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Sustainable and Effective Disposal of Invasive Plant Material in Metro Vancouver Harris, Alexandra Apr 18, 2016

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	  	  	  	  	  	  	  Sustainable	  and	  Effective	  Disposal	  of	  Invasive	  Plant	  Material	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver	  	   By	  Alexandra	  Harris	  April	  18,	  2016	  	  Report	  prepared	  at	  the	  request	  of	  Metro	  Vancouver,	  in	  partial	  fulfillment	  of	  Geography	  419:	  Research	  in	  Environmental	  Geography,	  for	  Dr.	  David	  Brownstein	   	  1	  	  Executive	  Summary	  Globalization	  has	  brought	  about	  tourism,	  trade	  and	  transport	  of	  goods,	  all	  of	  which	  facilitate	  the	  introduction	  of	  new	  species	  to	  new	  spaces.	  	  In	  this	  paper,	  I	  will	  focus	  on	  the	  region	  of	  Metro	  Vancouver	  and	  the	  matters	  that	  lie	  around	  the	  disposal	  of	  invasive	  species.	  I	  have	  identified	  two	  potential	  problems	  that	  could	  be	  addressed	  to	  make	  invasive	  species	  disposal	  more	  effective	  and	  ecologically	  sustainable.	  Information	  was	  gathered	  through	  academic	  literature	  as	  well	  as	  speaking	  with	  various	  invasive	  species	  removal	  companies.	  I	  found	  that	  in	  order	  to	  ensure	  that	  every	  propagule	  from	  the	  removed	  invasive	  plants	  is	  destroyed;	  in	  depth	  research	  needs	  to	  be	  conducted,	  specifically	  on	  the	  invasive	  plants	  of	  concern	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver.	  This	  will	  help	  ensure	  that	  there	  aren’t	  any	  active	  seeds	  in	  the	  composted	  soil.	  I	  also	  found	  that	  having	  a	  simpler	  way	  of	  communicating	  the	  policies	  of	  various	  partners	  would	  make	  disposal	  more	  effective.	  	  	  	  Introduction	  	  The	  movement	  of	  humans,	  economic	  growth	  and	  land	  development	  has	  encouraged	  the	  spread	  of	  habitat	  range	  in	  many	  species	  far	  beyond	  their	  traditional	  habitat	  (Wittenberg	  et	  al.,	  2001).	  Biogeographic	  barriers	  that	  had,	  at	  one	  time,	  previously	  isolated	  the	  biodiversity	  of	  continents,	  since	  time	  before	  memory,	  have	  disintegrated	  (Mooney	  &	  Cleland,	  2001).	  Globalization	  has	  brought	  about	  tourism,	  trade	  and	  transport	  of	  goods,	  all	  of	  which	  facilitate	  the	  introduction	  of	  new	  species	  to	  new	  spaces.	  	  This	  occurs	  both	  naturally,	  through	  seeds	  being	  carried,	  and	  intentionally,	  through	  planting	  non-­‐native	  species	  our	  backyards	  (Brito	  et	  al.,	  2013).	  2	  	  The	  introduction	  of	  new	  species	  to	  an	  area	  can	  have	  extremely	  detrimental	  and	  irreversible	  effects	  on	  the	  local	  biodiversity,	  as	  new	  competition	  for	  resources	  can	  take	  resources	  from	  indigenous	  organisms	  and	  take	  over	  areas.	  Invasions	  by	  non-­‐native	  species	  are	  one	  of	  the	  main	  threats	  to	  natural	  ecosystems	  (Clout	  et	  al.,	  2009).	  Given	  the	  way	  in	  which	  the	  natural	  environment	  is	  so	  complex,	  dynamic,	  unpredictable	  and	  interconnected,	  matters	  to	  do	  with	  biodiversity	  can	  be	  complicated	  and	  controversial.	  Planet	  wide,	  there	  is	  a	  startling	  lack	  of	  policies	  that	  manage	  invasive	  species	  effectively	  (Dickinson	  et	  al.,	  2012).	  Unfortunately,	  given	  the	  complexity	  of	  the	  issue,	  it	  is	  a	  very	  difficult	  task	  to	  take	  on	  and	  some	  may	  affirm	  that	  it	  is	  completely	  impossible	  to	  rid	  areas	  of	  entire	  species	  successfully	  for	  a	  sustained	  period.	  A	  national	  strategy	  is	  necessary	  but	  beyond	  this	  scope	  of	  work.	  In	  this	  paper,	  I	  will	  focus	  on	  Metro	  Vancouver	  and	  the	  questions	  that	  lie	  around	  the	  disposal	  of	  invasive	  species.	  I	  have	  identified	  two	  prominent	  matters	  that	  could	  be	  addressed	  to	  make	  invasive	  species	  disposal	  more	  effective	  and	  ecologically	  sustainable	  in	  the	  Metro	  Vancouver	  region.	  	  The	  management	  of	  invasive	  species	  seems	  like	  it	  could	  be	  simple	  by	  using	  a	  preventative	  approach	  rather	  than	  a	  reactive	  treatment.	  However,	  this	  becomes	  particularly	  difficult	  due	  to	  an	  absence	  of	  physical	  and	  ecological	  barriers	  when	  it	  comes	  to	  seed	  dispersal	  (Clout	  et	  al.,	  2009).	  Invasive	  species	  spread	  naturally,	  not	  acknowledging	  jurisdictional	  borders,	  and	  are	  also	  accidentally	  and	  deliberately	  introduced	  by	  humans.	  García-­‐Llorente	  et	  al.	  focus	  on	  an	  important	  aspect	  of	  invasive	  species	  management,	  that	  “humans	  are	  involved	  in	  the	  entire	  invasive	  process”	  (2008,	  pg	  2970).	  Humans	  introduce	  invasive	  species,	  suffer	  the	  3	  	  consequences	  that	  arise	  and	  possess	  the	  ability	  to	  take	  action	  and	  create	  policies	  to	  manage	  invading	  species	  (García-­‐Llorente	  et	  al.,	  2008).	  Because	  the	  natural	  environment,	  and	  the	  economy	  are	  so	  intertwined,	  invasive	  species	  have	  numerous	  economic	  implications	  (Eiswerth	  &	  Johnson,	  2002	  and	  Ceddia	  et	  al.,	  2009).	  Environment	  Canada	  estimates	  the	  annual	  cumulative	  revenue	  loss	  caused	  by	  just	  16	  invasive	  species	  is	  between	  $13	  and	  $35	  billion	  (http://www.bcinvasives.ca).	  Colautti	  et	  al.	  estimated	  the	  costs	  associated	  with	  only	  10	  key	  invasive	  species	  in	  Canada	  total	  around	  187	  million	  Canadian	  dollars	  per	  year	  (2006).	  This	  emphasizes	  the	  pressing	  need	  for	  a	  comprehensive	  program	  on	  a	  national	  level	  to	  assess	  and	  manage	  the	  impact	  of	  invasive	  species	  in	  Canada.	  	  	  Definitions	  	  Invasive	  species	  is	  defined	  by	  B.C.’s	  Invasive	  Plant	  Program	  Strategic	  Plan	  as	  a	  “non-­‐native	  (alien)	  plants	  whose	  introduction	  into	  British	  Columbia	  cause,	  or	  are	  likely	  to	  cause,	  economic	  or	  environmental	  damage,	  or	  harm	  to	  human	  health”	  (http://www.bcinvasives.ca).	  The	  term	  propagule	  is	  defined	  in	  the	  Merriam-­‐Webster	  Dictionary	  as	  “a	  structure	  (as	  a	  cutting,	  a	  seed,	  or	  a	  spore)	  that	  propagates	  a	  plant”.	  Propagate	  is	  defined	  as	  “to	  produce”	  (Merriam-­‐Webster,	  2016).	  	  	  Methods	  	   Most	  of	  my	  information	  came	  from	  scholarly	  sources,	  which	  were	  received	  from	  UBC	  Library.	  The	  majority	  of	  academic	  literature	  was	  on	  the	  composting	  of	  4	  	  plants	  and	  propagule	  viability.	  While	  no	  literature	  was	  found	  specifically	  on	  the	  key	  invasive	  species	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver,	  composting	  of	  other	  plants	  were	  used	  as	  an	  example	  of	  the	  temperatures	  that	  are	  required	  to	  deactivate	  the	  propagule.	  Other	  information	  was	  obtained	  through	  websites	  of	  invasive	  species	  disposal	  companies	  and	  organizations.	  Invasive	  flora	  removal	  companies	  were	  also	  contacted,	  anonymously,	  to	  determine	  whether	  information	  about	  disposal	  policies	  was	  properly	  being	  relayed.	  	  These	  interviews	  remained	  anonymous	  because	  companies	  were	  difficult	  to	  reach	  or	  were	  not	  interested	  in	  a	  formal	  interview.	  	  	  Results	  	  	  The	  majority	  of	  literature	  on	  invasive	  species	  management	  states	  that	  a	  strong	  legislative	  framework	  is	  critical	  for	  addressing	  the	  complex	  challenges	  of	  invasive	  species.	  Smith	  et	  al.	  emphasize	  that	  invasive	  species	  have	  gotten	  very	  little	  legislative	  attention	  in	  most	  countries	  and	  instead	  tend	  to	  be	  dealt	  with	  in	  a	  disjointed	  and	  reactive	  manner	  (2014).	  They	  also	  state	  that	  legislative	  frameworks	  can	  provide	  the	  foundation	  for	  clearly	  determining	  roles	  and	  responsibilities	  and	  are	  important	  tools	  for	  guiding	  and	  generating	  action	  (Smith	  et	  al.,	  2014).	  McDermott	  et	  al.	  use	  a	  bio	  economic	  model	  to	  explain	  how	  the	  management	  of	  invasive	  species	  needs	  to	  come	  from	  a	  place	  of	  collectivity	  (2013).	  They	  highlight	  how	  when	  managed	  independently,	  more	  invasive	  species	  can	  spread	  and	  the	  negative	  effects	  are	  easily	  ignored.	  In	  Clout	  et	  al.’s	  Invasive	  Species	  Management	  Handbook,	  education	  and	  awareness	  of	  the	  general	  public	  are	  very	  important.	  Other	  methods	  for	  management	  can	  be	  seen	  as	  bio	  control,	  herbicides	  and	  developing	  5	  	  incentives	  for	  taking	  action.	  Fischer	  &	  Young	  conducted	  a	  study	  on	  attitudes	  towards	  biodiversity	  management	  and	  found	  that	  a	  better	  understanding	  of	  biodiversity	  in	  the	  public	  body	  is	  essential	  for	  the	  design	  of	  biodiversity-­‐related	  policies	  that	  have	  public	  support	  (2007).	  Citizen	  science	  is	  discussed	  by	  Dickinson	  et	  al.	  as	  an	  effective	  way	  of	  raising	  public	  knowledge	  about	  various	  issues	  (2012).	  They	  state	  that	  citizen	  science	  combines	  public	  education	  with	  research	  and	  uses	  a	  more	  holistic	  approach	  at	  addressing	  social	  impacts	  by	  engaging	  the	  public	  to	  gain	  support	  for	  science	  and	  environmental	  stewardship.	  This	  method	  could	  be	  very	  effective	  for	  dealing	  with	  invasive	  species	  in	  the	  Metro	  Vancouver	  region.	  	  Disposal	  of	  British	  Columbia’s	  invasive	  species	  is	  not	  discussed	  in	  literature.	  There	  is,	  however,	  a	  lot	  of	  literature	  on	  temperatures	  necessary	  for	  propagule	  destruction.	  Brito	  et	  al.	  studied	  an	  Acacia	  species	  and	  found	  that	  temperatures	  need	  to	  exceed	  60	  degrees	  Celsius	  for	  several	  months	  for	  seed	  inactivation	  (2013).	  Tomkins	  et	  al.	  found	  that	  4	  weeks	  of	  composting	  at	  55	  degrees	  Celsius	  or	  higher	  are	  not	  only	  sufficient	  to	  kill	  the	  propagule	  of	  a	  variety	  of	  species,	  but	  also	  increases	  the	  quality	  of	  the	  soil	  produced	  (1998).	  A	  study	  by	  Egley	  on	  a	  wide	  range	  of	  plant	  species	  found	  varied	  results	  depending	  on	  the	  species.	  They	  did	  find	  correlations	  between	  higher	  temperatures,	  higher	  moisture	  content	  and	  longer	  time	  in	  the	  compost	  and	  more	  seeds	  dying	  for	  all	  the	  examined	  species.	  	  Harvest	  Power	  accepts	  green	  waste	  containing	  invasive	  flora	  material	  and	  is	  located	  in	  Richmond,	  B.C..	  They	  are	  required	  to	  follow	  procedures	  outlined	  in	  the	  B.C.	  Organic	  Material	  Recycling	  Regulation	  for	  static	  aerated	  pile	  composting	  –	  no	  less	  than	  55	  degrees	  Celsius	  for	  at	  least	  three	  days	  (Forgie,	  Sasser,	  &	  Neger,	  2004)	  6	  	  Harvest	  Power’s	  process	  can	  be	  seen	  in	  Figure	  1.	  In	  the	  first	  mesophilic	  stage	  (A),	  easily	  degradable	  material	  is	  broken	  down.	  In	  the	  thermophilic	  stage	  (B),	  the	  compost	  pile	  reaches	  over	  55	  degrees	  Celsius.	  In	  the	  second	  mesophilic	  stage	  (C),	  the	  decomposition	  of	  complex	  compounds	  takes	  place.	  In	  the	  maturation	  stage	  (D),	  further	  decomposition	  occurs	  along	  with	  building	  up	  of	  new	  compounds.	  This	  entire	  process	  typically	  takes	  around	  15	  days	  and	  the	  compost	  is	  mixed	  at	  least	  5	  times	  to	  ensure	  that	  all	  the	  compost	  is	  exposed	  to	  the	  same	  amount	  of	  heat	  (Geesing,	  2013).	  The	  pile	  is	  enclosed	  for	  insulation	  and	  to	  control	  odour.	  After,	  high	  quality	  compost	  is	  made	  and	  sold	  (Geesing,	  2013).	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  Figure	  1.	  Composting	  Stages	  at	  Harvest	  Power	  (Geesing,	  2013)	  Unfortunately	  some	  municipal	  staff	  have	  reported	  invasive	  plants	  growing	  in	  areas	  where	  compost	  from	  Harvest	  Power	  has	  been	  used	  in	  landscaping,	  but	  it	  has	  not	  been	  established	  whether	  these	  invasive	  plants	  have	  propagated	  from	  local	  7	  	  seed,	  plantings,	  contaminated	  trucks,	  the	  compost	  itself,	  or	  even	  other	  soil	  amendments.	  Because	  most	  invasive	  plants	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver	  tend	  to	  spread	  furthest	  on	  public	  lands,	  I	  contacted	  various	  removal	  companies	  to	  find	  out	  whether	  they	  were	  aware	  of	  the	  disposal	  options.	  The	  removal	  professionals	  within	  companies	  were	  very	  difficult	  to	  get	  in	  contact	  with,	  so	  the	  results	  may	  not	  be	  detailed.	  However,	  what	  was	  found	  was	  that	  many	  of	  the	  front	  end	  staff	  weren’t	  conscious	  of	  where	  the	  plant	  material	  they	  removed	  was	  going.	  Some	  were	  not	  aware	  the	  material	  could	  be	  composted.	  Many	  of	  the	  communication	  officers	  of	  these	  companies	  did	  not	  seem	  to	  care	  where	  the	  removed	  invasive	  flora	  was	  going.	  	  	  Discussion	  	   The	  majority	  of	  the	  literature	  points	  to	  various	  measures	  such	  as	  public	  awareness,	  bio-­‐control,	  herbicides,	  and	  early	  detection	  for	  the	  management	  of	  invasive	  species.	  There	  is	  generally	  a	  low	  amount	  public	  awareness	  around	  invasive	  species,	  aside	  from	  the	  engaged	  subset	  of	  organizations.	  It	  is	  also	  good	  that	  the	  invasive	  plant	  material	  is	  disposed	  of	  in	  a	  sustainable	  manner,	  rather	  than	  burning	  or	  requiring	  the	  material	  to	  be	  placed	  in	  plastic	  bags	  and	  thrown	  away	  in	  a	  landfill.	  The	  first	  major	  concern	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver	  is	  that	  we	  can’t	  be	  sure	  that	  the	  composting	  method	  is	  successful	  at	  preventing	  invasive	  plants	  from	  further	  colonization.	  Harvest	  Power,	  a	  company	  that	  accepts	  green	  waste	  and	  invasive	  flora	  material	  for	  composting,	  assures	  that	  the	  propagules	  of	  invasive	  plants	  that	  are	  taken	  to	  the	  facility	  will	  be	  destroyed	  with	  their	  temperatures.	  Day	  et	  al.	  concluded	  8	  	  that	  a	  fully	  enclosed	  co-­‐composting	  plant	  can	  kill	  vegetative	  parts	  of	  Japanese	  knotweed	  within	  3	  days	  (2009).	  However,	  research	  on	  the	  destruction	  of	  knotweed	  seed	  has	  been	  limited	  to	  date.	  Although	  Acacia	  does	  not	  grow	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver,	  several	  months	  of	  composting	  at	  temperatures	  greater	  than	  60	  degrees	  Celsius	  would	  be	  necessary	  for	  destruction	  of	  invasive	  Acacia	  seeds	  (Brito	  et	  al.,	  2013).	  Due	  to	  competitive	  advantages	  and	  high	  survival	  rates,	  the	  propagules	  of	  invasive	  plants	  may	  be	  able	  to	  survive	  harsher	  conditions	  than	  native	  plants.	  It	  should	  not	  be	  discounted	  that	  seeds	  could	  survive	  the	  composting	  process.	  	  Unfortunately	  no	  studies	  have	  been	  published	  in	  academic	  literature	  specifically	  on	  the	  ability	  of	  a	  static	  aerated	  pile	  composting	  process	  to	  deactivate	  the	  key	  invasive	  species	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver.	  I	  suggest	  that	  measures	  be	  taken	  to	  perform	  research	  directly	  on	  the	  key	  invasive	  species	  in	  the	  Metro	  Vancouver	  region.	  A	  possible	  avenue	  for	  conducting	  this	  research	  could	  be	  UBC’s	  Compost	  Program,	  which	  states	  as	  a	  part	  of	  their	  mission	  to	  support	  compost	  related	  research.	  The	  facility	  can	  take	  up	  to	  5	  tonnes	  of	  organic	  waste,	  daily	  in	  its	  in-­‐vessel	  composting	  system,	  which	  allows	  for	  optimal	  temperatures	  and	  moisture	  levels	  (http://www.buildingoperations.ubc.ca).	  	  The	  study	  could	  involve	  Giant	  Hogweed	  or	  Japanese/Bohemian	  Knotweed	  to	  find	  out	  the	  length	  of	  time	  and	  temperature	  of	  the	  compost	  that	  is	  required	  for	  the	  vegetative	  material	  and	  seeds	  to	  be	  deactivated.	  This	  is	  important	  data	  to	  retrieve	  because	  only	  then	  can	  we	  be	  sure	  that	  the	  composting	  process	  is	  entirely	  effective.	  	  The	  second	  disposal	  related	  concern	  is	  making	  sure	  the	  companies	  and	  organizations	  that	  give	  information	  or	  perform	  the	  removal	  of	  invasive	  plants	  in	  9	  	  Metro	  Vancouver	  know	  where	  the	  removed	  flora	  should	  be	  taken	  and	  what	  happens	  to	  it.	  Metro	  Vancouver	  currently	  recommends	  the	  disposal	  options	  outlined	  in	  Table	  1.	  	  Professionals	  should	  be	  hired	  to	  remove	  Giant	  Hogweed	  due	  to	  its	  toxic	  sap.	  Giant	  Hogweed	  should	  be	  double-­‐bagged	  in	  paper	  or	  compostable	  bags	  and	  transported	  to	  a	  transfer	  station	  that	  accepts	  invasive	  plant	  material	  or	  to	  a	  landfill	  for	  deep	  burial	  (the	  most	  expensive	  disposal	  option).	  All	  other	  plants	  can	  be	  taken	  either	  to	  a	  transfer	  station	  that	  accepts	  invasive	  plant	  material,	  where	  it	  will	  eventually	  be	  taken	  to	  Harvest	  Power	  for	  composting,	  or	  large	  quantities	  (e.g.,	  truckloads)	  should	  be	  taken	  directly	  to	  Harvest	  Power.	  Throughout	  my	  research,	  it	  was	  difficult	  to	  find	  synchronized	  messaging	  across	  all	  the	  invasive	  species	  organizations	  in	  B.C..	  During	  my	  research,	  speaking	  with	  invasive	  species	  removal	  companies	  I	  found	  that	  the	  removal	  companies	  are	  not	  taking	  responsibility	  for	  where	  the	  plant	  material	  goes	  after	  it’s	  removed.	  It	  is	  obvious	  how	  important	  it	  is	  for	  proper	  disposal	  of	  the	  propagule,	  or	  else	  the	  plant	  will	  further	  colonize.	  It	  is	  important	  for	  the	  company	  to	  know	  that	  once	  they	  remove	  the	  plant	  from	  the	  ground,	  it	  is	  not	  going	  to	  survive.	  This	  goes	  along	  with	  my	  research	  that	  states	  that	  understanding	  biodiversity	  and	  policies	  surrounding	  biodiversity	  is	  crucial	  for	  the	  policies	  to	  be	  effective	  (Fischer	  &	  Young,	  2007).	  It	  is	  essential	  that	  they	  know	  that	  the	  plant	  material	  is	  being	  disposed	  of	  in	  an	  effective	  and	  sustainable	  manner.	  In	  Figure	  2	  I	  have	  developed	  a	  mock-­‐up	  of	  an	  info-­‐graphic	  that	  can	  be	  sent	  to	  various	  organizations	  and	  removal	  companies	  so	  they	  are	  aware	  of	  current	  disposal	  options.	  The	  graphic	  can	  be	  easily	  updated,	  when	  changes	  to	  policies	  occur,	  and	  sent	  to	  companies	  and	  organizations.	  The	  graphic	  could	  include	  regional	  or	  municipal	  branding	  and	  could	  be	  available	  for	  download	  10	  	  from	  various	  websites	  as	  well	  as	  be	  sent	  to	  the	  removal	  companies	  and	  organizations.	  Pairing	  this	  info-­‐graphic	  with	  research	  into	  the	  necessary	  conditions	  for	  the	  destruction	  of	  local	  of	  invasive	  plants	  via	  composting,	  the	  region	  can	  have	  a	  more	  effective	  and	  more	  ecologically	  sustainable	  invasive	  plant	  disposal	  strategy.	  	  	   	  11	  	  Invasive	  PLANT	  material	   Invasive	  Species-­‐contaminated	  SOIL	  	  Giant	  Hogweed	  • Due	  to	  its	  toxic	  sap,	  hire	  invasive	  species	  removal	  professionals	  to	  remove	  Giant	  Hogweed.	  It	  is	  accepted	  at:	  1. All	   Metro	   Vancouver	   Transfer	   Stations	   (North	   Shore,	  Maple	  Ridge,	  Langley,	  Coquitlam	  and	  Surrey)	  in	  the	  Garbage	  stream	  as	  a	  maximum	  of	  5%	  by	  weight	  or	  volume	  of	  plant	  material	   per	   load	   of	  mixed	  waste.	   Giant	   Hogweed	  must	   be	  double-­‐bagged	   in	   paper	   or	   compostable	   bags	   for	  Occupational	  Health	  and	  Safety	  reasons.	  2. North	   Shore,	   Maple	   Ridge,	   Langley	   Transfer	   Stations	  ONLY	   as	   Green	   Waste,	   bagged	   or	   not.	   From	   there,	   the	  material	   will	   be	   transported	   to	   an	   industrial	   organics	  processing	   facility	   that	   can	   adequately	   destroy	   invasive	  plants.	  3. Vancouver	   Landfill	   for	   deep	   burial	   or	   redirect	   to	   an	  industrial	   organics	   processing	   facility.	   There	   is	   a	   burial	  charge,	  but	  it	  is	  waived	  for	  residents	  with	  10	  bags	  or	  less.	  A	  Waste	  Assessment	  Form	  must	  be	  completed.	  Giant	  Hogweed	  must	   be	   double-­‐bagged	   in	   paper	   or	   compostable	   bags	   for	  Occupational	  Health	  and	  Safety	  reasons.	  	  	  Other	  Invasive	  Plants	  • Small	   quantities	   of	   other	   invasive	   plant	   material	   are	  accepted	   at	   the	   North	   Shore,	   Maple	   Ridge	   and	   Langley	  Transfer	  Stations	  as	  Green	  Waste.	  From	  there,	  the	  material	  will	   be	   transported	   to	   an	   industrial	   organics	   processing	  facility	  that	  can	  adequately	  destroy	  invasive	  plants.	  • Large	   quantities	   (i.e.	   truckloads)	   of	   invasive	  plant	  material	  are	   accepted	   at	   industrial	   organics	   processing	   facilities	  (e.g.,	   Harvest	   Power).	   Please	   contact	   the	   facility	   before	  delivering	  any	  loads	  of	  invasive	  plant	  material	  to	  confirm	  they	  can	  properly	  handle	  the	  material.	  	  NOTE:	   Only	   licensed	   commercial	   vehicles	   (e.g.	   front	   or	   rear	  loading	   garbage	   trucks)	   can	   drop	   off	   loads	   to	   the	   Metro	  Vancouver	  Waste-­‐to-­‐Energy	  Facility	  for	  disposal.	  Loads	  must	  be	  a	  maximum	  of	  5%	  by	  weight	  or	  volume	  plant	  material	  per	   load	  of	  mixed	  waste.	  • Take	  up	  to	  0.5	  cubic	  metres	  of	  soil	  and	  similar	  fill	  material	   to	   any	   Metro	   Vancouver	   Transfer	  Station	   (North	   Shore,	   Maple	   Ridge,	   Langley,	  Coquitlam	  and	  Surrey)	  in	  the	  Garbage	  stream.	  • Take	   loads	   with	   up	   to	   25%	   soil	   by	   weight	   or	  volume	   to	   an	   industrial	   organics	   processing	  facility	   (e.g.,	  Harvest	   Power).	   	  Please	  contact	   the	  facility	   before	   delivering	   any	   invasive	   species-­‐contaminated	   material	   to	   confirm	   they	   can	  properly	  handle	  the	  material.	  • Take	   soil	   contaminated	   with	   invasive	   plants	   to	  the	  Vancouver	  Landfill	  for	  deep	  burial.	  A	  Waste	  Assessment	  Form	  must	  be	  completed.	  	  	  Table	  1.	  Disposal	  of	  Invasive	  Species	  and	  Invasive	  Species-­‐Contaminated	  Soil	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver 	  	  	  12	  	  Figure	  2.	  Example	  of	  info-­‐graphic	  of	  invasive	  plant	  disposal	  options.	  13	  	  References	  Retrieved	  from	  http://www.bcinvasives.ca	  Retrieved	  from	  http://www.buildingoperations.ubc.ca/sustainability/zero-­‐waste/composting/	  Brito,	  L.	  M.,	  Mourão,	  I.,	  Coutinho,	  J.,	  &	  Smith,	  S.	  (2013).	  Composting	  for	  management	  and	  resource	  recovery	  of	  invasive	  acacia	  species.	  Waste	  Management	  &	  Research,	  31(11),	  1125-­‐1132.	  Ceddia,	  M.	  G.,	  Heikkilä,	  J.,	  &	  Peltola,	  J.	  (2009).	  Managing	  invasive	  alien	  species	  with	  professional	  and	  hobby	  farmers:	  Insights	  from	  ecological-­‐economic	  modelling.	  Ecological	  Economics,	  68(5),	  1366-­‐1374.	  Clout,	  M.	  N.,	  Williams,	  P.	  A.,	  (2009).	  Invasive	  species	  management:	  A	  handbook	  of	  principles	  and	  techniques.	  Oxford;New	  York;:	  Oxford	  University	  Press.	  Colautti,	  R.	  I.,	  Bailey,	  S.	  A.,	  van	  Overdijk,	  Colin	  D.	  A,	  Amundsen,	  K.,	  &	  MacIsaac,	  H.	  J.	  (2006).	  Characterised	  and	  projected	  costs	  of	  nonindigenous	  species	  in	  Canada.	  Biological	  Invasions,	  18;8;(1),	  45-­‐59.	  Day,	  L.,	  Rall,	  J.,	  McIntyre,	  S.,	  Terrance,	  C.,(2009).	  Japanese	  Knotweed	  Composting	  Feasibility	  Study,	  Delaware	  County	  (New	  York).	  	  Ecological	  Restoration,	  27,	  377-­‐379.	  Dickinson,	  J.	  L.,	  Shirk,	  J.,	  Bonter,	  D.,	  Bonney,	  R.,	  Crain,	  R.	  L.,	  Martin,	  J..	  .	  Purcell,	  K.	  (2012).	  The	  current	  state	  of	  citizen	  science	  as	  a	  tool	  for	  ecological	  research	  and	  public	  engagement.	  Frontiers	  in	  Ecology	  and	  the	  Environment,	  10(6),	  291-­‐297.	  14	  	  Egley,	  G.	  H.	  (1990).	  High-­‐temperature	  effects	  on	  germination	  and	  survival	  of	  weed	  seeds	  in	  soil.	  Weed	  Science,	  38(4/5),	  429-­‐435.	  Eiswerth,	  M.	  E.,	  &	  Johnson,	  W.	  S.	  (2002).	  Managing	  nonindigenous	  invasive	  species:	  Insights	  from	  dynamic	  analysis.	  Environmental	  and	  Resource	  Economics,	  23(3),	  319-­‐342.	  Fischer,	  A.,	  &	  Young,	  J.	  C.	  (2007).	  Understanding	  mental	  constructs	  of	  biodiversity:	  Implications	  for	  biodiversity	  management	  and	  conservation.	  Biological	  Conservation,	  136(2),	  271-­‐282.	  Forgie,	  D.,	  Sasser,	  L.,	  &	  Neger,	  M.	  (2004).	  Compst	  Facility	  Requirements	  Guideline:	  How	  to	  Comply	  with	  Part	  5	  of	  the	  Organic	  Matter	  Recycling	  Regulation.	  	  García-­‐Llorente,	  M.,	  Martín-­‐López,	  B.,	  González,	  J.	  A.,	  Alcorlo,	  P.,	  &	  Montes,	  C.	  (2008).	  Social	  perceptions	  of	  the	  impacts	  and	  benefits	  of	  invasive	  alien	  species:	  Implications	  for	  management.	  Biological	  Conservation,	  141(12),	  2969-­‐2983.	  	  Geesing,	  D.	  (2013).	  Composting	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver:	  Why	  and	  How.	  	  McDermott,	  S.	  M.,	  Irwin,	  R.	  E.,	  &	  Taylor,	  B.	  W.	  (2013).	  Using	  economic	  instruments	  to	  develop	  effective	  management	  of	  invasive	  species:	  Insights	  from	  a	  bioeconomic	  model.	  Ecological	  Applications,	  23(5),	  1086-­‐1100.	  Metro	  Vancouver	  (2016).	  Disposal	  of	  Invasive	  Species	  and	  Invasive	  Species-­‐Contaminated	  Soil	  in	  Metro	  Vancouver	  (see	  Table	  1)	  Retrieved	  from	  http://www.merriam-­‐webster.com	  Mooney,	  H.	  A.,	  &	  Cleland,	  E.	  E.	  (2001).	  The	  evolutionary	  impact	  of	  invasive	  species.	  Proceedings	  of	  the	  National	  Academy	  of	  Sciences	  of	  the	  United	  States	  of	  America,	  98(10),	  5446-­‐5451.	  15	  	  Smith,	  A.	  L.,	  Bazely,	  D.	  R.,	  &	  Yan,	  N.	  (2014).	  Are	  legislative	  frameworks	  in	  canada	  and	  ontario	  up	  to	  the	  task	  of	  addressing	  invasive	  alien	  species?	  Biological	  Invasions,	  16(7),	  1325-­‐1344.	  Wittenberg,	  R.,	  Cock,	  M.	  J.	  W.,	  &	  Global	  Invasive	  Species	  Programme.	  (2001).	  Invasive	  alien	  species:	  A	  toolkit	  of	  best	  prevention	  and	  management	  practices.	  Wallingford,	  Oxon,	  UK;New	  York;:	  CABI	  Pub.	  	  

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