UBC Undergraduate Research

Achieving mandatory commercial recycling with Metro Vancouver de Pina-Jenkins, Marina Apr 6, 2016

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Achieving Mandatory Commercial Recycling with Metro Vancouver Edmonton, AB composting facility. Photo from City of  Edmonton Website  Marina de Pina-Jenkins April 6, 2016 Prepared at the request of  Metro Vancouver In partial fulfilment of  GEOG 419: Research in Environmental Geography,  for Dr. David Brownstein GEOG 419 !1Executive Summary Proposals:  • Create or use an online social network or platform as a tool to help facilitate rating and complaints based enforcement for business recycling. This will provide both outreach and education as well as a centralized place in the Greater Vancouver Region for data collection and communication between stakeholders  • Facilitate the creation of  a bylaw for mandatory commercial recycling or by adding a clause to existing bylaws to include businesses in current mandatory recycling practices • Outline responsibilities between stakeholders, particularly for small-medium sized businesses Academic Findings: • Target small-medium sized businesses because they have the least financial and human resources to spend time improving their waste practices • Support policy tools with outreach, especially targeting lower income zones and smaller businesses • Recycling programs will only be successful if  they are convenient, low cost and efficient for all stakeholders Interview Findings:  • From the municipalities interviewed, case-by-case solutions such as lottery system, franchising, mandatory service fees and enforcement are needed because most of  the business sector waste and recycling collection is currently being provided by private haulers. All stakeholders should be taken into account when coordinating these compromises • Soft enforcement methods such as education work best and fines are only used as a last resort for business that refuse to comply • Front loading trucks most efficient and would allow expansion of  collection service, but this requires large initial investment • Communication is needed between stakeholders: businesses, haulers, processing facilities and municipalities.  Table of  Contents: Introduction                 p. 3 Definitions                    p. 3 Method                         p. 5 Literature review          p. 5 Interview Findings       p. 7 Potential Options         p. 8 Summary                     p. 10 GEOG 419 !2Introduction 	 How many of  us really stop to think where our waste goes after we leave it outside for the city to deal with? The Metro Vancouver area is a partnership with 22 municipalities, one electoral area and one Treaty First Nation that collaboratively plans for and delivers regional scale services (Metro Vancouver website). Each of  these municipalities has a different way of  dealing with our waste, ranging from how it is picked up to where its taken to be recycled and what happens after that. In this report I am trying to answer the question: what is the best approach to achieve mandatory recycling for small to medium sized commercial business that could be applied to Metro Vancouver area? This project will go beyond the different approaches municipalities currently use. Some factors of  interest are the different ways of  measuring the success of  these programs and which policy tools (regulation) are most effective. I will maintain a focus on different potential strategies municipalities can use to encourage waste diversion among businesses in the Metro Vancouver area. This means there will be no discussion of  potential improvements by haulers or the recycling processors. 	 The reason why the report is focusing on small to medium sized businesses is because most municipalities already have programs in place for single family (SF) and multi family (MF) homes, so the next step to increase waste diversion is to tackle recycling by businesses. There are many stakeholders in this problem: Metro Vancouver, the greater Vancouver member municipalities, recycling processors, garbage and recycling haulers, and businesses. The landscape of  businesses in the Metro Vancouver area is mostly small to medium sized according to Statistics Canada, as can be seen in my example image of  the City of  Vancouver, to see how these small businesses are located around the city (see Zoning Map images).  Definitions (Some of  these were taken from the Mandatory Commercial Recycling Research (1996) report) -“Flow control” is the municipality’s ability to control where the haulers take the waste for processing. The flow, is the movement of  waste from generator to the processing facility.  -“Hauler” is a company employed in the transport of  goods or materials by road, in our case transported between waste collection to a processing facility -“Municipal waste” means garbage, household and commercial waste, industrial lunchroom or office waste and yard/landscape waste. -“Processing facility” is a company establishment that delivers fast, high-volume, high-throughput transaction processing, handling large, continuous loads of  essentially simple transactions across GEOG 419 !3large, geographically dispersed networks. In our context processing facilities receive recycling materials and organics to process them to be made into different outputs either for sale or for export.  -“Waste generators” are synonymous with residents, businesses and industries that create and generate waste outputs -“Franchise system” or a “lottery system” is a way to distribute hauling companies in specific areas of  the city. This works by zoning the city, and bidding off  zones to the hauling companies, in order to decrease green house gases and improve efficiency of  collection. This system is in contrast to a free market which means that haulers can get customers from wherever they want in the city.   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ELLIOTT  ST. FIFTY-THIRD  AVE.FIFTY-SECOND  AVE.FIFTY-FIRST   AVE.FIFTY-SIXTH  AVE.ST.KILLARNEYELMHURST   DR.55TH AVE.   KILLARNEY   ST.RALEIGH  ST.WALES  ST.WAVERLEY  AVE.   WALES   ST.FORTY-EIGHTH   AVE.FIFTY-FIRST  AVE.FORTY-NINTH  AVE.FIFTIETH   AVE. DAWSON  ST.RALEIGH  ST.COLERIDGE  AVE.CLARENDON   ST.  CLARENDON   ST. FORTY-THIRD    AVE.FORTY-THIRD  AVE.FORTY-FOURTH     AVE.   EARLES   ST.FORTY-SIXTH  AVE.FORTY-SEVENTH  AVE.VIVIAN  ST.  FORTY-FIFTH  AVE.   KILLARNEY   ST.  FORTIETH   AVE.FORTIETH  AVE.FORTY-SECOND  AVE.RHODES    ST. KILLARNEY   ST.ATLIN      ST.KASLO   ST.TWENTY-SEVENTH   AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH  AVE.TWENTY-EIGHTH  AVE.TWENTY-FIFTH  AVE.TWENTY-FOURTH  AVE.PENTICTON   ST.TWENTY-SEVENTH  AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH      AVE.KENT  AVE. NORTHSOUTHKENT  AVE.FIFTY-SECOND   AVE.    DOMAN   ST.MCKINNON   ST.FIFTY-THIRD      AVE.FIFTY-SECOND   AVE.FIFTY-FOURTH      AVE.FIFTY-SIXTH      AVE.55TH  AVE.COLERIDGE      AVE.FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE.KERR   ST.FIFTY-FIRST    AVE.LANCASTER   ST.RUPERT   ST.FIFTIETH      AVE.FORTY-NINTH      AVE.AVE.FORTY-FIFTHRUPERT      ST.JOYCE   ST.MCKINNON   ST.KERR   ST.FORTY-THIRD  AVE.KERR      ST.LANCASTER   ST.RUPERT   ST.FORTY-FIRST  AVE.FORTY-SECOND      AVE.COLLEGE   ST.IVANHOE   ST.MCKINNON   ST.SCHOOL AVE.SPENCER      ST.MCHARDY   ST.KILLARNEY   ST.TAUNTON   ST.RUPERT   ST.KINGSWAYEUCLID      AVE.VANNESS      AVE.    KINGS      AVE.KINGS      AVE.QUEENS      AVE.WELLINGTON      AVE.MOSS   ST.PICTON   ST.MANOR   ST.REID   ST.CHATHAM   ST.MANOR   ST.KILLARNEY   ST.FAIRMONT   ST.MOSS   ST.RENFREW   ST.LILLOOET   ST.NOOTKA   ST.TWENTY-FOURTH      AVE.RENFREW   ST.IONERSDIVBOYDSEVENTEENTH      AVE.FOURTEENTH      AVE. NOOTKA   ST.FIFTEENTH      AVE.SIXTEENTH      AVE.SEVENTEENTH      AVE.LILLOOET   ST.GRANDVIEW      HWY.HEBB      AVE.NOOTKA    ST.LILLOOET   ST.LILLOOET   ST.NOOTKA   ST.RENFREW   ST.FIFTH      AVE.FOURTH      AVE.THIRD      AVE.GRAVELEY      ST.GRANT      ST.HAZELTON   ST.LE ROI   ST.KELOWNA   ST.KITCHENER      ST.CHARLES      ST.LILLOOET   ST.NOOTKA   ST.CARLISLE      ST.RENFREW   ST.FRANKLIN     ST.YALE   ST.NOOTKA   ST. WALL      ST.ST.COMMISSIONERFAIRMONT  ST.MOSS   ST.EARLES   ST.TODD   ST.RAVINE   ST.KASLO   ST.   TWELFTH AVE.KASLO    ST.PARKER   ST.ROSSLAND    ST.KASLO  ST.DUKE  ST.WARD  ST.DUNDEE   ST.EARLES   ST.RHODES   ST.WALES   ST.CLARENDON   ST.SLOCAN   ST.CHAMBERS   ST.ST. LAWRENCE   ST.  DUCHESS   ST.EUCLID  AVE.SLOCAN  ST.NORQUAY   ST.GOTHARD   ST.CLARENDON   ST.BROCK  ST.CLARENDON   ST.GALT  ST.TWENTY-NINTH  AVE.PENTICTON  ST.TWENTY-THIRD  AVE.KAMLOOPS   ST.TWENTY-SECOND  AVE.SLOCAN   ST.TWENTY-FIRST  AVE.TWENTIETH   AVE.EIGHTEENTH  AVE.NINETEENTH  AVE.KAMLOOPS   ST.  COPLEY   ST.GRANDVIEW   HWY   NORTHGRANDVIEW   HWY.   SOUTHSLOCAN   ST.SEVENTEENTH      AVE.PENTICTON   ST.SEVENTEENTH   AVE.SIXTEENTH  AVE.COPLEY   ST.FIFTEENTH   AVE.TWELFTH      AVE. PENTICTON    ST.ELEVENTH      AVE.TENTH      AVE.SLOCAN   ST.PENTICTON   ST.KAMLOOPS   ST.WILLIAM      ST.NAPIER      ST.PARKER      ST.ADANAC      ST.ADANAC      ST.GEORGIA      ST.PENTICTON   ST.KAMLOOPS    ST.TURNER      ST.PENDER      ST.SLOCAN  ST.HASTINGS      ST.FRANKLIN      ST.PANDORA      ST. PANDORA      ST.TRIUMPH      ST.DUNDAS      ST.MCGILL      ST.OXFORD      ST.CAMBRIDGE      ST.ETON      ST.TRINITY      ST.WALL          ST.ELLIOTT    ST.HARRISON    DR.CRES.ANCASTERBOBOLINK    AVE.HOYLAKE   AVE.ASHBURN   ST.ASHBURN   ST.MUIRFIELD   DR.FIFTY-THIRD AVE.CLARENDON   ST.BERKELEY   ST.BERKELEY    ST.FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE.  ST. MARGARETS   ST.  BERKELEY   ST.THIRTY-SEVENTH AVE.HIGHGATE   ST.ST. MARGARETS   ST.BROCK  ST.NANAIMO  ST.BALDWIN   ST.BRANT   ST.EIGHTEENTH  AVE.COPLEY   ST.WALKER   ST.SEVENTEENTH  AVE.NANAIMO   ST.GARDEN   DR.FIFTEENTH  AVE.TWELFTH  AVE.NANAIMO   ST.NANAIMO   ST.GARDEN   DR.NANAIMO   ST.GARDEN   DR.WALL  ST.DUFF    ST.KENT   AVE.   SOUTH PORTSIDE   DR.NANAIMO   ST.KENTNORTHAVE.SOUTHSIDE   DR.S.E. MARINE   DR. VICTORIA   DR.BURQUITLAM    DR.    BONACCORD    DR.HARRISON     DR.FRASERVIEW   DR.QUALICUM  DR.JASPER   CR.NEWPORT    AVE.STIRLING   ST.BONNYVALE   AVE.BRIGADOON     AVE.HUMM   ST.DUFF   ST.UPLAND      DR.PRESTWICK   DR.JASPER   CR.SCARBORO   AVE.    SIXTY-FIRST    AVE.    FIFTY-SECOND  AVE.    FIFTY-FOURTH    AVE.    FIFTY-THIRD   AVE.GLADSTONE   ST.FIFTY-FIFTH   AVE.NANAIMO   ST.STIRLING   ST.VICTORIA      DR.UPLAND   DR.NASSAU    DR.  BEATRICE   ST.   FORTY-EIGHTH   AVE.NANAIMO   ST.    FIFTIETH   AVE.    FIFTY-FIRST   AVE.GLADSTONE   ST.VICTORIA   DR.FIFTY-SECOND   AVE.FIFTY-FIRST   AVE.FIFTIETH   AVE.    BEATRICE   ST.NANAIMO   ST.STIRLING  ST.FORTY-THIRD  AVE.FORTY-FOURTH  AVE.   GLADSTONE   ST.WAVERLEY   AVE.FORTY-SIXTH   AVE.FORTY-FIFTH      AVE.STIRLING  ST.FORTY-SECOND  AVE.FORTIETH      AVE.THIRTY-NINTH  AVE.THIRTY-EIGHTH  AVE.VICTORIA   DR.THIRTY-NINTH   AVE.THIRTY-EIGHTH   AVE.THIRTY-THIRD  AVE.GLADSTONE   ST.THIRTY-FIFTH AVE.THIRTY-SIXTH  AVE.THIRTY-SEVENTH  AVE.THIRTY-FOURTH  AVE.TWENTY-NINTH  AVE.THIRTIETH  AVE.KINGSWAYKINGSWAYKINGSWAYGALT      ST.THIRTY-SECOND  AVE.LITTLE   ST.THIRTY-FIRST      AVE.GLADSTONE   ST.SIDNEY   ST.BALDWIN   ST.MANNERING  AVE.VICTORIA   DR.BEATRICE   ST.WENONAH          ST.GLADSTONE   ST.TWENTY-EIGHTH      AVE.TWENTY-SEVENTH      AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH      AVE.SIDNEY   ST.TWENTY-FIFTH      AVE.TWENTY-THIRD      AVE.ALICE    ST.VICTORIA   DR.STAINSBURY      AVE.VICTORIA  DIVERSIONGLADSTONE   ST.VANNESS   AVE.NINETEENTH   AVE.LAKEWOOD   ST.20TH.   AVE.MARSHALL   ST.HULL   ST.BEATRICE      ST.  AVE.FIFTEENTHSIXTEENTH   AVE.BROADWAYTEMPLETON   DR.LAKEWOOD   DR.VICTORIA   DR.FIFTH  AVE.VICTORIA  DR.VICTORIA  DR.TEMPLETON   DR.SIXTH  AVE.EIGHTH AVE.SEVENTH  AVE.SEMLIN   DR.WILLIAM      ST.VENABLES      ST.TURNER      ST.PENDER      ST.HASTINGS      ST.VENABLES      ST.GEORGIA ST.TEMPLETON   DR.LAKEWOOD   DR.STEWART     ST.WALL    ST.KENT      AVE.      SOUTHKENT      AVE.      NORTHHARRISON    DR.   ARGYLE    ST.   LEASIDE   ST.SIXTY-THIRD  AVE.ARGYLE       ST.ISLAND    AVE.BEATRICE   ST.S.E. MARINE      DR.SIXTY-FOURTH      AVE.SIXTY-THIRD      AVE.THORNHILL    DR.PRESTWICK    DR.SIXTY-SECOND      AVE.SIXTY-FIRST      AVE.SIXTIETH      AVE.FIFTY-EIGHTH      AVE.  DUMFRIES   ST.KNIGHT   ST.BORDEN   ST.FIFTY-FIFTH    AVE.AVE.FIFTY-FIFTH      AVE.FIFTY-SIXTHARGYLE      DR.BRAEBURN  ST.BALMORAL   ST.FLEMING   ST.BRUCE   ST.COMMERCIAL   ST.COMMERCIAL   ST.ARGYLE   ST.FLEMING   ST.DUMFRIES   ST.LANARK    ST.KNIGHT   ST.  COMMERCIAL   ST.    FORTY-SEVENTH    AVE.    FORTY-SEVENTH    AVE.    FORTY-SIXTH      AVE.FORTIETH  AVE.BRUCE  ST.THIRTY-THIRD      AVE.THIRTY-SEVENTH      AVE.KNIGHT   ST.DUMFRIES   ST.THIRTY-SIXTH      AVE.ARGYLE   ST.THIRTY-FIFTH      AVE.THIRTY-FOURTH      AVE.THIRTY-FIRST    AVE.THIRTY-SECOND  AVE.  PERRY   ST.  WELWYN   ST.COMMERCIAL   ST.BRUCE   ST.ARGYLE   ST.FLEMING   ST.DUMFRIES   ST.LANARK   ST.HENRY   ST.THIRTY-FIRST AVE.TWENTY-NINTH    AVE.TWENTY-NINTH      AVE.THIRTIETH  AVE.THIRTIETH      AVE.MILLER   ST.MILLER   ST.TWENTY-SIXTH  AVE.TWENTY-EIGHTH      AVE.TWENTY-SEVENTH  AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH      AVE.TWENTY-FIRST      AVE.TWENTY-SECOND      AVE.FLEMING  ST.PERRY   ST.WELWYN   ST.COMMERCIAL   ST.WELWYN   ST.MAXWELL   ST.BELLA  VISTA   ST.FLEMING   ST.FLEMING   ST.DUMFRIES   ST.LANARK   ST.KNIGHT   ST.CLARK   DR.NINETEENTH      AVE.KINGSWAYMADDAMS   ST.FLEMING   ST.EIGHTEENTH      AVE.DUMFRIES   ST.FINDLAY   ST.DR.COMMERCIALMCLEAN  DR.COMMERCIAL    DR.WOODLAND    DR.CLARK    DR.GRANDVIEW      HWY.      NORTHFOURTH  AVE.McSPADDEN  AVE.FIFTH  AVE.BAUER  ST.THIRD AVE.SECOND  AVE.FIRST  AVE.GRANT   ST.SALSBURY   DR.COMMERCIAL   DR.GRAVELEY   ST.COTTON   DR.CLARK   DR.  CLARK   DR.  MCLEAN   DR.  WOODLAND   DR.  COMMERCIAL   DR.  SALSBURY   DR.  TRIUMPH  ST.    POWELL      ST.CHARLES ST.KITCHENER  ST.WOODLAND   DR.NAPIER      ST.PARKER      ST.ROSEDALE    DR.SCARBORO   AVE.VANNESS   AVE.TWENTY-FIFTH      AVE.TWENTY-FOURTH      AVE.(PRIVATE  ROAD)COMMISSIONER   ST.HORLEY   ST.CHEYENNE   AVE.DUCHESS   ST.YALE               ST.SPARBROOKCRES.CRES.SPARBROOK     FIFTY-SECOND            AVE.    BROOKS      ST.LATTA   ST.FORTY-FOURTH  AVE.MARMION  AVE.JOYCE   ST.WESSEX   ST.HAROLD   ST.CHURCH   ST.CECIL   ST.SCHOOL        AVE.MCHARDY   ST.CLIVE     AVE.RUPERT   ST.WINDERMERE ST.WINDERMERE   ST.WINDERMERE   ST.WINDERMERE   ST.WILLIAM      ST.NAPIER      ST.McGILL      ST.FELLOWES  ST.YALE   ST.EDINBURGH  ST.BOUNDARY  RD.BRIDGEWAYSKEENA   ST.KOOTENAY   ST.TRINITY   ST.McGILL   ST.ETON   ST.TRANS CANADA HIGHWAYCAMBRIDGE      ST.SKEENA   ST.OXFORD      ST.CASSIAR   ST.RUPERT   ST.DUNDAS      ST.TRIUMPH      ST.PANDORA      ST.FRANKLIN      ST.HASTINGS      ST.ADANAC      ST.VENABLES      ST.PENDER      ST.TURNER      ST.CASSIAR   ST.GEORGIA      ST.SKEENA   ST.KOOTENAY   ST.KOOTENAY          ST.PARKER      ST.BOUNDARY    RD.KOOTENAY    ST.SKEENA    ST.RUPERT    ST.KOOTENAY     ST.CASSIAR-RUPERT DIVERSIONGRAVELEY      ST.FIRST      AVE.SECOND      AVE.FIRST      AVE.SECOND      AVE.TRANS - CANADA   HWY.RUPERT    ST.CASSIAR    ST.HERMONDR.LOUGHEED      HWY.SKEENA    ST.BOUNDARY    RD.TRANS - CANADA  HWY.CORNETT      RD.ELEVENTH      AVE.SKEENA    ST.CORNETT    RD.BENTALL    ST.GRANDVIEW      HWY.WORTHINGTON  DR.RUPERT   ST.MALTA      PL.   HAIDA   DR.MALTA   AVE.   DIEPPE   PLACEDIEPPE   DR.VIMY   CRES.VIMY   CRES.WORTHINGTON   DR.MATAPANCRES.FALAISE   AVE.TWENTY-SECOND      AVE.TWENTY-THIRD      AVE.CASSIAR    ST.SKEENA    ST.GLENDALE     ST.KOOTENAY    ST.SEAFORTH      DR.ANZIO      DR.NORMANDY      DR.WORTHINGTON      DR.DIEPPE      DR.MONS      DR.TWENTY-FIFTH      AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH      AVE.TWENTY-SEVENTH      AVE.TWENTY-EIGHTH      AVE.BOUNDARY    RD.TWENTY-FOURTH      AVE.MOSCROP      ST.HOY    ST.CARIBOO    ST.PRICE      ST.TANNER      ST.JOYCE    ST.MONMOUTH      AVE.TWENTY-NINTH      AVE.SCALES      PL.RAE         AVE.QUEENS   AVE.WELLINGTON      AVE.MONMOUTH      AVE.ANN   ST.ABERDEEN   ST.HOY   ST.MONMOUTH    AVE.RUBY   ST.PAYNE   ST.VANNESS        AVE.VANNESS        AVE.SENLAC    ST.ARCHIMEDES      ST.CHERRY    ST.FOSTER  AVE.EUCLID      AVE.STAMFORD   ST.TYNE    ST.ABERDEEN    ST.LINCOLN    ST.BOUNDARY    RD.FOSTER      AVE.TYNE   ST.KINGSWAYORMIDALE   ST.ORMIDALE   ST.LINCOLN   ST.MELBOURNE   ST.OBEN   ST.BOUNDARY   RD.    FIFTIETH AVE.ARLINGTONST.FORTY-SEVENTH      AVE.  KIRKLAND   ST.ARLINGTON   ST.FRONTENAC   ST.  BATTISON   ST.FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE.BLAKEST.    BUTLER      ST.AVE.FORTY - NINTHHENNEPIN AVE.FRONTENAC      ST.   LA        SALLE          ST.  MEARES     AVE.RADISSONST.HURST      AVE.HURSTPL.ROSEMONT   DR.CRES.ESONMATHRUMBLE   AVE.BUTLER      ST.MAQUINNA      DR.CHAMPLAINCRES.ARBOR   AVE.CRES.MATHESONETTECRES.MARQUBOUNDARY   RD.    MARINE     WAY    KENT  AVE.  NORTH    KENT  AVE.  SOUTHCROMWELL  ST.S.E. MARINE    DR.THIRTY-SECOND     AVE.DURWARD      AVE.BEGG   ST.SEVENTY-FIFTH      AVE.BENTLEY   ST.SEVENTY-SIXTH      AVE.SEVENTY-FIFTH      AVE.SEVENTY-THIRD   AVE.HUDSON   ST.MONTCALM  ST.AVERY  AVE.SEVENTY-SECOND  AVE.SEVENTY-FIRST   AVE.ST.ADERARAND      AVE.GRANVILLE   ST.S.W. MARINE  DR.SEVENTIETH    AVE.S.W. MARINE      DR.SELKIRK  ST.HUDSON  ST.MONTCALM   ST.SIXTY-SEVENTH    AVE.CORNISH   ST.SIXTY-EIGHTH AVE.SIXTY-FOURTH     AVE.SIXTY-FIFTH      AVE.SIXTY-SIXTH      AVE.     MONTCALM      ST.    CARTIER  ST.    FRENCH  ST.    HAIG      ST.SIXTY-SECOND    AVE.PARK   DR.PARK   DR.FIFTY-NINTH   AVE.SIXTIETH   AVE.SIXTY-FIRST  AVE.ADERA   ST.SIXTY-THIRD  AVE.CARTIER   ST.FIFTY-EIGHTH    AVE.FIFTY-SEVENTH    AVE.FIFTY-SIXTH    AVE.FIFTY-FIFTH   AVE.FIFTY-FOURTH   AVE.   CHURCHILL   ST.   ADERA   ST.   GRANVILLE   ST.FIFTY-FIRST      AVE.FIFTY-THIRD   AVE.DOGWOOD    AVE.FORTY-NINTH      AVE.SELKIRK    ST.HUDSON    ST.FIFTY-SECOND    AVE.FIFTIETH      AVE.FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE.FORTY-SEVENTH      AVE.FORTY-SIXTH      AVE.FORTY-FIFTH      AVE.FORTY-FIRST     AVE.ADERA   ST.CHURCHILL   ST.SELKIRK   ST.HUDSON   ST.ATHLONE   ST.CARTIER   ST.CARTIER   ST.FORTY-THIRD     AVE.FORTIETH      AVE.GRANVILLE   ST.THIRTY-SIXTH     AVE.THIRTY-FIFTH      AVE.SETSOMERCRES.AVONDALEAVE.CONNAUGHT   DR.DR.UGHTCONNAHUDSON   ST.THIRTY-SEVENTH      AVE.THIRTY-EIGHTH      AVE.THIRTY-NINTH      AVE.CRES.THIRTY-FOURTH      AVE.THIRTY-THIRD      AVE.MINTOCRES.BEVERLYST.MARGUERITETHIRTY-SECOND AVE.CONNAUGHT    DR.    HUDSON   ST.TWENTY-EIGHTH      AVE.TWENTY-SEVENTH   AVE.TWENTY-NINTH      AVE. TWENTY-NINTH      AVE.DEVONSHIRE      CRES.ALEXANDRA   ST.HUDSON  ST.CARTIER    ST.GRANVILLE    ST.NANTON      AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH      AVE.KING EDWARD      AVE.ST.MARGUERITEALEXANDRA  ST.BALFOUR      AVE.LAURIER      AVE.HEMLOCK  ST.BIRCH  ST.GRANVILLE   ST.MARPOLEAVE.ANGUSDR.ST.HUDSONCRESCENTTHE TECUMSEHAVE.AVE.MCRAEAVE.MARPOLEFIR    ST.PINE    ST.TWELFTH      AVE.ELEVENTH      AVE.SEVENTY-SEVENTH      AVE.KENTAVE.NORTHKENT  AVE.  SOUTHSEVENTY-FOURTH  AVE.SHAUGHNESSY      ST.SOUTHKENT AVE.NORTHKENT  AVE.OAK  ST.OSLER   ST.SHAUGHNESSY  ST.FREMLIN   ST.LAUREL  ST.LOGAN   ST.HEATHER      ST.LAUREL   ST.S.W. MARINE   DR.  LAUREL   ST.    SELKIRK  ST.    OSLER    ST.HEATHER    ST.   HEATHER    ST.  LAUREL  ST.  OSLER  ST.NEAL    ST.FREMLIN    ST. SECOND  AVE.FIFTY-OAK   ST.MONTGOMERY   ST.WILLOW   ST.ST. LAURELMONTGOMERY   ST.WILLOW   ST.OAK   ST.BAILLIE   ST.OSLER   ST.SELKIRK   ST.SELKIRKST.OSLER   ST. CONNAUGHT      DR.DEVONSHIRE      CRES.LAUREL   ST.KING EDWARD      AVE.OSLER    ST.SELKIRK    ST.NANTON      AVE.MATTHEWS  AVE.SPRUCE  ST.LAURIER AVE.BALFOURAVE.OAK   ST.ALDER   ST.ST.OSLERWOLFE   AVE.AVE.WOLFEST.MONTCALMRICHELIEUAVE.DOUGLAS CRES.OAK   ST.LAUREL   ST.SECOND AVE.HASTINGS   ST.ROBSON   ST.SAWCUTROADMOBERLYMILLYARDLANESAWYER'SCAMBIESPYGLASS    PLACECOMMODORE RD.WHEELHOUSE SQ.ROADMOBERLYMILLBANKFIRST  AVE.WYLIE   ST.EXPO BOULEVARD PACIFIC BOULEVARDBRIDGEBOULEVARDPACIFICHAMILTON   ST.SMITHE   ST.ROBSON   ST.CAMBIE   ST.BEATTY   ST.HAMILTON   ST.HOMER   ST.GEORGIA   ST.RICHARDS   ST.BURRARD      ST.PENDER   ST.DUNSMUIR   ST.      EVELEIGH    ST.THESITKA SQ.CASTINGSFORGE  WALK SCANTLINGS GREENSCHOOLGREENCHAINCARTWRIGHT   ST.IRONWORK      PASSAGEBEACH   AVE.DAVIE   ST.PACIFIC   ST.DRAKE ST.NELSON ST.HELMCKEN ST.HOWE      ST.HOWE      ST.DAVIE      ST.HORNBY   ST.HORNBY ST.BUTE   ST.THURLOW   ST.PENDRELL      ST.COMOX      ST.NELSON      ST.BARCLAY      ST.HARO      ST.BROUGHTON   ST.JERVIS   ST.FOURTH    AVE.LAMEY'S  MILL  RD.ANDERSON   ST.GRANVILLE   ST.CREEKSIDE DR.FIRST   AVE. ISLAND    PARK    WALKST.JOHNSTON  ST.DURANLEAU ST.OLD  BRIDGEWALKPARKISLANDBURNABY   ST.BEACH      AVE.PACIFIC      ST.HARWOOD      ST.HARWOOD      ST.BEACH      AVE.BEACH   AVE.MAPLE    ST.CYPRESS    ST.BURRARD    ST.BURRARDMELVILLE      ST.HASTINGS      ST.ALBERNI      ST.GEORGIA      ST. PENDER      ST.NICOLA   ST.DENMAN  ST.BEACH      AVE.MORTON   AVE.CARDERO   ST.BIDWELL   ST.LAGOON   DR.CHILCO   ST.GILFORD   ST.FRASER    ST.S.E. MARINE   DR.PRINCE EDWARD   ST.ST. GEORGE   ST.  CHESTER   ST.SIXTY-FIFTH      AVE.SIXTY-FIFTH      AVE.BUSCOMBE   ST.ST. GEORGE   ST.SIXTY-THIRD      AVE.POPLAR   ST.SIXTY-FOURTH      AVE.SIXTY-SECOND  AVE.    FIFTY-EIGHTH      AVE.FRASER    ST.ST. GEORGE  ST.PR. EDWARD  ST.    FIFTY-FOURTH    AVE.    FIFTY-THIRD    AVE.    CHESTER      ST.ST.  GEORGE  ST.ST. GEORGE ST.FREDERICK    ST.FIFTY-SECOND        AVE.FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE..FRASER   ST.ST. GEORGE  ST.PR. EDWARD  ST.FORTY-SIXTH      AVE.FORTY-FOURTH      AVE.PR. EDWARD   ST.SOPHIA   ST.ST. GEORGE      ST.SOPHIA      ST.CREE      ST.WOODSTOCK      AVE.FORTIETH      AVE.THIRTY-NINTH      AVE.FORTY-FIRST      AVE.ST. GEORGE  ST.    THIRTY-THIRD AVE.SOPHIA    ST.FRASER   ST.WALDEN   ST.THIRTY-EIGHTH      AVE.THIRTY-SEVENTH      AVE.THIRTY-SIXTH      AVE.THIRTY-FIFTH      AVE.THIRTY-FOURTH      AVE.PRINCE EDWARD ST.ST. GEORGE   ST.TWENTY-NINTH      AVE.JOHN   ST.WALDEN   ST.SOPHIA   ST.TWENTY-NINTH      AVE.THIRTIETH        AVE.THIRTY-SECOND AVE.SOPHIA   ST.THIRTY-FIRST      AVE.THIRTIETH      AVE.AUBREY      PL.TWENTY-NINTH      AVE.TWENTY-FOURTH    AVE.TWENTY-THIRD    AVE.TWENTY-SECOND    AVE.TWENTY-FIRST    AVE.TWENTIETH    AVE.FRASER   ST.FRASER   ST.NINETEENTH      AVE.ST. GEORGE   ST.FRASER    ST.CAROLINA    ST.KINGSWAYGUELPH   ST.SIXTIETH      AVE.PR. ALBERT   ST.FORTY-THIRD  AVE.PR.  ALBERT   ST.CHESTER   ST.PRINCE ALBERT   ST.PRINCE ALBERT      ST.    CHESTER      ST.THIRTIETH    AVE.PRINCE ALBERT   ST.ST.PRINCE   ALBERTPR.  ALBERT  ST.SEVENTEENTH  AVE.HAWKS   AVE.CAMPBELL   AVE.  PR.  EDWARD  ST.GREAT    NORTHERN    WAYFIFTH      AVE.BRUNSWICK   ST.SOPHIA  ST.STATION   ST.TERMINAL      AVE.SOUTHERN   ST.CENTRAL   ST.INDUSTRIAL      AVE.LORNE   ST. INDUSTRIAL     AVE.SCOTIA   ST.FIRST      AVE.SECOND      AVE.WESTERN   ST.NORTHERN   ST.NATIONAL   AVE.ATLANTIC      ST.    EVANS      AVE.STATION   ST.MALKIN          AVE.THORNTON   ST.GEORGIA      ST.DUNLEVY   AVE.GEORGIA      ST.PRINCESS   AVE.JACKSON   AVE.HEATLEY   AVE.MAIN   ST. GORE AVE.PRIOR      ST.UNION      ST.KEEFER      ST.PENDER      ST.RAILWAY  ST.HASTINGS  ST.CORDOVA   ST.POWELL      ST.ALEXANDER      ST.THIRTEENTH      AVE.TENTH      AVE.ELEVENTH      AVE.TWELFTH      AVE.ONTARIO   ST.ONTARIO   ST.MANITOBA   ST.EIGHTH      AVE.BROADWAYSEVENTH      AVE.SIXTH      AVE.FOURTH      AVE.FIFTH      AVE.MAIN   ST.QUEBEC   ST.QUEBEC   ST.COOK ST.FIRST      AVE.SECOND      AVE.THIRD      AVE.KEEFER      ST.EXPO BOULEVARDTAYLOR   ST.QUEBEC  ST.CARRALL   ST.PENDER      ST.COLUMBIA   ST.CORDOVA   ST.WATER     ST.ABBOTT   ST. CORDOVA      ST.HASTINGS      ST.CAMBIE   ST.CROWE ST.WATSON    ST.COLUMBIA   ST.COLUMBIA   ST.ALBERTA   ST.MANITOBA   ST.SEVENTEENTH      AVE.SIXTEENTH      AVE.EIGHTEENTH      AVE.FOURTEENTH      AVE.FIFTEENTH      AVE.NINETEENTH      AVE.TWENTIETH      AVE.TWENTY-FIRST      AVE.TWENTY-SECOND      AVE.TWENTY-THIRD      AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH      AVE.TWENTY-SEVENTH      AVE.      PEVERIL    AVE.DINMONT      AVE.TALISMANAVE.NIGEL AVE.KING EDWARD      AVE.QUEBEC   ST.MAIN   ST.JAMES   ST.JAMES   ST.ONTARIO      ST.MIDLOTHIAN      AVE.QUEBEC   ST.THIRTY-FIFTH   AVE.MANITOBA    ST. MACKIE    ST.FORTY-SECOND      AVE.ONTARIO      PLACEQUEBEC   ST.MAIN   ST.ONTARIO    STFORTY-THIRD      AVE.FORTY-THIRD      AVE.MANITOBA    ST.COLUMBIA   ST.MAIN    ST.MANITOBA    ST.COLUMBIA   ST.ONTARIO   ST.SOPHIA    ST.SIXTY-FOURTH        AVE.SIXTY-NINTH        AVE.MAIN    ST.KENT    AVE.    NORTHKENT    AVE.    SOUTHMANITOBA      ST.ONTARIO      ST.YUKON   ST.WILLOW   ST.HEATHER   ST.ASH   ST.CAMBIE   ST.CAMBIE   ST.YUKON      ST.TWENTY-NINTH      AVE.TWENTY-EIGHTH  AVE.TWENTY-SEVENTH  AVE.THIRTY-THIRD      AVE.THIRTY-SECOND  AVE.THIRTY-FIRST      AVE.THIRTIETH      AVE.    ASH      ST.MANSON      ST.THIRTY-EIGHTH      AVE.    HEATHER      ST.MC GUIGAN  AVE.ASH      ST.THIRTY-SEVENTH   AVE.ALBERTA   ST.ASH      ST.CAMBIE    ST.KERSLAND    DR.THIRTY-FIFTH  AVE.ELIZABETH      ST.FORTY-SECOND      AVE.FORTY-THIRD      AVE.FORTY-FIRST      AVE.THIRTY-NINTH      AVE.FORTIETH      AVE.FORTY-FOURTH      AVE.FORTY-FIFTH      AVE.FORTY-SIXTH      AVE.    FORTY-SEVENTH      AVE.YUKON      ST.FIFTIETH  AVE.TISDALL    ST.ASH    ST.ALBERTA      ST.FORTY-NINTH  AVE.  ASH  ST.FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE.FIFTY-FOURTH      AVE.FIFTY-SEVENTH  AVE.CAMBIE   ST.FIFTY-NINTH  AVE.SIXTIETH   AVE.SIXTY-FIRST   AVE.SIXTY-SECOND      AVE.ASH   ST.YUKON  ST.ALBERTA   ST.    FIFTY-EIGHTH   AVE.SIXTY-FIFTH  AVE.SIXTY-FOURTH      AVE.SIXTY-THIRD      AVE.SIXTY-SIXTH      AVE.SIXTY-EIGHTH AVE.SIXTY-NINTH  AVE.LORD   ST.S.W. MARINE      DR.SEVENTIETH      AVE.SEVENTY-FIRST      AVE.AISNE   ST.ASH      ST.YUKON      ST.KENT      AVE.      SOUTH    SIXTY-SIXTH      AVE.ROSS   ST.SIXTY-SEVENTH   AVE.CROMPTON   ST.SHERBROOKE   ST.KENT   AVE.   NORTH   SIXTY-FOURTH    AVE.    SIXTY-THIRD      AVE.FIFTY-NINTH      AVE.SIXTY-FIRST      AVE.WINDSOR   ST.  WINDSOR   ST.INVERNESS   ST.ROSS   ST.FIFTY-FIFTH      AVE.FIFTY-SEVENTH      AVE.FIFTY-SIXTH      AVE.SHERBROOKE      ST.    ST. CATHERINES      ST.SHERBROOKE   ST.ROSS   ST.FIFTY-FIRST      AVE.FORTY-NINTH      AVE.     ELGIN      ST.FIFTIETH      AVE.CULLODEN      ST.INVERNESS      ST.ROSS    ST.FORTY-EIGHTH        AVE.WAVERLEY        AVE.FORTY-THIRD  AVE.FORTY-FIFTH  AVE.FORTY-SEVENTH  AVE.SHERBROOKE   ST.R0SS   ST.WINDSOR   ST.    FORTY-SEVENTH    AVE.CULLODEN        ST.ST.ST. CATHERINESTHIRTY-NINTH  AVE.FORTY-FIRST      AVE.FORTIETH      AVE.THIRTY-NINTH      AVE.THIRTY-EIGHTH      AVE.THIRTY-THIRD  AVE.THIRTY-FIFTH  AVE.THIRTY-SEVENTH  AVE.CULLODEN      ST.CULLODEN      ST.INVERNESS      ST.SHERBROOKE      ST.ROSS      ST.ELGIN      ST.WINDSOR      ST.SOMERVILLE      ST.ST. CATHERINES      ST.ROSS    ST.ELGIN    ST.WINDSOR   ST.THIRTY-FIRST  AVE.RINGWOOD      AVE.HARRIET   ST.    TWENTY-EIGHTH      AVE.GLEN   DR.INVERNESS   ST.ST. CATHERINES   ST.TWENTY-SEVEN H      AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH      AVE.    KING EDWARD      AVE.TWENTIETH      AVE.ST. CATHERINES  ST.FIFTEENTH      AVE.EIGHTEENTH   AVE.SIXTEENTH      AVE.SEVENTEENTH     AVE.FOURTEENTH      AVE.KINGSWAYBROADWAYGLEN    DR.WINDSOR    ST.THIRTEENTH      AVE.TWELFTH AVE.ELEVENTH      AVE.TENTH      AVE.MCLEAN   DR.STEWART      ST.FIFTH      AVE.KEITH   DR.VERNON   DR.SIXTH      AVE.SEVENTH      AVE.EIGHTH      AVE.COTTRELL   ST.CHESS   ST.GLEN   DR.RAYMUR  AVE.VERNON   DR.ROGERS   ST.CORDOVA   DIV.POWELL ST.    FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE.FIFTY-SEVENTH   AVE.HIGHBURY   ST.DUNBAR   ST.TWENTY-FIRST  AVE.TWENTY-SECOND  AVE.TWENTY-THIRD  AVE.TWENTY-FOURTH  AVE.KING EDWARD  AVE.DEERING   ISLAND    PL.   PRESCOTT   ST.FIFTY-FIFTH  AVE.CARRINGTON   ST.CELTIC  AVE.BLENHEIM   ST.    FIFTY-FIRST  AVE.FIFTY-THIRD      AVE.S.W. MARINE   DR.    FORTY-NINTH   AVE.    FORTY-EIGHTH  AVE.  GLENDALOUGHPL.FORTY-FIRST  AVE.ALMA      ST.FORTIETH  AVE.FORTY-SECOND  AVE.FORTY-THIRD  AVE.COLLINGWOOD      PL.THIRTY-SEVENTH  AVE.THIRTY-SIXTH  AVE.THIRTY-EIGHTH  AVE.MAYFAIR      AVE.THIRTY-NINTH   AVE.THIRTY-THIRD  AVE.THIRTY -FIFTH   AVE.THIRTY-FOURTH  AVE.THIRTY-SECOND  AVE.THIRTY-FIRST  AVE.ALMA   ST.HIGHBURY   ST.TWENTY-SEVENTH   AVE.THIRTIETH  AVE.TWENTY-NINTH  AVE.TWENTY-EIGHTH  AVE.TWENTY-SIXTH   AVE.  DUNKIRK   ST.DR.QUESNELST.QUADRATWENTIETH  AVE.NINETEENTH  AVE.EIGHTEENTH  AVE.SIXTEENTH  AVE.SEVENTEENTH  AVE.HIGHBURY   ST.DUNBAR   ST.BLENHEIM   ST.WATERLOO   ST.COLLINGWOOD   ST.ALMA   ST.FIFTEENTH  AVE.FOURTEENTH      AVE.THIRTEENTH AVE.TWELFTH  AVE.ELEVENTH  AVE.   DUNBAR   DIV.BROADWAYEIGHTH  AVE.SEVENTH   AVE.SIXTH   AVE.TENTH  AVE.SECOND  AVE.FIRST AVE.THIRD  AVE.FOURTH  AVE.FIFTH  AVE.POINT GREY RD.CAMERON   AVE.FIFTY-SEVENTH   AVE.BALACLAVA   ST.CARNARVON   ST.MACDONALD   ST.FIFTIETH   AVE.CEDARHURST   ST.    FORTY-FIFTH      AVE.    FORTY-SEVENTH  AVE.McCLEERY   ST.PLACE  MACKENZIE  BALACLAVA   ST.FORTY-FOURTH      AVE.  MACDONALD   ST.CARNARVON   ST.MACKENZIE   ST.MACDONALD   ST.. AVEEDWARDKING  QUESNEL   DR.PUGET   DR.RD.ALAMEIN      AVE.QUESNEL   DR.PUGET   DR.VALDEZQUESNEL    DR.GALIANO RD.PUGET   DR.MACKENZIE   ST.CARNARVON   ST.BALACLAVA    ST.TRUTCH   ST.SIONDIVERKITSILANOMACDONALD   ST.STEPHENS   ST.BAYSWATER   ST.POINT GREY RD.POINT GREY   RD.CORNWALL      AVE.POINT GREY    RD.FIRST      AVE.THIRD      AVE.FOURTH      AVE.SECOND      AVE.YORK      AVE.SEVENTH      AVE.EIGHTH      AVE.BROADWAYTENTH      AVE.FIFTH      AVE.SIXTH      AVE.TWELFTH      AVE.THIRTEENTH   AVE.BALSAM   ST.BALSAM   ST.BALSAM   ST.LARCH  ST.VINE   ST.FOURTEENTH      AVE.TRAFALGAR   ST.ELEVENTH   AVE.FIFTEENTH      AVE.SIXTEENTH      AVE.OLIVER      CRES.  VALLEY   DR.  TOWNLEY   ST.BRAKENRIDGE   ST.McMULLEN   AVE.McBAIN   AVE.DR.EDDINGTONEDGAR   CRES.ELMST.NARVAEZ   DR.PUGETDR.HAGGART   ST.PATON   ST.TRAFALGAR   ST.ELM   ST.LARCH   ST.BALSAM   ST.VINE   ST.FORTIETH      AVE.  YEW   ST.FORTY-NINTH      AVE.   VINE   ST.S.W. MARINE   DR.FIFTY-FIRST      AVE.MARINE   CR.   LIME   ST.BALSAM   ST.YEW   ST.FIFTY-THIRD      AVE.YEW   ST.SECOND     AVE.WALLACE   ST.BROADWAYWALLACE      CRES.CROWN ST.CRO WNCRES.EIGHTH      AVE.CROWN   ST.CAMOSUN   ST.WALLACE   ST.CAMOSUN   ST.CROWN   ST.WALLACE   ST.CHALDECOTT   ST.WALLACE   ST.HIGHBURY   ST.CAMOSUN   ST.CROWN   ST.OLYMPIC  ST.HOLLAND  ST.FORTIETH      AVE.S.W. MARINE   DR.STAUTLO  AVE.CROWN  ST.THELLAIWHALTUN  AVE.FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE.   SALISH   DR.WALLACE  ST.ST. CLAIR   PL.FORTY-SIXTH      AVE.   FORTY-EIGHTH      AVE.    FORTY-NINTH      AVE.FIFTY-FIRST   AVE.FIFTIETH    AVE.LANGARA      AVE.LOCARNO      CRES.JERICHO  CIRCLETRIMBLE      ST.SASAMAT      ST.COURTENAYST.COURTENAY   ST.DISCOVERY   ST.SASAMAT   ST.TRIMBLE   ST.EIGHTEENTH   AVE.KING EDWARD      AVE.    DONCASTER  KEVINPL.WAY  TWENTY-NINTH   AVE.KULLAHUN   DR.SENNOK  CRES.SEMNA  CRES.TAMATH  CRES.SALISH      DR.YUCULTA      CRESCENTMUSQUEAM      DRIVESTAULO      CRESCENTBELMONTAVE.DRUMMONDDR.FIRST   AVE.N.W. MARINE    DR.SIMPSON   AVE.LANGARA   ST.BELLEVUE   DR.BELMONT   AVE.BLANCA   ST.FIFTH      AVE.THIRD      AVE.TOLMIE      ST.BLANCA      ST.FOURTH      AVE.SEC0ND      AVE.CHANCELLOR      BOULEVARDELEVENTH      AVE.SEVENTH      AVE.EIGHTH      AVE.SIXTH      AVE.NINTH      AVE.TENTH      AVE.FIFTEENTH      AVE.FOURTEENTH      AVE.SIXTEENTH      AVE.TOLMIE   ST.BLANCA   ST. THIRTEENTH      AVE.TWELFTH      AVE.FANNIN      AVE.GREER   AVE.CHESTNUT   ST.WALNUT   ST.LABURNUM   ST.MAPLE   ST.CYPRESS   ST.CREELMAN      AVE.ARBUTUS   ST.CORNWALL      AVE.WHYTE      AVE.McNICOLL      AVE.BRIDGEOGDEN      AVE.FIFTEENTH      AVE.FOURTEENTH      AVE.THIRTEENTH AVE.CEDAR   CRES.TWENTIETH      AVE. NINETEENTH      AVE.PINECRES.SIXTEENTH      AVE.EIGHTEENTH      AVE.EIGHTEENTH      AVE.SEVENTEENTH      AVE.NINETEENTH      AVE.CEDAR   CRES.E.   BOULEVARDCYPRESS   ST.   ANGUS   DR.PINECRES.TWENTY-SECOND      AVE.TWENTY-FIRST      AVE.MAPLE   CRES.HOSMERAVE.MATTHEWS   AVE.  ANGUSDR.  PINECRES.CYPRESS   ST.TWENTY-NINTH   AVE.TWENTY-EIGHTH  AVE.MAGNOLIA  ST.NANTON   AVE.VALLEY   DR.ARBUTUS   ST.TWENTY-NINTH  AVE.MARGUERITE   ST.MAPLE   CRES.THIRTIETH AVE.   YEW   ST.AVE.ASPENLINDENRD.CRES.CHENAQUILTHIRTY-THIRD      AVE.THIRTY-SECOND  AVE.  CYPRESSST.DR.ANGUS MARGUERITE   ST.PINE   CRES.THIRTY-SIXTH      AVE.MAPLE   ST.THIRTY-FIFTH      AVE.THIRTY-EIGHTH      AVE.LABURNUM   ST.CYPRESS   ST.THIRTY-SEVENTH      AVE.THIRTY-NINTH      AVE.EAST  BOULEVARDCYPRESS   ST.MARGUERITE   ST.WILTSHIRE   ST.ANGUS   DR.MAPLE   ST.FORTY-FOURTH      AVE.FORTY-SECOND      AVE.FORTIETH      AVE.FORTY-SIXTH      AVE.FORTY-SEVENTH      AVE.WILTSHIRE   ST.MARGUERITE   ST.ANGUS   DR.CYPRESS   ST.CYPRESS   ST.  EAST   BOULEVARDLABURNUM   ST.WEST   BOULEVARDFIFTY-FIRST  AVE.FIFTY-EIGHTH   AVE.FIFTY-NINTH   AVE.MAPLE   ST.LABURNUM   ST.  ARBUTUS   ST.  MAPLE   ST.    FIFTY-FOURTH    AVE.FIFTY-FOURTH   AVE.ANGUS   DR.SIXTIETH   AVE.ANGUS   DR.SIXTY-FIRST   AVE.SIXTY-SECOND   AVE.SIXTY-THIRD   AVE.WILTSHIRE   ST.   LABURNUM   ST.SEVENTY-FIFTH   AVE.BARNARD   ST.S.W.  MARINE    DR.BARNARD   ST.ANGUS   DR.YEW   ST.ARBUTUS   ST.TENTH      AVE.BROADWAYEIGHTH      AVE.SEVENTH      AVE.FOURTH      AVE.THIRD      AVE.SECOND      AVE.FIRST      AVE.YORK    AVE.FIFTH      AVE.SIXTH      AVE.THIRTY-SECOND      AVE.WEST   BOULEVARDEAST  BOULEVARDWEST BOULEVARDBEECHWOOD   ST.ARBUTUS   ST.BEECHWOOD   ST.  BEECHWOOD   ST.S.W. MARINE   DR.   ARBUTUS  ST.GRANVILLE   ST.GRANVILLE   ST.SEYMOUR  ST.HOMER   ST.  BLENHEIM   ST.  COLLINGWOOD   ST.  DUNBAR   ST.4500 4400 4300 4200 4100 400039003800 3700 3600 3400 3200 3100 3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 2500 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 10000W00E 100 200 300400 500 600 800 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1600 1700 1900 2100 2200 23002400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 330034003500360039004000 3800 3700 3600 3500 32003400 3100 3000 2900 2800 2700 2600 2500 2400710072007300740075007700780079008000KINROSS   ST.HARTLEY    ST.DUDLEY      ST.VICTORIA   DR.SEMLIN   DR.POWELL ST.CD-1(477)CD-1(500)CD-1(510)CD-1(511)CD-1(575)CD-1(512)CD-1(514)CD-1(513)CD-1(517)CD-1(520)CD-1(519)CD-1(349)CD-1(195)CD-1(327)CD-1(327)C-2C-2C-2( )CD-1(291)RT-11RT-11RT-11NRT-2RS-1RS-1RS-1RS-1RS-1RS-1RS-1RT-11RT-11RM-7NRM-7RM-7RM-7RM-7RT-11NRT-2CD-1(100)CD-1(487)CD-1(128)RT-11NRT-11NCD-1(304)CD-1(530)C-1C-1C-1RT-2BCPEDCD-1(268)Zoning Districts of  City of  Vancouver.  Zones of  interest:  Red-Commercial  Light Blue-Light Industrial Green-Historical districts Pink and Purple-Comprehensive developmentMethod 	 I have chosen to include five expert interviews, with three municipalities in Canada and two in the United States in order to exemplify how various municipalities are implementing business recycling programs. These were chosen based on their similarity to Metro Vancouver area and how advanced they are in their recycling policies and implementation compared to Metro Vancouver. The criteria I used to inform this similarity is by population size, business profile, and current waste management program. This information can be preliminarily found in the “Required Recycling and Incentive Programs” document and online information by the municipalities themselves. This research is complying with all UBC ethics protocols, by requiring interviewees to provide consent in order for us to use the information they provided. The eight survey topics were as follows:  1) what programs do they have to increase recycling and waste reduction,  2) how is the program enforced,  3) how do they measure the success of  these programs,  4) main challenges to the program and  5) biggest success of  their program?  	 This paper will compare the pros and cons of  all the different methods present among the interviewed jurisdictions. I will compare programs, and deduce various options using the model outlined in Barlishen & Baetz’s research to help decision making (1995.)  In the planning and implementation of  municipal solid waste composting and recycling programs, local or regional waste management agencies can use their model. It clearly shows various options and helps narrow down choices based on cost breakdown and knowledge-based system techniques.  Continuing forward, the report will compare all this information in order to see which options could be most effectively applied to the Metro Vancouver region, and which cases they can learn the most from. Literature Review 	 The literature argues that optimal levels of  recycling occur from an integrated approach to mandatory recycling. It is necessary to target smaller and medium sized business because research suggests that larger businesses are most likely to participate in recycling programs (Clarke & Maantay, 2006). Additionally it is important to give more attention to lower income GEOG 419 !5neighbourhoods (or zones), as they are less likely to participate (Maclaren, & Yu, 1997; Oskamp, et al. 1994). Even though policy tools tend to achieve greater recycling rates, it is important to support these policy tools with educational outreach and address psychological factors influencing recycling (Seacat & Northrup, 2010; Viscusi et al., 2007).  	 The reports I looked at for my research were especially constructive to my understanding of  what municipalities are currently doing to implement mandatory recycling within the Industrial Commercial and Institutional (ICI) sector. Reeve Consulting produced a report for Metro Vancouver in 2014 comparing three different policy tools Metro Vancouver could utilize to further regional gains in waste diversion and recycling in the ICI and Multi Family (MF) sectors (Draft Policy Models for ICI Sector Recycling Incentives, 2014, pg. 3). To create incentive based approaches for disposal ban enforcement, they compared three policy models: waste hauling incentive program, waste generator certification and a mandatory recycling bylaw. The Dillon report (2012) was useful to get a general understanding of  recycling practices for different cities. They established that mandatory recycling programs are one of  the strongest tools to achieve Metro Vancouver’s waste diversion goals.  	 In order to make these programs a success, Bacot et.al. show that, crucial to program establishment and commercial-sector participation, are the time required for participation and its convenience. It is also known that user fees (often referred to as ‘‘pay as you throw’’ systems) on garbage collection, have significant impacts on recycling levels for all materials except toxic chemicals, and mandatory recycling programs on particular items have significant effects on recycling for almost all materials. Limits on the amount of  garbage that can be placed at the curb, and providing free recycling units (or bins) under user fee systems, however, do not have the desired impact of  increasing recycling intensity and instead have a negligible or detrimental impact on recycling. Ferrara & Missios (2005) find that user fees (often referred to as ‘‘pay as you throw’’ systems) on garbage collection have significant impacts on recycling levels for all materials except toxic chemicals, and mandatory recycling programs on particular items have significant effects on recycling for almost all materials. Similarly, Sidique et al. (2010) share the results which indicate that variable pricing of  waste disposal increases the rate of  recycling. Other policy variables such as the enactment of  recycling ordinances and cumulative expenditures on recycling education are also found to be effective measures to increase recycling rate. 	 McDavid & Mueller (2008) analyze factors that predict the efficiency of  residential recycling collection services. Their study was helpful in showing improved efficiency can reduced costs for municipalities who recycle. One of  the most significant findings is the lack of  a relationship between private-sector companies collecting recyclables and the overall efficiency of  collection operations. This will be discussed further in the interview section, with the question of  GEOG 419 !6measuring success of  programs. So to summarize further, it can be said that some of  the most effective options should be outlined in the specific policy to ensure highest efficiency.  Interview Findings 	 Five expert interviews have been conducted, with many municipalities in Canada and the United States. Our gathered information from City of  Vancouver, City of  San Diego, City of  Burnaby, City of  New Westminster and District of  North Vancouver will help Metro Vancouver compile information about what some municipalities are doing and see which practices are working best and which ones can be improved. The main challenge in the interviews is comparing information that is not uniform, or comparing municipalities that are at different levels of  development in their program implementation. Meaning that in general municipalities start with garbage collection for residences, then start recycling programs and the ICI sector tends to be left for last.  	 Here are some of  the main points of  the interviews organized categorically by the interview topics described in the methods: 1. What programs do they have to increase recycling and waste reduction? 	 Only one mentioned working with local volunteers and grassroots movements in order to help provide outreach. Although this may be time consuming to set up, its a great way to bridge the gap between implementation of  the program and providing resources to businesses to help them follow the program. This could be implemented in each municipality to engage the public and use volunteers to provide essential services without adding costs to the program.  2. How is the program enforced? 	 Some enforcement mechanisms used are the amounts charged through utility taxes, or through business license fees, depending on how much of  the services are provided by the city vs by private haulers. However, this information would only be useful to local governments in planning their bylaws. Fines are used as a last case resort to ensure everyone is following the rules and is not an income to fund the programs in any way. 3. How do they measure the success of  these programs? 	 Data collection was brought up as a challenge for many of  our interviewees who didn’t have flow control in their municipality, because they can’t collect data from haulers or businesses GEOG 419 !7directly, so they must rely on information willingly given to them by haulers and processing facilities (which they aren’t required to do). Challenges in collecting data also means challenges in showing if  programs are successful or not. Most municipalities conduct surveys or add data collecting questions to business licenses, but those don’t always provide all the information they really need. 	 Some interviewees commented that they don’t have specific outreach programs for encouraging businesses to participate, instead small and medium size businesses approach the municipality case by case. This is why I argue for the usefulness of  a specific program for small and medium sized businesses and a separate one for larger businesses and industries. This can be achieved by having separate outreach programs intended for the different stakeholders.  4. Main challenges to the program?  	 There is a general lack of  willingness among business owners to take the time and resources to properly dispose of  their waste or reduce waste all together. Additionally, rear loading trucks (in the case of  cities which provide collection service) are less efficient, and front loading trucks are required to service larger collection bins which most businesses need. However, replacing current city trucks with front loading haulers, requires a large investment.  5. Biggest success of  their program? 	 The more feedback methods between the different stakeholders the more useful the program is (in its planning stages as well as implementation). An example of  feedback success is in cities which can help haulers improve efficiencies in exchange for haulers providing data to the regional waste planners.  	 Another lesson learned from our interviews is that outreach and education for businesses is most effective when targeted directly to trouble zones or areas of  high contamination. This is only possible with data, but even so, municipalities might find it best to wait for complaint driven responses in order to provide outreach materials and on site support. Potential Options 	 Since Metro Vancouver doesn’t have permission from the province to have flow control there are a few options that are best suited to be implemented in all member municipalities to help them reach their individual waste diversion targets. There are many paths forward that GEOG 419 !8Metro Vancouver can take, however my stand is clear and supported by both our interview findings and the academic literature. Here are the solutions I am proposing:  	 1) The creation or use of  an online network to connect businesses, haulers, municipalities and processing facilities. A more simple and less costly version would even be adding a forum within the Metro Vancouver website, or creating a Facebook page. Ideally this platform would have many components:  	 It could have a rating system which consumers can use to rate businesses on their waste practices and provide feedback to them. This should be an interactive website or page where each stakeholder can create a profile, raise concerns or suggestions for improvements to the system and also answer questions and concerns brought up by other stakeholders. Picture this as a social platform for the purpose of  data collection and communication. Data collected on this platform can be used by all these stakeholders and especially Metro Vancouver to measure success of  the program, and identify areas of  improvement. This platform would be especially helpful if  created prior to the bylaw so that comparisons can be made and feedback from all stakeholder groups can influence the bylaw as well.  	 At minimum this online platform should contain an easy way to make a profile, create discussion forums, and have a solutions page where anyone can post solutions that can be voted on and also a way to connect between profiles (such as direct messaging).  	  	 2) Create a mandatory recycling bylaw for the ICI sector which can be added to and expanded on as needed to ensure efficiency and that it remains up to date. I recommend that each of  the stakeholders have a minimum waste diversion rate outlined in the bylaw. Additionally, responsibility between the stakeholders should also be outlined in the bylaw. So businesses should be required to divert a minimum percentage of  their waste, haulers should be required to monitor diversion and provide that data to municipalities and processing facilities should be required to monitor incoming waste as well as sharing that information with the cities.  	 3) For a most successful bylaw, small and medium sized businesses should be targeted with the most support in comparison to the rest of  the ICI sector. This is evident from our interviews and academic findings. Zones of  lower income as well as zones with a predominantly smaller business profile should be anticipated to have the most trouble adjusting to the new regulations, so having specific tools for them will help with a smoother transition and help significantly with contamination issues rather than simply waiting for a complaint driven outreach program.  GEOG 419 !9Summary There are some counter arguments that could be argued for, and I will address a couple now.  	 “Bylaws are only effective when you have the financial resources to enforce them” This argument believes that enforcement is very difficult to ensure and also costly to maintain. However, most municipalities that we interviewed have only one staff  member (some have 2) to look through complaints of  non compliance and to communicate directly with those businesses to help them sort their waste properly. This would be even simpler with a centralized communication system between the stakeholders, so that municipalities can provide information and customers can also participate in the monitoring process.  	 “The creation of  an online platform is expensive and might not reach every business” Yes creating online platforms are expensive and will require a hired website designer to coordinate all the different components I am proposing. However I do think this will be the most effective way of  gathering information. This also will allow for engagement between the stakeholders on a unified platform, this is especially important for small to medium sized businesses who might not have the time and human resources to make extensive searches about proper waste disposal in their area. A less costly compromise that I recommend is making this platform part of  the Metro Vancouver website, which is already an established mediator between all the stakeholders, and will be less complicated than creating a whole new website and domain. This way Metro Vancouver can advertise this website through traditional methods of  advertising, to reach a wider audience and to small and medium sized businesses who call in with questions.  	 Lastly, my report was done for a class and therefore has had no third party to verify all this information, however the research has been conducted in the most thorough manner and as well rounded as possible. My report focused on small to medium sized businesses but there can also be research done for larger businesses like factories, industrial sites and other institutions to complete research for the ICI sector. Future research can also be conducted on the side of  what haulers and processing facilities can do to help reduce waste.  	 Thank you for this opportunity and I hope this report will be useful to Metro Vancouver.  GEOG 419 !10Bibliography  Bacot, H., McCoy, B., & Plagman-Galvin, J. (2002). Municipal commercial recycling: Barriers to success. The American Review of  Public Administration, 32(2), 145-165. doi:10.1177/02774002032002002 Barlishen, K. D., & Baetz, B. W. (1995). Development of  a decision support system for the planning of  municipal solid waste composting and recycling programs. Canadian Journal of  Civil Engineering, 22(3), 637-645. doi:10.1139/l95-072 Clarke, M. J., & Maantay, J. A. (2006). Optimizing recycling in all of  New York city's neighborhoods: Using GIS to develop the REAP index for improved recycling education, awareness, and participation. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 46(2), 128-148. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2005.06.008 Draft Policy Models for ICI Sector Recycling Incentives, December 2014, submitted to Metro Vancouver, submitted by Reeve Consulting in association with Mark Rowlands & Associates and Enviroplan Consultants.  Ferrara, I., & Missios, P. (2005). Recycling and waste diversion effectiveness: Evidence from canada. Environmental & Resource Economics, 30(2), 221-238. doi:10.1007/s10640-004-1518-z	  Maclaren, V. W., & Yu, C. (1997). Solid waste recycling behavior of  industrial-commercial -institutional establishments. Growth and Change, 28(1), 93-109. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2257.1997.tb00918.x  Mandatory Commercial Recycling Research, March 1996, submitted to Greater Vancouver Regional District, submitted by Resource Integration Systems Ltd.  Mandatory Recycling Best Practices Review Report, November 2012, submitted to Metro Vancouver, submitted by Dillon Consulting Limited.  McDavid, J. C., & Mueller, A. E. (2008). A cross-Canada analysis of  the efficiency of  residential recycling services. Canadian Public Administration, 51(4), 589-615. doi:10.1111/j.1754-7121.2008.00043.x  Metro Vancouver Website: http://www.metrovancouver.org/ Oskamp, S., Williams, R., Unipan, J., Steers, N., Mainieri, T., & Kurland, G. (1994). Psychological factors affecting paper recycling by businesses. Environment and Behavior, 26(4), 477-503. doi:10.1177/001391659402600402  Seacat, J. D., & Northrup, D. (2010). An information–motivation–behavioral skills assessment of  curbside recycling behavior. Journal of  Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 393. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.02.002 Sidique, S. F., Joshi, S. V., & Lupi, F. (2010). Factors influencing the rate of  recycling: An analysis of  minnesota counties. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 54(4), 242-249. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.08.006  Viscusi, W. K., Huber, J., & Bell, J. (2011). Promoting recycling: Private values, social norms, and economic incentives. The American Economic Review, 101(3), 65-70. doi:10.1257/aer.101.3.65 Title page image taken online from http://www.edmonton.ca/programs_services/garbage_waste/edmonton-composting-facility.aspxGEOG 419 !11

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