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Charging Electric Vehicles : Developing Policy Options to Accommodate the at Home Charging of Garage… Webb, Michael Apr 30, 2016

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	Charging	Electric	Vehicles	Developing Policy Options to Accommodate the at Home Charging of Garage Orphan Electric Vehicles in the Metro Vancouver Region	Michael	Webb	ABSTRACT	Report	prepared	at	the	request	of	the	City	of	Vancouver	and	Metro	Vancouver	in	partial	fulfillment	of	UBC	GEOG	419:	Research	in	Environmental	Geography,	for	Dr.	David	Brownstein.																																																																																																												April	2016			 	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 2	  Table	of	Contents	TABLE	OF	CONTENTS	............................................................................................................................	2	LIST	OF	FIGURES	.....................................................................................................................................	3	LIST	OF	TABLES	......................................................................................................................................	3	EXECUTIVE	SUMMARY	..........................................................................................................................	4	INTRODUCTION	......................................................................................................................................	5	RESEARCH	METHODOLOGIES	............................................................................................................	5	LITERATURE	REVIEW	...............................................................................................................................................	6	Preamble	...................................................................................................................................................................	6	Part	1	–	Background	...........................................................................................................................................	6	Technical	..................................................................................................................................................................	6	Smart	Grid	................................................................................................................................................................	8	Part	2	–	Charging	GOEVs	...................................................................................................................................	8	Policy	..........................................................................................................................................................................	8	Logistics	....................................................................................................................................................................	9	Parking	...................................................................................................................................................................	10	ONLINE	SURVEY	AND	EXPERT	INTERVIEWS	..............................................................................	11	Survey	Results	......................................................................................................................................................	11	Expert	Interview	Results	.................................................................................................................................	13	Ian	Neville,	City	of	Vancouver,	Climate	Policy	Analyst	......................................................................	13	Brad	Badelt,	City	of	Vancouver,	Senior	Sustainability	Specialist	..................................................	13	Eve	Hou,	Metro	Vancouver,	Air	Quality	Planner	..................................................................................	14	Suzanne	Fairley,	Citizen	and	VEVA	Executive	.......................................................................................	14	FIELD	OBSERVATIONS	...........................................................................................................................................	15	RECOMMENDATIONS	.........................................................................................................................	16	PRINCIPAL	RECOMMENDATIONS	.........................................................................................................................	16	ADDITIONAL	RECOMMENDATIONS	AND	AREAS	FOR	FURTHER	RESEARCH	.................................................	18	IMAGINING	THE	FUTURE	..................................................................................................................	19	WORKS	CITED	......................................................................................................................................	21	ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT WORKS	.........................................................................................	23	APPENDICES	..........................................................................................................................................	25	APPENDIX	A		PHILADELPHIA’S	ELECTRIC	VEHICLE	PARKING	SPACE	APPLICATION	.................................	25	APPENDIX	B	CITIZEN	QUESTIONNAIRE	..............................................................................................................	28		Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 3	List	of	Figures		Figure	1		The	Minimum	and	Maximum	Range	of	EVs	per	Charge	………………….				7		Figure	2		Boulevard	in	a	Typical	Garage	Orphan	Neighbourhood	………………….			10		Figure	3		Reserved	Parking	Sign	for	Electric	Vehicles	…………………………………...				10		Figure	4		Boulevard	in	a	Typical	EV	Neighbourhood	Where	a																	Charging	Station	Could	Be	Installed	…………………..…………………………..				15		Figure	5		Schematic	of	a	Possible	Vancouver	Charging	Station	Design…………..			18							List	of	Tables		Table	1		Charging	Times	Based	on	Voltage	………………………………………………….					7				Table	2		Results	from	the	Online	Survey	……………………………………………………..			12	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 4	Executive	Summary			The	City	of	Vancouver	and	Metro	Vancouver	wish	to	develop	a	strategy	to	facilitate	the	at	home	charging	of	electric	vehicles	(EVs)	where	their	owners	do	not	have	on-site	parking	but	rather	park	their	cars	on	the	street	when	at	home.		To	facilitate	this,	it	is	recommended	that:		 1. The	City	allow	for	power	at	240	volts	to	be	provided	from	the	EV	owner’s	home	to	a	vehicle	charging	station	located	in	the	boulevard	in	front	of	the	owner’s	home;		 2. A	standard	be	developed	such	that	a	charging	station	can	be	installed		in	a	cost-effective	manner;		 3. Reserved	EV	parking	be	provided	in	front	of	the	charging	station;		 4. The	permitting	system	for	the	charging	station	be	administratively	simple;	and,		 5. BC	Hydro	be	encouraged	to	adopt	a	time	of	use	billing	program	and	review	its	billing	framework	and	other	practices	to	assure	support	for	EV	owners.		Further,	it	is	recommended	that:		 1. The	City	of	Vancouver	proceed	with	a	pilot	project	to	encourage	and	facilitate	the	ownership	of	EVs;		and		 2. Utilizing	lessons	learned	from	the	pilot	project,	that	the	program	be	rolled	out	across	the	entire	City	as	soon	as	possible.		Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 5	Introduction		In	two	recent	reports,	the	Greenest	City	2020	Action	Plan	and	Renewable	City	Strategy,	Vancouver	has	set	out	a	variety	of	strategies	to	meet	its	objective	of	an	80%	reduction	of	community-wide	GHGs	and	for	all	energy	to	come	from	renewable	sources	(Vancouver,	2015).		Strategies	are	aimed	at	buildings,	waste	reduction,	local	sourcing	of	goods	and	transportation.		In	the	area	of	transportation,	there	are	a	number	of	strategies	including	encouraging	the	use	of	electric	vehicles	(EVs).		This	paper	addresses	the	charging	of	electrical	vehicles,	which	are	garage	orphans	(GOEVs).1		Garage	orphans	are	vehicles	owned	by	someone	without	access	to	parking	on	their	property,	and	thus	they	are	parked	on	the	street	near	the	owner’s	home.	Research	Methodologies		An	ideal	approach	to	the	charging	of	GOEVs	in	Vancouver	could	not	be	found	in	one	place;	therefore	a	multi-faceted	approach	was	used	to	develop	an	efficient,	applicable	strategy.	The	first	step	was	to	follow	an	academic	approach	in	order	to	learn	more	about	the	topic	and	what	is	currently	being	done	elsewhere.		The	results	from	this	examination	are	discussed	in	the	literature	review	section.		The	next	step	was	to	determine	what	is	important	to	the	people	currently	facing	the	issue	of	charging	GOEVs.		This	was	accomplished	primarily	through	an	online	survey,	distributed	to	individuals	who	had	previously	reached	out	to	the	City	of	Vancouver	and	also	through	the	Vancouver	Electric	Vehicle	Association	(VEVA).		Following	the	survey,	expert	interviews	were	undertaken	with	City	of	Vancouver	and	Metro	Vancouver	staff	and	with	an	executive	from	VEVA.	Finally,	prime	neighbourhoods	for	the	installation	of	GOEV	charging	stations	were	examined	and	photographed.		1	To	avoid	confusion,	the	term	‘charging’	will	refer	to	the	charging	of	the	electric	vehicle,	while	‘billing’	will	refer	to	the	monetary	cost	associated	with	charging.			Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 6	Literature	Review	Preamble		It	is	only	in	the	past	few	years	that	EVs	have	become	commercially	viable	and	thus	issues	related	to	their	use,	and	specifically	the	charging	of	EVs	(and	more	specifically	the	charging	of	GOEVs),	are	very	recent.		As	a	result,	it	was	necessary	for	this	literature	review	to	go	beyond	academic	papers	and	to	include	books,	technical	reports,	government	sources	and	BC	Hydro’s	website.		The	first	section	of	this	Literature	Review	provides	background	information	on	the	charging	of	EVs	which	provides	useful	context	for	the	development	of	appropriate	policies	and	procedures	for	the	charging	of	GOEVs.		The	second	section	deals	specifically	with	the	logistics	of	charging	GOEVs.	Part	1	–	Background	Technical			Based	upon	the	literature	review,	it	can	be	concluded	that	there	is	general	consensus	on	a	number	of	important	technical	matters	related	to	or	impacting	the	charging	of	EVs.		One	fundamental	question	is	whether	the	existing	capacity	of	BC	Hydro	infrastructure	will	accommodate	the	increased	power	demand	from	charging	EVs.		While	information	was	not	available	specifically	for	Vancouver,	there	is	ample	evidence	in	the	literature	that	charging	EVs	at	home	will	not	place	an	unmanageable	burden	on	the	existing	grid.		Motavalli	illustrates	this	well	when	he	references	a	2006	US	Department	of	Energy	study	which	estimated	that	the	US	power	grid	could	fuel	180	million	plug-in	hybrid	vehicles	(84%	of	the	current	total	number	of	vehicles),	assuming	that	they	were	plugged	in	at	night	(Motavalli,	2011).	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 7		On	the	question	of	where	and	when	GOEVs	are	typically	charged,	the	consensus	opinion	is	that	there	is	a	strong	preference	for	them	to	be	charged	at	home	and	typically	at	night.	(Lane,	2015).		In	fact,	given	the	increased	range	that	EVs	are	able	to	travel	on	a	single	charge	(Figure	1),	it	is	likely	that	for	many	EV	owners,	all	of	their	charging	will	be	done	at	home.			The	final	technical	question	on	which	there	was	consensus	is	at	what	voltage	should	EVs	be	charged	at	home?		Charge	times	at	various	voltages	are	illustrated	in	Table	1.		Of	the	available	options	and	considering	a	number	of	variables,	it	is	apparent	that	a	240-volt	charging	system,	with	a	3	to	6-hour	charge	time,	is	the	most	suitable	for	home	use	and	for	GOEVs.		All	of	these	conclusions	support,	and	are	supported	by	the	smart	grid	discussion	which	follows.	 QuesƟons, in my table I used 120 V and 240V? If the third opƟon is DC, the other two are AC or DC as well?  I can redo this table in a minute and make headers on all tables match In the third picture, is that a charging staƟon in the foreground, in which case can we crop and expand staƟon?  Figure 6 The minimum and maximum range of EVs per charge, km hƩp://www.elbil.no/kjope‐elbil/kjopeveiledning  Charging Station LevelTypical Charging Time Likely Location10-20 hours Homes, workplace charging, parking (0-100%) garages, long-term & overnight lots3-6 hours Homes, shopping centres,  (0-100%) parking garages, institutions20-40 minutes (0-80%); Commercial; shopping centres, public  1 hour for 100% locations with high customer trafficLevel I: 110VLevel II: 220VDC/Fast Charge: 480V+Table	1	Charging	Times	Based	on	Voltage	(Hydro	Quebec,	2015)	0	 100	 200	 300	 400	 500	Tesla Model S 85-kW Tesla Model S 60-kW Nissan LEAF Renault Zoe VW e-Golf Renault Kangoo Z.E. BMW i3 Ford Focus Electric VW e-up! Citroën Berlingo Mitsubishi i-MiEV Peugeot Partner Citroën C-ZERO Peugeot iOn Buddy BAES Renault Twizy Minimum	Maximum	Figure	1	The	Minimum	and	Maximum	Range	of	EVs	per	Charge,	km	(Norwegian	Electric	Vehicle	Association,	n.d.)	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 8		Smart	Grid		A	smart	grid	is	a	concept	that	is	often	discussed,	but	not	widely	understood.		According	to	the	Electric	Power	Research	Institute,	a	smart	grid	is	“one	that	incorporates	information	and	communications	technology	into	every	aspect	of	electricity	generation,	delivery	and	consumption	in	order	to	minimize	environmental	impact,	enhance	markets,	improve	reliability	and	service,	and	reduce	costs	and	improve	efficiency”	(Islam,	2013).		With	their	significant	storage	capability,	EVs	can	be	valuable	elements	of	a	smart	grid	system.		Mitchell	suggests	that	theoretically	an	EV	go	grid	to	vehicle	(G2V)	(charge)	when	electrical	system	demand	is	low	(typically	at	night)	and	vehicle	to	grid	(V2G)	(supply	to	grid	or	discharge)	when	demand	is	high,	providing	both	environmental	and	economic	benefit	(Mitchell	et	al,	2010).		This	interchangeable	flow	allows	the	EV	when	plugged	in	to	facilitate	‘peak	shaving’.		Peak	shaving	involves	either	reducing	peak	demands,	or	in	this	situation,	providing	power	locally	to	the	grid	from	the	EV,	effectively	creating	a	distributed	generation	model.		This	approach	is	supported	by	BC	Hydro’s	Smart	Meter	program	–	objectives	of	which	include	the	establishment	of	a	two-way	grid,	greater	use	of	green	energy	and	the	support	of	the	use	of	EVs.	(BC	Hydro, 2016)	Part	2	–	Charging	GOEVs	Policy			While	there	is	general	agreement	on	the	technical	aspects	of	charging	EVs,	opinions	on	where	and	how	to	charge	GOEVs	are	radically	different.		At	one	end	of	the	spectrum,	the	City	of	Seattle,	after	thoroughly	investigating	strategies	to	provide	home-based	charging	for	EVs,	concluded	that	on-street	charging	is	not	a	viable	option	due	to	concerns	with	installation	logistics	and	parking	(NelsonNygaard	Consulting	Associates	Inc.,	2014).		Instead,	it	proposes	vehicles	be	charged	at	work	or	in	public	or	private	lots	at	charging	hubs	near	the	GOEV	owner’s	home.		The	Cites	of	Boston	and	London	acknowledge	that	there	are	issues	to	overcome	for	on-street	charging,	but	have	not	‘written	it	off’	as	Seattle	has	(Salama	et	al,	2015).			Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 9	Philadelphia,	at	the	opposite	end	of	the	spectrum	to	Seattle,	has	developed	a	simple,	but	effective	solution	for	on-street	charging	of	GOEVs.	It	consists	of	a	straight-	forward,	three-page	application	form	available	online,	and	a	simple	and	easy-to-understand	application	guide	(Philadelphia,	2013).		As	Philadelphia’s	approach	matches	Vancouver’s	objective,	it	is	viewed	as	a	model	worthy	of	further	review,	adaptation	and	adoption.		A	copy	of	of	Philadelphia’s	application	form	is	provided	in	Appendix	A.    Logistics			The	need	to	cross	the	sidewalk	with	an	electrical	cable	without	creating	a	tripping	hazard	is	one	of	the	principle	challenges	that	must	be	addressed	in	the	development	of	charging	stations	for	GOEVs.		Where	a	sidewalk	is	not	present,	the	charging	cord	can	simply	be	run	overland	from	the	home	to	the	car.		When	a	sidewalk	is	present,	which	is	the	case	in	most	locations	where	GOEVs	are	parked,	potential	solutions	range	from	simple	to	elegant	(and	expensive):	• A	simple	post	with	a	lockable	waterproof	electric	receptacle;	• A	receptacle	attached	to	a	light	pole	or	other	pole;	• A	covered	trench	crossing	of	the	sidewalk;	and,	• A	recessed	or	a	pop-up	receptacle.	(Lane,	2015	&	Philadelphia	Parking	Authority,	2013)		In	most	cases	it	will	be	possible	to	locate	the	receptacle	in	the	boulevard	(grassed	area	between	sidewalk	and	curb)	as	illustrated	in	Figure	2.		Where	the	sidewalk	is	adjacent	to	the	curb,	a	more	complex	and	costly	solution	is	required.		Although	the	boulevard	is	City	property,	it	is	not	uncommon	for	the	City	to	allow	the	placement	of	private	infrastructure	in	the	boulevard.	  Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 10		Figure	2	Boulevard	in	a	Typical	Garage	Orphan	Neighbourhood	(Webb,	2016)		Parking			Ensuring	there	is	access	to	parking	at	or	near	the	EV	owners’	receptacle	is	a	significant	concern	and	one	of	the	reasons	that	Seattle	did	not	pursue	on-street	charging.		From	the	literature,	it	appears	that	this	remains	a	topic	for	future	discussion	in	many	jurisdictions.	If	the	City	wishes	to	incent	GOEVs,	however,	it	must	provide	reserved	parking	in	front	of	the	charging	station.		Figure	3	is	the	standard	signage	utilized	in	Philadelphia.	 Figure	3	Reserved	Parking	Sign	for	Electric	Vehicles	(Philadelphia	Parking	Authority,	2013)	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 11		Online	Survey	and	Expert	Interviews		Information	was	gathered	from	two	primary	sources:	an	online	survey	geared	towards	knowledgeable	individuals	currently	owning	or	considering	the	purchase	of	an	EV;	and,	interviews	conducted	with	experts,	both	in	terms	of	EVs	and	the	City	of	Vancouver	and	Metro	Vancouver.		The	survey	and	expert	interviews	were	conducted	in	accordance	with	the	UBC	Behavioural	Research	Ethics	Board	Requirements	and	under	the	TCPS	guidelines.  Survey	Results		Table	2	shows	the	key	results	from	the	online	survey.	The	numbers	in	brackets	indicate	the	number	of	respondents	for	each	question.		The	table	also	states	the	percentage	of	respondents	who	selected	each	particular	response	(rounded	to	the	nearest	percentage	point).		The	survey	questions	are	provided	in	Appendix	B.		The	survey	was	circulated	online	to	citizens	of	Vancouver,	to	both	EV	owners	and	non-EV	owners.		EV	owners	were	targeted	to	be	aware	of	their	current	charging	habits	and	the	problems	they	face,	while	non-EV	owners	were	asked	question	in	order	to	determine	what	barriers	they	face	when	considering	purchasing	and	EV.				The	results	of	the	survey	support	both	the	information	found	in	the	literature	review	and	the	approach	recommended	in	this	paper.				Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 12		 Electric Car Ownership and Charging PreferencesAfter Q2, EV owners answered Q3-10; those not owning an EV skipped to questions A to D. In brackets after each question is the number of valid responses. For each option, the share of responses was rounded to the nearest percent.1. Are you a resident of Vancouver? (12) Yes 67%No: Toronto 8%No: Norway 8%No: Not Stated 17%2. Do you drive an electric vehicle (EV)? (13) Yes 46%No 54%3. How often do you charge your EV per week? (4) 1-3 times 25%4-7 times 50%7+ times 25%4. At what voltage do you charge your EV? (4) 120V 25%240V 75%5. Where does the majority of your charging take place? (3) Work 33%Home 33%Public Charging Station 33%6. Access to a permanent parking spot at home, such as garage, driveway, underground parking? (5) Yes 20%No 80%7. Type of residence? (1) 1-2 family 100%8. If the majority of charging occurs at home, how is it done? (3)Charging cord, home to EV 67%Charging station at street 33%9. Distance from home willing to park EV to charge it? (2) 100-300 m 50%300-500 m 50%10. If you could install a charging station in front of your home, how much would you pay for installation? (2) $0 50%$2,000 - $4,000 50%Comments from EV Owners   "I would like to be able to plug my car in from the front of my house, safely."For respondents not owning an EVA. Do you plan or have an interest in buying an EV in the next twelve months? (7) Yes 86%No 14%B. Current type of residence? (1) 1-2 family 100%C. Do you have simple access to home charging an EV? (1) No 100%D. If "no" to Question C, would the effort/lifestyle change prevent you from switching to an EV? (1) Yes 100%Comments from Individuals not owning an EV   "Since I don't drive to work, curently the only way for me to charge an EV is to buy a different house and I'm not willing to do that.  But if either the City of Vancouver or BC Hydro changed theirregulations to allow me to install a charging station in front of my house at my own expense then  I would do it." Table	2	Results	from	the	Online	Survey	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 13	Expert	Interview	Results			Ian	Neville,	City	of	Vancouver,	Climate	Policy	Analyst		Mr.	Neville	is	working	hard	to	promote	the	use	of	EVs	in	Vancouver.		The	growth	rate	of	EVs	is	very	promising.		In	2011	there	were	12	registered	EVs,	in	British	Columbia,	and	now	there	are	3500.		On	one	hand	these	numbers	are	very	positive;	however,	on	the	other	they	are	a	clear	indication	of	the	appeal	of	EVs	and	as	a	result	the	need	for	charging	solutions	for	all	including	GOEV	owners.		In	addition	to	the	comparatively	high	cost	of	EVs,	GOEVs	in	particular,	also	face	a	significant	capital	cost	for	the	charging	infrastructure	that	is	required.		Regardless	of	the	solution	found,	the	capital	cost	of	infrastructure	to	charge	GOEVs	will	be	higher	than	for	non-garage	orphan	EVs.				There	has	been	a	strong	push	for	the	City	and	the	Province	to	financially	assist	owners	with	the	cost	of	charging	infrastructure.2			Unfortunately,	there	are	no	subsidies	available	for	the	installation	of	the	charging	station	itself;	however,	there	is	the	possibility	that	a	payment	plan	could	be	developed	by	the	City	to	help	with	this	financial	burden.				Mr.	Neville	also	addressed	the	aesthetic	effect	that	GOEV	charging	stations	would	have	on	GOEV	neighbourhoods.		Mr.	Neville	outlined	two	potential	ways	of	mitigating	this	concern;	the	first	is	to	provide	guidelines	in	terms	of	width,	height	and	other	parameters.		The	second	is	to	use	a	standard	design	for	all	of	the	boulevard	stations.		In	this	regard	The	City	has	discussed	the	possibility	of	creating	an	industrial	design	course	project	with	academic	institutions.				Brad	Badelt,	City	of	Vancouver,	Senior	Sustainability	Specialist	 Mr.	Badelt	was	very	informative	about	how	a	pilot	program	could	be	operated,			2	BC	currently	offers	a	provincial	rebate	of	up	to	$5,000	on	an	EV	purchase,	and	funds	the	Scrap-It	program	for	EV	purchasers	willing	to	scrap	a	vehicle	from	2000	or	earlier.		Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 14	certain	number	of	participants	would	be	allowed	in	the	program;	however,	the	pilot	program	could	be	expanded	to	meet	demand.				The	recommendation	that	the	charging	station	be	installed	in	the	boulevard	creates	an	issue	as	it	involves	the	installation	of	a	private	piece	of	property	in	a	public	space.		Mr.	Badelt	explains	that	this	does	not	mean	that	it	cannot	happen,	rather	that	a	legal	agreement	is	required.		This	required	process	is	compared	to	that	of	restaurants	and	bars	that	have	a	patio	on	the	sidewalk,	once	again	a	piece	of	private	property	situated	in	a	public	space.		Mr.	Badelt	explains	that	the	agreement	would	be	between	the	City	and	the	owner,	with	the	owner	assuming	responsibility	and	liability	for	the	station	and	being	required	to	provide	liability	insurance.					Eve	Hou,	Metro	Vancouver,	Air	Quality	Planner		Ms.	Hou	emphasized	that	current	EV	owners	are	the	enthusiasts	and	early	adopters	of	this	technology.		Because	of	this,	they	are	much	more	willing	to	make	compromises	to	adopt	new	practices	even	if	they	are	not	entirely	convenient.		Keeping	in	mind	that	Metro	Vancouver’s	goal	is	to	encourage	EV	ownership,	she	believes	that	removing	barriers	to	increase	the	simplicity	of	the	charging	process	is	paramount,	as	the	next	round	of	EV	owners	will	not	share	the	same	enthusiasm	for	the	vehicles.		They	will	demand	a	reasonable	degree	of	convenience.			Suzanne	Fairley,	Citizen	and	VEVA	Executive			Speaking	with	Ms.	Fairley	provided	the	perspective	of	individuals	currently	trying	to	overcome	the	challenges	of	charging	their	GOEVs.		Ms.	Fairley	described	two	scenarios	in	which	GOEV	owners	attempt	charging	solutions.		The	first	involves	running	a	cable	from	the	house	to	the	vehicle	(similar	to	the	proposed	recommendation),	but	using	a	mat	to	cover	the	portion	of	the	cable	crossing	the	sidewalk.		The	second	is	to	rely	on	the	public	charging	stations	that	are	currently	located	around	the	Vancouver	area.		Neither	are	sustainable	solutions;	the	former	because	the	mat	and	the	cord	are	still	tripping	hazards	in	a	public	space	and	the	latter	because	EV	owners	wish	to	charge	their	vehicles	at	home,	as	demonstrated	by	the	literature	and	survey	results.			Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 15		Ms.	Fairley	is	eager	to	find	a	solution,	with	the	goal,	that	all	homes	have	the	same	access	to	charging	stations.		This	equal	accessibility	also	includes	addressing	financial	implications.		Ms.	Fairley	believes	that	the	cost	of	GOEV	charging	stations	should	be	paid	for	by	the	City	in	order	to	provide	this	equal	access.			Field	Observations			Finally,	field	observations	were	conducted	in	garage	orphan	neighbourhoods	to	evaluate	whether	the	approach	being	considered	was	feasible.		Figure	4	illustrates	a	typical	situation.		The	proposed	approach	will	work	well.  	Figure	4	Boulevard	in	a	Typical	EV	Neighbourhood	Where	a	Charging	Station	Could	be	Installed	(Webb,	2016)					Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 16		Recommendations		Principal	Recommendations			Based	upon	the	results	of	an	international	literature	review,	a	survey,	an	interview	of	a	knowledgeable	user,	client	interviews	and	field	observations,	the	following	recommendations	are	made	and	rationale	provided	to	facilitate	at	home	charging	of	GOEVs,	and	through	this	encourage	the	purchase	of	EVs	by	residents	who	do	not	have	on-site	parking.		1. The	City	allow	for	power	at	240	volts	be	provided	from	the	GOEV	owner’s	home	to	a	vehicle	charging	station	located	in	the	boulevard	in	front	of	the	owner’s	home.		Power	is	readily	available	from	the	GOEV	owner’s	home	at	240	volts.		Utilizing	240	volts	allows	relatively	quick	charging	and	would	support	coupling	the	GOEV	with	a	Smart	Grid	system	to	the	maximum	benefit	of	all.		Locating	the	charging	station	in	front	of	the	GOEV	owner’s	home	will	allow	power	to	come	from	their	home	and	will	maximize	owner	convenience.		2. A	standard	be	developed	such	that	a	charging	station	can	be	installed	in	a	cost	effective	manner.		Developing	standard	designs	and	applications	will	be	helpful	to	both	applicants	and	City	administrators.		A	cost	effective	design	(a	buried	wire	and	a	weather	proof	plug	on	a	wooden	post)	is	practical	as	there	is	no	need	for	metering	at	the	charging	station	as	this	is	done	via	the	GOEV	owners	home	metering	system.		See	Figure	5	for	a	conceptual	charging	station	design.			3. Reserved	EV	parking	be	provided	in	front	of	the	charging	station.	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 17		Providing	reserved	parking	in	front	of	the	GOEV	owner’s	home	is	a	critical	and	mandatory	part	of	an	on-street	GOEV	charging	system.		It	enables	the	owner	to	be	confident	that	they	will	be	able	to	park	at	their	charging	station	to	charge	their	vehicle.		This	convenience	should	serve	as	a	significant	incentive	to	owning	an	EV.		The	Province’s	recently	announced	program	to	readily	distinguish	EVs	to	allow	them	access	to	HOV	lanes	is	aligned	with	this	initiative.		While	reserved	parking	is	considered	critical	to	the	success	of	the	recommended	GOEV	charging	strategy,	it	is	understood	that	the	concept	of	reserving	parking	at	all	times	might	generate	resistance,	particularly	in	areas	where	on-street	parking	is	at	a	premium.		If	necessary,	the	reserved	parking	could	be	time	limited	(say	from	early	evening	to	early	morning)	as	most	charging	is	expected	to	occur	at	night.		When	it	is	possible	to	realize	all	of	the	Smart	Grid	benefits	of	EVs	(and	there	are	many	more	EVs)	this	approach	could	be	reconsidered.		4. The	permitting	system	for	the	charging	station	be	administratively	simple.		 A	system	which	does	not	‘bog	an	applicant	down	in	red	tape’	will	be	appreciated	by	GOEV	owners	helping	to	encourage	EV	ownership.		Efficiency	for	the	City	is	another	important	consideration.				5. BC	Hydro	be	encouraged	to	adopt	a	time	of	use	billing	program	and	otherwise	provide	support	for	EVs.			 BC	Hydro	has	just	completed	its	installation	of	Smart	Meters.		Time	of	use	billing	is	a	logical	companion	to	Smart	Meters	as	it	clearly	communicates	the	benefits	for	those	who	use	power	(in	this	case	to	charge	their	vehicles)	in	off-	peak	periods.		The	current	stepped	billing	system	that	could	penalize	EV	users	even	if	they	charge	at	night,	should	be	reviewed.			Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 18																		Figure	5	Schematic	of	a	Possible	Vancouver	Charging	Station	Design	(Webb,	2016)		Further,	it	is	recommended	that:		 1. The	City	of	Vancouver	proceed	with	a	pilot	project	to	encourage	and	facilitate	the	ownership	of	GOEVs.					 A	pilot	project	will	be	quicker	to	roll	out	than	a	full	program.		A	pilot	program	will	allow	minor	issues	to	be	resolved	before	the	full	program	is	rolled	out.				 2. Utilizing	lessons	learned	from	the	pilot	project,	that	the	program	be	rolled	out	across	the	entire	City	as	soon	as	possible.		The	quicker	the	full	program	can	be	rolled	out,	the	quicker	GOEV	ownership	can	be	encouraged	and	the	greater	the	environmental	benefit.	 Additional	Recommendations	and	Areas	for	Further	Research			The	following	are	additional	recommendations	and	suggested	future	research	topics	which	could	increase	the	appeal	of	EV	and	GOEV	ownership:		• BC	Hydro	and	the	City	of	Vancouver	should	develop	a	fully	integrated	smart	grid/EV	interface,	which	will	allow	and	encourage	V2G	as	well	as	G2V	operations.			Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 19	Although	not	critical	to	the	start	of	this	program,	this	would	further	develop	the	economic	and	environmental	benefits	of	switching	to	an	EV.		Additionally	this	would	serve	to	optimize	the	infrastructure	that	BC	Hydro	has	already	begun	installing.		• The	City	should	monitor,	and	as	required,	improve	its	GOEV	home	charging	policies	and	procedures.			• The	City	should	consider	subsidizing	and	also	seek	subsidy	from	others	such	as	the	Province,	BC	Hydro	of	the	federal	government.		 Remembering	that	solving	the	issue	of	charging	for	GOEVs	is	just	one	step	in	encouraging	EV	ownership	among	its	citizens.		Due	to	the	higher	cost	of	adopting	this	greener	technology,	economic	incentives	are	powerful	tools	to	remove	barriers	for	potential	owners.		If	Vancouver	wishes	to	continue	to	lead	the	way	for	green	cities,	it	must	be	willing	to	help	its	citizens	make	the	changes	necessary	to	remain	at	the	leading	edge.			Imagining	the	Future		Installing	a	charging	station	will	be	a	significant	expense	to	GOEV	owners,	even	if	the	recommendations	in	this	report	are	followed.		This	leads	to	the	question,	given	how	fast	technology	is	advancing,	will	a	new	charging	system	soon	be	developed	making	the	proposed	charging	stations	obsolete?		The	following	section	addresses	why	these	charging	stations	will	remain	relevant	in	the	coming	years.			In	just	a	few	short	years,	electric	vehicles	have	evolved	from	being	a	‘fringe’	mode	of	transportation	to	a	viable	option,	increasingly	mainstream.		Two	days	after	the	release	of	Tesla’s	Model	3,	276,000	vehicles	were	ordered	(Newcomb,	2016).	The	ever-increasing	adoption	momentum	is	fuelled	by	a	number	of	factors	including	greater	vehicle	range,	government	incentives	(financial,	access	to	HOV	lanes	and	more),	broader	choice	and	society’s	rising	climate	change	concerns.		Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 20	Notwithstanding	the	increase	in	the	number	of	public	charging	stations,	it	is	anticipated	that	charging	at	home,	typically	overnight,	will	still	be	the	preferred	method	of	charging	for	most	users.	At	the	same	time	as	EV	usage	is	increasing,	the	adoption	and	development	of	smart	grids	is	advancing	to	the	point	that	soon	they	too	may	have	a	higher	profile	in	Vancouver.		At	home	charging	of	EVs	and	smart	grids	are	ideal	partners.		It	is	not	hard	to	imagine	the	scenario	where	the	smart	grid	and	the	plugged	in	EV	are	in	constant	communication	–	the	vehicle	being	re-charged	(G2V)	when	demand	on	the	grid	is	low	and	the	vehicle	powering	the	grid	in	a	distributed	generation	model	(V2G)	when	demand	on	the	grid	is	high.	We	are	already	seeing	this	potential	increase	with	the	teaming	up	of	two	companies,	ChargePoint	and	Nest	(Ruff,	2016).		ChargePoint	is	a	leading	EV	infrastructure	company,	while	Nest	is	a	pioneer	of	the	home	automation	system,	with	a	particular	strength	in	smartphone	integration.		This	provides	further	opportunity	for	owners	to	be	charging	their	EVs	in	the	most	sustainable	method	possible,	while	ensuring	the	ease	and	convenience	that	people	have	come	to	expect	with	technology.			Based	upon	this	glimpse	of	the	possible	(and	not	unlikely)	future,	it	is	hard	to	imagine	reaching	a	point	where	connecting	GOEVs	to	the	owner’s	home	would	not	make	sense.		 Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 21	Works	Cited	Canada.	City	of	Vancouver.	Greenest	City	2020	Action	Plan.	2015.	Web.	16	Jan.	2016.	Canada.	City	of	Vancouver.	Renewable	City	Strategy.	Nov.	2015.	Web.	16	Jan.	2016.	Islam,	Mazharul.	"Analysis	of	the	Plug-in	Hybrid	Electric	Vehicle	for	the	Smart	Grid	of	Canada."	International	Journal	of	Environmental	Studies	70.5	(2013):	733-43.	Print.	Hydro	Quebec.	(2015,	August).	ELECTRIC	VEHICLE	CHARGING	STATIONS	Technical	Installation	Guide	(Canada,	Hydro	Quebec).	Retrieved	March	27,	2016,	from	http://www.hydroquebec.com/transportation-electrification/pdf/technical-installation-guide.pdf	Lane,	Ben.	"Innovative	On-street	EV	Charging	Solutions."	Ecolane	(2015):	1-19.	Print.	Mitchell,	William	J.,	Chris	Borroni-Bird,	and	Lawrence	D.	Burns.	Reinventing	the	Automobile:	Personal	Urban	Mobility	for	the	21st	Century.	Cambridge,	MA:	Massachusetts	Institute	of	Technology,	2010.	Print.	Motavalli,	Jim.	High	Voltage:	The	Fast	Track	to	Plug	in	the	Auto	Industry.	Emmaus,	PA:	Rodale,	2011.	Print.	NelsonNygaard	Consulting	Associates	Inc.	Seattle	Office	of	Sustainability	&	Environment.	Removing	Barriers	to	Electric	Vehicle	Adoption	by	Increasing	Access	to	Charging	Infrastructure	October	2014.	1st	ed.	Vol.	1.	Seattle,	2014.	Print.	Newcomb,	Alyssa.	"Tesla	Model	3:	Elon	Musk	Teases	More	Details	as	Pre-Orders	Top	276,000."	ABC	News.	ABC	News	Network,	04	Apr.	2016.	Web.	04	Apr.	2016.	<http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/tesla-model-elon-musk-teases-Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 22	details-pre-orders/story?id=38136528>.	Norwegian	Electric	Vehicle	Association.	(n.d.).	Buying	an	Electric	Car.	Retrieved	March	28,	2016,	from	http://www.elbil.no/kjope-elbil/kjopeveiledning	Philadelphia	Parking	Authority.	(2015,	October	21).	»	Electric	Vehicle	Charging	Stations:	Everything	you	Need	to	Know.	Retrieved	March	12,	2016,	from	http://www.philapark.org/2015/10/electric-vehicle-charging-stations-everything-you-need-to-know/	"Residential	Rates."	2016.	Web.	17	Jan.	2016.	Ruff,	Christian.	"How	Will	ChargePoint	Home	Integrate	with	Nest?	More	Details	Revealed."	CHARGED	Electric	Vehicles	Magazine.	26	Feb.	2015.	Web.	29	Mar.	2016.	<http://chargedevs.com/newswire/how-will-chargepoint-home-integrate-with-nest-more-details-revealed/>.	Sadek,	Noha.	"Urban	Electric	Vehicles:	A	Contemporary	Business	Case."	Transport	Problems	7.2	(2012):	117-29.	Print.	Salama,	Paul,	Gehad	Hadidi,	Rachel	Dottle,	and	Adam	Lubinsky.	"Accommodating	Garage	Orphans	in	Boston,	Cambridge,	and	Somerville."	WXY	2.1	(2015).	Print.	 Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 23	Additional Important Works Berman,	Brad.	"Buying	Your	First	Home	EV	Charger."	16	Dec.	2015.	Web.	17	Jan.	2016.	Changala,	Danielle,	and	Paul	Foley.	"The	Legal	Regime	of	Widespread	Plug-in	Hybrid	Electric	Vehicle	Adoption:	A	Vermont	Case	Study."	Energy	Law	Journal	32.99	(2009):	99-124.	Print.	Driscoll,	Patrick	Arthur,	Ásdís	Hlökk	Theodórsdóttir,	Tim	Richardson,	and	Patience	Mguni.	"Is	the	Future	of	Mobility	Electric?	Learning	from	Contested	Storylines	of	Sustainable	Mobility	in	Iceland."	European	Planning	Studies	20.4	(2012):	627-39.	Print.	Jacobs,	Andrew	James.	"Integrated	Development	Planning,	Supportive	Public	Policies,	and	Corporate	Commitment:	A	Recipe	for	Thriving	Major	Cities	in	Aichi,	Japan."	Journal	of	Urban	Affairs		24.2	(2002):	175-96.	Print.	Jin,	Chenrui,	Jian	Tang,	and	Prasanta	Ghosh.	"Optimizing	Electric	Vehicle	Charging:	A	Customer's	Perspective."	IEEE	Trans.	Veh.	Technol.	IEEE	Transactions	on	Vehicular	Technology	62.7	(2013):	2919-927.	Print.	Pflieger,	G.,	V.	Kaufmann,	L.	Pattaroni,	and	C.	Jemelin.	"How	Does	Urban	Public	Transport	Change	Cities?	Correlations	between	Past	and	Present	Transport	and	Urban	Planning	Policies."	Urban	Studies	46.7	(2009):	1421-437.	Print.	Stubbs,	Michael.	"Car	Parking	and	Residential	Development:	Sustainability,	Design	and	Planning	Policy,	and	Public	Perceptions	of	Parking	Provision."	Journal	of	Urban	Design	7.2	(2002):	213-37.	Print.	Wee,	Bert	Van,	Kees	Maat,	and	Cees	De	Bont.	"Improving	Sustainability	in	Urban	Areas:	Discussing	the	Potential	for	Transforming	Conventional	Car-based	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 24	Travel	into	Electric	Mobility."	European	Planning	Studies	20.1	(2012):	95-110.	Print.	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 25	Appendices	Appendix	A		Philadelphia’s	Electric	Vehicle	Parking	Space	Application	The	three-page	application	from	the	Philadelphia	Parking	Authority	for	the	reserved	parking	spaces	in	front	of	charging	stations.			! !Electric Vehicle Parking Space Application     Date of Application:          /           /  20           .                                Applicant’s Name: __________________________________________________________________________    Mailing/Billing Address: _____________________________________________________________________                 (Street Address)                      (City)        (State)    (Zip Code) Contact Information:  Phone #: ______________________________   E-mail Address: __________________________________@___________________________    Proposed Electric Vehicle Parking Space Information  Address: __________________________________________________________________________________     (Street Address)    (City)   (State)  (Zip Code)  Are you the owner of the address for the proposed electric vehicle parking space? Yes  No *If No, please obtain consent from the property owner of the proposed address, stating that they have no objection to an electric          vehicle parking space being installed on their property on the attached consent form.*  Is the proposed property 20 feet in width? Yes  No *If No, please obtain consent from one of your neighbor’s, stating that they have no objection to an electric vehicle parking space                infringing upon their property on the attached consent form.*  Please fill in the following vehicle information:   Make: ____________   Model: _________________________   Year: ______   Vehicle Length:            Feet  The following information is to be included with this application.  Failure to include any of these items will result in the return of the application.  Your application will not begin to be processed until all correct and complete information has been received.  ! Vehicle Registration: registered to the address where the space is sought ! One of the following:  o Driver’s License: showing the address where the space is sought o Either two utility bills or a typed lease to the address where the space is sought ! Aforementioned consent of property owner or neighbor ! A clear photograph showing the entire area in which the electric vehicle parking space would be located, and the front of all property abutting the proposed electric vehicle parking space ! $50 Non-Refundable Application Fee made payable to the “Philadelphia Parking Authority”   701 Market Street, Suite 5400 Philadelphia, Pa 19106 Phone #: 215-683-9738 Fax #: 215-683-9809 Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 26			  			! ! UPON APPROVAL BY THE PHILADELPHIA PARKING AUTHORITY  After the Philadelphia Parking Authority has determined that an electric vehicle parking space is practical, the applicant must apply to the Department of Licenses & Inspections (L & I) for a curb side electric outlet.  Below are code requirements and recommendations from the Department of Licenses & Inspections ! Installations shall follow the current National Electrical Code and must be performed by a Licensed Electrical Contractor with an electrical permit from Licenses & Inspections ! All conductors and equipment used for this installation, including the cord used to connect the vehicle to the receptacle, shall be approved, identified, labeled and listed suitable for the specific purpose, environment and application ! Receptacle must be located on a dedicated branch circuit with ground fault circuit protection located in the main panel ! A shut-off switch for the receptacle must be installed inside the building at the exit ! The receptacle must be tamper-resistant and located within an outdoor, weatherproof, hinged, lockable enclosure to prevent accidental or intentional contact ! Location of receptacle must be no higher than 48 inches ! There shall be no commercial uses associated with the use of the receptacle ! Electrical permit from L & I must be obtained prior to installation of electrical box   UPON APPROVAL BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LICENSES & INSPECTIONS  After the installation of a properly functioning Electric Vehicle Charger, the Philadelphia Parking Authority will post the required signs designating the Electric Vehicle Parking Space   REQUIREMENTS & POLICIES REGARDING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE PARKING SPACE  ! The proposed EVPS must be no more than 20 feet in length, unless a greater length is necessary, based on the size of the vehicle ! The proposed EVPS shall not be in any location where parking is currently prohibited by state or local law ! The proposed EVPS shall not be in any location where parking is currently prohibited by state or local law ! No garage, driveway, or other location not in the right of way is available to the applicant for parking of the Electric Vehicle ! The number of reserved on-street parking spaces, of any kind, on a hundred block, does not exceed: o On blocks with single-sided parking: three (3) o On blocks shorter than 500 feet in length, with parking on both sides: four (4) o On blocks that are 500 feet or longer in length, with parking on both sides: five (5) ! The Philadelphia Parking Authority shall not approve an EVPS where the applicant is liable for any delinquent fines or penalties (i.e., has three open tickets or more) ! Installation Fee, to be paid upon approval by the Department of Licenses & Inspections: o Center City & University City area: " $500 per metered space removal or $250 per 20 feet of space o All other areas of the city: " $300 per metered space removal or $150 per 20 feet of space ! Yearly Renewal Fee: o Center City & University City area: $150 per year o All other areas of the city: $75 per year o An EVPS may be revoked, and the EVPS and EVC may be removed by the Philadelphia Parking Authority if such yearly renewal fee is not timely paid in accordance with the program Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 27	 									!! The person to whom an EVPS has been issued shall immediately notify the Philadelphia Parking Authority, and the EVPS may be immediately revoked, if any of the following events occur: o The registration or license plate is transferred to a Non-Electric Vehicle o The Electric Vehicle is transferred to another owner who does not reside at the address for which the EVPS was established o The owner of the Electric Vehicle ceases to reside at the address for which the EVPS was established ! An EVPS may be revoked under any of the following circumstances: o Any condition necessary for the grant of the EVPS under the regulation ceases to be met o The EVC or its associated wiring is not maintained in good repair or presents a hazard due to deterioration, malfunction, or improper use o Any excavation of the right of way for installation or maintenance of the EVC or associated wiring is not properly restored ! An EVPS should not be treated as a personal parking spot.  Anyone with an electric vehicle is allowed to park in the EVPS.  Any abuse of the EVPS (i.e., cones, telling other electric vehicle operators they are forbidden to park in the EVPS, etc.) will result in the removal of the space.   CONSENT OF PROPERTY OWNER  I, (print name) __________________________________________________, certify that I am the owner of   (address) ________________________________________________________________________________. I understand that my tenant is applying for an Electric Vehicle Parking Space.  If approved, I have no objections to the Philadelphia Parking Authority installing a sign on the sidewalk in front of my property in order to designate such a zone.    Signature: ___________________________   Date: ____________ Telephone #: ______________________   CONSENT OF ADJACENT PROPERTY OWNER  I, (print name) ___________________________________________________, certify that I am the owner of   (address) ________________________________________________________________________________. I understand that my neighbor is in need of additional footage in order to install an Electric Vehicle Parking Space.  I have no objections to the Philadelphia Parking Authority installing a sign on the sidewalk in front of my property.  I am aware that the footage required may be as little as 2 feet to a maximum of 15 feet depending on the width of my neighbor’s home.  Signature: ___________________________   Date: ____________ Telephone #: ______________________  CONSENT OF ADJACENT PROPERTY OWNER  I, (print name) ___________________________________________________, certify that I am the owner of   (address) ________________________________________________________________________________. I understand that my neighbor is in need of additional footage in order to install an Electric Vehicle Parking Space.  I have no objections to the Philadelphia Parking Authority installing a sign on the sidewalk in front of my property.  I am aware that the footage required may be as little as 2 feet to a maximum of 15 feet depending on the width of my neighbor’s home.  Signature: ___________________________   Date: ____________ Telephone #: ______________________ Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 28	Appendix	B	Citizen	Questionnaire	Question	1	Are	you	a	resident	of	Vancouver?		 Yes		 No	(please	state	where)	______________________	Question	2	Do	you	drive	an	electric	vehicle	(EV)?		 Yes		 No	Question	3	How	often	do	you	charge	your	EV?		 1-3	times	per	week		 4-7	times	per	week		 7+	times	per	week	Question	4	At	what	voltage	to	you	charge	your	EV?		 120V		 240V		 480V	Question	5	Where	does	the	majority	of	your	charging	take	place?		 At	home		 At	work		 Public	charging	stations		 Other		______________________	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 29	Question	6	Do	you	have	access	to	a	permanent	parking	spot	at	home,	such	as	garage,	driveway,	underground	parking,	etc.?		 Yes		 No	Question	7	Do	you	currently	live	in	a...		 1-	or	2-	family	home		 Multi-family	building	Question	8	If	the	majority	of	charging	occurs	at	home,	how	do	you	accomplish	this?		 Running	charging	cord	from	home	to	EV		 Charging	station	at	the	street		 Other	______________________	Question	9	How	far	are	you	willing	to	park	your	car	from	your	home	to	be	able	to	charge	it?		 0-100m	(0-2	minutes)		 100-300m	(2-4	minutes)		 300m-500m	(4-8	minutes)		 500-1,000m	(8-15	minutes)		 1,000m	+	(15	minutes+)	Question	10	If	you	could	install	a	charging	station	on	the	street	in	front	of	you	home	how	much	would	you	be	willing	to	pay	to	install	it?		 $0		 <$2,000		 $2,000-$4,000		 >$4,000	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 30	Question	11	Do	you	have	any	additional	comments,	suggestions,	etc.?		 	Question	12	If	you	feel	this	is	an	important	issue,	what	do	you	feel	is	important	for	your	government	and	representatives	to	know?		 	Question	A	Do	you	plan	on	or	have	interest	in	buying	an	EV	in	the	next	12	months?		 Yes		 No	Question	B	Do	you	currently	live	in	a...		 1-	or	2-	family	home		 Multi-family	building	Question	C	Do	you	feel	you	have	relatively	simple	access	to	home	charging	for	an	EV?		 Yes		 No	Question	D	If	no	for	the	question	above,	would	the	effort/lifestyle	change	required	to	have	home	charging	prevent	you	from	switching	to	an	EV?		 Yes		 No	Michael	Webb	–	UBC	Geography	 31	Question	E	Are	there	any	additional	comments	you	have	concerning	EVs	and	charging	options	for	garage	orphans?		 		

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