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Stormwater treatment through planter boxes for contaminants originating from metal roofs at the Annacis… Skaloud, Paul Apr 25, 2016

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1           STORMWATER TREATMENT THROUGH PLANTER BOXES FOR CONTAMINANTS ORIGINATING FROM METAL ROOFS AT THE ANNACIS ISLAND WAREHOUSE Paul Skaloud  April 25th, 2016            Report prepared at the request of the Port of Vancouver in partial fulfillment of UBC Geography 419: Research in Environmental Geography, for Dr. David Brownstein. 2  Table of Contents:  Introduction: ................................................................................................................................................. 4  Overview of Site: ........................................................................................................................................... 5  Sampling Result Implications: ....................................................................................................................... 7  Metal Roofs as Sources of Contaminants: .................................................................................................... 8  Bioretention and Planter Boxes: ................................................................................................................. 10  Case Studies: ............................................................................................................................................... 13 Splash Boxx: ............................................................................................................................................ 13 Grattix: .................................................................................................................................................... 14 Oyster Shells: ........................................................................................................................................... 16  Recommendations: ..................................................................................................................................... 17  Further Research and Conclusion: .............................................................................................................. 18  Acknowledgements:.................................................................................................................................... 19  Bibliography: ............................................................................................................................................... 20         3  Executive Summary: The purpose of this report is to provide options for stormwater contaminant treatment from metal roofs at the Annacis Warehouse, a site under Port of Vancouver jurisdiction. Specifically, this project looks at how existing planter boxes, which are rain gardens in a box, are potential treatment solutions for exceedances of heavy metals in current stormwater. These boxes are capable of treating and removing various contaminants from stormwater through mechanisms including adsorption and vegetative uptake. The following report argues for the implementation of a pilot planter box at the site, given support from academic literature, expert interviews, as well as various case studies using similar technologies.   In order to implement a planter box, various variables need to be considered. A few of these include size of the existing site and the box, installation requirements, local meteorological conditions, bioretention media, and the use of specific vegetation. As every site is different due to the variability of metal roofs and local water quality guidelines, planter boxes need to be carefully selected or built in order to increase the likelihood of successful treatment. Academic literature supports planter boxes for the treatment of stormwater runoff from metal roofs, but does tend to focus on galvanized iron roofs and treatment options for high levels of zinc. Two expert interviews were conducted with Jennifer Foster of KWL Engineering and Michael MacLatchy of Associated Engineering. These interviews have provided recommendations on maintenance requirements and other variables. Examining case studies in other areas of the Pacific Northwest is also used extensively in this report, with other ports and industries also looking to treat metal roof runoff through the use of planter boxes.  This report will argue that the Port of Vancouver install two planter boxes with slight differences at the Annacis Island Warehouse based on the general design of the ‘Grattix’, a planter box initially built at the Port of Vancouver in Washington, USA. With slight modifications, this planter box is most viable at the site due to its low cost, easy installation, and use of native materials. Maintenance requirements as well as avenues for further research are also emphasized towards the end of the report.  4  Introduction:   The aim of this project is to provide simple, effective, and affordable solutions for the mitigation of contaminants emerging from stormwater runoff from metal roofs at the Annacis Warehouse. This site is currently under the jurisdiction of the Port of Vancouver and located in Delta, BC. Through investigation of existing techniques to mitigate and treat pollutants, the ultimate goal is to determine the applicability of a planter box to the Port of Vancouver’s industrial facility on Annacis Island. Specifically, this report looks to:  Compare and contrast existing bioretention (planter box) facilities   Discuss engineering and design requirements, operation and maintenance requirements, space requirements, and costs It is important to recognize that planter boxes are very specific and dependent on a multitude of factors. These include but are not limited to; local climate, space and suitability for new infrastructure, metal roof specifications, retention media, and vegetation. In order to assess the applicability of a planter box at Annacis Warehouse, a wide range of literature on rain gardens and bioretention was looked at carefully. There is very little academic literature on planter boxes specifically, which was a limitation that is balanced out through case studies by similar industries making water quality improvements through the use of these systems. In addition, two expert interviews help inform specifications and limitations of planter boxes. The findings from this research are integrated throughout the report. Through this approach, the applicability of a planter box at Annacis Warehouse can be determined, with tailored recommendations on soils and vegetation.     5  Overview of Site:   The Annacis Warehouse is a site located on Annacis Island, and is under Port of Vancouver jurisdiction. Encompassing a total of 2000 square meters, it is located on the larger industrial area that is Annacis Island. The surrounding ecosystem is abundant with both a variety of bird species and aquatic life. The site, completed in 1989, is used as a base for port employees who monitor the Fraser River, as well as storage for various machineries and equipment.  Figure 1 - Port of Vancouver Jurisdictional Map (Port of Vancouver, NA) There are currently two building structures at the Annacis Warehouse, the warehouse roof and the shed roof. Both consist of steel roofing that conforms to CAN/CSA-S161 and are coated in a special sealant. Half of the Warehouse Roof, the larger of the two structures, drains onto a parking lot and subsequently into a stormdrain that discharges west into the Fraser River. The shed roof discharges directly east through a pipe system into the Fraser River. The remaining stormwater at the site is infiltrated into the ground after discharging onto unpaved areas. The roofs metal gutter systems are                                                           1 Canadian Institute of Steel Construction Annacis Warehouse 6  experiencing corrosion, particularly on the metal roof fasteners. Currently, there is no stormwater treatment systems at the site. Therefore, the site’s management strategy is to be focused on prevention, containment/reduction, and treatment.The Fraser River, which flows on either side of the Island, is an important waterway in Metro Vancouver industry. At this location, the water can be considered brackish, where depending on ebb and tide flow can be freshwater, marine water, or a mixture of both.  Figure 2 - Aerial View of Annacis Warehouse (Port of Vancouver)  The port is looking at ways to ensure responsible practices that can help improve environmental performance of infrastructure through design, construction, and operational practices. Likewise, the port seeks to protect and improve water quality and promote biodiversity along its extensive shoreline. The final copy of the port’s Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SPPP) completed in 2015 is a document that among providing steps for pollution prevention, acknowledges the contamination of runoff from impermeable surfaces such as “paved streets, parking lots, and building rooftops” (Port Metro Vancouver, 2). At the Annacis Warehouse, stormwater sampling was done for the warehouse roof in order to measure levels of contaminants. 7  As a federal agency, the Port of Vancouver adheres to Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, and results presented six exceedances in the freshwater samples.        Results found no exceedances in the marine water sampling. For freshwater however, four heavy metals and two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were recorded2. The heavy metals include Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), and Lead (Pb). The two PAHs are Fluoranthrene and Pyrene.  Sampling Result Implications:  Chemicals such as the ones listed above, are known to affect aquatic life and the overall health of both freshwater and marine ecosystems (Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center, 2). An important step in assessing these contaminants is dependent on the literature, which helps identify which contaminants occur most often in metal roof runoff and tend to be regarded as most dangerous to water quality and local ecosystems. A study by Wen Li et al. emphasizes the presence of both dissolved and particulate forms of metals in stormwater runoff and reiterated the connection between dissolved heavy metals such as zinc in the toxicity of stormwater runoff (692). Other studies stress that in addressing “ground-water associated runoff problems”, heavy metals such as copper, lead, and zinc, should be ranked in priority based on their toxicity. According to Michael MacLatchy of Associated Engineering, who was interviewed, for the case of dissolved                                                           2 Numbers outside the brackets are sampling results. Numbers inside the brackets are the appropriate CCME Standard. Units in μg/L. Table 1 - Annacis Warehouse Stormwater Sampling Results (Port of Vancouver) 8  metals, which is often the result of leaching and corrosion, there are very few “mechanical treatment processes” and bioretention based systems are highly recommended.  These considerations will help determine what kind of planter box is most likely suitable to treat the contaminants at the Annacis Warehouse. It is important to understand the many facets behind rooftop runoff and the causes and effects of contaminants such as those listed above. While it is difficult to assess exactly which heavy metals for the sampling results are most adverse, literature tends to emphasize copper and lead which in their dissolved states can undergo bio-concentration, increasing the effects on an organism’s survival, activity, growth, metabolism, or reproduction. Metal Roofs as Sources of Contaminants:   Consistent throughout academic literature on stormwater runoff is the adverse effects it can have on urban streams, rivers, and estuaries. Well supported indications of this emerged through studies conducted by Burton and Pitt around 2002, which identified sources of toxicity as wide-ranging as roofs, storage areas, streets, and loading docks (Clark et al., 638). Metal roofs which tend to be used extensively in industrial areas are regarded as high probability sources and many studies exist on the effect of metal roofs on stormwater runoff. Some of the commonly studied metal roofing materials are zinc-galvanized roofing, aluminum sheets, painted galvanized steel, and copper (Clark et al. 642; Tobiszewski et al. 1020; Lye, NA; Winters et al. 15). These studies have not only helped identify contaminants, but provide information on the complexities of metal roofing and the importance of careful site specific analysis. This is important should the port look at other locations for stormwater contaminant reduction.  Studies have found that pollutant loads are affected by variables including specific roof materials, age, orientation and slope of the roofs, atmospheric depositions, rain events (intensity, antecedent dry period) and meteorological conditions (Förster, NA; Chang et al., 88). Building siding has also been identified as a common source of contaminants, which can have very similar contaminant loads as those from metal roofs (Pitt and Lalor, 9). One study by Davis et al. investigated contributions of various sources of metals, including copper and lead, both present in the freshwater sampling results at the Annacis Warehouse and found roofs and siding as large contributors. 9          Examples of complications in these studies for ‘roofs’ are discussed heavily in a study by Petrucci et al., who stress the difficulty in investigating point source pollution due to the “multiplicity of factors influencing the different sources and emissions” (10226) with roofing systems and sources of pollutants ranging as wide as gutters, downspouts, post-manufactured treatments, and so forth (Winters et al., 13).  Figure 4 - Corrosion on Warehouse Roof Metal Gutter  Although this report is looking at point source metal roof stormwater, both academic literature and expert interviews point out that non-point source pollution should not be Figure 3 – Estimated Source Specific Metal Contributions for Lead and Copper (Davis et al, 2001) 10  overlooked. As MacLatchy mentioned in the interview, acidic rainfall is a common cause of dissolved metals and the mobilization of material on roof runoff. Airborne pollutants that are corrosive are likely contributing to any form of stormwater contaminants, even if in small amounts. It is largely accepted that under climatic factors, and the presence of corrosive gases, the corrosion of metals tends to be the leading cause of dissolved contaminants in metal roof runoff (Hillenbrand et al., 4). As an example, copper from roofs is likely to be in dissolved form with leaching assumed to be the most likely mechanism of release and is ranked as a priority 1 level of concern in Washington State guidelines (Washington Department of Ecology, 63). According to Chang et al., construction materials are one of two main reasons for roofs as a source of stormwater pollution, with the acidic nature of rainwater reacting with compounds retained in or by the roof and causing certain elements to leach out (308). The second reason is dependent on temperature, an important aspect for understanding Annacis Warehouse given Vancouver’s climate.  Metal roof temperatures tend to be much higher than those of surrounding features. This can be attributed to lower albedo, larger surface inclination, less shading, and high conductivity. This can accelerate chemical reactions and the organic decomposition of contaminant compounds that are accumulated on roofs (Chang et al., 308). Studies by Tobiszewski et al. have also found positive correlations between dry period spells and higher pollution concentrations following long phases with no rain (1019). This is commonly known as the first flush phenomenon, where pollution concentrations are generally higher and accumulated during dry spells, as compared to later storm stages or throughout frequent periods of rain. Jennifer Foster of Kerr Wood Leidal, an chemical engineering consultant, was quick to state in her interview that an awareness of Metro Vancouver’s dry spells during the summer months is highly important for any form of rain gardens due to the “concentration build-up and higher intensity” associated with first-flush effects. Both the higher roof temperatures and the ability for compounds to accumulate in dry weather are relevant for the Annacis Warehouse, and contaminants are likely at a peak towards the end of the summer months.  Bioretention and Planter Boxes:   According to the Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington, written by Bakeman et al., planter boxes can be defined as: 11  “Designed soil mix and a variety of plant material including trees, shrubs, grasses, and/or other herbaceous plants within a vertical walled container usually constructed from formed concrete, but could include other materials. Planter boxes are completely impervious and include a bottom (must include an underdrain). Planters have an open bottom and allow infiltration to the subgrade. These designs are often used in ultra-urban settings.” (Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington, 872)  Planter boxes fall under the wider umbrella known as bioretention (Davis et al., 109). This is a rapidly developing form of Low Impact Development (LID) or Best Management Practices (BMPs) and serves a primary function of reducing “hydrologic and water quality disturbance to urban and downstream waterways” (Lim et al., 24). These systems use natural processes including but not limited to filtration, adsorption, and phytoremediation and through this are able to slow down stormwater runoff rates and both retain and treat pollutants prior to discharge. While functioning very similarly to rain gardens or bioswales, planter boxes have advantages due to their lower implementation costs, transportability, and reduced size constraints.   For the case of heavy metals, both dissolved and particulate bound metals are efficiently removed using bioretention systems. For the case of Annacis Warehouse, copper and lead are known to be successfully treated with many studies indicating high success rates (Davis et al., 113). Particularly, this success rate is increased through plant uptake and sorption, and therefore careful plant selection and increased organic matter are important (Sirova, 46). Unfortunately for the case of Fluoranthrene and Pyrene, there is a little research on how biroretention systems can help treat PAHs. However, research does tend to stress that sedimentation and filtration, along with biodegradation and sorption to other organic matter, are likely removal mechanisms. Therefore, despite the lower level of certainty that planter boxes can help treat PAHs, it is likely that there will be some noticeable reduction in contaminant levels.  12   Figure 5 - Diagram of general bioretention facility (Davis et al., 110)  Although layering of bioretention systems are highly diverse, there are general procedures throughout. These also apply directly to planter boxes. The layering structure involves a layer of vegetation, mulch, followed by soils and organic media, as well as sands (Sun and Davis, 1601). For planter boxes gravel and/or drainage rocks are also required to improve drainage (Lim et al. 2). Native vegetation that has the ability to uptake contaminants are recommended too, as this ensures plants can survive local climates in addition to treating the stormwater. Multiple studies have examined carex species (sedges) such as Carex praegracilis, Carex microptera, and Carex rostrata  (Rycewicz-Borecki et al., 268; Blecken et al., 306) with findings of ”consistently providing among the highest…metal uptake of Cu, Pb, and Zn” (Rycewicz-Borecki et al., 274). These have also been used in existing planter box projects in the Pacific Northwest due to their ability to survive ponding as well as periods of drought, and are therefore most relevant for further research at the Annacis Warehouse.  Blecken et al. also found that in temperate climates with a cold season, bioretention was successful within studies conducted between 2 – 20 °C. These implications are encouraging for the viability of a planter box at Annacis Warehouse (315).  13  Case Studies:  The two most relevant case studies to a planter box and Annacis Warehouse are briefly outlined below; they include recently implemented planter boxes at ports in Washington, USA, which are most applicable to the Port of Vancouver given similar environmental goals and local climates. Important components of these studies are summarized briefly.  Furthermore, a brief discussion on the potential of oyster shells for treatment is also discussed. Splash Boxx:   The Splash Boxx is a “vertical-walled, bioretention planter box, constructed of steel” (Herrera Consultants, 1). It was first installed in the Port of Tacoma, with two more in Seattle undergoing a 2-year study. It is built above ground, therefore requiring no excavation as downspouts flow directly into the box, and is also portable. It has been successful in treating zinc and copper, and through the routing of stormwater runoff from roofs can help minimize contaminant load through functions such as flow control and filtration. Below is a general profile of the Splash Boxx. Profile (Hymel, NA):  - 12 inch aggregate (drainage rocks) with and underdrain - 16 inch bioretention soil (compost and riverine/or volcanic sands) - 2 inch layer of mulch - Native vegetation including Carex rostrata (slough sedges)  - Live storage for ponding  Cost: Between $8500 and $9500 USD Lifespan: Approximately 30 years with normal maintenance. This includes initial watering and annual replenishment of mulch. Size: 12 x 8 feet (Hebert, NA) Notable among the Splash Boxx is a current investigation into the use of riverine and volcanic sands. Results have found that volcanic sands, rich in the Pacific Northwest, have been more successful in fostering plant growth by being able to retain stormwater for longer (Hymel, NA). 14   Figure 6 - Splash Boxx Bioretention Planter Box (Herrera Consultants, 9)   Figure 7 - Splash Boxx (www.kevinsraingardens.com, NA) Grattix:  A much smaller and cost-friendlier planter box is the Grattix. Built by two employees at the Port of Vancouver, Washington, the Grattix is an environmentally friendly and effective system. Initially piloted in 2009, the Grattix has been successful in treatment of zinc and copper. Both MacLatchy and Foster were positive that these systems are also treating a wide range of other heavy metals. It is built using a recycled plastic tote of about 325 gallons and is also intended to intercept stormwater from downspouts in metal roofs. Below is a general profile of the Grattix. 15  Profile (Port of Vancouver USA, NA):  - 12 inches of drain rock with an underdrain - 6 inches of pea gravel -  6 inches of sand - 10 inches of bioretention soil mix (40% compost and 60% sand) - 2-3 inch layer of mulch  - 3 – 4 large rocks for dispersion through splashing - Rushes and Sedges * Layers can be divided using window screen Cost: Between $200 and $900 USD (Pesanti, NA) Lifespan: As a new system, there is little data available. Recently, elevated levels of heavy metals present, indicating peak saturation has been reached (Pesanti, NA). Size: 325 Gallons    Figure 8 - Grattix (Port of Vancouver USA, NA) 16   Figure 9 - Grattix Layering (Port of Vancouver USA, NA)   Oyster Shells:   Another interesting material used to treat heavy metal concentration in stormwater was used at the Port of Seattle’s Sea-Tac Airport. Here, oyster shells were used to increase hardness and alkalinity, ultimately reducing zinc and copper levels over 50% (Landau Associates, 4-1). These were used inside of a stormdrain and treated the stormwater through various mechanisms in between entering the drain and being channeled to sea3. These include trapping solid materials as well as filtration, sedimentation, and adsorption of heavy metals. As a local product, oyster shells are both cheap and abundant in the Pacific Northwest. In a similar experiment using crushed mussel shells, Copper was found to be the most successful metal treated in this experiment using conventional sand filters (Craggs et al., 27). A potential avenue for the use of oyster shells at the Port of Vancouver could be implementing a filtration system within the main warehouse roof stormdrain, or in substitution of the gravel layer within a bioretention planter box system, as when crushed can                                                           3 A short video on Oyster Shells at a stormdrain at the Port of Seattle can be found here; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NEeNFU80rqM 17  serve the same purpose and occupy a similar volume as the gravel layer. Nevertheless, more research needs to be done on the ability of oyster shells to be engineered into a planter box. Recommendations:   In addition to planter boxes, there are simple best management practices the port can undertake in order to reduce contaminant loads from the two steel roofs. The most commonly supported approach for existing roofs that is appropriate for Metro Vancouver’s climate is to pressure wash roofs, downspouts, and gutters (Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington, 64; Jurries and Ratliff, vii; Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center, 2). I would recommend this be done after long periods of dry weather after contaminants have been able to accumulate substantially on roofs. Likewise, runoff should be directed to a wastewater facility (Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington, 64). This ensures that when contaminant loads are expected to be at their highest concentrations, discharge into the Fraser is avoided.   Given the widespread support and success rates of bioretention systems, I recommend the Port of Vancouver install planter boxes at both the main warehouse roof and the shed roof. With academic literature supporting these systems for the treatment of heavy metals in particular, as well as due to the lack of other treatment options for dissolved metals as mentioned by MacLatchy, this approach is most feasible. Using a similar layering structure as the Splash Boxx and Grattix is suitable for Vancouver, but should be carried out with slight modifications and special attention to choice of native plants. Given the space around both the main warehouse downspout and the shed downspout, a planter box similar to the Grattix would be most suitable. With the Port of Vancouver USA openly sharing the construction of this system on their webpage, and its relatively low-cost, this would be the most feasible pilot project system for the port. If successful, it could also be implemented at other jurisdictional sites with a higher probability of success. Below is an image of a recommended planter box for the Port of Vancouver at the Annacis Warehouse that takes into account cost, size, support from literature and case studies, and Vancouver’s resources and climates. 18   Figure 10 - Recommendation for Planter Box Layering Structure at Annacis Warehouse  Size, exterior material, cost, and lifespan can be modelled using the Grattix. The potential use of volcanic sands is integrated due to the successful results from the Splash Boxx. As mentioned earlier, sedges are a great choice of plant for planter boxes and are also able to sustain extremes of both ponding and dry weather. Furthermore, smallwing sedge, field sedge, slough sedge, and saw-beaked sedge are all able to withstand the local climate, are native to British Columbia and/or the Pacific Northwest, and have been used in phytoremediation studies (E-Flora BC, NA; Low Impact Development Center, 186; Murray, 1). Nevertheless, further consultation with experts in botany and ecology would be prudent in order to inquire about optimal planting periods, specific maintenance requirements, and other detailed considerations. As plants and bioretention layers can reach peak saturation, replacement of upper layers (mulch, bioretention soils), where most bioretention processes occur, and diversion of plants to landfills approximately once a year would also be recommended.  Further Research and Conclusion:    The suggestions I have provided above are based on a wide background of academic literature, consultation with experts in chemical and hydrological engineering, as well as using extensive ideas from relatable case studies. Nonetheless, these recommendations should be used 19  more as a basis for further research and guidance in the direction of bioretention and planter boxes as solutions for stormwater contaminants. In conjunction with other BMPs, the planter box I have proposed is likely to have a tangible impact. Moreover, given the low cost of the system similar to the Grattix, pilot trials would be both feasible and help further research should they need improvement. Additional sampling throughout different times of the year and specific data on amount of discharge and flow volumes is also necessary, two components I was unable to research. Moving forward, the Port of Vancouver should benefit from these emerging BMPs and utilize planter boxes, or other bioretention systems, throughout its jurisdictional sites.  Acknowledgements:  I would like to thank my two community partners Anika Calder and Gary Olszewski from the Port of Vancouver for providing me with the opportunity to undertake this research project and expand my knowledge on industrial stormwater management. The background information provided as well as the site visit was important for the purpose of this report. In addition, I would like to thank Michael MacLatchy and Jennifer Foster for letting me interview them and giving their insights on the direction of my project. I would also like to thank Professor Brownstein for offering this course and providing feedback throughout the semester. Finally, I would like to thank my classmates for their feedback and consultation throughout the research process.       20  Bibliography:  Bakeman, Sharleen, Gariepy, Dan, Howie, Douglas, Killelea, Jeff, Labib, Foroozan; and O'Brien, Ed. 2012 Stormwater Management Manual for Western Washington. Department of Ecology Western Washington. Publication No. 14-10-055. 2014. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias, Jiri Marsalek, and Maria Viklander. Laboratory Study of Stormwater Biofiltration in Low Temperatures: Total and Dissolved Metal Removals and Fates. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 219.1, 303-17. 2011. Chang, Mingteh, McBroom, Matthew W., Beasley, R Scott. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution. 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Seventh International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage, Proceedings, vol. I (Hannover). 1996. Foster, Jennifer. Personal Interview. March 11, 2016. Hebert, Kevin. Splash Boxx: Rain Gardens in Roll-Off Containers. Kevin’s Rain Gardens. http://www.kevinsraingardens.com/splashboxx/. 2014. Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc. Splash Boxx—Demonstrating Compliance with Ecology’s Minimum Requirements and Using WWHM to Size and Evaluate 1 Water Quality and Flow Control Performance of Splash Boxx. 1 – 11. 2013. Hillenbrand, T., Toussaint, D., Boehm, E., Fuchs, S., & Hoffmann, M. Discharges of copper, zinc and lead to water and soil – analysis of the emission pathways and possible emission reduction 21  measures. Environmental Research of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. 19/05. 1 – 27. 2005. Hymel, David. "Splash Boxx Essentials" technical specifications and design diagrams. Splash Boxx, LLC. Web. 2013 Jurries, Dennis, & Ratliff, Krista. Industrial Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. 1 – 57. 2015. Landau Associates. Revised Level Three Response Engineering Report. Port of Port Townsend. 1.1 – 6.1. Edmonds, WA. 2013. Lim, Keah-Ying, Andrew J. Hamilton, and Sunny C. Jiang. Assessment of Public Health Risk Associated with Viral Contamination in Harvested Urban Stormwater for Domestic Applications. The Science of the total environment. 523: 95-108. 2015. Low Impact Development Center. Bioretention Plant List. Appendix 3. LID Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound. 186. 2014 Lye, D.J. Rooftop Runoff as a Source of Contamination: A Review. USEPA. Rain Water Resources. Cincinnati. 2002.  MacLatchy, Michael. Personal Interview. March 23, 2016. Murray, Anne. Grasses and Sedges of Boundary Bay, Burns Bog and the Fraser River Estuary. Nature Guides, BC. 2015. Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center. Emerging Best Management Practices in Stormwater: Addressing Galvanized Roofing. Seattle, WA. 1 – 5. 2014. Pesanti, Dameon. Innovation at Port of Vancouver, Grattix filters harmful runoff in effective, cost-saving manner. The Columbian. http://www.columbian.com/news/2016/feb/15/innovation-at-port-of-vancouver/. 2016.  Petrucci, G., Gromaire, M., Shorshani, M. F., & Chebbo, G. Nonpoint source pollution of urban stormwater runoff: A methodology for source analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(17), 10225-10242. 2014. Pitt, Robert, and Melinda Lalor. The role of pollution prevention in stormwater management. Models and Applications to Urban Water Systems Monograph 9. 1-20. 2000. Port Metro Vancouver. Guidelines – Project & Environmental Review Guidelines - Developing Your Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan. Port Metro Vancouver. 2015. 22  Port of Vancouver, Jurisdictional Map. 2016 Vancouver Fraser Port Authority. http://www.portvancouver.com/port-dashboard/jurisdictional-map/. 2016. Port of Vancouver USA. Grattix: Rain Garden In A Box.  Resources. Web. 2013. Rycewicz-Borecki, Malgorzata, McLean, Joan E. R., Dupont, Ryan. Bioaccumulation of copper, lead, and zinc in six macrophyte species grown in simulated stormwater bioretention systems, Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 166, 267-275. 2016.  Sirova, Viktoriya, Urban Stormwater Management: Treatment of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Bioretention and Permeable Pavement Technologies. Master's Project, University of San Francisco, Paper 247. 2015. Sun, X.L. and Davis, A.P. Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems. Chemosphere 66(9), 1601-1609. 2007. Tobiszewski, M., Polkowska, Z., Konieczka, P., & Namiesnik, J. Roofing materials as pollution emitters - concentration changes during runoff. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19(5), 1019-1028. 2010. Washington State Department of Ecology. Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound: Assessment of Selected Toxic Chemicals in the Puget Sound Basin, 2007-2011. Olympia, WA and King County Department of Natural Resources, Seattle, WA. Ecology Publication No. 11-03-055. 2011. Wen LI, Zhenyao SHEN Tian TIAN, Ruimin LIU Jiali QIU. Temporal variation of heavy metal pollution in urban stormwater runoff. 中国环境科学与工程前沿:英文版, 6(5), 692-700. 2012. Winters, Nancy L., Melissa McCall, and Allison Kingfisher. Investigation of Toxic Chemicals in Roof Runoff from Constructed Panels in 2013 and 2014. Washington State Department of Ecology. Olympia, Washington. 2014.       

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