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The Hidden Heritage Gem of B.C. : The Economic and Architectural History of the Granville Island Public… Fazel, Yasaman Apr 30, 2016

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 The Hidden Heritage Gem of B.C.: The Economic and Architectural History of the Granville Island Public Market Report prepared at the request of Vancouver Heritage Foundation, in partial fulfilment of Geography 429: Research in Historical Geography, for Dr. David Brownstein.      By Yasaman Fazel April 2016       Abstract: This research study investigates the heritage value of Granville Island, a ma-nmade land owned by the Canadian federal government. This paper argues, although the site is relatively young, it should be preserved through heritage registration. The island’s urban space has become a complex and unique socio-economic system over the years. To understand the heritage significance of this system its landmarks must be studied both individually and in relation to the whole island throughout the history. Such investigation requires much research and should not be limited to the results gathered over one academic semester. This study focuses on the heritage value of the Granville Island Public Market to offer a preliminary plan for preserving this landmark. The paper is primarily intended for Vancouver Heritage Foundation, and hopes to provide supplementary information for a Statement of Significance (SOS) document. To do so, the history of Granville Island is divided into four historical epochs. After highlighting the significant urban developments in each section, the study recommends the major elements to be preserved in the Public Market structure. The author strongly believes the recommendations must be revised once the rest of the landmarks on the island are thoroughly studied and their relations to the whole space are identified.                  1  Introduction:  Granville Island will turn a hundred years old sometime this year. Although the land is relatively young, I would argue, it should be recognized as a heritage site because its architecture reflects the complex socio-economic shifts in Canada over the past century. Granville Island had a unique opportunity to preserve some aspects of each historic epoch, and yet it continued to grow and develop as the urban oasis we know today. In this context, the island is a rare (if not the only) surviving example of a place of its kind in British Columbia.  The Canadian Register of Historic Places (CRHP) defines a historic place as “any physical place in Canada that has been formally recognized for its heritage value by a local, provincial, territorial and/or federal authority.”1 A Statement of Significance (SOS) is prepared to formally identify heritage value and help in planning for the future of the place. The SOS consists of three sections: A description of the historic place, its heritage value, and its character defining elements.2 This report aims to assess the heritage value of the island by telling the story of the urban development of the Granville Island Public Market. To do so, the report is divided into four major historical periods. At the end of each section the elements that characterize the heritage value of the market are identified. This study draws on the information gathered through a number of primary and secondary sources, as well as two interviews with Michael Kluckner (a well-known historian and author) and Norman Hotson (a key figure behind the redevelopment of Granville Island in the late 1970s). Barry Konkin claims the development of a city depends on traditional industrial activities to provide essential goods and services. As the developing phase passes, the traditional industrial activities are replaced by service oriented sectors.3 This general urban development concept describes the overall transformation of space in Granville Island. From Mud Island to Industrial Island In 1859, captain George Richards spotted the entrance to False Creek and mapped a long sandbar in its mist. This sandbar provided a rich fishing ground for the aboriginal community until mid to late nineteenth century. The aboriginals’ way of life and its connection to the Mud Island before the arrival of the Europeans is not well documented. After a massive fire in 1886 on False Creek’s north shore, European settlers fled to the southern shores, and some remained in the region to form the first permanent settlement on the shore neighbouring the sandbar.4  In the early twentieth century, much attention was given to the CPR holdings in Vancouver.5 A sharp increase in shipping traffic in the Port of Vancouver called for the                                                              1 Parks Canada, (2011). Canada's Historic Places. Canadian Register of Historic Places: Writing Statements of Significance. Parks Canada, p.3. 2 Ibid.  3 Barry Konkin “Planning Policy Responses to the Challenge of Industrial Restructuring: The Case of Vancouver BC” (MA. Thesis, Planning department, UBC, 1992). 4 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 8-15.  5 Ibid.  2  construction of an industrial area.6 In 1911, Harry Stevens was elected as a member of parliament and urged the government to construct a harbour in western Canada. He envisioned a manmade Island in the heart of False Creek in his proposal in 1913. The federal government voted in favor of the proposal in 1915, and the island was constructed on top of the mud flat inside the basin in 1916 in hopes of becoming a super port. This ten-feet-high island was thirty six acres and cost fourteen cents per acre.7 Figure 1 represents the west half of Mud Island before filling in 1916 (where the Public Market is located today). Figure 2 depicts Granville Island by the early 1917 when the land was filled. Its lots had sixty-three year lease periods for tenants, and the rent was $500-$1500 per acre. The island was officially named Industrial Island by Pacific Dredging Company Ltd, but was known as Granville Island to the Vancouverites.8   Figure 1: “West half Granville Island before Filling”, Major J.S. Matthews, 1916, Box: 173-A-10 album A-8, AM54-S4-1---: A-8-24.2, City of Vancouver Archives Databases. Available at: http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/west-half-granville-island-before-filling-2.  Figure 2: “Pacific Dredging Co. Ltd. Vancouver, B.C. March 26.1917”, Major J.S. Matthews, March 26.1917, AM54-S4-3-: PAN N96, City of Vancouver Archives Database. Available at: ttp://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/pacific-dredging-co-ltd-vancouver-b-c-march-26-1917. The current architecture of the Public Market incorporates the two oldest buildings on the island.9 They are identified in Figure 3. The first building (on the right)                                                              6 “The Industrial Heyday” Granville Island Works [Granville Island: Granville Island Business and Community Association, 2009].  7 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 25-33. 8 Ibid. 25-34. 9 Hotson, N. (2016). Granville Island History.  3  on this island belonged to the B.C. Equipment warehouse. It was built in 1917, and the business remained there until 1975. Some architectural historians claim the B.C. Equipment simplistic design with corrugated tin appearance set the architectural standards for the rest of the buildings in the late 1910s and the early 1920s.10 The second building was Schaake Machinery which belonged to the American-born Schaake brothers, Henry and Howard. The development of this company remained a crucial part of the island’s history, and played a major role in the economic advancement of British Columbia. The business was established in 1899 in New Westminster, and moved to a modern and convenient factory building on Granville Island at the end of 1917 thanks to Schaake Machinery’s highly profitable production. This one-acre building was fully equipped with modern machinery as well as a pattern shop, a foundry, a blacksmith shop, and a steel plate shop. The manufacturing products included shingle and sawmill machinery, transmission machinery, canning machines, and gasoline engines. Schaake Machinery, therefore, facilitated two major industries of British Columbia: Fishery and forestry. The sawing machines produced in British Colombia maintained a share of major markets in the global market. The low quality sawing machines produced in the eastern states of the United States, for example, could not compete with the quality of the British Columbian shingle sawing machines.11  Within two years, at least twelve companies were in business on the Island.12 Figure 3 shows the expansion of the industrial park in 1919. The year 1920, was marked by the expansion of construction industry in Vancouver. The town was booming, and Granville Island had been in business for three years. By 1923, the lots were all rented, and the island was host to nearly fifty tenants.13 Figure 4 shows the list of the tenants found on Vancouver city directory of 1925. This phase of urban development in Granville Island portrays the famous concept of agglomeration economies by Alfred Weber (1909). The concept refers to the efficiency of the clusters of industrial activities, and claims that industrial districts and industrial parks are economically feasible.14                                                               10 Michael McCullough, Granville Island: An Urban Oasis [Vancouver: Grey Advertising and Public Relations Ltd., 1998], 14. 11 Griffin, R. (1981). The Shingle Sawing Machine in British Columbia 1901 to 1925. Material Culture Review / Revue de la culture matérielle, [online] 13. Available at: https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/MCR/article/view/17070/22909 [Accessed 09 Apr. 2016]; J. H. Hamilton, The Industries of British Columbia [Vancouver: Progress Pub. Co., 1918], 92. 12 Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory [Vancouver: 1919] [online] 192. Available at: http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1919/Henderson%27s_Greater_Vancouver_City_Directory [Accessed 01 Apr. 2016]. 13 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 32-35.  14 David Kaplan et al., Urban geography. [Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2009], 170-171.  4   Figure 3 “[View of Granville Island from atop the north end of the Granville Bridge]”, Major J.S. Matthews, June 12, 1919, AM54-S4-3-: PAN N97, City of Vancouver Archives. http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-granville-island-from-atop-north-end-of-granvill.  Figure 4 Wrigley Henderson Amalgamated British Columbia Director, 1925, Vancouver, P424. Vancouver Public Library. Available at: http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1925/Wrigley_Henderson_Amalgamated_British_Columbia_Directory. The new tenants built long, skinny, corrugated tin plants with their fronts facing the railway lines and their end facing the water for easy transfer of their products (more than two miles of tracks ran down the centre of the island and along its perimeter).15                                                              15 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 40-42; Hotson, N. (2016). Granville Island History.  5  Such constructions also hint to the original purpose of Granville Island as a super port.16 The economic purpose of the island resulted in the unique use of the urban space as seen in figures 5.A. (left) and 5.B. (Right).  Figure 5.A. (Left) "Fire Insurance Atlas of Vancouver", B.C. Insurance Underwriters' Association, Reprinted in May 1940, Volume I, 599-157, City of Vancouver Archives. Figure 5.B. (Right) "Fire Insurance Atlas of Vancouver", B.C. Insurance Underwriters' Association, October 1928, Volume I, 599-158, City of Vancouver Archives.  The red rectangle on figure 5.A. shows the current location of the Public Market. As mentioned before, B.C. Equipment continued to be there until later. In the reprint version of the map in 1940, there is no trace of the Schaake Company. The industry continued to be on Granville Island until 1924.17 As Griffin mentions in his article, the mid 1920s saw a major decline in the production of shingle sawing machines as new technologies were introduced to the industry. This development had a major impact on the economy of British Columbia as the province was a major sawing machine producer in the global market.18  Agnes Hooi Ping Hor notes the industries often create new communities and extend the cities we live in. Therefore, industrial buildings are important parts of a city’s history, and are to be preserved..19 I would argue, there are three major elements to be preserved from this era. The interior and the exterior structure of the B.C. Equipment building highlights the building standards of 1910s while emphasizing on the history of the built environment of the island. There are also the remains of some industrial                                                              16 Hotson, N. (2016). Granville Island History. 17 Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory [Vancouver: 1924] [online] 430. Available at: http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1924/Henderson%27s_Greater_Vancouver_City_Directory [Accessed 01 Apr. 2016]. 18 Griffin. R. (1981). The Shingle Sawing Machine in British Columbia 1901 to 1925. Material Culture Review / Revue de la culture matérielle, [online] 13. Available at: https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/MCR/article/view/17070/22909 [Accessed 09 Apr. 2016]. 19 Agnes Hooi Ping Hor. “Industrial Evolution” (MA. Architecture Department. Thesis, Dalhousie University, 2001).  6  equipment inside the building that are worth preserving as they emphasize on the industrial history of the island. Lastly, the overall shape of the market should be preserved. The building is extended from the railway to the waterfront emphasizing on the history of export in B.C. and reflecting the dream of a super-port. Before and During the WWII   Sometime between 1924 and 1931, Schaake Company’s building would be occupied by the Wrights Canadian Rope company. Wrights Rope’s name appeared on the city directory in 1931 for the first time.20 However, the company itself began “[b]ack in 1770[.] Wright’s Rope started making ropes in Birmingham, England.” 21 Attorney-General Bonner mentioned in an interview: ‘“This company, coming as it does from the United Kingdom into our expanding economy, is new evidence of the close relationship between Britain and B.C. which has characterized our trade history.”’22 His comment suggests that the Wrights Canadian Rope Company was as significant and successful on the island as its predecessor (Schaake Machinery). Wrights Rope Ltd. was famous for supplying wire ropes to construct major bridges throughout the Commonwealth. Among them were the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Chelsea Suspension Bridge.23 With the construction of Industrial Island, Vancouver quickly became the manufacturing heart of the province. By the 30s, nearly 1200 people worked in Granville Island’s factories. As the sawmills began to move out of the creek, and the overseas competition limited the province’s manufacturing role the businesses on the island began to decline. The Depression years hit Granville Island badly, but many tenants managed to survive;24 by the mid1930s, the economy slowly revived, and people managed to pay their rents to the federal government.25   Throughout the 1930s, the current Public Market building was occupied by three companies: B.C. Equipment, Wrights Canadian Rope and Pacific Bolt MFG (Figure 6). The latter’s name first appeared on the city directory in 1926.                                                              20 Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory [Vancouver: 1931] [online] 430. Available at: http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1931/Henderson%27s_Greater_Vancouver_City_Directory [Accessed 01 Apr. 2016]. 21 Province, (1955). Wire Rope Factory Strengthens UK Ties. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location. 22 Ibid. 23 R.J. Moore, Province, (1954). $1,000,000 Rope Plant Will Start Next Month. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location. 24 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 40-42.  25 Horace Harrison, A single Voice: The Story of the Vancouver Regional Construction Association [Vancouver:  Creative Connections Publishing, 2001], 11.   7   Figure 6 Part of "Fire Insurance Atlas of Vancouver", B.C. Insurance Underwriters' Association, Reprinted in May 1940, Volume I, 599-157, City of Vancouver Archives.  When in 1939 Canada declared war, Granville Island responded to the federal government’s call for full production.26 During the Second World War, the production of chains, ships, ropes, nails and other crucial defence equipment in the area made Granville Island the centre of the province’s war effort.27 At least twenty seven firms were engaged in war work.28  Wrights Canadian Rope, alone, “produced 32 percent of the wire rope used in Canada’s war effort.”29 In the early 1940s, the island was only accessible to the employees to maintain high security standards for the factories that produced war equipment on the island.30   This section provided a detailed history of the Public Market to emphasize on the role this space played in the years before and during the WWII. Both Schaake Machinery and Wrights rope signified Canada’s strong ties with its two major economic partners (Britain and the USA) in the industrial era. Although this tie must be recognized by the economic historians, I believe, preserving any physical elements of the island for this sake will provide difficulties in future redevelopment plans of the island.  Towards a New Renaissance Productions died down once more after the Second World War. The dream of False Creek as the secondary harbour of Vancouver was slowly fading in the 1950s. Multiple fires seriously damaged some of the buildings, and tenants preferred to leave the old buildings rather than renovating them.31 One major fire occurred on September 26th, 1953 which severely damaged two of the Wrights Rope buildings. The repairing cost was estimated to be $500,000 at the time.32 By September of 1955, the company                                                              26 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 43-44.   27 Robert M. Bone, The Regional Geography of Canada [New York: Oxford University Press, 2011], 288.  28 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 44-46.   29 Province, (1955). Wire Rope Factory Strengthens UK Ties. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location. 30 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 44-50.   31 Chrissie Gibson and David Hardman, “Regenerating Urban Heritage,” Managing Leisure 3 (1998): 37-54, Accessed Jan 27.  32 Sun, (Septermber 28, 1953). Massive Fire Hits the Wrights Canadian Rope Factory. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location.  8  would move to a modern five-acre site (five times bigger than the original site on the island) on Southeast Marine Drive.33  After the Wrights Rope company moved out of the island, Brown Fraser and Co. Ltd. replaced it. The earliest record of this company I found on the University of British Columbia online database belonged to a 1919 advertisement (Figure 7). At the time, the factory was located on 1150 Homer Street (not on the island) according to the advertisement. I could not find the exact date it moved to Granville Island. It was likely that the company had already been on the island and moved to that lot after Wrights Rope had left. In the 1950s and 60s many companies moved within Granville Island. An example of this claim can be seen in the relocation of Canada Chain and Forge Ltd.. Its record of existence on Granville Island dates back to the 1920s according to the Vancouver city directory. A map produced in 1962 shows the company replaced the Pacific Bolt MFG before 1960.34  Figure 7 Advertisement for Brown, Fraser & Co., Ltd., British Columbia  Record, April 30, 1919.  By the late 1950s, progress, growth and modernization were praised by the city officials.35 The provincial and federal governments knew the island was due for a rejuvenating process, but three factors hint to its massive transformation rather than a simple updating of the buildings. First, the federal government decided on building Roberts Bank, the super port south of the city. Second, Vancouver’s downtown core was densely populated; therefore, becoming a residential area would be more profitable for the Island than remaining an industrial location. Third, there was a shift in the way of life after WWII. For Vancouverites, quality of life, clean environment and personal fulfilment replaced the pursuit of government’s industrial goals. In 1963, many citizens complained about the island being an “eyesore”.36  Many scholars and local interest groups lobbied to propose new plans for Granville Island’s landscapes.37 In the mid-1960s, the idea of Granville Island moving beyond an industrial hub was first introduced.38 Alan Clapp was among the first activists who convinced the federal government “to convert [Granville Island] to a place for                                                              33. R.J. Moore, Province, (1954). $1,000,000 Rope Plant Will Start Next Month. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location. 34 “False Creek interim harbour headline”, F. Wile., 1962, Box: 205-C, AM1594-: MAP 756. Available at: http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/false-creek-interim-harbour-headline 35 Will Langford, “Gerald Sutton Brown and the Discourse of City Planning Expertise in Vancouver 1954-59,” Urban History Review 41.2 (2013), 38, Accessed Jan 19.  36 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 54-59.  37 Richard J. Johnson, “Recreation and Open Space in Urban Waterfront Development” (M.A. Thesis, UBC, 1984).  38 Catherine Gourley, Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988], 44-50  9  makers, artists, performers and foodies: long before words like foodie and maker were part of the parlance.”39 Many believe his bold ideas saved the island’s life. Under Clapp’s influence, “the Minister of Urban Affairs, Ron Basford, took Granville Island under his proverbial wing and transformed the management of the island form Harbour Board to Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)” against all the criticisms.40 In this era, as Kluckner mentions in an interview, Granville Island transformed from a place for people to go to work to a place for them to be entertained.41 Ian Chodikoff (a Canadian architect) also mentions in an interview that development of Granville Island in particular had a major influence on the history of Vancouver as it promoted a new successful life style in the 1970s.42 The most significant aspect of this era is the participation of the local people in the federal government decision-making process. Instead of government dictating the local businesses on what to do (production, transportation, etc.) on this land (similar to 1940s), Vancouverites would decide on what they wanted on the Island. On these grounds, I would recommend preserving some major elements of the Market Place business to honour Clapp’s futuristic ideas and his efforts in rejuvenating the island.  Becoming an Oasis As Hotson rightfully remarks, the integration of the post-modern economy and architecture was a vital component to the successful redevelopment of Granville Island at the time. Norman Hotson Architects firm and Urbanics Consultants were hired by the CMHC to collaborate on this project. “In this case, it was an integrated approach and that led to certain land uses and quantities of uses, and it resulted in a [unique] rent structure [in which] some tenants pay full rent and some tenants are not for profit” (the Robin Hood principal as he calls it). 43 When asked to do similar projects elsewhere, Hotson declines the offers as he strongly believes this project was unique because of the location and the time. In the process of redevelopment, Hotson explains, “we said: ‘how can we build on this existing fabric in a very positive way and yet turn it from a primarily industrial to primarily public use.’”44 Instead of demolishing every construction, they looked at the physical features of each building and planned for a new urban use that would benefit the island’s economy while saving its heritage. There was no individual precedent in the world at the time. The inspirations mainly came from the streets of Western Europe, Ghirardelli Square, Pier 39 in San Francisco, and most importantly the Pike Place Market in Seattle.45 Penelope Street has done a thorough comparison between The Pike Place Market and The Granville Island Public Market in Urban Reader. She quotes                                                              39 Bramham, D. (2015). Daphne Bramham: Granville Island needs another Alan Clapp. Vancouver Sun. [online] Available at: http://www.vancouversun.com/daphne+bramham+granville+island+needs+another+alan+clapp/11372295/story.html [Accessed 10 Apr. 2016]. 40 Street, P. (1980). The Tale of Two Markets. Urban Reader, (V8N2), pp.15. 41 Kluckner, M (2016). Granville Island History. 42 YouTube, (2016). Industrial Revolution: The Design and Influence of Granville Island. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YFavdWspTQ [Accessed 27, Feb. 2016]. 43 Hotson, N. (2016). Granville Island History. 44 Ibid. 45 Ibid.  10  Norman Hotson: “‘At the Pike Place they have quite a mix of vegetables and meats and fish…. We felt it was important to have the same kind of diversity.’”46 In Terms of physical architecture, Hotson Architects did not introduce new materials to the island. They kept the original fabrication as much as possible, adapting to new uses.47 The island’s buildings are perfect examples of such adaptation; The Public Market, for example, connected seven existing industrial buildings together; five of them can be identified today thanks to their color coding system. (Figure 8)   Figure 7 "The Public Market View from the Street", Yasaman Fazel, March 11, 2016. This Successful urban transition led the island on the path to a popular tourism destination. Granville Island has been studied by international scholars such as Chrissie Gibson and David Hardman for its tourism industry. 48 The Granville Island Public Market in particular, is considered the number one market in North America for its local and tourist visitors on a daily basis.49   In this section, I emphasized on the integration of economy and architecture to present the foundations on which Granville Island was preserved in the late 1970s. It is important to acknowledge the success achieved through this integration and preserve the concept through maintaining a diversified economy on the island, and more particularly in the Public Market. One of the most significant aspects of Granville Island heritage is that it maintained its original character throughout the history while actively redeveloping its urban space. This feature is a rare element of the island and as Hotson mentions if its economy loses its diversity to become a tourism hub, the fabrication of the island will tear apart.50 If this prediction comes true B.C. will lose a rare heritage gem.                                                               46 Street, P. (1980). The Tale of Two Markets. Urban Reader, (V8N2), pp.13-18. 47 Hotson, N. (2016). Granville Island History. 48 Chrissie Gibson and David Hardman, “Regenerating Urban Heritage,” Managing Leisure 3 (1998): 37-54, Accessed Jan 27 2016.  49 Hotson, N. (2016). Granville Island History. 50 Ibid.  11  Conclusion:   In this research study, I explored the character defining elements of the Granville Island Public Market while telling the story of the island’s existence. The island began as a mud land and came to be the successful service-based district and the tourism hub we know today. Though the land is relatively young, the socio-economic changes throughout the past century created a unique island that deserves to be preserved for the future generations. It is extremely disappointing that the place has not been recognized as a heritage site in municipal, provincial, or federal level. This study focused on the history of the Public Market and offered a preliminary plan for preserving its character. However, it is crucial to consider the socio-economic complexity of the island as a whole, and treat this space as a system. In other words, the different parts of the island (buildings, roads, open spaces, and even parking lots) must be studied both independently and in relation to the whole before a reliable plan for preservation is produced.               12  Bibliography: Primary Sources: Bramham, D. (2015). “Daphne Bramham: Granville Island needs another Alan Clapp.” Vancouver Sun. [online] Available at: http://www.vancouversun.com/daphne+bramham+granville+island+needs+another+alan+clapp/11372295/story.html. [Accessed 10 Apr. 2016].  “False Creek interim harbour headline”, F. Wile., 1962, Box: 205-C, AM1594-: MAP 756. Available at: http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/false-creek-interim-harbour-headline.  "Fire Insurance Atlas of Vancouver", B.C. Insurance Underwriters' Association, Reprinted in May 1940, Volume I, 599-157, City of Vancouver Archives. “Fire Insurance Atlas of Vancouver", B.C. Insurance Underwriters' Association, October 1928, Volume I, 599-158, City of Vancouver Archives. Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory [Vancouver: 1919] [online] 192. Available at: http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1919/Henderson%27s_Greater_Vancouver_City_Directory [Accessed 01 Apr. 2016].  Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory [Vancouver: 1924] [online] 430. Available at: http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1924/Henderson%27s_Greater_Vancouver_City_Directory [Accessed 01 Apr. 2016].  Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory [Vancouver: 1931] [online] 430. Available at: http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1931/Henderson%27s_Greater_Vancouver_City_Directory [Accessed 01 Apr. 2016].  Open.library.ubc.ca. (2016). British Columbia Record, April 30, 1919. [online] Available at: https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/bcnewspapers/xbcrecord/items/1.0170336#p1z0r0f: [Accessed 10 Apr. 2016]. “Pacific Dredging Co. Ltd. Vancouver, B.C. March 26.1917”, Major J.S. Matthews, March 26.1917, AM54-S4-3-: PAN N96, City of Vancouver Archives Database. Available at: ttp://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/pacific-dredging-co-ltd-vancouver-b-c-march-26-1917. [Accessed 10 Apr. 2016]. Parks Canada, (2011). Canada's Historic Places. Canadian Register of Historic Places: Writing Statements of Significance. Parks Canada, p.3. Province, (1955). “Wire Rope Factory Strengthens UK Ties”. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location.  R.J. Moore, Province, (1954). “$1,000,000 Rope Plant Will Start Next Month”. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location. Sun, (September 28, 1953). Massive Fire Hits the Wrights Canadian Rope Factory. Accessed Through Vancouver Public Library Clipping Files, Central Location.    13  “West half Granville Island before Filling”, Major J.S. Matthews, 1916, Box: 173-A-10 album A-8, AM54-S4-1---: A-8-24.2, City of Vancouver Archives Databases. Available at: http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/west-half-granville-island-before-filling-2. [Accessed 10 Apr. 2016]. Wrigley Henderson Amalgamated British Columbia Director, 1925, Vancouver, P424. Vancouver Public Library. Available at: http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.php/browse/title/1925/Wrigley_Henderson_Amalgamated_British_Columbia_Directory. [Accessed 10 Apr. 2016].  “[View of Granville Island from atop the north end of the Granville Bridge]”, Major J.S. Matthews, June 12, 1919, AM54-S4-3-: PAN N97, City of Vancouver Archives. http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/view-of-granville-island-from-atop-north-end-of-granvill. [Accessed 10 Apr. 2016].  Secondary Sources: Bone, Robert M. The Regional Geography of Canada [New York: Oxford University Press, 2011].  Gibson, Chrissie, and Hardman, David. “Regenerating Urban Heritage,” Managing Leisure 3 (1998): 37-54, Accessed Jan 27.  Gourley, Catherine. Island in the Creek: The Granville Island Story [Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing, 1988].  Griffin, R. (1981). “The Shingle Sawing Machine in British Columbia 1901 to 1925.” Material Culture Review / Revue de la culture matérielle, [online] 13. Available at: https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/MCR/article/view/17070/22909 [Accessed 09 Apr. 2016].  Hamilton, J. H.. The Industries of British Columbia [Vancouver: Progress Pub. Co., 1918].  Harrison, Horace. “A single Voice: The Story of the Vancouver Regional Construction Association” [Vancouver: Creative Connections Publishing, 2001].  Hooi Ping Hor, Agnes.  “Industrial Evolution” (MA. Architecture Department. Thesis, Dalhousie University, 2001).  Hotson, N. (2016). Granville Island History.  Johnson, Richard J. “Recreation and Open Space in Urban Waterfront Development” (M.A. Thesis, UBC, 1984).  Kaplan, David et al., Urban geography [Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2009].  Kluckner, M (2016). 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