不錯的肥料。   75 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 雖然樸門文化主義者會想動物只食用雜草或者指定的植物,但在沒有控制的情況下這些動物都會吃其他植物。我們可以採用多種方法來解決這種情況,例如將動物圍在欄中,使用便攜式圍欄在花園中移動,種植某些動物不會吃的物種 ,或限制動物在花園的時間。     F - Kitsilano Community Centre Collaborative Garden   雖然這個花園裡也沒有動物,但它仍然是一個值得參觀的好地方,而且是樸門之旅中第三個由Village Vancouver溫哥華村以外的組織管理的地方。這個花園被稱為Kitsilano基斯蘭奴社區中心合辦花園,由Noah Thrush負責協調,並由一組從2014年開始與社區中心合作的園丁們運營。這個空間在規劃階段得到了溫哥華村的幫助,在實施階段也得到了Can You Dig It團體的幫助。   在這個空間中主要的樸門技術是食物森林,其中包括許多可食用的或漿果生產的植物,幾種草本植物,以及多種本地植物。我們在參觀第一個花園是仔細地講解過食物森林,然而,這個食物森林的獨特之處在於是經常有多餘的香草、漿果和蔬菜可以用來冷凍,並讓社區中心的糧食方案所使用。   正正是因為它位於社區中心,所以有必要考慮如何才能將基斯蘭奴社區成員甚至其他人都歡迎到一個樸門空間。同樣重要的是考慮到從可持續來源的食物中可能受益的口味和口感的多樣性。如果你還記得早些時候的參觀,第十個樸門設計原則是​使用和重視多樣性​,這涉及到植物和人類。在一個樸門花園培育多樣性的方法之一是種植來自世界不同地區的,被用在來自不同文化的食物中的物種。在種植非本地植物時,重要的是要考慮它們是否能在生長的氣候中存活,以及它們是否有成為入侵物種的風險。考慮到這一點,一些在溫哥華表現出色的植物有常被用作南亞印度菜的調味料的藏紅花,和常被用在像智利這樣的南美國家的烹飪中的利馬豆。   另一種鼓勵社區或個人花園多樣化的方法是舉辦文化慶祝活動。這個花園有幾個安靜的地方讓人們可以坐在那裡享受空間,這些都是是完美的舉辦慶祝活動如五月五日節,排燈節,復活節,春節等的空間。   如果有人想參與其中,社區中心總是接受新的園丁,還會提供園藝和其他與食物有關的講習班/工作坊,其中許多是由溫哥華村提供的。     Transition to next Garden   當我們走向下一個花園時,我們將繼續談論多樣性。我們到目前為止參觀過的所有樸門花園,很明顯地,都位於加拿大,但是樸門正在世界各地進行。   在厄瓜多爾,Los Encuentros附近有一個樸門花園,它的功能類似於一個公社,人們在那裡種植土地上的植物,把這些植物變成食物,並執行一些簡單的任務來保持基礎設施和工具的正常運轉。作為回報,公社的成員有地方睡覺,整天有飯吃,遠足,還有機會上西班牙語課。 Los Encuentros的氣候有利於種植各種各樣的植物,像椰子、可可、刺果番荔枝、大樹菠蘿、香檳果、麵包果、熱情果和許多其他的植物。農場的基礎設施是用竹子建造的,廁所都是可堆肥的,水資源來自附近的一條河。 76 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor   在越南,可以在湄公河三角洲找到一個樸門園的例子。這個樸門空間是一個家族所有的農場,已經經營了三代人,圍繞著一系列作為水源的溝渠建造。這些海溝裡充滿了生命,包括藻類、昆蟲、蝸牛、青蛙和養殖鯰魚,其中一些為這個家庭提供蛋白質來源。沿著溝的邊緣則生長著各種各樣的果樹,包括紅毛丹、火龍果、人心果、番木瓜、牛油果、香蕉和芒果。樹下還有許多其他植物,包括芋頭、甘藷和西洋菜。這些低矮的植物通過果樹的樹冠投下的斑駁陰影,免受越南午後強烈陽光的照射。   『有人知道這裡採用的是哪種樸門技術嗎?』 這是一個食物森林的例子。   事實上,這種類型的農業在越南的湄公河三角洲非常普遍,是一種傳統的耕作方式,儘管它很快被支持外國出口的稻田所取代。   在瑞典,有一個樸門培養園,實際上是作為美食家的天堂。 樸門空間位於瑞典拉普蘭省的哈拉湖岸邊,擁有14個玻璃和木質小屋,這些小屋由生長緩慢且耐久的Vaxjo杉木製成,能夠隔離相對較高數量的碳。所有的食物都來自當地,包括一些從附近的獵人和漁民那裡獲得的食材,但是大部分的植物實際上是在當地森林的矮樹叢中種植的,然後在收穫的時候採摘。在提供由當地資源製成的美食的同時,該度假村還向來自世界各地的建築師、哲學家、農民、設計師和其他遊客宣傳生物動力農業技術和綜合知識框架。   正如你所看到的,樸門永續農業正在全球範圍內發展。在一些地方,比如湄公河三角洲,這是普遍的生活方式。在其他地區,如瑞典,它取代了更普遍的單一栽培農場。讓樸門永續農業更具影響力的關鍵之一,似乎是讓它成為可接受的規範,而非例外。     G - VPL Le Village Courtyard Garden at Kits Branch VPL   當我們到達由溫哥華社區合作夥伴經營的第四個花園時,我們可以看到樸門是如何融入日常生活和空間,從而使它成為規範。   這個樸門空間位於溫哥華公共圖書館(VPL)基齊拉諾分館(Kitsilano Branch)露台上,由Society Le Village管理。這個花園開始於2013年,當時一群朋友想要種植有機藥草和蔬菜組成,與此同時,基齊拉諾圖書館想要改造他們的露台空間。花園由5個部分組成,位於一個水泥庭院的中央,圖書館的讀者和志願者在這裡給花園澆水,並利用庭院放鬆、吃午餐和閱讀。任何享受這個空間的人都可以根據需要採摘香草和蔬菜,因為如果你採摘太多,其他人就無法享受相同的資源。   為了使樸門成為一種規範,公共空間,如圖書館,是向多元化的人群展示樸門永久農業的理念、技術和原則的最佳場所,與現代農業形成對比。農業領域的一種觀點是,城市空間與工業農業空間是分離的,但也可以設想一些不同的、互補的東西。想像一下這樣一個城市,林蔭大道、公園、前院、屋頂、田野,以及更多的地方都有一個樸門花園。樸門花園的設計可以使周圍仍然有開放的活動區域,並進行其他活動,如運動、散步或野餐,同時用各種各樣的植物填充未使用的空間,其中一些植物可以生產食物。當然,花園需要有人照料,但這可以由任何本地居民來做。   77 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 這個想法看起來很有野心,但僅僅是因為它不是北美人的習慣。在他們周圍的空間裡建立樸門,不僅有利於人們的美容和營養,也會提高人們的意識,讓人們意識到我們的大部分食物都是在單一的種植環境中生產的,這是多麼可笑的事情,而這種單一的種植環境通常在幾百甚至幾千公里之外。事實上,這一點可以通過西雅圖燈塔山的Beacon Food Forest Permaculture Project比肯食物森林樸門項目得到證明,這是結合了本地復原棲息地與為週邊社區提供食物的方面的一個七英畝的永久種植空間。     Transition to next Garden   在提到考慮花園時,大多數人會想到地上如花朵、樹葉和樹木的綠色植物 。但在開始一個花園前,我們最需要的是考慮種子。Village Vancouver溫哥華村和其他樸門創始者使用種子庫去分發從他們的花園,其他花匠和本地種子機構收集的種子,以分享和交換種子的方式增加其永續耕種空間的多樣性。下一個地點是省議員David Eby尹大衛的社區辦公室,是最後一個不是由溫哥華村運營的花園。那個地點也向路過辦公室的人免費發放由溫哥華村種子庫提供的種子。     H – Box in front of David Eby’s Office 省議員尹大衛社區辦公室   種子保存是樸門的一個重要部分,原因有很多,其中一個主要原因是,如果你從前幾個季節保存了種子,你就不需要每年都出去買種子了!   『有誰能想到種子保存與樸門的原則可能與什麽有關?』 原則三​Obtain a yield獲取邊際效益​,和原則六​Produce No Waste無廢料的生產​,是首先想到的兩個原則。在種植花園時,你想要從產出的東西中受益,包括種子。當種子可用於擴大或改善現有的園林景觀時,堆肥種子也是一種巨大的浪費。   保存種子的另一個原因是對樸門空間中種植的植物的質量有更多的控制。如果你收集和保存你自己的種子,你可以選擇保存最多產的植物,生產最好的水果和蔬菜的植物,或有許多其他可取特徵的植物的種子。當保存下來的種子被種植後,那些頂級植物的基因會被重新引入到花園裡,這樣隨著時間的推移,你會建立一個更美麗、更多產的樸門空間。   保存種子比你想像的要容易得多。例如,大豆種子的加工過程是等待豆莢在植株上成熟,直到它們變乾變黃,種子發出咔嗒咔嗒的聲音,然後從豆莢裡收集。另外,對於生菜,最好的做法是在種子頭最鬆軟的時候將整株植株切開,然後將植株倒在幹桶里大約一周,然後清洗種子上的糠。至於番茄,最好的做法是把種子和果肉放在一個玻璃罐裡,直到它發酵至上面有泡沫,然後把種子從果肉上洗掉,在露天晾乾,然後再裝到紙袋裡。一定要保存Open Pollinated varieties開放授粉品種的種子,而不是hybrid varieties雜交品種,否則你可能會發現你正在種植一些非常奇怪(而且味道不是很好)的植物!   正如你所看到的,複雜的種子保存工作似乎令人生畏,然而,它也也是可以很有趣的,並且網上有很多博客可以幫助你。如果您想學習更專業的種子保存的技巧,溫哥華村通常在夏天和初秋的時候提供種子保存講習班,你可以在他們的網站上找到,對於任何想要嘗試這種可持續實踐的人來說,這是一個很好的開始。   78 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor   Transition to next Garden   正如你所見,樸門運動是關於解決生態和社會問題,這些問題圍繞著不公平和不民主的做法,過度開發資源導致了土壤流失、荒漠化、森林砍伐、污染、生態系統破壞和全球變暖帶來的滅絕。讓我們來研究一下永久培養如何應用於現實世界中的事件。   人類可以通過多種方式使生命的重要方面永生不朽。最好的方式之一就是通過藝術和故事。在這次的樸門永續農業之旅中,我們建議你在步行到下一個花園時在Youtube上聽聽這首詩:From One Island to Another從一個島到另一個島。這首詩是由來自Marshall Island馬紹爾群島的Kathy Jetnl-Kijiner和來自格陵蘭島Kalaallit Nunaat的Aka Niviana寫的,這兩位原住民女士將海平面上升和冰川融化的現實聯繫起來。     I – McBride Park Field House   正如我們在來這裡途中討論的那樣,全球變暖和糧食生產相關等與人類相關的影響對地球上的生物和整個生態系統構成了重大威脅。為了保護自然環境,建造一個能夠滿足你大部分水果和蔬菜需求的花園似乎是一件令人生畏的事情,但永續農業既可以大規模進行,也可以小規模進行。即使是在看似很小的地方,採用永續經營的方法也可以向你周圍的人展示,你有興趣幫助創造積極的改變。   麥克布萊德公園的房子可能沒有一個大的樸門花園,事實上,它非常小,但它也是一個完美地來展示了樸門可以有任何大小,從單一的花盆到一個農田。Village Vancouver溫哥華村所做的工作很大程度上是在各種個人到社區大小的花園,有不同的焦點,植物,和樸門技術,但樸門也可能在規模上大到足以養活整個人口。   雖然在工業化農業會使用殺蟲劑和單一耕作這些便宜又方便的工具和方式去滿足當代大規模食品生產的需求,但隨著害蟲和害草的進化,有些已經對殺蟲劑的化學成分產生抗藥性。要有效地消除害蟲和害草,要不就是加重殺蟲劑的劑量,要不就可以從生物防治這方面著手-例如之前提及的“伴植”栽種技巧或者使用不同的昆蟲捕食者。這種生物防治方法就是其中一個樸門永續設計的理念,由此可見應用樸門永續設計是一個不錯的解決方法。而且樸門花園也不用擔心需要除草的問題,   要討論樸門永續農業大規模運作的方式我們可以看一個樸門農場的例子。在這個例子中,樸門農場被設計為一組同心圓,就像一個目標,目標的每個環支持不同類型的生長。在花園的中心,有一個農舍或其他類型的農業建築,農民/農業社區可以在裡面操作。最需要維護的部分將被安置在離中心最近的區域,因為它們需要最頻繁地的照料,而較低的維護植物生長在離建築最遠的地方。   離中心最近的包括一年生花卉、水果、蔬菜以及需要定期收穫的草本植物。這些植物需要定期採摘、澆水或施肥,或者也可以用於日常活動,如做飯,因此它們需要便於農民接觸。離農場中心稍遠一點的地方將種植多年生植物,這些植物也需要收割,但採摘的頻率較低,或者不需要人工照料。第二遠的圈是牧場,所有動物都可以在這裡放牧。這將主要是覆蓋著草,但也可能種植一些適合作為動物飼料的灌木或草本植物。除此之外,一個區域將被指定為果園,包括結果樹,如蘋果或梨,但也有結果灌木,如黑莓和覆盆子。離農場中心最遠的一層79 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 是較大的樹棲物種,它們可以是樹木或灌木籬牆,作為整個樸門農場的自然邊界。在農場的不同區域,也可能有池塘、沼澤或其他水生特徵,支持魚類、水生植物,並為整個農場提供灌溉水源。     Transition to next Garden   在引言中,我們提到了過度開發和相關的政治經濟結構,它們傳播了傳播水資源不平等的影響與對糧食主權的影響一樣大,但是我們還沒有詳細討論過樸門如何解決水資源短缺問題。   在樸門空間中有許多技術可以用來收集和儲存水,這些水通常會流到大多數植物無法接觸的地方。其中一種方法就是用swales。 swale是在樸門花園的土壤中挖出的溝渠,它引導徑流從土壤表面進入更深的土層,以便於植物根系的生長。在降雨期間,Swale還會儲存土壤沒有吸收的多餘水分,這樣它就可以在較長時間內繼續為植物提供養分,這是典型的土壤保水所不能達到的。   『有人能想到這與什麼樸門原則有關嗎?』 Swale屬於​Catch and Store Energy捕捉並儲存能量​這個樸門設計原則。由於Swales通常是挖到較高的地面,利用重力將水分配到山下,所以Swales利用自然水流動的能量就不需要抽水裝置和其他動力灌溉來源。   另一個選擇是rain barrel雨桶。雨桶既可以被動地收集雨水,比如在暴風雨期間放在室外,也可以主動地利用排水溝系統收集雨水,就像房子的排水溝一樣。多個雨桶可以儲存大量的水,以至在乾旱期間有足夠的水來支持植物。   Keyline design鎖匙孔形設計是一種通過樸門空間創建人工流的方法。遵循一個地區的自然地形凹槽,一個永久養殖者可以通過加深這些凹槽來儲存更多的水,並在整個花園中引導它們,這樣水流就可以接近盡可能多的植物。   瓦勒拉尼系統在乾旱地區或過度放牧造成荒漠化的地區特別有用。該系統採用了一個垂直的蓄水結構,允許水滲透到干燥的土壤深處,同時通過挖掘系統的過程打破緊密的土壤。該結構類似於一個垂直的管道,在其長度以適當的距離放置足球大小的儲水空間,這樣不同根結構的植物都可以獲得水。   我們將討論的最後一種樸門技術是 ​Use Edges and Value the Marginal 運用邊界;從交界處找到價值​。這種方法是在樸門空​​間周圍創建壕溝,作為雜草和其他害蟲的物理屏障,同時提供了灌溉的來源,可以從空間的邊緣帶到中心。   我們討論過的所有技術都是收​​集和儲存水的方法,但是這些水也必須到達花園裡的所有植物。最好的方法之一就是滴灌。滴灌系統緩慢地將水從土壤表面或土壤下面一滴一滴地註入植物。通常,這系統採取的形式是從一根軟管,通過小孔來控制水流到花園中特定位置的速度。滴灌系統的耗水量比大多數水分配系統少30-50%,並支持著穩定的含水量。持續的水源可以促進植物的生長,因為當環境在乾濕之間波動時,植物需要經歷諸如氣孔的打開和關閉這樣的生理變化。   80 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 『有誰知道其他的集水技術嗎?』 也許還有許多其他創新的方法來在家里和花園裡收穫水分。如果有人知道更多的技術,他們可以在自己的空間中實現這些技術,並希望與社區成員共享這些技術。   我們所討論的與水相關的話題很大程度上與在它們周圍生長的植物無關,但是也有同時保存水、種植植物和支持水生動物的系統。水栽法是一種水生系統,通過與魚類共生來種植植物,形成一個自我維持的生態系統,其中魚糞為植物提供營養,植物為魚類過濾水。   這種樸門技術有一個水體,就像一個池塘或小溪,植物直接漂浮在水面上,這樣植物的根就可以懸在水面上。魚糞富含對植物有益的營養物質,但如果魚在其中游泳,實際上會導致缺氧。當魚在水生植物池塘里排便時,這些物質會留在系統中,直到被水面上的植物根系過濾掉。這些植物吸收水分來補充水分,同時吸收魚糞中的顆粒。植物需要這些營養物質才能生存,所以它們不僅要把這些營養物質從池塘中清除出去,而且還在積累幫助它們生長的分子。新又的干淨的水從雨水或水庫中被放回系統中,為魚類的生長創造了一個健康的環境。在這個系統中,植物和魚都茁壯成長。     J – Aberthau Permaculture Garden   Aberthau樸門花園是溫哥華村發達得最好的空間之一,也是遊覽的最後一個地方,我們將談論一些這個花園中的樸門。   一種與城市園藝特別相關的樸門技術是垂直花園。這種技術允許植物向上生長,而不是向外生長,從而節省了原本會被植物佔據的空間。需要注意的是,這基本上是一個容器花園,所以植物的根體積有限,因為深度受到支撐結構的阻礙,而且它們還需要更頻繁的澆水,因為大部分水分接近土壤表面。為了解決水分問題,用於垂直花園口袋的材料是不滲透的,因此保留土壤水分。需要注意的是,垂直花園頂部的植物不易澆水和維護,因此最好選擇維護費用較低的植物放在頂部的口袋裡。   另一種常用的樸門技術是Hugelkultur德國式高花床。 Hugelkultur是指在土堆或土崗上種植的過程,上覆蓋著木質碎片,如樹枝、圓木、樹葉和細枝。在保水方面,這一過程類似於厚土設計:土丘下的木材在降雨期間吸收多餘的水分,然後通過擴散過程將水分釋放到周圍的土壤中,因為周圍的土壤變得比中心木材更乾燥。這項技術也模擬了在天然林地系統中發現的營養循環過程:通常,樹木和灌木的碎屑在自然生長過程中掉落到地面,隨著時間的推移被微生物、真菌和蠕蟲等動物分解。同樣的分解過程發生在Hugelkultur土堆中,但比在自然分解更集中於花園中的特定位置。雖然可以在hugelkultur土堆上種植各種各樣的植物,但最好種植水分和營養需求高的品種,如南瓜、黃瓜、土豆和豆類,因為它們將受益最大,特別是在hugelkultur空間有限的情況下。在這個花園中,你可以看到一個局部的Hugelkultur,那裡的地下有木材,但是沒有形成一個土丘。   這個花園也有一個草本螺旋花園。草本螺旋花園是另一種類型的土墩園藝技術,與在土墩的不同位置創造微氣候,有利於不同類型的香草。草本螺旋形的斜坡面向四面,但南坡將比北坡更熱,東坡將比西坡更乾燥,因為它暴露在早晨的陽光下。在整個螺旋形的土丘中,土丘的底部比頂部更濕潤,因為水從斜坡上流下來,並在土丘與平坦土壤之間的縫隙中聚集。基於這些微氣候,我們種植的物種將在不同的條件下茁壯成長。牛至、迷迭香和百里香在位於螺旋形的頂部和南部,炎熱乾燥的氣候中生長旺盛。香芹和韭菜更喜歡涼爽和潮濕的氣候,最好81 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 位於北坡的中間。陽光充足但溫度適中的植物,如鼠尾草、熏衣草和羅勒,可以種植在面向西的斜坡上,那裡有很多午後的陽光,在螺旋形的最底部是一些喜歡涼爽、陰涼、濕潤氣候的植物,如芫荽和刁草。使用這種園藝技術可以確保每一種草本植物都可以在花園裡最理想的環境中種植。   如你所見,除了各種各樣的樸門技術,這個花園還包括各種各樣的植物,包括一些用於染色織物的植物。花園的未來計劃包括在花園的一側安裝一個編織的柳樹籬笆,利用花園裡植物的染料製作旗子,並從垂直花園的頂部懸掛旗子。   『誰能認出這個花園裡的一些物種嗎?』   『這次旅行結束後,您們想在自己的花園裡種些什麼呢?』     Conclusion 結論   我們將以號召行動來結束這次旅程。Village Vancouver溫哥華村是一個轉型社會,廣義上來說,他們是一群創造了本地發起的機會讓我們得以重新想像我們的鄰里和社區生活,以幫助解決大規模的問題,如氣候變化、資源峰值和社會不平等。轉型社會從個人到社會的各種空間上運作,在每一個層次上都有不同的行動機會。一個人創造自己的花園,通過選擇以一種生態和社會意識的方式,去生產自己的食物來促進社會變革。一個類似我們的組織,如果我們能夠證明在保護人類同和環境利益的前提下,我問們有能力、有意願為每一個人生產食物,那我們就可以推動向更可持續嘅的糧食生產轉變,這也可以影響工業規模的糧食生產。   除了從本地到全球範圍內發生的轉變之外,還存在著隨時間變化,從而創造一個有彈性的社會和星球。那些支持樸門運動的人可能會把它看作是一種通過改變對環境有損害的農業做法去避免全球暖化、工業化農業和其他人類影響所造成的災難的一種方法。另一方面,它也可以被視為一種將知識和技能傳授給人們的運動,因為隨著氣候變化及其導致的全球持續不穩定,人們可能不得不應對崩潰的糧食生產和傳播系統的影響。   然而,最重要的信息是,無論樸門以何種規模運作,都必須採取行動,而包括樸門在內的轉型,是人們在不斷變化的世界中參與社會和環境正義的一種很好的方式。   我們一直在尋找有興趣的人在整個走廊的樸門花園工作,不論園藝經驗和水平。事實上,這個為期三年的項目是希望在溫哥華市的Greenest City Grant綠色城市贈款資助下,在社區中開發更多的永久農業用地。如果你想與溫哥華村聯繫,你可以在 www.villagevancouver.ca​ 找到活動和信息   謝謝大家的到來和參與!  Simplified Chinese Version: 1. 导言:徒步游览和永续农业/​Introduction to the Walking Tour and Permaculture 在开始徒步游览之前,我们需要知道, 温哥华位于名叫the Coast Salish的土著居民代代相传的土地上。这些土著居民包括 the Sḵwx̱wú7mesh (Squamish), Stó:lō and 82 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor Səl̓ílwətaʔ/Selilwitulh (Tsleil-Waututh) and xʷməθkʷəy̓əm (Musqueam)等部落。通过维持一种可持续的人与自然的关系,他们一直在用这片土地来维持生计和开展文化活动。 地质学家根据不同时期的主要物种和它们所处的位置,推测出了地球历史上的各个时期,例如寒武纪、侏罗纪、白垩纪和石炭纪。如今,许多科学家已将当前时代称为为“人类世(Anthropocene)”,意思是这个时代,人类是推动地球变化主要驱动力,并带来了包括矿物开采,城市化,土壤流失,生态系统破坏,物种大规模灭绝,以及人为造成的全球变暖等一系列影响。这些影响在许多层面上威胁着人与自然的关系:其中一些是生物物理的,如水过滤、植物授粉和食物供应,而另一些则是无形的文化服务,如美学或娱乐方面。它们都随着全球气温上升受到了影响,并将不再以同样的方式发挥作用。人们所依赖的生态系统的崩溃对人类生活和福祉有重大影响,特别是在淡水供应和食品安全方面。这对于生产健康食品的同時注重生态環境的方式产生了严重的影响。 在20世纪70年代,大卫洪葛兰(David Holmgren)和比尔·莫利森(Bill Mollison)提出了永续农业的理念。他们当时倡导,人类正在破坏他们赖以生存的环境,这种情况在之后的几十年里只会变得更加严重。永续农业是一种可持续的、具有社会意识的园艺、农业和设计方法,采用模仿自然生态系统的模式来提高花园社区的可持续性和复原力的技术。永续农业理论为当代因过度开采而导致的问题提供了潜在的解决方案,从而解决粮食安全问题和恢复社区发展。我们将会通过游览温哥华西区永续农业花园去讨论永续农业的一些理论和技术。  永续农业运动建立於三个核心道德规范之上:地球关怀、人文关怀和公平分享,这三个道德规范指导着我们稍后将讨论的12项设计理念。 “你们认为地球关怀、人文关怀和公平分享的意义是什么?”  这三个核心道德规范表明,永续农业运动不仅关于生态问题解决方案,也关于社会参与度和环境正义。 这次温哥华西区永续农业之旅由温哥华村(Village Vancouver)组织,为社区参与者提供一个很好的机会来通过永续农业帮助建立社会和生态环境。温哥华村是一个转型社会组织,是一群人组织起来重新构想和重建世界的运动。转型的方式之一是通过永续农业技术,来替代传统的,破坏性的农业方式。温哥华村全年举办各种活动,其中许多活动都以食物为导向,例如种子保存研讨会,垂直园艺工作坊,美食节,创建种子库以及在永续农业园中工作等等,所有活动的时间表都可以在温哥华村的官方网站​www.villagevancouver.ca​中找到。无论各位种植经验水平如何,温哥华村欢迎任何人来参加。下面,让我们来看看第一个花园。  2. 前院食物森林/​Front Yard Food Forest 我们现在身处的地方曾经是温带雨林,养育着针叶树,枫树,桤木和沼泽地。这片森林主要由花旗松,西部红柏和西部铁杉等卑诗省海岸最大的树种组成。事实上,温哥华原始森林中最大的树木被认为是在现在的煤气镇(Gastown)发现的。虽然曾经的巨大数树木已经消失,但我们仍然可以在温哥华市内找到不同的树林例如在这个花园里的食物森林。 “当谈到自然森林时,你会想到什么?” 83 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 自然森林的一个特点就是它不用人类帮忙也能自行繁衍生息!这意味着它们能透过植物,真菌以及土壤栖居昆虫和微生物之间的相互作用而得以自我维持。  “森林的顶部是树冠,大家还知道森林的其他层吗?” 在树冠之下是较小的树木,灌木丛,草本植物,地被植物,块茎和垂直层,如攀缘植物或藤蔓植物。森林的每一层都扮演着重要的角色,让其他物种得以繁殖衍生息。例如构成树冠层的大树树根能延伸到地下水源吸收水分并与浅根植物分享地表覆盖层的植物提供了大部分腐烂的叶子和其他碎屑,为森林供了养分。在地下,块茎植物如胡萝卜或土豆,可以分解紧密的土壤,使其他植物可以播种和生长。 如果你还记得之前我们对不同地质时期的简要介绍,树木是在大约4亿年前的石炭纪时期进化而来的。大自然已經花费了很長的時間完善森林系统的设计,所以自然森林的生长不需要除草、杀虫剂、灌溉等人类技术也就不足为奇了。 就如其他自然森林,这片食物森林有着不同层,只是这里的重点是多年生食用植物。这里模仿了自然森林生长的模式,即从多层结构中获得收益。在这片花园中,玉兰树和无花果树组成了树冠层,而灌木层则包括蓝莓,蓝靛果,醋栗和聚合草,草本植物层包括薰衣草和紫锥菊,地被层包括草莓,藤蔓层包括猕猴桃。就像自然森林一样,食物森林中的植物,动物,授粉昆虫,还有我们人类都彼此受益。 食物森林还能通过结出美味的果实使我们受益。  3. 从前院食物森林到基斯兰奴合作花园/Front Yard Food Forest to Kits Village Collaborative Garden Transition   “如果各位要建立自己的食物森林,你想种植什么植物呢?”  “这些植物应该属于森林的哪一层呢?”  4. 基斯兰奴村合作花园和比利毕晓普军团厅/Kits Village Collaborative Garden/Billy Bishop Legion Hall 永续农业以12条设计理念为基础,其中之一是​群落整合(Integrate)​。该理念的核心是使植物、动物和人类相互受益,也称为共生。这片花园——基斯兰奴村协作花园——在许多方面体现了​群落整合​的理念。 首先,温哥华村和比利毕晓普军团厅(Billy Bishop Legion Hall)已经合作发展这片花园10多年。 其次,这片花园里的伴植植物也从另一角度展示了​群落整合​的设计理念。這片花園用了一種叫“伴植”的栽種技术來促进植物健康和提高產量。這種栽種方法利用某幾種植物的特性驅除害蟲,也可以為植物在惡劣天氣中提供保護。我们将用這片花園里的薄荷和羽衣甘藍来解释伴植技巧。一些植物会产生名为挥发性有机化合物(VOC)的化学物质,它们会阻止食草动物和其他害虫伤害植物,因为这种化学物质味道不好或含有害生物不愿摄入的毒素。薄荷产生84 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 一种名为薄荷醇的物质,可消除蚜虫,蚂蚁和卷心菜蛾等害虫。雖然有些植物在受到威脅時才會產生揮發性有機化合物,但薄荷在任何時候都會產生薄荷醇。因此,当薄荷种植在紧邻其他植物的地方时,不断释放的薄荷醇可以保护这些植物。与此同时,附近的植物也会发生一系列有趣变化。十字花科的植物,例如羽衣甘蓝,可以检测到周围散发的薄荷醇,这会让他们误以为薄荷植物正在被吃掉。为了避免自己也被“吃掉”,羽衣甘蓝会在自己的基因中诱导防御反应,从而阻止害虫。这种关系类似于大草原上的羚羊发现狮子时发出警告的方式,以便让其他羚羊及时逃走。像薄荷这样的伴植植物是有毒杀虫剂的天然替代品,它们还提高了花园和农田的产量。  植物和授粉昆虫之间的共生关系也体现了​群落整合​的理念。这片花园里有大量的开花植物吸引授粉昆虫,如蓝莓丛,覆盆子树,樱桃树,梨树,苹果树,和刺苞菜蓟。这些植物的花蜜和花粉是蜜蜂和其他授粉昆虫用以生存和繁殖的食物来源。当它们进食的时候,它们通过在雄花和雌花之间传递花粉来为植物授粉,这样植物就能产生果实和种子,帮助花园植物在不同的季節繼續繁茂生长。 “有誰知道除了蜜蜂以外還有什麼授粉昆虫吗?”  其他授粉昆虫包括苍蝇、飞蛾、蝴蝶,甚至蚊子。 值得一提的是,园丁们刻意种植了在生长季节的不同时段开花的植物。比方说,苹果树先开花,然后是蓝莓丛,然后是覆盆子树。种植具有连续开花期的物种意味着授粉昆虫在整个春季和夏季都将有花蜜供应,因此它们将被持续地吸引到花园中,从而在整个生长季节为各种植物授粉。 如你所见,像​群落整合​之类的永续农业设计理念可以以多种方式运用在花园中。在规划和种植永续花园时,我们必须考虑到这个空间为人类及其周围环境带来的好处。在下一个花园,我们将讨论其他一些永续农业设计理念,以及它们在花园环境中的实际运用。  5. 从基斯兰奴合作花园到公寓楼大道花园/Kits Village Collaborative Garden to Apartment Building Blvd Garden Transition 永续农业设计的第一个理念是​观察与互动(Observe​ and ​Interact)​。这个理念提醒你设计适合你所处环境的花园。例如,在平地上和在斜坡上的花園應有不同設計方式。这一理念也提醒人们,建立一個功能齊全,獨特且豐富的永續农业空間建立在不同的觀點,優先事項和偏好之上。事实上,许多永续农业设计师建議先花一整年的時間去觀察整個空間,以了解每日,每月和季節性的循環以及相關的日照,水循環,風和溫度等變化。 第二个理念是​捕捉与储存能量(Catch and Store Energy)​。这就意味着一个永续农业园应该在资源丰富的时候充分利用资源,以便在需要的时候派上用场。 “有人能想到这个设计理念在花园中实际运用的方式吗?” 例如:在收获季节采摘水果和蔬菜,然后在冬天把它们装进罐里,或者使用一个储水系统,比如一个雨桶,在暴雨期间取水,然后在干旱时期使用储存的水。 85 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 第三个理念是​获得收益( Obtain a Yield)​。这一理念基本上是说,虽然人类可以去做他们本可能不想做的事情,但如果他们得到了诸如食物和鲜花之类的奖励,那麼也许他們更願意完成如建造和维护永续花園的任務。 第四项永续农业理念是​自我调节和接受反馈(Self-Regulate and Accept Feedback)  “有谁知道这项原则的意思是什么吗?” 这个理念有着多层含义;其中一层含义是人们相互学习知识来改善永生花园,但它也可以指从自然界中学习一些还没被总结出来的知识。自然界中有许多反馈:一些是正反馈,一些是负反馈。这并不是说正反馈是好的,负反馈是不好的,而是说正反馈会放大效果,而负反馈会抵消效果。例如,一个常见的负反馈是:当我们感到热时,我们通过出汗来让体温下降。一个正反馈的例子是全球变暖导致南北两极的冰川融化。冰川能够将大部分太阳辐射反射回太空,因此在冰川融化后,更多的太阳辐射会到达地球表面,从而导致全球变暖。正反馈和负反馈也会出现在花园中,大家可以多多观察花园里的反馈现象并好好加以利用。 第五项永续农业理念是​使用和重视可再生能源(Use and Value Renewables​),这是永续农业和传统农业的关键区别。这个设计理念提醒我们,地球上的一些资源是有限的,只有当我们使用那些广泛存在且不会耗尽的资源时,永续花园才能真正实现可持续发展。 在工农业领域中,用来驱动拖拉机等机械的汽油和其他石油产品就是不可再生资源的其中一个例子。 “有什么设备是拖拉机的更环保的替代品呢?” 其中一种更环保的替代品是零排放的拖拉机设备。最近,可持续工业化农业机械领域取得了进展,农民可以在不使用化石燃料的情况下为农业设备提供动力。例如,一家名叫​纽荷兰(New Holland Agriculture)​的农业机械制造公司研发了一种利用可再生的生物甲烷来源的氢气驱动的燃料电池。 第六个设计理念是​無廢料的生產(Produce No Waste)​。花園裏很多所謂的廢物都是可以重新利用的,例如植物剪枝可用作肥料,枯萎的樹枝可以用來做籬笆。 在稍後的遊覽中,我們會逐一講解其餘六個樸門設計理念。  6. 公寓楼大道花园/Apartment Building Blvd Garden 下一个花园,被称为公寓楼大道花园,是我们要参观的第一个不是由温哥华村 建立管理的花园。这趟旅程中还有其他四个花园,属于其他组织或个人的管辖范围。他们都与温哥华村保持着友好的合作关系,我们也以各种方式与他们合作。 “在我们到目前为止讨论过的永续农业理念方案中,哪些永续农业理念体现了当地花园为实现可持续性和社区恢复力所展示的关系呢?” 与这个共生网络相关的理念是​观察和相互作用(Observe and Interact​),​自我调节和接受反馈​(​Self-Regulate and Accept Feedback​)。这些理念涉及到这样一个事实,即西侧的永续农业走廊的花园可以相互受益,例如,分享见解,分享植物和种子,合作举办年度有机园艺开放日,以及建立新的花园。 86 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 现在我们所在的地方就是公寓楼大道花园。这片花园于2012年首次创建,每年都在扩建。劳伦斯是花园的创始人和管理员,他认为花园在2019年收割季节之时已经“完全建成”。 作为一个建在大道上的花园,公寓楼大道花园专注于种植各种美丽的观赏植物用来装点街道。但管理者也种了一些可食用植物。部分可食用植物单独种植在街边花园时可能显得不那么美观,但与观赏植物一起种植时,他们显得更具吸引力。 在这片花园中我们可以看到各种各样的植物,正是谈论一年生和多年生植物的好机会。  “有人知道一年生植物和多年生植物的区别吗?” 一年生植物在一个生长季节内完成从发芽到种子生产的整个生命周期,然后死亡。一些一年生植物可以自我延续,也就是自种,这意味着它们将种子撒到土壤中,这样相同物种的新植物将在下一个生长季节生长而无需人工干预。但是,有些一年生植物不育或不能自种,这意味着死后不会有新植物生长。对于这些一年生植物,比方说大多数蔬菜,需要人工重新种植。 另外,多年生植物是指任何寿命超过两年的植物。人们通常将“多年生”一词用于寿命长于五年以上的植物。与一年生植物不同,多年生植物不一定每年都播种。例如,同样是多年生植物,草莓每年产生种子,而龙舌兰每100年才产生种子。  在当代,每年全球农业大约80%的粮食作物都是多年生植物,在自然界中,大约90%的植物都是多年生植物。正如本次旅行的导言中提到的,永续农业试图模仿自然界中的模式,因此永续农业花园中的多年生植物占比很高。这也减少了人工照料花园的工作量,因为多年生植物通常比一年生植物需要的照料更少。 虽然多年生植物是永续农业花园的特征,但一年生植物也常常在花园中发挥重要作用。第三个永续农业理念,​获得收益( Obtain a Yield)​表明,如果花园美丽并为人类提供食物,那么花园的管理者就更有可能做得好。一年生植物可以帮助创造这种理想的环境,尤其是在多年生植物尚未成熟的花园的早期,因此人们也可以在大多数的永续农业花园中找到一年生植物的存在。归根结底,要建立你自己的永续农业花园,一个关键的考虑因素是你喜欢吃什么,以及喜欢种什么? 在讨论永续花园中的一年生和多年生植物时,我们必须知道这两类植物的不同需求。例如,一年生植物的根系往往较浅,这意味着它们需要更频繁地浇水,因为水很快就会渗入更深的土壤。肥料也是如此,因为肥料常常深埋在花园土壤中。在设计永续花园时,我们需要考虑植物需要的照护程度来决定种植的位置。一年生植物适合种植在永续花园的边缘,便于园丁照料,也能装点花园。 “在我们离开这里之前,有没有人注意到这里种植的果树与前两个花园相比有什么不同之处吗?” 公寓楼大道花园坐落在大街上,而街道属于温哥华市,因此为了符合市政法规,这片花园里的树必须种植在花盆里。这似乎限制了花园的发展,但正如你所看到的,我们仍能通过一点点的创造力来种植想要的植物。  87 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 7. 从公寓楼大道花园到基斯兰奴屋顶花园/Apartment Building Blvd Garden to Kits Neighbourhood House Rooftop Garden Transition 让我们回到永续农业设计理念的话题,以及它们对花园的意义。第七个设计理念是​先模式后细节地设计(Design from Pattern to Detail)​。食物森林就是这一理念的代表性例子: 人们观察到自然界中的模式,并应用在永续农业花园里。自然界中的模式已经发展了数千年,因此人类能从中借鉴许多错误和改进方法。 第八个设计理念是​群落整合(Integrate)​,我们在讲解比利毕晓普花园(Billy Bishop garden)时详细讨论过。 第九个设计理念是​使用小而慢的解决方案(Use Small and Slow Solutions)​。这一理念的意思是,当人们试图实现一个大目标时,可能会由巨大的工作量产生过度的压力,并进一步导致失败。然而,如果人们通过累积一个个小目标来实现最终目标时,那么最终的大目标则更有可能成功实现。例如,在建立花园时,不必在一个季度内设计并实施一个功能齐完备的花园。成功建立永续花园需要时间。如果想要建立自己的永续花园,在观察一段时间自己的心仪地点之后,你的第一步也许是找到其他愿意和你一起打理花园的人。第二步是根据自己的需要,挑选想要种植在花园里的植物。接下来,你需要考虑一系列问题包括:植物的种植方位,日照强度偏好,伴植技巧,垂直分层种植等。另一些无关植物的问题包括准备水桶,修建篱笆等等。充分考虑各种因素,将帮助你建立一个功能齐全且富有成果的永续花园。 “你们想要在哪里建立自己的永续花园呢?和谁一起建立呢?”  8. 基斯兰奴社区住宅屋顶花园/Kits Neighbourhood House Rooftop Garden 在下一个花园中,我们将看到的小花园是由和公寓楼大道花园相同的人,罗伦斯(Lawrence),进行管理的,但这个小花园的建立时间比公寓楼大道花园还要早4年。这个花园由温哥华村与其他四、五个组织共同建立,而这再次证明了强大的社交网对建立永续花园的重要性。最终,基斯兰奴社区的大型建筑翻新工程将花园移到了屋顶的小方尺花园箱中。 花园箱技术能够让位于较小空间里的植物的产量最大化。在之后的旅途中我们将看到更多类似的例子。在这片小花园中,罗伦斯利用木板延长了花园箱的高度,来为植物的生长创造合适的土壤深度。大家现在看到的是小方尺花园的其中一种类别,它把整个花园箱分隔成不同部分,以便密集地种植各种植物。 需要注意的是,这种种植在容器里的方式会导致水分流失过快,导致土壤过分干燥,不利于植物生长。一种解决方案是将吸水性材料放在容器的底部,比如海绵或木片,从而促进植物根部吸收水分。事实上,劳伦斯已经尝试了各种各样的技术来处理浇灌与排水问题。 使用​小而慢的解决方案(Use Small and Slow Solutions)​来处理这样的问题是很重要的,这样就避免了在情况还不明朗时进行重大更改的情况。例如,花费大量时间在花园里修建不起作用的排水管道,是毫无意义的。在接下来的旅途中,我们将讨论最后三个永续农业设计理念。  88 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 9. 从基斯兰奴屋顶花园到绿街花园/Kits Neighbourhood House Rooftop Garden to Green Street Garden 第十个设计理念是​利用和重视多样性(Use and Value Diversity)​。生物多样性是让地球如此美丽和充满活力的原因。生物多样性包括世界上所有不同类型的物种,从地球上的数百万种细菌,到5000种哺乳动物,到近40万种植物等。此外,人类多样性包括人们的不同思考方式,不同想法和创新精神,不同的艺术创造,以及世界各地的文化等等。这个设计理念表明,植物多样性和视角多样化对于满足永续花园的社会和生态要求是非常重要的。 第十一项设计理念是​使用边缘并重视边际(Use Edges and Value the Marginal)​。在农业中,“边缘效应”是指花園或農場裏雜草較豐富而農作物生產力較低的邊緣空間。永续农业中,这个空间可以用来种植生命力旺盛的植物,创建花园小径,或放置艺术品,从而充分利用这个场所。这个地方也可以用来建造垂直花园,或放置基础设施,如排水灌溉设施。 第十二个,也就是最后一个永续农业设计理念是​创造性地使用和响应变化( Creatively Use and Respond to Change)​。这意味着当挑战出现时,要找到一线希望,将挑战转化为有利于永续农业和环境的机遇。 “如果你的花园开始经历季节性干旱,你能想出对策吗?” 如果你的花园在生长季节开始持续经历干旱气候,则最好种植更多的耐旱植物,增加蓄水池并采用高效的灌溉系统,例如滴灌。  10. 绿街花园/Green Street Garden 这个花园是温哥华绿色街道计划的一部分,旨在美化城市公共空间。这个花园正经历重新整修阶段,但它可能是温哥华村永续农业花园中最有趣的一个。正如导言中提到的,设计一个自给自足的花园是永续农业理论的核心。这意味着大多数时间都花在了建造花园的初始阶段,随着花园设施逐渐完善,植物开始产生果实,人们就可以只靠较少的人力物力去长久地维持永续花园。 我们将通过这个花园讲解一些永续农业花园的设计技巧,以便大家了解如何在家中设计自己的永续农业花园。我们可以先从厚土种植法开始。作为永续农业技术之一,厚土种植法是是一种为种植植物而准备或维持土壤营养的方法,它将像硬纸板、报纸、稻草、木片、树叶、清除了杂草的草屑,苔藓,厨余垃圾,碎石或树皮屑等材料一层一层地覆盖在花园的土壤上。这些材料可以保持土壤水分,调节土壤温度,防止杂草生长。这些覆盖材料会在阳光和土壤之间形成物理屏障,从而减少水分蒸发,保持土壤湿润。它们也会在降雨时吸收水分,然后在土壤变干时通过扩散作用释放水分回土壤中。 “有谁知道这种技术属于哪一项永续农业设计理念吗? 永续农业设计的第二个理念,​捕捉和储存能量(Catch and Store Energy​),推动了厚土种植技术的发展。在水资源丰富的雨季,这些覆盖材料会收集并保留水分。发生干旱时,水分会从覆盖材料浸入到土壤中,这样一来,即使在缺水的情况下,花园里的植物也能继续成长。 89 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 那么厚土种植法是如何调节土壤温度的呢? 从本质上讲,厚土种植法和温室的工作原理是一样的:来自太阳的高强度能量通过覆盖层进入土壤。随着热量的传播,一部分能量会被消耗,而大部分能量是在阳光进入地面并与之相互作用时消耗的。一部分能量在到达土壤后会被反射回太空,但这些已经减弱的长波辐射没有足够的能量穿透覆盖层,能量因此留在土壤中,并保持土壤温度。值得一提的是,覆盖层也会反射一些阳光,所以覆盖层以下的温度不会持续升高,而是保持在一个相对稳定的温度 厚土种植法也可以防止杂草生长。覆盖层下的薄弱光照和稀薄空气不利於雜草的生長。覆盖层还可以在分解时提供养分,并防止土壤受到雨水和風的侵蝕。 除了厚土種植法,我們在設計花園時還应该考虑什么因素呢?温哥华村正在考虑在这片花园中种植卑诗省本地植物,因为它们早已适应了本地气候。 “有人能想出一些卑诗省本地的可以种在这个花园里的植物吗?” 一些本地植物包括黑莓、熊果、俄勒冈葡萄、柳兰、黄菊花、芥菜、印度生菜、蓟、高羊肚菌和平菇。 建立永续农业花园的另一个重要方面是与之互动的人。温哥华村有时会在这个地区开展一场永续花园闪电战(Permablitz)。永续花园闪电战是一个试图在一天之内建成永续花园的活动,利用社区成员的力量来分享知识、种植植物和获得乐趣。如果有人想要参加永续花园闪电战,或任何其他由温哥华村主办的,与永续农业相关的活动,你可以访问他们的官方网站,查找活动的具体日期和时间。 我们之前所谈到的,只是永续农业的基础。当然,大家随时可以應用一些我們已經提過的技術,和我们将要提到的技术,添加进自己的永续花园设计里。  11. 从绿街花园到基斯兰奴合作花园/Green Street Garden to Kitsilano Community Centre Collaborative Garden Transition 到目前为止,我们只是围绕着人类和植物来讨论永续农业,但动物也是永续农业的一个重要组成部分。虽然在城市永续农业花园中养殖动物有很多限制,但是在城市以外的地区,动物在人造生态系统中发挥不可或缺的作用。 “大家认为哪些动物可以使永续农业花园受益?为什么?” 鱼、蜜蜂、鸭子、鹅、鸡、兔子、山羊、绵羊、猪、牛、虫子,甚至微生物都是可以用来改善永续农业空间的动物。 动物可以在消耗一些永续农业耕种的粮食的同时提供天然肥料,并让周围植物的生长受益。这对鱼而言也如此,鱼能在捕食昆虫同时提供粪便作为植物肥料。 虽然永续农业花园管理者会想要动物只食用杂草或者指定的饲料植物,但在沒有控制的情況下這些動物很可能會吃其他植物。我们可以采用多种方法来解决这种情况,例如將動物圍在欄中;使用便携式围栏在花园中移动动物;在花园中种植足够多供人类和动物食用的植物90 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor ;种植动物不会吃的植物;或是限制動物在花園里的時間等等。但显然,鱼类和虫类会一直存在在花园中。  12. 基斯兰奴社区中心合作花园/Kitsilano Community Centre Collaborative Garden 虽然下一个花园中也没有动物,但它仍然是一个值得参观的好地方,同时它也是这次旅途中第三个由温哥华村以外的机构管理的花园。这个花园被称为基斯兰奴社区中心合作花园,于2014年建立,由Noah Thrush组织,并由一群协作园丁与社区中心合作运营。这片花园在规划阶段得到了温哥华村的帮助,在实施阶段也得到了 Can You Dig It 组织的帮助。 这片花园主要实施的永续农业技术是食物森林,包括多种浆果类果树,几种草本植物,以及一系列太平洋西北地区的本地植物。虽然我们已经在第一个花园时深入讨论了食物森林,但是这里的食物森林的独特之处在于,这里经常有多余的草药、浆果和蔬菜可以用来冷冻储存,并用于社区中心食物项目。 在社区中心位置,有必要考虑如何才能将基斯兰奴社区的成员及其他地区成员都邀请进永续农业花园中。考虑种植不同口味的植物也很重要。如果你还记得之前的内容,第十项永续农业设计原则是“使用和重视多样性”,它既适用于植物,也适用于人类。在永续花园中培养多样性的一种方法是种植来自世界各地的植物,并将其用于不同文化背景的食物中。在种植非本地植物时,必须考虑它们是否能够适应本地气候,以及是否存在成为入侵物种的风险。藏红花和利马豆就是适应温哥华的外来物种,藏红花经常在亚洲南部印度人的食物中用作香料,而利马豆经常用于南美等国家的烹饪。 鼓励社区或个人花园多样化的另一种方法是举办全年的文化庆祝活动。这个花园有几个安静的地方,人们可以坐在那里享受宁静的空间,而这些空间也非常适合举办庆祝活动,例如排灯节,复活节,中国新年等等。 社区中心欢迎任何想要参与活动的人们。他们还提供园艺和其他与食物有关的讲习班,其中许多服务是由温哥华村提供的。   13. 从基斯兰奴合作花园到图书馆庭院花园/Kitsilano Community Centre Collaborative Garden to Le Village Courtyard Garden Transition 当我们走到下一个花园时,我们将继续谈论多样性。到目前为止,我们参观过的所有永续花园都位于加拿大,但是永续农业文化存在在世界各地。 在厄瓜多尔,洛斯恩库恩特罗斯(Los Encuentros)附近有一个永续农业园,它的功能类似于一个公社,人们可以在土地上种植植物,将这些植物变成饭菜,并执行一些简单的任务来保持基础设施的正常运转。作为回报,公社成员可以在这里过夜,进餐,远足,还有机会上非西班牙语人士的语言课。洛斯恩库恩特罗斯的气候有利于种植各种各样的植物,例如椰子,可可,酸豆,菠萝蜜,巴巴果,面包果,西番莲和许多其他植物。农场的基础设施是用竹子建造的,厕所都是可堆肥的,而水资源则来自附近的河流。 91 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 在越南,湄公河三角洲沿岸也有一个永续花园的例子。这个永续农业空间来自家族经营的农场,已经经营了三代,围绕着一系列作为水源的沟渠建造。这些沟渠里充满了生命,包括藻类,昆虫,蜗牛,青蛙和养殖鲶鱼,其中一些被用作这个家族的蛋白质来源。沟渠的边缘生长着各种果树,包括红毛丹,火龙果,人心果,木瓜,鳄梨,香蕉和芒果。在树下,可以找到许多其他植物,包括芋头,番薯和豆瓣菜。这些低层植物由于果树树冠所遮盖的斑驳阴影,免受越南午后强烈的阳光照射。 “有人认出这里采用的是哪种永续培养技术吗?” 很明显,他们使用了食物森林的永续农业技术。 事实上,这样传统类型的农业在越南的湄公河三角洲非常普遍,尽管它们很快就被用于出口的稻田所取代。 位于瑞典的一个永续花园,可以被称为美食家的天堂。它位于瑞典拉普兰省的哈拉湖岸边,拥有14个玻璃和木质小屋,这些小屋由生长缓慢且坚固耐用的韦克舍杉木(Vaxjo fir)制成。所有的食物都来自当地,包括一些从附近的猎人和渔民那里获得的食材,但是大多数植物实际上是在当地森林的灌木丛中种植的,然后在收获的时候采摘。在提供由当地资源制成的美食的同时,该度假村还向来自世界各地的建筑师、哲学家、农民、设计师和其他游客宣传生物动力农业技术。 正如你所看到的,永续农业在全球范围内都有所发展。它在某些地区十分常见,比如湄公河三角洲。在另一些地区,如瑞典,它取代了更普遍的单一养殖场。让永续农业更具影响力的关键之一,也许是让它成为常态,而非例外。  14. 温哥华公共图书馆基斯兰奴分部的庭院花园/Le Village Courtyard Garden Transition 当我们到达由温哥华村社区合作伙伴经营的第四个花园时,我们可以看到永续农业是如何融入日常生活和日常空间的,从而成为常态的。 这个永续花园由温哥华公共图书馆(VPL)基斯兰奴分部的Society Le Village协会经营。在2013年,有一群人想要土地种植有机草药和蔬菜,同时,温哥华公共图书馆基斯兰奴分部希望整修他们的露台,以此为契机,这个花园被建立了起来。花园由水泥庭院中间的5个部分组成,图书馆的读者和志愿者在这里给花浇水,并利用庭院放松、吃午餐和阅读。任何喜欢这个空间的人都可以根据自己的需要带走适量的草药和蔬菜,只是记得别拿太多,因为如果拿太多,其他人就没有了。 为了使永续农业成为一种常态,一些像图书馆之类的公共空间,是向不同人群展示永续农业的理念、技术的最佳场所。农业领域的一种观点是,城市空间与工农业空间是分离的,但人们也可以设想一些不同的、互补的观点。想象一下这样一个城市,林荫大道、公园、前院、屋顶、田野,以及更多的地方都有一个永续花园。永续花园附近仍有开放空间可供活动,如运动、散步或野餐,同时用各种植物填充还未使用的空间,其中一些植物还能生产食物。当然,花园需要有人照料,但这可以由当地居民志愿者来做。 想要实现这个想法看起来充满挑战,但这仅仅是因为这不符合北美人的习惯。在人们周围的空间里建立永续花园,不仅有利于人们的美容和营养,也会提高人们的意识,让人们意92 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 识到我们的大部分食物通常都是在几百几千公里之外单一的种植环境中生产的。事实上,这一点可以通过西雅图比肯山(Beacon Hill Seattle)的比肯食物森林永续种植项目来解释,它是一个七英亩的永续农业花园,将自然栖息地的恢复和周围社区的食物供应结合起来。  15. 从图书馆庭院花园到戴维·埃比种子箱/Le Village Courtyard Garden to David Eby_s Office Transition 提到花园,大多数人会想到地上的如花朵、树叶和树木的绿色植物。但在建起一个花园之前,我们需要考虑种子。温哥华村和其他永续农业创始人使用种子库去分发从他们的花园,其他园丁,和当地种子机构里收集的种子,以分享和交换种子的方式增加永续农业花园的多样性。下一个花园是由温哥华村以外的机构经营的最后一个花园,位于省议员戴维·埃比(David Eby)的社区办公室。这个花园还向路过办公室的人免费发放由温哥华村种子库提供的种子。  16. 戴维·埃比办公室前的种子箱/David Eby_s Office 保存种子是永续农业的重要组成部分,其原因有很多,主要的原因是,如果你以前保存过种子,你就不需要每年都出去买种子了! “大家觉得种子保存理念可能与哪项永续农业理念有关?” 我们首先想到的是理念三:​获得收益(​ ​Obtain a Yield)​和理念六:​無廢料的生產(Produce No Waste)​。在种植时,你会想要从产出的所有东西中受益,包括种子。把可以用来扩大或改善现有的园林景观的种子,用来堆肥也是一种巨大的浪费。 保存种子的另一个原因是,对永续花园中种植的植物的质量有更好的把控。如果你收集和保存自己的种子,你可以选择从最多产的植物,生产最好的水果和蔬菜的植物,或有许多其他可取特征的植物中保存种子。当保存下来的种子被种植后,那些顶级植物的基因会被重新引入到花园里,这样随着时间的推移,你会建立一个更美丽、更多产的永续花园。 保存种子比你想象的要容易得多。例如,豆子种子的处理过程是等待豆荚在植株上成熟,直到它们变干变黄,同时种子内部发出咔嗒咔嗒的声音,就可以从豆荚中收集它们了。对于生菜,最好的做法是在种子头最松软的时候将整株植株切开,然后将植株倒在干桶里大约一周,最后清洗种子上的谷壳。对于西红柿,最好的做法是把种子和果肉放在玻璃罐里发酵到顶部出现泡沫为止,然后把种子从果肉上洗掉,露天晾干,最后再存储在纸袋中。确保从开放授粉品种(在种子包装上寻找OP标志)而不是杂种(在种子包装上寻找F1标志)中保存种子,否则你可能会发现你种植了一些非常奇怪(而且味道不是很好)的植物! 正如你所看到的,保存种子的复杂性似乎令人生畏,但是这样做也很有趣,并且有很多博客信息可以提供帮助。要获得有关保存种子的更多专业经验,温哥华村通常在夏季和初秋提供种子保存研讨会,你可以在他们的网站上找到具体信息,对于希望尝试这种可持续实践的人来说,这是一个很好的开始。  93 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 17.从戴维·埃比种子箱到麦克布莱德公园/David Eby_s Office to McBride Park Field House Transition 正如您所看到的,“永续农业运动”旨在解决围绕不公平和不民主做法的生态和社会问题,这些做法过度利用资源导致土壤流失,荒漠化,森林砍伐,污染,生态系统破坏以及全球变暖导致的物种灭绝。让我们研究一下永续农业将如何应用于现实世界。 人类可以通过多种方式铭记重要的事物,使他们长盛不衰。最好的方式之一就是艺术和故事。在这次的永续农业之旅中,我们建议你在走到下一个花园时,听听Youtube上的这首诗歌《崛起:从一个岛到另一个(​Rise: From One Island to Another​)》。这首诗由马绍尔群岛的Kathy Jetnl-Kijiner和来自格陵兰岛的Aka Niviana撰写。这两位原住民妇女将海平面上升和冰川融化的现实联系起来。  18. 麦克布莱德公园小屋/McBride Park Field House 正如我们在这里讨论的,全球变暖和其他与粮食生产相关的人类影响对地球上的生物和整个生态系统构成了重大威胁。为了保护自然环境,试图创建一个可以满足你大部分水果和蔬菜需求的花园似乎很艰巨,但是永续农业无论规模大小都可以进行。即使是在看似很小的地方,采用永续农业的技术也可以向周围的人表明,你有兴趣帮助创造积极的变化。 虽然麦克布莱德公园小屋只是一个很小的永续农业花园,但它也能完美展示永续农业花园规模的灵活性,小到仅仅一个花盆,大到一整片农地。温哥华村所做的工作很大程度上是在各种个人以及社区大小的小花园里,它们各自有不同的植物和永续农业技术,但永续花园也可以大到满足所有人口的需求。 虽然在工业化农业会使用农药和单一耕作这些便宜又方便的方式去满足当代大规模食品生产的需求,但随着害虫和杂草的进化,有些已经对农药的化学成分产生抗药性。要有效地消除害虫和杂草,要不就是加重杀虫剂的剂量,要不就可以从生物防治这方面着手-例如之前提到的“伴植”栽种技巧或者投放害虫捕食者。这种生物防治方法就代表着其中一项永续农业设计理念,由此可见应用永续农业设计是一个不错的解决方法。 要讨论永续农业大规模运作的方式,我们可以看一个永续农场的例子。在这个例子中,永续农场被设计为同心圆造型,就像一个标靶,标靶的每一环都种着不同的植物。一间农舍坐落在花园的中心,农民们可以在里面工作。最需要照料的植物将被种植在离中心最近的几层,因为它们需要被频繁的使用,而不那么需要维护的植物种植在外面几层。 离中心最近的几层可以种植包括一年生花卉、水果、蔬菜以及需要定期收获的草药等。这些植物需要定期采摘、浇水或施肥,因此它们需要便于中心农舍的农民接触,并将它们用于日常活动中,例如烹饪。离农场中心稍远一点的地方可以种植多年生植物,这些植物也需要收割,但采摘的频率较低,或者不需要人工照料。第二远的圈层可作为牧场,所有动物都可以在这里放牧。这里生长的的草,灌木或草药适合作为动物饲料。除此之外,可设定一个区域为果园,种植结果树种,如苹果树或梨树,以及结果灌木,如黑莓和覆盆子。离农场中心最远的一层可以种植较大的树种,作为整个永续农场的自然边界。在农场的不同区域,也可能有池塘、沼泽或其他水环境,以供鱼类、水生植物生长,并为整个农场提供灌溉水源。 94 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor  19. 从麦克布莱德公园到阿伯索永续园/McBride Park Field House to Aberthau Permaculture Garden Transition 在引言中,我们提到过度开采和导致不平等的相关政治经济结构对水资源的影响程度与对粮食主权的影响一样大,但我们并未详细讨论永续农业如何解决缺水问题。 在永续农业花园中有许多技术可以用来收集和储存水,这些水通常会流到大多数植物无法到达的地方。其中一种方法就是利用“人工沼泽”。人工沼泽是在永续农业花园的土壤中挖出的沟渠,它引导水流从土壤表面进入更深的土层,以便于植物根系的生长。在降雨期间,人工沼泽还能储存土壤无法吸收的多余水分,因此与传统的土壤水分保持方法相比,它可以在更长的时间内继续滋养植物。 "有人能想到这与哪项永续农业理念有关吗" 人工沼泽属于第二项​捕捉与储存能量​的永续农业设计理念。由于人工沼泽通常是在高地建立,利用重力将水流到山下,因此不需要抽水装置和其他动力灌溉源。 另一个选择是雨桶。雨桶可以通过在放置在室外来收集雨水,也可以使用像是排水沟一样的排水系统收集雨水。多个雨桶可以储存大量的水,因此在干旱期间有足够的水来支撑植物继续生长。 关键线设计是一种在永续农业花园创建人工水流的方法。遵循某个地区的自然地形凹槽,农民可以通过加深这些凹槽来引导并储存更多的水,这样水就可以提供给尽可能多的植物。 瓦勒拉尼系统(The Vallerani System)​在干旱易发地区或过度放牧造成荒漠化的地区特别有用。该系统采用垂直结构进行储水,使水可以深入渗透到干燥的土壤中,同时挖掘过程将打破致密的土壤。该结构类似于垂直的管道,在其长度方向上以适当的距离放置了具有足球大小的储水空间,这样不同根系结构的植物就都可以获得水。 我们将讨论的最后一项技术是利用了​使用边缘并重视边际​理念的永续农业技术。这种方法是在永续农业花园周围创建一条护城河,作为对杂草和害虫的物理屏障,也提供了可以从边缘流入中心的灌溉水源。 我们刚才已经讨论过的所有技术都是有关收集和储存水的方法,但是这些水也必须被花园中的所有植物吸收。最好的方法之一是滴灌。滴灌系统逐滴从土壤表面表面或地下缓慢地向植物供水。通常,滴管系统由软管组成,通过软管中的小孔来控制水流到花园中特定位置的速度。滴灌系统比大多数灌溉系统少30-50%的耗水量,并支持提供持续的水流量。持续的水源可以促进植物生长,因为当环境在过干过湿之间波动时,植物会经历诸如气孔开合的生理变化,而气孔开合会导致水分流失。 “有谁知道其他的集水技术吗?” 可能还有许多其他新的取水方式可用于花园中。如果大家知道更多技术,你们可以在自己的花园里实施这些技术,并希望你们与社区成员相互分享技术。 95 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor 我们刚才讨论的与水相关的话题很大程度上与它们周围生长的植物无关,但是也有一些系统可以同时节水,种植植物和供养水生动物。鱼菜共生系统就是这样一种水生系统,可以使植物与鱼类共生,并形成一个自我维持的生态系统,其中鱼粪为植物提供营养,植物为鱼过滤水。 这种永续农业技术通常包含像池塘或小溪这样的水源,植物的根直接漂浮在水面上。鱼粪富含对植物有益的营养物质,但如果鱼在其中生活可能会缺氧。当鱼在池塘里排便时,鱼粪会留在水源中,直到被水面上的植物根系过滤掉。这些植物靠吸收来补充水分,它们同时也吸收了鱼粪颗粒里的营养物质,所以植物在补充自身营养的同时也可以清洁池塘。干净的雨水为池塘补充水量,也为鱼类的生长创造了健康的环境。在这个系统中,植物和鱼都茁壮成长。  20. 阿伯索永续农业园/Aberthau Permaculture Garden 阿伯索永续农业园是温哥华村最发达的永续园之一,在这次旅行的最后一个地点,我们将讨论这片花园中的几种永续农业技术。 与城市园艺相关的一种永续农业技术是垂直花园(Vertical Garden)。这项技术可以使植物向上而不是向外生长,从而节省空间。需要注意的是,垂直花园本质上是一个容器,所以植物的根系体积有限,因为垂直花园的支撑结构阻碍了根系深度,并且由于大部分水分都留在土壤表面,因此它们还需要更频繁地浇水。为了解决水分问题,用于垂直花园袋的材料是不可渗透的,因此保留了土壤水分。需要注意的是,垂直花园顶部的植物不太容易浇水和维护,因此最好在顶部区域种植不太需要照料的植物。 在该花园中多次使用的另一种常见的永续农业技术是木料堆肥法(Hügelkultur),是一种在堆土上覆盖木屑,例如树枝,原木,树叶等的园艺方法。在保持水分方面,它的作用与厚土种植法类似于:堆土下的木材在降雨期间吸收过量的水分,然后通过扩散过程将其释放到周围的土壤中。该技术还模仿了天然森林系统中的养分循环过程:树木和灌木丛中的碎屑会掉落到地上,并随着时间的流逝被微生物,真菌和虫子等动物分解。这样的分解过程也发生在木料堆肥法的堆土中,但比在自然系统中更集中于花园中的特定位置。虽然理论上可以在木料堆肥法的堆土上种植多种植物,但是最好还是种植对水和营养有较高要求的物种,例如南瓜,黄瓜,土豆和豆类,这对于木料堆肥法有限的空间中,能最大化利用资源。在这个花园里,你能看到部分木料堆肥法,地下铺有木头,但没有形成土堆。 这个花园也存在着一个螺旋堆砌种植结构(Herb Spiral)。螺旋堆砌种植结构是一种堆砌园艺技术,可以在土丘的不同位置创造微小气候,这有利于在一小片土地同时种植多种植物。螺旋堆砌种植结构的斜坡同时面向所有方向,但是由于阳光的照射,朝南的斜坡比朝北的斜坡要热,朝东的斜坡要比朝西的斜坡要干燥。在整个螺旋形的土丘中,土丘的底部比顶部更湿润,因为水顺着斜坡流下并聚集在土丘和平坦土壤之间的缝隙中。基于这些微小气候,人们可以同时种植适应不同气候的植物。鼠尾草,薰衣草和罗勒等植物喜欢阳光但温度适中的地带,因此可以种植在面向西面的斜坡。而在螺旋土丘的最底部,可以种植喜欢凉爽潮湿气候的植物,如香菜和莳萝。使用这种园艺技术可确保将每种植物都种植在花园内最理想的环境中。 正如你所看到的,除了采用各种各样的永续农业技术,这个花园还种有各种各样的植物,包括一些用于染色织物的植物。这个花园还打算将来安装编织柳树篱笆,利用花园里植物染料制作旗帜,并将其挂在垂直花园的顶部。 96 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor “有人能辨认出这个花园里的植物吗?”  “这次旅行结束后,你想在自己的花园里种些什么呢?”  21. 结语/Conclusion 我们以一点倡导来结束本次旅行。温哥华村是一个转型社会组织,由一群当地人组织起来重新构想我们社区里的生活,以帮助解决诸如全球变暖,资源上限,和社会不平等问题。转型社会能在从个人到社会的各种规模上运作,每种规模都有不同的运作技巧。个人能采取建造自己的永续花园来产生食物的方式来促进社会变革。像我们这样类似的组织,在证明能够保护人类和环境利益的前提下,如果我们有能力和意愿,为每一个人生产食物,那么我们就可以推动向可持续的粮食生产转变,并影响工业大规模的粮食生产方式。 除了从地方到全球范围内发生的转变之外,还存在着随着时间变化,而创造具有复原力的社会和星球的可能,在这些支持永续农业的人看来,这是一种通过改变对环境不利的农业实践,来避免全球变暖等人为灾难的方式。另一方面,它也可以看作是一种向人们传授知识和技能的运动,因为随着气候变化和由此造成的持续全球动荡,人们必须对粮食减产和传播系统崩溃等后果采取应对措施。 然而,最重要的是,无论以何种规模运作,我们必须发展永续农业。而包括永续农业在内的转型运动,是人们在不断变化的世界中,参与社会和环境正义的一种很好的方式。 无论园艺水平如何,我们一直欢迎对永续农业感兴趣的人加入我们。事实上,这个持续三年的,由温哥华市政府绿色城市项目(Greenest City Grant )拨款的项目还打算继续在社区中建造更多的永续农业花园。如果你想了解更多有关温哥华村的相关内容,你可以在官网www.villagevancouver.ca​.上找到活动列表和相关信息。 谢谢大家的到来和参与!  Appendix F - Online Audio Playlist Soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/user-124366803/sets/village-vancouver-walking-tour-english (English) https://soundcloud.com/user-124366803/sets/village-vancouver (Cantonese) https://soundcloud.com/user-124366803/sets/village-vancouver-walking-tour-mandarin (Mandarin)   Anchor: https://anchor.fm/village-vancouver/episodes/Village-Vancouver-Walking-Tour---English-ecigpv  (English) https://anchor.fm/village-vancouver/episodes/Village-Vancouver---ecip26  (Cantonese) 97 Team 6 - Permaculture Corridor https://anchor.fm/village-vancouver/episodes/-Village-Vancouver-Walking-Tour-Mandarin-ecjerl (Mandarin)  Appendix G - Tour Bingo Cards Cards available at this link: ​https://www.kidscerts.com/bingo/pdfs/54765-0d6f99.pdf 98 

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