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Geology, Alteration, and Mineralization of the Sugar Gold Prospect, Yukon Territory, Canada Bartlett, Stephen Apr 30, 2016

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 Geology, Alteration, and Mineralization of the Sugar Gold Prospect, Yukon Territory, Canada  by Stephen Bartlett   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS)  in  THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE (Geological Sciences)       This thesis conforms to the required standard ……………………………………… Supervisor THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) April 2016 © Stephen Bartlett, 2016ii Abstract The Sugar gold prospect, located 20 km southeast of the Coffee gold deposits and 10 km northwest of the Casino Cu-Au-Mo deposit in the Yukon Territory, is hosted in the mid-Cretaceous Dawson Range batholith. Sugar forms a part of a belt of gold mineralization within the Dawson Range and as such a study of its lithology, alteration, and mineralization offers important information for metallogeny in the Yukon, Canada. Three mappable sub-units are recognized in the field area: a biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite; a K-feldspar phyric hornblende biotite syenogranite; and a biotite hornblende diorite. These plutonic rocks bearing continental-arc geochemical signatures are cut by steep, west to northwest-striking andesite dikes of unknown age which themselves bear continental-arc geochemical signatures. Altered and mineralized zones coincide with fault-fracture zones that are parallel and proximal to dikes and their margins. Alteration is characterized by an early phase of calc-sodic (albite-amphibole) and potassic (pervasive biotite, fracture-controlled K-feldspar, and localized albite-biotite) alteration and a later phase of silica and sericite alteration. Gold mineralization is associated with disseminated sulphides proximal to zones of silicification and sericitization with variably sheared veins of quartz-carbonate-arsenopyrite ± pyrite ± freibergite ± stibnite ± sphalerite. Late chalcedonic quartz-carbonate and ferroan carbonate veins represent the lowest temperature expression of the hydrothermal system. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………..….…………….………..…....i ABSTRACT…………………………………………………….………………….……...……..ii TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………….…...…………….………….………...iii LIST OF FIGURES………………………………….………..…….……….……….……….....v LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………….…………………...………...…vii LIST OF PLATES……………………………………………………………………………..viii APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………………...…ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………..……………………....…...….x Chapter 1 – Introduction, Methods, and Regional Geology  1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………….…………………..1  1.2 Methods ………………………………………………...………………...…………….…….2  1.3 Tectonic History……………………………………………...……….………………………4  1.4 Regional Metallogenic Overview…………………………………………………………….8 Chapter 2 – Mapping Results  2.1 Overview …...……………..……………………………………………………………..….10  2.2 Physiography …...……………..………………………………………………………….....10  2.3 Regional Geologic Setting ….……………..………………………………….…………….10  2.4 Sugar Lithology Overview….……………..………………………………………………...12  2.5 Units…………………………………………………………………………………...…….13  2.6 Structural Geologic Setting…..………………………………………………….........……..18 Chapter 3 – Geochemistryiv    3.1 Modal Mineralogy and Petrogenetic Classification…………………………………….......18 Chapter 4 – Alteration and Mineralization 4.1 Alteration….……………..………………………………………………………………….22 4.2 Mineralization………………………………………………………………………….……26 Chapter 5 – Discussion   5.1 Paragenesis ….……………..…………………………………………….………………….33  5.2 Comparisons to Nearby Deposits….…………………………………………….…………..36  5.3 Ore Mineral Assemblage and Deposit Style….……………..…………...………………….38 Chapter 6 – Conclusions   6.1 Summary….……………..………………………………………………………….…...…..39  6.2 Exploration Implications…………………………………………………………………….39 References Cited….……………..…………………………………………………………...….41  v List of Figures Figure 1: Map of northern cordillera terranes………………………………………………..…...5 Figure 2: Map of intrusive units within the white gold district………………………...…...…....7 Figure 3: Map of mineral occurrences in the Dawson Range, Yukon……………………………9 Figure 4: Image of physiography in Sugar field area………………………………………..….11 Figure 5: Simplified geologic map of western Dawson Range, Yukon…………………….......12 Figure 6: QAP diagram of unit classifying rocks……………………………………………….14 Figure 7: Field photos of unit PKS? ………………..……………………………………….....15 Figure 8: Field photos of unit mKqW2…………………………………………………....…….16 Figure 9: Field photos of unit mKqW1………………………………………………………….16 Figure 10: Field photos of unit mKdW………………………………………...………...……...17 Figure 11: Field photos of unit mKaW……………………………………………………....….18 Figure 12: Total magnetic intensity map of the Sugar prospect……………………………..….19 Figure 13: Total alkali vs. silica plot for intrusive units……………………………………..….20 Figure 14: Irvine and Barager 1971 plots for Sugar units…………………..…………………..20 Figure 15: Discrimination plots for intrusive units…………………………………………..….21 Figure 16: Extended trace element spider plots of intrusive units……………………….…..….22 Figure 17: Harker plot diagrams of Sugar units……………………………………………..….23 Figure 18: Field photographs of alteration styles at Sugar…………………………………..….27 Figure 19: Microphotographs of alteration styles at Sugar…………………..……………..…...28 Figure 20a-b: Correlation plots of drillhole element assay data…………………….......…..29-30 Figure 21: Examples of mineralization styles at Sugar…………………..…………………......31vi Figure 22: Scanning Electron Microscopy generated microphotograph of mineralization….….32 Figure 23: Graphical log of drillholes SGD0001 and SGD0011…………………………....…..33 Figure 24: Plot of As vs. Au ratios with isopleths of Au concentrations……………………….34 Figure 25: Paragenetic scheme for the Sugar prospect………………………………………….35                 vii List of Tables Table 1: Samples used to establish rock names and magenetic susceptibility…………….…….13                  viii List of Plates Plate 1: Map of Sugar prospect Plate 2: Cross section A to B                 ix Appendices  Note: Appendix C is available in digital format in the back pocket of this thesis.  Appendix A: Sample Database…………………………………………………………………46 Appendix B: Geochemical Data…………………………………………………………….......52 Appendix C: Rock Glossary with relevant thin section descriptions, microphotographs, and stained slab photographs. Appendix C is attached as a digital appendix to the back of this thesis with separate folders for each sample with available data.   x  Acknowledgements  The completion of this thesis represents the culmination of almost a year’s worth of effort during which time many different parties were integral to my academic growth.  I am thankful to Kaminak Gold Corporation for generously providing helicopter-assisted fly-camp support and access to drill-core making the field component of this project possible. Specifically I am grateful to Rory Kutluoglu, Geoff Newton, Adam Fage, Eric Buitenhuis, and Tim Smith for technical discussions and enthusiastic logistical support.   Special thanks are given to Dr. Jim Mortensen for providing me with necessary and helpful materials for geochemical analysis as well as always being available for an impromptu discussion. I am thankful to Dr. Craig Hart whose contributions the YEG publication associated with this paper were invaluable. I am also thankful to Kathryn Grodzicki who provided insights on the Coffee property as a whole and assisted in preparing geochemical samples.  I am thankful to the Society of Economic Geologist Canada Foundation who provided research funding for this study.  Above all, I am thankful to my supervisor Murray Allan who’s constant, tireless, and inspirational support both in the field and in the laboratory made this project possible.    1  Chapter 1 – Introduction, Methods, and Regional Geology 1.1 Introduction The Yukon Territory has been significantly explored for gold in the previous six years. The 2009 discovery of the White Gold deposit by Underworld Resources (since acquired by Kinross Gold) began a staking rush in the region. Many discoveries made during this rush proved to be significant gold occurrences including the Moosehorn, Boulevard, and Mariposa properties. One of the most successful discoveries resulting from this boom was Kaminak Gold Corporation’s Coffee deposit, which in January 2016 announced a successful feasibility report (Doerksen et al., 2016).   The Coffee deposit is unique as a structurally controlled, post mid-Cretaceous, oxidized gold deposit. Discovered in 2010, the 5.1 Moz Coffee gold property hosts a total indicated mineral resource of 63.7 million tonnes at 1.45 g/t Au and a total inferred mineral resource of 52.4 million tonnes at a grade of 1.31 g/t Au of total combined oxide, transitional oxide, and sulphide ore (Doerksen et al., 2016). The deposit area comprises multiple zones of gold mineralization of which four are included in current resource estimates and future mine plans: (1) Supremo, (2) Latte, (3) Kona, and (4) Double Double. The remaining areas of interest have been explored with soil geochemistry and drilling and include the Arabica, Americano West, Americano, Espresso, Macchiato, Cappuccino, and Sugar areas. The Sugar area is located approximately 20km to the southeast of the main Coffee deposit area and as such it represents an opportunity to further expand on the knowledge and possible development of the Coffee deposit. Previous research work on the Coffee deposit includes two B.Sc. thesis on the Supremo and Double Double zones by P. Cruikshank and L. Boyce respectively, a M.Sc. thesis by E. Buitenhuis, and ongoing Ph.D. research by K. Grodzicki (Cruishank 2011, Boyce 2014, Buitenhuis 2014, Grodzicki 2016). Some information presented within this paper also appears in a published field report in Yukon Exploration and Geology 2015 (Bartlett et al., 2016)  The purpose of this study is to provide a geologic framework and paragenesis for observed alteration, veining, and mineralization at the Sugar gold prospect using a combination of field and laboratory techniques.  Presented herein is a lithologic map of the 2  area surrounding previous exploration drilling and the results of further analysis of rock types, alteration, and mineralization using feldspar staining, thin section microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and geochemical analyses. An understanding of the paragenesis and controls on mineralization at Sugar will contribute to the overall developing understanding of gold mineralization in the Dawson Range of the Yukon Territory. This study was funded in part by Kaminak Gold Corporation as part of the Yukon Coffee Gold Project at the Minerals Deposit Research Unit (MDRU) at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Significant in-kind support was generously provided by Kaminak Gold Corporation including lodging, field supplies, and helicopter support.   1.2 Methods Field Work  Field work for this project was completed during a visit to Kaminak Gold Corporation’s Coffee Property in the summer of 2015. Five days of helicopter supported fly camp mapping was done from July 12th to July 16th. The objective of mapping was to provide a preliminary geologic map of the area previously explored by Kaminak during the summer of 2012. Maps were made at a 1:5000 scale on 1 km2 sheets and in total 19 sheets were used during mapping. These sheets were georeferenced and digitized at original scale using ArcGIS 10.2 software and compiled at original scale. Thirty-five rocks samples and twenty-two drill core samples were selected for thin section microscopy, K-feldspar and plagioclase staining, and whole rock geochemical analysis (Appendix A).  Two additional days were spent on the Coffee property observing lithological and alteration features of the Sugar prospect (holes SGD0001 and SGD0011). Additional field data was provided by Kaminak Gold Corporation including total magnetic intensity data of the Sugar prospect, detailed airphotographs, detailed drill core photographs, and a drillhole database which included oriented and assayed logs of all 12 drillholes from the prospect (Plate 1).  K-feldspar and Plagioclase Staining and feldspar image quantification 3   Anorthitic plagioclase was stained red with amaranth red and K-feldspar was stained yellow with sodium cobaltnitrite on selected rock slabs by the following process: (1) etching in a shallow bath of 48% hydrofluoric acid for 60 seconds; (2) soaking for 10s in an aqueous solution of amaranth red (7% w/w); (3) rinsing with water and drying; (4) soaking for 60 seconds in an aqueous solution of sodium cobaltnitrite (20% w/w).   Stained slabs were then scanned at high resolution. Colour spectrum pixel analysis using ImageJ 1.49 software was used to quantify the relative area of each stained feldspar type. The number of pixels comprising each feldspar were then divided by the total number of pixels in the selected image area to provide an estimate of feldspar abundances.  Geochemistry   A total of 17 samples were sent to Bureau Veritas Mineral Laboratories, Vancouver, BC Canada for geochemical analysis. Whole rock geochemical samples were selected on the basis of unit assignment and degree of weathering with preference given to unweathered samples. Weathering rinds around samples were removed with the rock saw facilities at the University of British Columbia with the final shipped slabs being less than 1-kg of unweathered material. The Mineral Deposits Research Unit whole rock geochemistry WP-1 standard and United States Geological Survey (USGS) standard GSP-2 were used to provide additional quality assurance on lab data. The 17 samples used in this study were submitted in a batch of 100 samples of which 4 were standard WP-1 and 2 were USGS standards.   Upon arrival at Bureau Veritas Mineral Laboratories, samples were crushed until 80% of original material passed through a 10 mesh and then pulverized to final pulp grain size with a ceramic bowl mill to prevent contamination. Extended major oxide percentages were determined through X-Ray Fluorescence of a Li2B4O7/LiBO2 fusion (Appendix B). Whole rock trace element data was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) of a solution of the Li2B4O7/LiBO2 fusion. See Appendix B for more information.  Petrography  After cutting billets on available saws at UBC, a total of twenty-six polished thin sections were prepared by Vancouver Petrographics and observed on a Nikon Eclipse E600 4  POL polarizing microscope using both transmitted and reflected light. An attached Canon EOS Rebel T2i digital camera was used to record microphotographs at varying scales.  Scanning Electron Microscopy  A Philips XL30 electron microscope equipped with a Bruker Quantax 200 energy-dispersion X-ray microanalysis system and an XFlash 6010 SDD detector was used to analyze mineralized and carbon-coated thin section samples to confirm mineralogy and provide more detailed textural information between related phases.   1.3 Tectonic History  The western Yukon is composed of multiple terranes which were accreted to the Laurentian margin between late Paleozoic and early Cenozoic time (Colpron et al. 2006). These terranes include the Stikinia, Wrangellia, Slide Mountain, Cache Creek, Kootenay, and Yukon-Tanana terranes (Figure 1).  Of these terranes the Kootenay, Quesnellia, and Yukon-Tanana are generally of pericratonic affinity to the Laurentian margin as opposed to the generally allochtonous affinity of other terranes (Colpron et al. 2006). The Yukon-Tanana terrane is a parautochthonous assemblage of polydeformed igneous and sedimentary protoliths (Colpron et al. 2006).  The evolution of the YTT is complex, however, modern interpretations of the terrane divide it into four distinct assemblages: (1) the Snowcap assemblage, (2) the Finlayson assemblage, (3) the Klinkit assemblage, (4) the Klondike assemblage.  The stratigraphically lowest of these is the Pre-Late Devonian Snowcap assemblage, which is composed primarily of quartzite, schists, and mafic to ultramafic units metamorphosed to amphibolite facies (Colpron et al. 2006). Amphibolites of the Snowcap assemblage comprise MORB to OIB geochemical characteristics in some areas (Nelson and Friedman 2004). This combined with the siliciclastic and pelitic nature of its metasedimentary rocks suggests that the Snowcap assemblage may originate from a rifted 5  continental margin setting (e.g. the Laurentian margin, Colpron et al. 2007). This continental margin is generally interpreted to be the ancestral margin of Laurentia (Nelson et al., 2006).  Unconformably overlying the Snowcap assemblage, the younger Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Finlayson assemblage comprises a variety of metavolcanic and metasedimentary lithologies covering a large geographic area within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (Colpron et al. 2006). Late Devonian to Early Mississippian felsic to mafic volcanic, volcaniclastic, and intrusive rocks in the assemblage track arc, arc-rift and backarc basin geochemical characters (Creaser et al. 1997; Piercey et al. 2006; Murphy et al. 2006). The geographic distribution of the Finlayson assemblage in combination with the consistent geochemical signatures of its igneous bodies has led to its interpretation as a continental arc Figure 1. Map of terranes of the northern cordillera (Colpron et al., 2006). 6  and back arc system of Late Devonian – Early Mississippian age (Colpron et al. 2006; Nelson et al. 2006).  The next youngest assemblage, the Klinkit assemblage, comprises intermediate to mafic volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks as well as carbonates of middle Mississippian to Early Permian age (Colpron et al., 2006). The arc geochemical signature of its volcanogenic units suggests it represents an island arc of Middle Mississippian to Early Permian age (Colpron et al. 2006).  The youngest and final assemblage, the Klondike assemblage, is composed of Middle to Late Permian calc-alkaline felsic and minor mafic metavolcanic rocks in addition to their deformed comagmatic equivalent the Sulphur Creek orthogneiss and the later, undeformed Jim Creek pluton  (Beranek and Mortensen 2011, Colpron et al., 2006). The calc-alkaline geochemical character of Klondike assemblage rocks indicates they resulted from continental arc magmatism (Piercey et al. 2006).   Together the four assemblages of the Yukon-Tanana terrane document the terrane’s origin near and initial separation from Laurentia (Snowcap assemblage), continental arc and back-arc development (Finlayson Assemblage), and arc development distal from the North American margin (Finlayson and Klondike assemblages) (Nelson et al. 2006). The cause of the separation of the YTT from Laurentia is the opening of the Slide Mountain Ocean documented by the Late Devonian – Permian Slide Mountain assemblage the beginning of which is coeval with recorded back arc magmatism in the Finlayson Assemblage (Nelson et al. 2006). The growth of the Slide Mountain Ocean separated the YTT from the continental margin until a change in subduction polarity caused the majority of the Slide Mountain Ocean to be consumed (Nelson et al. 2006). The arc magmatism and deformation cause by the consumption of the Slide Mountain Ocean and collision of the YTT with North America are documented within the Klondike assemblage and the Klondike Orogeny respectively (Beranek & Mortensen 2011). Current geology and age relations of units related to the Klondike Orogeny suggest that the YTT was accreted onto North America at the earliest between 260 and 252.5 Ma (Beranek & Mortensen 2011).  Several subsequent, post-collisional magmatic events are documented within the western Yukon (Figure 2). Magmatism related to local anataxis of crust during the Klondike  7  orogeny is recorded by the Jim Creek Pluton and Teacher intrusion (Allan et al.,2013; Beranek & Mortensen 2011). East-dipping subduction beginning during the early-Late Jurassic resulted in the generation of new arc magmas in the YTT, which are represented by the Late Triassic Stikine suite of the western Yukon (equivalent to Taylor Mountain suite of eastern Alaska) and the Early Jurassic Minto and Long Lake plutonic suites (Topham et. al., 2016). Later, separate northeast-dipping subduction resulted in the emplacement of the mid-Cretaceous, continental arc affinity Whitehorse plutonic suite which itself is divided into the Dawson Range phase and the Coffee Creek phase. The Coffee creek phase is volumetrically abundant near the Coffee deposit and is host to gold mineralization at the Sugar prospect (Allan et al., 2013, Ryan et al., 2013a,b) . The extrusive equivalent of the Whitehorse plutonic suite is the Mount Nansen Group exposed in the southeastern Dawson Range (Tempelman – Kluit, 1984). Later magmatic intrusions in the YTT (and in other terranes as well) include the late Late Cretaceous Prospector Mountain plutonic suite and the Early Tertiary Ruby Range plutonic suite (Allan et al., 2013).   Figure 2. Map of intrusive units and volcano-sedimentary packages within the White Gold and Dawson Range districts (Allan et al., 2013) 8  1.4 Regional Metallogenic Overview  The Sugar prospect is located in the Dawson Range mineral district which centres over the Dawson Range mountains that stretch northeastward from the town of Carmacks, Yukon. The formal defined boundaries of the Dawson Range mineral district extend north to the Yukon River and west to the Moosehorn Range in western Yukon (Allan et al., 2013). Mineralization styles in the Dawson Range district include porphyry, epithermal, skarn, and polymetallic veins, breccias, and fracture zones (Allan et al., 2013, Figure 3). Porphyry and epithermal mineralization is common in the Dawson Range with the largest porphyry deposit being the 75-74 Ma Cu-Au-Mo Casino deposit which is located 10km to the southeast of the Sugar gold prospect. Intrusion related copper-gold mineralization is also present in the Dawson Range, the largest of which is the 202-196 Ma Minto mine which is the only currently producing mine in the Dawson Range. Related to Minto is the 200-196 Ma Williams Creek (Carmacks Copper) deposit. Orogenic mineralization is common in the Dawson Range and includes the Boulevard and Toni Tiger occurrences (Allan et al., 2013). To the north of the Dawson Range district is the White Gold district where orogenic gold is most common and represented by the Golden Saddle and Arc deposits that together form a part of the White Gold deposits (Figure 2).  The Coffee deposits have been difficult to characterize under conventional models with Allan et al. (2013) speculating they could be epizonal equivalents to orogenic gold systems. Mineralization at Coffee is controlled by steeply dipping zones of brecciation and mineral replacement with gold present in arsenian pyrite (Buitenhuis, 2014). The strong degree of oxidation affecting much of the mineralization at Coffee has contributed to the difficulty of its classification. Given its roughly equidistant location between both the Coffee and Casino deposits, the Sugar prospect offers a unique opportunity to contribute to the metallogenic framework of the Dawson Range district and potentially, to provide insight into the genesis of the Coffee deposits.     9     Figure 3. Map displaying major mineral deposits and occurrences in the Dawson Range district (modified after Allan et al., 2013). 10  Chapter 2 - Mapping Results 2.1 Overview The results of mapping completed at the Sugar prospect are presented in Plate 1. For clarity and geographic reference, names have been assigned to specific areas of the map. An area of gold-in-soil anomalies located near drillholes SGD0011 and SGD0012 has been labeled “Sugar West”. East of this location, another zone of mineralization and gold-in-soil anomalies has been labeled “Sugar East”. The prominent topographic high to the south of mapping area is labeled “Sugar Dome”.    2.2 Physiography  The Sugar prospect is located on a gently north dipping plateau at an elevation of 3500-4000 ft. above sea level. The area drains into Excelsior Creek which is a tributary of the Yukon River. The plateau is defined by rounded summits and ridges, and deeply incised, V-shaped valleys. At higher elevations, general topography is defined mainly by intact or weathered bedrock, talus, and colluvium (Figure 4). The dominantly granitic composition of rocks in the Sugar area results in anomalously tall fins of outcrop (tors) punctuating the landscape otherwise dominated by frost boils and frost-shattered felsenmeer. Vegetation at high altitudes is dominated by moss (Sphagnum), lichen, mountain avens, dwarf willow, and dwarf birch (Mckillop et al. 2013). The north facing, higher angle slopes north of Sugar East and in the deep valley to the northeast of Sugar Dome generally fall below the tree line and are characterized by denser vegetation and a groundcover of loess and colluvium. Vegetation in these areas is dominated by moss, lichens, dwarf birch, and various trees including black spruce and lesser white spruce, Alaska birch, and water birch (Mckillop et al. 2013).   2.3 Regional Geologic Setting   The Sugar prospect is underlain by granitoids of Coffee Creek pluton, which is the northern lobe of the Dawson Range batholith (Figure 5). The Dawson Range batholith and Coffee Creek pluton are characterized by rocks of the mid-Cretaceous Whitehorse plutonic  11   Figure 4. Image showing physiography of the main sugar area near the “Sugar Dome” (see: plate – 1). Felsenmeer and outcrop form distal topographic highs with topographic lows covered in colluvium and frost boils with exposed tors. Photo Credit: Murray Allan.  suite. The Dawson Range batholith is a multi-phase continental arc pluton which stitches the southern margin of the Yukon-Tanana terrane with rocks of parautochthonous North American affinity to the south (Figure 4; Templeman-Kluit, 1974; Ryan et al., 2013a,b). The Sugar gold prospect is located near the transitional contact in the Dawson Range batholith between the younger, dominantly granitic Coffee Creek phase (99 to 100 Ma) and the older, granodiorite to lesser granite, tonalite, diorite, and quartz diorite Dawson Range phase (100 to 115 Ma) (Breitsprecher and Mortensen, 2004,  Ryan et al., 2013a,b). The Coffee Creek pluton is in contact to the north with orthogneiss of the Late Permian Sulphur Creek plutonic suite, which is the igneous equivalent of the metavolcanic Klondike Schist. The two units are inferred to be in fault contact. Major structural features near Sugar include the dextral Coffee Creek fault to the north, which is itself a splay of the Big Creek fault to the east of Sugar, and 12  the northeast-striking sinistral Dip Creek fault to the east of Sugar (Fiugre 5; Ryan et al. 2013a,b).   Figure 5. Simplified regional geologic map of the western Dawson Range showing the location of the Sugar gold prospect relative to significant mineral occurrences modified after unpublished figure M. Allan (2015). The project mapping area is indicated by the black outline.   2.4 Sugar Lithology Overview Five units were mapped at the Sugar gold prospect and corresponding unit codes were assigned assuming that these units fit into the regional mapping scheme defined by Ryan et al. (2013a,b). Key stained rock samples and corresponding thin sections were used to inform modal mineralogy of units. Key samples and their corresponding abundances and magnetic susceptibilities are found in Table 1 with a QAP diagram of listed intrusive samples found in Figure 5. The most voluminous units in the field area are a K-feldspar phyric hornblende 13  biotite syenogranite and minor monzogranite to quartz monzonite (mKqW1) and a texturally heterogeneous biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite and minor quartz syenite (mKqW2). These two units each belong to the Coffee Creek phase of the Whitehorse plutonic suite. A recrystallized intermediate to mafic schist (PKS?) occurs as pebble to boulder sized angular xenoliths in both granitic units and as rafts or roof pendants with up to 500m strike length ~1 km northwest of Sugar West. This unit has been assigned the code PKS? on the assumption that it represents the metavolcanic rocks of the Klondike Schist (PKS), which are the volcanic equivalent to the metaplutonic Sulphur Creek suite. A volumetrically minor biotite hornblende diorite to quartz diorite forms a separate phase near Sugar East (mKdW). These units are all cut by dikes of a biotite hornblende plagioclase phyric diorite (mKaW) unit, which is referred to as “andesite” herein to distinguish it from mKdW. Mapped unit relationships appear on Plate 1 with corresponding cross section Plate 2.   Table 1. Samples used in classification of lithologic units.   14   Figure 6. QAP diagram of rocks appearing in Table 1.  2.5 - Units  PKS? - mafic schist  The unit is grey-green with 1-3mm, white, leucocratic bands and weathers dull brown (Figure 7). It is found as decimetre to metre-scale xenoliths within mKqW1 and mKqW2 and as larger rafts roughly 300m in length within mKqW1 northwest from Sugar West. Texturally, PKS? is aphanitic to fine grained with most crystals showing pervasive recrystallization textures. The mineralogy is dominated by alternating sub-millimetre bands of biotite + hornblende and quartz + feldspars. Quartzofeldspathic minerals are commonly locally concentrated in 1 to 3 mm bands. In some areas, granitic seams are observed and interpreted as partial melt products. These seams are fine to medium grained granitic composition and an average width of 1 to 5 cm. Local, patchy epidote alteration is observed 15  in these seams. Both magnetite and pyrite commonly overprint foliation parallel hornblende and biotite. Magnetic susceptibility of the unit is 9.0 x 10-3 SI units.    mKqW2 - biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite to quartz syenite   The intrusive unit is white-grey and weathers brown-gray. It occurs mainly as subrounded felsenmeer, boulder talus, and occasionally as outcrop along topographic highs. It is distinctly heterogeneous ranging texturally from equigranular to porphyritic with crystals in both phases ranging from fine to medium grained (Figure 8a-c). Compositional and textural variations in the unit occur over intervals as small as 10cm. A weak foliation in biotite is present in some massive phases. The unit contains up to approximately 10% volume xenoliths of recrystallized intermediate to mafic schist (PKS?). The main lithology of the unit is quartz monzodiorite with the subordinate lithology being equigranular quartz syenite. Quartz in the unit is generally interstitial and poikilitic with anhedral chadacrysts of feldspar and mafic phases. Magnetic susceptibility of the unit ranges widely from 0.7 to 7.6 x 10-3 SI units.    Figure 7. Schist (unit PKS?): (a) Xenolith of schist cut by a dikelet of granitic melt, interpreted as leucosome (pen-scribe for scale, Sample SB15-SG009) (b) Xenolith of schist within quartz monzodiorite (mKqW2) (Sample SB15-SG025). Photo Credit: Murray Allan. 16   mKqW - K-feldspar phyric hornblende biotite syenogranite and minor monzogranite to quartz monzonite  The unit is white and weathers to chalky white occuring primarily in topographic lows and saddles as float in frost-heaved felsenmeer. Rare tors of the unit are observed in the field area particularly where it is in contact with andesite dikes. The unit is medium to coarse grained and varies in texture from massive to K-feldspar phyric (Figure 9a-c). Quartz occurs as diagnostic smoky colour and plagioclase occurs both interstitial to K-feldspar phenocrysts and as euhedral laths in equigranular phases. Magnetic susceptibility of the unit is consistently ~6 x 10-3 SI units.  Figure 9. Unit mKqW1: (a) Outcrop of granite exposed near resistant andesite dikes; (b) Representative K-feldspar phyric texture of syenogranite (pen-scribe for scale); (c) Stained slab (from drillhole SGD0011). Photo Credit: Murray Allan. Figure 8. Unit mKqW2: (a) Samples collected within a 10 m radius, indicating local heterogeneity (pen scratcher for scale, Samples: SB15-SG005, SB15-SG006, SB15-SG007); (b) Stained rock slab showing plagioclase and K-feldspar phyric quartz monzodiorite phase (Sample SB15 –SG007) ; (b) stained slab showing quartz syenite phase (Sample SB15-SG013). Photo Credit: Murray Allan. 17   mKdW - biotite hornblende diorite to quartz diorite  The unit is green-grey and weathers to chalky green and brown. It outcrops as one isolated area approximately 1 km long by 300 m wide within mKqW2 bound to the east by a mapped southeast-striking fault. It occurs mainly as subrounded float and is observed in one outcrop in contact with an mKaW dike. It is medium grained and equigranular with plagioclase, hornblende, and biotite all subhedral (Figure 10a-b). In thin section both biotite and hornblende are poikilitic with chadacrysts of plagioclase. Quartz content in the rock is variable throughout the unit ranging from 0 to 10% and quartz commonly occurs interstitial with inclusions of hornblende, plagioclase, and biotite. Magnetic susceptibility of the unit ranges from ~1 to 20 x 10-3 SI units Figure 10. Unit mKdW: (a) Biotite hornblende diorite float near drill hole (pen scratcher for scale, Sample SB15-SG017); (b) Stained slab of biotite hornblende quartz diorite (Sample SB15-SG014). Photo Credit: Murray Allan.   mKaW - biotite hornblende plagioclase phyric diorite (“andesite”; mKaW) The unit is green-grey weathering brown and occurring mainly as subangular float and as outcropping ridges with subvertical fractures. In outcrop it is observed intruding all other intrusive units as less than 10m dikes and as an irregular plug at Sugar West. Contacts are subvertical and display a chilled margin of variable width (Figure 11a-c). Total phenocryst volume varies between ~25% at dike margins to ~90% within dike interiors. Phenocrysts range from fine to coarse grained with an average size of 2 to 5 mm. The groundmass is very fine-grained and comprises plagioclase, hornblende, and minor (less than 5%) quartz.  Minor, anhedral magnetite is common throughout commonly occurring near 18  variably altered mafic phenocrysts. Magnetite abundance in the unit results in a magnetic susceptibility of 10 to 30 x 10-3 SI units.    2.6 - Structural Geologic Setting  Total magnetic intensity data provided by Kaminak Gold Corporation was used to inform the location of lithological contacts under cover and provide a structural interpretation of the Sugar area. A main northeast-striking fault was identified as a linear low magnetic anomaly and is labeled as the Sugar fault (Figure 12). From this fault splays two unnamed southeast-striking faults which cut through Sugar West and Sugar East respectively. The fault that cuts through Sugar West itself splays into an array of northwest to north-striking fault strands. These faults have an inferred dextral sense of offset as observed from geomagnetic markers. Three subvertical, hydrothermally altered fault fracture networks were observed both in the field and in drillcore. These fault fracture networks appear on the map (Plate 1) and are parallel to and coincident with the contacts of west to northwest striking andesite dikes (Plate 2). Fault fracture networks are defined by brittle shears, tectonic breccias, and variably deformed veins.   Figure 11. Unit mKaW: (a) Andesite dike (mKaW) in contact with the more recessive syenogranite (mKqW1) (near SB15-SG001); (b) Chilled margin contact of porphyritic andesite with K-feldspar phyric syenogranite (pen scratcher for scale, near SB15-SG012); (c) a stained slab of andesite (Sample SB15-SG001). Photo Credit: Murray Allan. 19   Chapter 3 – Geochemistry 3.1 Modal Mineralogy and Petrogenetic Classification The 17 samples selected for geochemical analysis were analyzed with respect to their whole rock and trace element geochemistry to confirm classification and petrogenetic origin. Classification after the scheme of Le Bas et al. (1986) shows consistency with petrographic, thin section, and hand sample determined rock names (Figure 13). Units mKqW1 and mKqW2 plot primarily within granitic space. The variations of mKqW2 across granodiorite, diorite, and monzodiorite space likely reflect the heterogeneity of the unit recognized in field observations. Unit mKaW plots primarily at the diorite-granodiorite boundary with little Figure 12. Total magnetic intensity map of the Sugar prospect taken from data provided by Kaminak Gold Corporation. Faults and contacts are marked in black and white respectively reflecting the provided geophysical interpretation. Approximate dike locations are provided as white lines. 20  heterogeneity between units. Unit mKdW plots within gabbro and gabbro diorite space which is inconsistent with previous classifications and may be rectified with greater sampling.    Concentrations of both major and trace element data in all samples is consistent with units having formed in a continental arc setting. On an Irvine and Barager 1971 plot of Alkalis vs. SiO2 all units plot in sub-alkaline space (Figure 14). Furthermore on an Irvine and  Barager 1971 AFM plot, all samples plot below the calc-alkaline to tholeiitic divide with most samples roughly tracking the calc-alkaline trend (Figure 14). This classification is reinforced and further detailed by rare earth element (REE) and high field strength element (HFSE) granite discrimination plots which consistently classify intrusive units as volcanic arc granites (Figure 15). Figure 14. Alkalies versus silica and AFM plots after Irvine and Barager 1971 showing alkaline vs. subalkaline and the tholeiitic vs. calc-alkaline divide. Figure 13. Total alkali vs. silica plot for intrusive units at Sugar. 21   A continental arc classification for the intrusive units is also consistent with extended trace element plots (Figure 16, Sun & McDonough 1989). Normalized against NMORB values all intrusive units show high enrichment of incompatible and moderate enrichment of more compatible elements. These observations are consistent with previous geochemical analyses of intrusive rocks within the Dawson Range (Selby et al. 1999). However it should be noted that rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane have been documented as having continental arc signatures (Mortensen 1992; Piercey et al. 2006). Thus, geochemical information may be affected by significant crustal contamination of the intrusive units documented herein (Davidson 1996). In addition, plots of akali vs. SiO2 on traditional Harker diagrams shows some variation in elements, most notably potassium and sodium, which may be the result of various alterations styles observed throughout the Sugar prospect (Figure 17). Specifically, enrichment of relative elemental abundance is observed in oth Na2O vs. SiO2 Figure 15.  Discrimination plots for granitic phases at Sugar after Pearce et al., 1984. All values plot within volcanic arc granite field. 22  and K2O vs. SiO2 plots. This may reflect the addition of sodium and potassium during potassic and sodic alteration events observed at the Sugar gold prospect.   Chapter 4 - Alteration and Mineralization 4.1 Alteration A variety of high to low-temperature hydrothermal alteration assemblages were observed both proximal and distal to gold mineralization at Sugar. This section provides detailed descriptions of each alteration style. A paragenetic scheme for both alteration and mineralization at Sugar is provided in section 5.1. Figure 16. Extended spider plots of intrusive phases at Sugar after Sun and McDonough 1989. All units plot with arc signatures. 23    Figure 17. Harker plot diagrams of all phases at Sugar. Note variations in potassium and sodium which may reflect potassic and sodic alteration. 24  Garnet – Diopside (Epidote Chlorite)  Massive to banded andraditic garnet-diopside skarn-type alteration overprints xenoliths within both the quartz monzonite (mKqW2) and syenogranite (mKqW1), and as endoskarn in adjacent igneous rocks including units mKqW1, mKqW2, and mKaW (Figure 18a). Patchy epidote and chlorite alteration overprint this calc-silicate alteration.  Epidote ± K-feldspar Hairline to 2cm-wide epidote + quartz + pyrite veins with a pervasive 2-3cm K-feldspar alteration halo and pink to brick – red hematite dusting are observed. These veins have been cataclastically reworked with broken feldspar grains randomly oriented within an epidote matrix (Figure 18b). Veins occur widely and as anastomosing hairline swarms.   Amphibole – Albite  Pervasive, texturally destructive amphibole-albite alteration is observed overprinting the K-feldpsar phyric syenogranite (mKqW1) and andesite dikes (mKaW, Figure 18c). Albite occurs along rims of pre-existing feldspars and has been confirmed via spot EDS-analysis on the Scanning Electron Microscope. Amphibole is fine-grained and dark green and overprints pre-existing mafic minerals (biotite and hornblende). Rare, vermicular, discontinuous amphibole-pyrite veinlets with albite haloes are observed in zones of pervasive amphibole alteration. These veins contain euhedral, fine-grained pyrite precipitating along indistinct vein selvages (Figure 19c).   Biotite – Albite  Locally developed albite – biotite alteration is observed affecting the K-feldspar phyric syenogranite in drillhole SGD0001. This alteration style is manifested as checkerboard-patterned albite alteration occurring interstitial to primary, coarse grained K-feldspars. Albite replaces primary plagioclase with some albitic twinned cores visible. Patches of albite alteration are accompanied by fine-grained, euhedral, tabular biotite growth (Figure 19a).  Biotite  25  Pervasive, and texturally destructive purple-brown biotite alteration is observed overprinting porphyritic andesite (mKaW) in drillhole SGD0011. Biotite alteration occurs as aphanitic biotite grains and is overprinted by fracture-controlled chlorite and sericite alteration and by ferroan carbonate-quartz veins (Figure 18d).  Epidote-Albite  Epidote + albite veins are observed as hairline, curviplanar veinlets with epidote-albite alteration halos in which albite alters rims of plagioclase. Epidote in veins is subhedral and commonly occurs in less than 1cm wide halos proximal to veins.  Actinolite  Texturally destructive actinolite alteration is locally developed throughout the Sugar prospect. It occurs pervasive in the porphyritic andesite generally strongly altering hornblende phenocrysts to fibrous, fine-grained actinolite. Within granitic units it commonly overprints cores of fine to medium grained hornblende. Actinolite-altered mafic minerals are commonly rimmed by anhedral, green chlorite (Figure 19b).  Chlorite Chlorite alteration varies in intensity affecting all units and is observed in outcrop. It primarily affects biotite and hornblende and ranges in intensity from weak to strong in some cases completely pseudomorhping primary igneous biotite and hornblende (Figure 18e). Fracture-controlled chlorite alteration overprints hydrothermal biotite in andesite at Sugar West and is observed cutting silicification (see below). Chlorite alteration generally occurs distal to areas of silicification, sericitic alteration, brecciation, and mineralization and overprints other forms of alteration affecting mafic minerals.  Quartz (Silica)  Quartz alteration is observed in all units. It is texturally and mineralogically destructive and occurs with sharp, digitate fronts (Figure 18f). Quartz alteration is most common near margins of andesite dikes and is most pervasive where brecciation and the intrusion of andesite dikes are coincident. Breccias contain clasts of silicified rock in addition to siliceous alteration of the matrix suggesting that silicification and brecciation overlap 26  paragenetically. Quartz alteration replaces sericite altered cores of plagioclase in both the syenogranite and quartz syenite units. In addition, quartz alteration along plagioclase boundaries forms wormy boundaries with unaltered cores. In the andesite dike unit (mKaW) quartz alteration primarily affects the plagioclase dominated mineralogy of the groundmass with some texturally destructive embayment observable along plagioclase and mafic phenocryst boundaries.  Sericite  ±  Quartz Sericite alteration is observed as bleached halos to barren and mineralized quartz-carbonate veins. In the granitoid intrusive units, very fine grained sericite replaces the centres of plagioclase crystals and in the diorite dike unit sericite rims the plagioclase phenocrysts and destroys the fined grained plagioclase of the matrix. Late sericite veins are observed as hairline to less than 1cm wide. These cut zones of silicification in the andesite and are observed in all lithologies (Figure 18g). Sericite veins commonly occur in anastomosing, hairline swarms of variable orientation. Sericite alteration also occurs weak and pervasive in all units generally affecting feldspars and thus is interpreted as deuteric alteration.  Chalcedonic Quartz-Carbonate  Chalcedonic quartz + ferroan carbonate veins cut all lithologies and most alteration and vein types. Veins vary in width from hairline to up to 2 cm with 1 to 3mm laminar bands of orange and white carbonate and prismatic quartz interiors 1 to 3 mm in width (Figure 18h). Chalcedonic quartz + ferroan carbonate veins occurs spatially coincident with zones of brittle deformation both cutting breccias and as clasts within breccias. Vein size is inversely proportional to proximity to brecciated zones. The matrix of breccias is hydrothermal quartz + carbonate providing evidence that chalcedonic quartz + carbonate veins are not only spatially but also paragenetically related to brittle deformation.  4.2 - Mineralization  Gold mineralization at Sugar occurs as 0.30 to 5.00 ppm anomalies over less than 10 m-wide intercepts in drillcore assay data. Arsenic shows a strong positive correlation with 27   Figure 18. Alteration styles of the Sugar prospect (pen-scribe for scale): (a) Andradite garnet-diopside-epidote skarn alteration of calcareous xenolith; (b) Wispy network of epidote veinlets with strong K-feldspar alteration cutting diorite; (c) Vermicular amphibole-pyrite veinlet with albitic halo (top) and hairline epidote vein with albite halo (bottom). Note the zone of cross-cutting silicification in the upper-right portion of the sample; (d) Pervasive biotite alteration of andesite cut by fracture-controlled chlorite alteration (pale green) and later chalcedonic quartz-ferroan carbonate veinlets (orange); (e) chlorite alteration of magmatic biotite; (f) amoeboid front of silicification (bottom left) cutting granite (mKqW1); (g) fracture-controlled sericite alteration of 28  previously silicified granite (note relict magmatic biotite); (h) laminated chalcedonic quartz - ferroan carbonate vein with late prismatic quartz and calcite cement.  Photo Credit: Murray Allan.      Figure 19. Thin section microphotographs of alteration styles at Sugar: (a) albite-biotite alteration with euhedral laths of biotite precipitating over checkerboard albite; (b) pervasive actinolite alteration of hornblende rimmed by chlorite alteration; (c) amphibole vein with pyrite precipitating on vein margin. 29  gold in 1m assay data from drillholes (Figure 20) and both silver and antimony show a less strong but still positive correlation.    The common gangue mineral assemblage at Sugar is carbonate + quartz with a sulphide assemblage of arsenopyrite +/- freibergite +/- stibnite +/- pyrite +/- sphalerite. Mineralization occurs in variably brittally deformed and sheared veins. Quartz + carbonate vein mineralization comprises an arsenopyrite +/- freibergite +/- stibnite +/- sphalerite assemblage. Arsenopyrite is euhedral within quartz-carbonate vein material and also occurs Figure 20a. Correlation plot of As, Sb, Ag, Cu, Zn, and Fe vs. Au from diamond drillhole assay data collected in 1 m intervals. Note strong correlation of Au vs. As over three orders of magnitude and weaker correlation of Sb and Ag. Little to no correlation of Cu, Zn, and Fe is observed. 30   as idiomorphic crystals in a disseminated halo proximal to the veins. Arsenopyrite is also found as euhedral inclusions within anhedral freibergite. Sphalerite is subhedral and medium grained within vein material. Cataclastically reworked mineralized veins are 1 to 2cm wide  with quartz + carbonate infill and clasts of granite, chalcedonic quartz vein, and silicified rock (Figure 21b). They also occur as 1 to 3m mineralized breccias granite clasts within a quartz + carbonate matrix (Figure 21c).  Arsenopyrite within cataclastic veins shows comminuted grain size reduction and vein parallel shear fabrics (Figure 21e).  Freibergite ((Ag,Cu)12Sb4S13) was identified as an ore mineral interstitial to sphalerite through energy-despersive X-ray spectra measured by spot analysis on the Scanning Electron Microscope (Figure 21d). Freibergite occurs both as anhedral masses within massive sphalerite and as fill material precipitating within fractures in arsenopyrite (Figure 22). Some moderate correlation of Cu and Ab against Ag in assay data suggests that freibergite is important as a controlling phase for these elements, however, stibnite and separate Cu-bearing phases may also be involved (Figure 19b). While no strong correlation between Zn and Au is observed (Figure 20b), a moderate correlation exists between Zn and Ag suggesting that sphalerite may be more closely related to freibergite precipitation than it is to gold mineralization. The bimodal distribution of Fe likely reflects lithologic controls on Fe-bearing phases, which are dominated by hornblende, biotite, and magnetite (Figure 20a).  Figure 23 presents graphic logs of drillholes SGD0001 and SGD0011 generated from field observations and supplemented by Kaminak Gold Corporation’s drillhole database of assays and core photographs. A strong spatial correlation between cataclastic and discrete Figure 20b. Correlation plot of Sb, Cu, Zn vs. Ag from diamond drillhole assay data collected in 1 m intervals. 31     Figure 21. Examples of mineralization styles at Sugar: (a) Quartz-carbonate-arsenopyrite-stibnite-sphalerite vein (left) with disseminated sulphides in the vein halo (right); (b) Sheared quartz-carbonate-arsenopyrite-pyrite vein containing clasts of chalcedonic quartz and granite; (c) Arsenopyrite-pyrite mineralized breccia with clasts of granite and chalcedonic quartz cemented by quartz and carbonate; (d) euhedral arsenopyrite (aspy) within a large anhedral sphalerite (sp) grain and blebbly, anhedral freibergite (fr) in a quartz (qtz) and carbonate (cb) matrix; (e) Milled and sheared arsenopyrite grains within a deformed quartz-carbonate vein; (f) Euhedral pyrite overprinting a granite clast in breccia.  32  mineralized veins, andesitic dike contacts, gold, antimony and silver anomalies, silicification, and sericite alteration can be observed. Further discussion as to the relationship between these features and alteration observed at Sugar is provided in section 5.1.   Native gold was not observed at Sugar during reflected light and scanning electron microscope petrographic analysis. Figure 24 shows the Au and As drill core assay data, contoured with isopleths corresponding to varying concentrations of Au in stoichiometric arsenopyrite. Almost all Au vs. As assay values from Sugar plot below the 1000 ppm Au-in-arsenopyrite isopleth, which is well below current estimates for the ~20,000 ppm maximum concentration of solid solution Au permissible in arsenopyrite (Reich et al., 2005).  The consistency of the Au/As ratio and lack of anomalously high Au/As ratios suggests little to no nugget effect on gold distribution, and strongly suggests that gold is held in solid solution in arsenopyrite, and potentially, other As-bearing phases such as arsenian pyrite. Figure 22. Microphotograph taken during analysis of mineralized samples on the Scanning Electron Microscope. Note precipitation of freibergite in fractures in arsenopyrite. 33       Figure 23. Graphical log of drillholes SGD0001 in Sugar East and SGD0011 in Sugar West, showing main alteration types, location of quartz – carbonate ± sulphide veins, and Au, As, Sb, and Ag assays. Alteration intensity is illustrated by continuous (strong, pervasive) or dashed (locally pervasive, fracture controlled) lines. Vein density is illustrated schematically on the graphic log.  34   Chapter 5 - Discussion  5.1 Paragenesis   The overall alteration paragenesis of the Sugar prospect trends from inferred higher temperature calc-sodic, potassic, potassic-sodic, and garnet-diopside alteration to lower temperature silicification, sericite alteration, and variably gold-mineralized quartz-carbonate ± sulphide ± sulphosalt veins. The latest hydrothermal features cross-cutting chalcedonic quartz-ferroan carbonate veins and anastomosing sericite veinlets. Given the widely spaced, strike-parallel nature of most altered, comminuted, and mineralized features, exact cross-Figure 24. As vs. Au correlation plot with isopleths showing predicted As vs. Au ratios given indicated abundance of Au within stoichiometric arsenopyrite. 35  cutting relationships are rarely observed. However, field and thin section observations were compiled together and a summary of the paragenesis at Sugar is presented in Figure 25.    Of particular interest to the paragenesis of the Sugar system are the higher temperature calc-sodic, potassic, and potassic-sodic alteration styles. These alteration styles require high temperature, saline fluids which are typical of magmatic hydrothermal environments. Though all of these alteration styles are seen cutting the andesitic dikes, their presence suggests that a hydrothermal system at Sugar began shortly after or even related to the emplacement of andesitic dikes. It is important to note, however, that except for minor, euhedral pyrite, these higher temperature alteration styles are not mineralized. Thus their significance is found primarily in their strong spatial rather than paragenetic relationship to both inferred lower temperature, variably mineralized alteration styles and zones of structural deformation. The strong spatial correlation of all alteration styles and structural deformation Figure 25. Paragenetic scheme for magmatism, alteration, veins, and structural activity at the Sugar prospect. 36  at Sugar suggests that these systems are link by repeated reactivation of west to northwest striking features and exploitation of these zones of weakness by hydrothermal fluids.   Structural deformation at Sugar may be related to the area’s hydrothermal history.  South of Sugar east and due east of Sugar Dome, an andesitic dike is observed strike-parallel to both a zone of structural deformation and a fault interpreted from geomagnetic data. This suggests that planar zones of alteration, structural deformation, and andesitic dike intrusion may be related to the regional structural deformation of the Sugar prospect. Additionally, the occurrence of andesitic dikes as both discrete linear features in map view and irregular plugs suggests that the andesitic dikes may be filling zones of dilation associated with regional deformation. The fact that both faults and andesitic dikes within the Sugar area cut the Coffee Creek granite provides evidence that mineralization is post-dates these mid-Cretaceous magmatic units. Future U-Pb geochronological dating of the andesitic dikes will further constrain the maximum age of mineralization at the Sugar prospect.    5.2 Comparisons to Nearby Deposits   Twenty kilometers to the northwest of Sugar, the Coffee gold deposits share many similarities with the Sugar gold prospect. Both areas contain gold mineralization hosted in steeply dipping zones of brittle structural damage. In addition, at both Coffee and Sugar these zones of brittle deformation and mineralization show are near and parallel to andesitic dikes (Wainwright et al., 2011). Furthermore, both areas share strong, positive As, Sb, and Ag anomalies correlated with Au (Buitenhuis, 2014, Mackenzie et al. 2014).  At Sugar, gold mineralization occurs both in quartz-carbonate-sulphide-sulphosalt veins and in brecciated zones while at Coffee mineralization is primarily disseminated. Ore mineral assemblages in the two areas also differ with disseminated gold at Coffee found primarily in arsenian pyrite that is mainly associated with illite-pyrite ± magnesian carbonate alteration of biotite-bearing host rocks (Buitenhuis 2014). While carbonate is a ubiquitous gangue phase in mineralized veins and breccia zones at Sugar, it is not observed altering host rocks. The presence of arsenopyrite as the dominant arsenic-bearing phase further distinguishes the Sugar prospect from the Coffee deposits where arsenian pyrite is the 37  dominant arsenic bearing phase. Both systems have minor stibnite as an antimonious phase (Mackenzie et al., 2015), however, the presence of freibergite as an important Ag-Sb-Cu-Fe bearing phase is unique to the Sugar prospect. This in addition to the presence of minor sphalerite in mineralized veins at Sugar shows that while the Sugar prospect and Coffee Deposits are broadly similar with respect to pathfinder anomalies, their ore assemblages differ. Both deposits, however, appear to contain gold as solid solution within sulphide phases and gold in both systems precipitated well below saturation with respect to native gold (Buitenhuis 2014). The most significant difference between Sugar and Coffee is the presence of pre-mineralization high temperature potassic, potassic-sodic, and calc-sodic alteration types at Sugar. These alteration types are observed as biotite alteration of andesitic dikes, albite alteration with associated amphibole in veinlets and disseminations, albite alteration and hydrothermal alteration in granites, and K-feldspar alteration associated with epidote veins. While these higher temperature alteration styles do not contain mineralization (except minor pyrite) their presence is indicative of a magmatic hydrothermal system. Furthermore, the presence and preservation of these high temperature alteration styles near surface at Sugar suggests that the Sugar prospect may have formed at a greater depth than the Coffee deposits and is exposed today as a result of greater uplift or higher degrees of erosion. The presence of discrete, mineralized veins at Sugar provides evidence that Sugar may have been at greater depth at the time of mineralization provided both Sugar and Coffee represent separate occurrences of a related mineralizing system.  The presence of high temperature alteration styles at Sugar is of particular interest given Sugar’s proximity to the Casino Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit 10km to the southeast. High temperature alteration styles, particularly potassic alteration, have been observed at Casino (Godwin 1975). In fact, hydrothermal biotite textures described at Casino bear many similarities to the fine-grained, euhedral biotite laths associated with potassic-sodic alteration at Sugar (Selby & Nesbitt 2000).   Of further interest is the Coffee Can Zone of the Canadian Creek property located approximately 5km to the southeast of Sugar East (Figure 5). The Coffee Can zone was drilled in 2009 by Alder Resources Ltd. and comprises a gold-arsenic +/- antimony +/- 38  bismuth soil anomaly 4km long (Johnston & Russell 2011). Drilling results included 1-3 m anomalous gold-bearing zones running up to 3.5 g.t Au and featuring shear textures and quartz carbonate veins (Johnston & Russell 2011). Given its proximity to both the Casino porphyry deposit and the Sugar prospect and its rough continuation along strike from zones of mineralization-hosting structural deformation at Sugar, the possible occurrence of “Sugar-style” mineralization at the Coffee Can zone is of particular interest to future exploration targeting.  5.2 Ore Mineral Assemblage and Deposit Style The gangue mineral assemblage at the Sugar prospect in both discrete mineralized veins and breccia zones is quartz-carbonate with carbonate generally being the dominant phase. This gangue assemblage is reflective of a weakly acidic fluid due to pH buffering by CO2. The dominant form of alteration associated with mineralization is sericite with proximal quartz (silica) and the dominant ore mineralogy is arsenopyrite +/- freibergite +/- stibnite +/- pyrite +/- sphalerite. The presence of freibergite as an ore-assemblage mineral provides information as to the conditions of formation of gold mineralization at the Sugar prospect. Freibergite is a silver-rich endmember of the tetrahedrite-tennantite series (also referred to as the fahlore group), and is a relatively common ore-mineral in many epithermal base metal deposits. Previous analysis of the tetrahedrite-tennantite series suggests that the modal abundances of cations may be indicative of the temperature of formation and that future microprobe analysis of freibergite at Sugar may help constrain conditions of formation (Seal et al., 1990).  The overall mineral assemblages of gangue, alteration, and ore at Sugar combined with the strong structural control of mineralization and evidence for syn-mineralization brecciation suggest that the Sugar prospect may have formed under conditions similar to intermediate sulphidation epithermal deposits, which would indicate a possible temperature of formation for the deposit at 150-300 degrees Celsius (Simmons et al., 2005). In addition, the Au:Ag ratio estimated from assayed 1m core intervals at the Sugar prospect is approximately 0.4, which is consistent with epithermal deposits (Groves et al., 1998).  However many features of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization at Sugar, such as 39  sericitization, quartz-carbonate veining, and a strong structural control, are also similar to orogenic deposits (Groves et al., 1998). Features such as sulphosalts and base metal sulfides, though common features of epithermal systems, can be observed in orogenic deposits (Groves et al., 1998).  Without more information on the precise timing of magmatism, dike emplacement, and high and low temperature alteration styles, it is difficult to classify Sugar into a traditional deposit model scheme. While there is evidence for a high temperature, magmatic hydrothermal system that overprints dike emplacement at Sugar, the timing of this system to gold mineralization is unconstrained and it may represent a much earlier hydrothermal system that exploited the same structural corridors that were later reactivated during an unrelated gold mineralization event. Therefore, in classifying the Sugar gold prospect it is accurate to say that it contains traits common to both intermediate sulphidation epithermal deposits and orogenic deposits and these likely reflect Sugar’s formation in an upper-crustal, low to moderate temperature environment as a result of a weakly acidic mineralizing fluid.    Chapter 6 - Conclusions 6.1 Summary  The Sugar prospect is a structurally-hosted gold system cutting continental-arc rocks of the mid-Cretaceous Coffee Creek pluton. Mineralization at Sugar is related both temporally and spatially to brittle deformation and zones of high to low temperature alteration that are proximal and parallel to mid-Cretaceous andesitic dikes. High temperature, early calcic and potassic alteration types overprint dike margins and proximal host rocks and provide evidence for a pre-mineralization magmatic hydrothermal system. Mineralization is closely related to later stages of silicification and sericitization and comprises gold-bearing quartz-carbonate-arsenopyrite ± pyrite ± freibergite ± stibnite ± sphalerite veins with varying degrees of cataclastic reworking.   The many similarities between Coffee and Sugar suggest that they are related mineralizing systems. However, the preservation of vein-controlled mineralization and higher temperature alteration styles at Sugar may provide evidence that the Sugar prospect 40  represents a more deeply exhumed equivalent to the Coffee gold deposits. Thus, a detailed understanding of the Sugar prospect provides insight into the vertical zonation of the mineralizing event that lead to both the Coffee gold deposits and the Sugar gold prospect.  6.2 Exploration Implications  The strong spatial correlation between andesitic dikes, alteration, and mineralization at Sugar and Coffee suggests that locating dikes is a simple preliminary gold exploration tool in the Dawson Range. These features, particularly outcrops of the andesitic dikes themselves, are identifiable in aerial photography and thus provide a relatively inexpensive means of identifying areas of interest for further investigation. Furthermore, dykes themselves are generally coincident with magnetic highs in total magnetic intensity data at Sugar and thus a combination of topographic and magnetic data may prove to be a useful exploration tool. Zones of structural damage at Sugar are often associated with linear magnetic low patterns and thus magnetic highs that are proximal to linear magnetic lows should also be targeted. The strong, demonstrable correlation between arsenic and gold at the Sugar prospect suggests that soil sampling should remain focused on identification of arsenic and gold anomalies in soil. Furthermore, the variations in ore mineralogy at the Sugar prospect, especially the presence of highly variable sulphosalts, such as freibergite, suggest that geochemical exploration in the area would benefit from identifying several multi-element anomalies such as silver, copper, zinc, and antimony.        41   References  Allan, M.M., Mortensen, J.K., Hart, C.J.R., Bailey, L.A., Sanchez, M.G., Ciolkiewicz, W., McKenzie, G.G., and Creaser, R.A., 2013. Magmatic and metallogenic framework of west-central Yukon and eastern Alaska: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, v. 17, pp. 111-168. Bartlett, S.E., Allan, M.M., Buitenhuis, E.N., Smith, T.R. and Hart, C.J.R, 2016. Field investigations of the Sugar gold prospect, Dawson Range, Yukon (NTS 115J/14 and 115J/15). In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2015, K.E. MacFarlane and M.G. Nordling (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, pp. 1-16. Beranek, L.P. & Mortensen, J.K., 2011. The timing and provenance record of the Late Permian Klondike orogeny in northwestern Canada and arc-continent collision along western North America., Tectonics, v. 30, pp. 1–23. Boyce, L., 2014. A Paragenetic Model and Geochemistry of the Double Double Gold Zone, Kaminak’s Coffee Gold Project, Yukon, Canada., BSc Thesis, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Breitsprecher, K., and Mortensen, J.K. (compilers), 2004. Yukon Age 2004: A database of isotopic age determinations for rock units from Yukon Territory:Yukon Geological Survey (CD-ROM). Buitenhuis, E., 2014. The Latte gold zone, Kaminak’s Coffee gold project, Yukon, Canada: geology, geochemistry, and metallogeny: Unpublished MSc thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, 197 p. Colpron, M., Nelson, J.L. & Murphy, D.C., 2006. A tectonostratigraphic framework for the pericratonic terranes of the northern Canadian Cordillera. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, 45, pp.1–23. Colpron, M., , 2007. Northern Cordilleran terranes and their interactions through time., GSA Today, v. 17, no. 4/5, (doi: 10.1130/GSAT01704-5A.1) 42  Creaser, R.A. et al., 1997. Tectonic affinity of Nisutlin and Anvil assemblage strata from the Teslin tectonic zone, northern Canadian Cordillera: constraints from neodymium isotope and geochemical evidence, Tectonics, v. 16, pp. 107-121.  Cruikshank, P. 2011. Hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralization of the Supremo  zone, Coffee Property, Yukon, Canada. B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON. Doerksen, G., Pilotto, D., McLeod, K., Sim, R., Levy, M., Sharp, T., Smith, M., Kappes, D., 2016. Feasibility Study Technical Report for the Coffee Gold Project, Yukon Territory, Canada (NI 43-101), Kaminak Gold Corporation, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. 460 p. Davidson, J.P., 1996. Deciphering Mantle and Crustal Signatures in Subduction Zone Magmatism in "Subduction Top to Bottom", pp. 251–262. Godwin, C.I., 1975. Geology of Casion Porphyry Copper-Molybdenum Deposit, Dawson Range, Y.T.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1962. 274 p. Grodzicki, K.R., Allan, M.M., Hart, C.J.R., Smith, T., 2016. Multi-Parameter Geologic Mapping at the Coffee Gold Deposit, West-Central Yukon, Canada. RoundUp Poster Session 2016.  Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S.G., Robert, F., 1998. Orogenic gold deposits: A proposed classification in the context of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit types, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 13, pp. 7-27.   Irvine, T.N., and Baragar, W.R.A., 1971. A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks, Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v.8, pp. 523-548.  Johnston, R.J. & Russell, C. 2011. Summary Report on the Canadian Creek Property, Whitehorse Mining District, Yukon Territory, Canada (43-101), Castillian Resources Corp., Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 73 p. (http://www.cariboorose.com/i/pdf/Canadian-Creek-NI-43-1012.pdf)  Le Bas, M. J., Le Maitre, R. W., Streckeisen, A. & Zanettin, B., 1986. A chemical 43  classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali–silica diagram. Journal of Petrology 27, pp. 745–750. MacKenzie, D., Craw, D., and Finnigan, C., 2014. Structural controls on alteration and mineralization at the Coffee gold deposits, Yukon. In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2013, K.E. MacFarlane, M.G. Nordling, and P.J. Sack (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, pp. 119-131. MacKenzie, D., Craw, D., and Finnigan, C., 2015. Lithologically controlled invisible gold, Yukon, Canada, Miner Deposita, v. 50, pp. 141-157.  McKenzie, G.G., Allan, M.M., Mortensen, J.K., Hart, C.J.R., Sánchez, M., and Creaser, R.A., 2013. Mid-Cretaceous orogenic gold and molybdenite mineralization in the Independence Creek area, Dawson Range, parts of NTS 115J/13 and 14. In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2012, K.E. MacFarlane, M.G. Nordling, and P.J. Sack (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, pp. 73-97. McKillop, R., Turner, D., Johnston, K., and Bond, J., 2013. Property-scale classification of surficial geology for soil geochemical sampling in the unglaciated Klondike Plateau, west-central Yukon. Yukon Geological Survey, Open File 2013-15, 85 p., including appendices. Mortensen, J.K., 1992. Pre-Mid-mesozoic Tectonic Evolution of the Yukon-Tanana Terrane, Yukon and Alaska, Tectonics, v. 11, pp. 836–853. Murphy, D.C. et al., 2006. Mid-Paleozoic to early Mesozoic tectonostratigraphic evolution of Yukon-Tanana and Slide Mountain terranes and affiliated overlap assemblages , Finlayson Lake massive sulphide district, Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, 45, pp. 75–106. Nelson, J. & Friedman, R., 2004. Superimposed Quesnel (late Paleozoic – Jurassic) and Yukon – Tanana (Devonian – Mississippian) arc assemblages,Cassiar Mountains, northern British Columbia: field , U – Pb , and igneous petrochemical evidence, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 41, pp. 1201–1235. Nelson, J.L. et al., 2006. Paleozoic tectonic and metallogenetic evolution of pericratonic 44  terranes in Yukon , northern British Columbia and eastern Alaska, Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, 45, pp. 323–360. Piercey, S.J. et al., 2006. Paleozoic magmatism and crustal recycling along the ancient, Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, 45,  pp. 281–322. Reich, M., Kesler, S.E., Utsunomiya, S., Palenik, C.S., Chryssoulis, S.L., Ewing, R.C, 2005. Solubility of gold in arsenian pyrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 69, pp. 2781-2796. Sack, P.J., Casselman, S., James, D. and Harris, B., 2016. Copper-gold±silver mineralization at the Stu occurrence, central Yukon (Yukon MINFILE 115I011). In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2015, K.E. MacFarlane and M.G. Nordling (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey. Seal, R.R., Essene, E.J., Kelly, W.C., 1990. Tetrahedrite and Tennantite: Evaluation of Thermodynamic Data and Phase Equilibria, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 28, pp. 725-738. Selby, D., Creaser, R.A. & Nesbitt, B.E., 1999. Major and trace element compositions and Sr – Nd – Pb systematics of crystalline rocks from the Dawson Range, Yukon, Canada., Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 36, pp. 1463–1481. Selby, D. & Nesbitt, B.E., 2000. Chemical composition of biotite from the Casino porphyry Cu – Au – Mo mineralization, Yukon, Canada : evaluation of magmatic and hydrothermal fluid chemistry, Chemical Geology, v. 171 pp. 77–93. Simmons, S.F., White, N.C., John, D.A., 2005. Geological Characteristics of Epithermal Pecious and Base Metal Deposits, Economic Geology 100th Aniversary Volume, pp. 485-522.  Sun, S.S. and McDonough, W.F., 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematics ofoceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes, in Saunders, A.D. and Norry, M.J., eds., Magmatism in Ocean Basins: Geological Society of London, Special Publication 42, p. 313-345.  Tempelman-Kluit, D.J., 1984. Geology of Laberge (105E) and Carmacks (115I) map areas. Maps with legends, 1:250 000 scale. Geological Survey of Canada Open File 1101. 45  Topham, M.J., Allan, M.M., Mortensen, J.K., Hart, C.J.R., Colpron, M. and Sack, P.J., 2016. Crustal depth of emplacement of the Early Jurassic Aishihik and Tatchun batholiths, west-central Yukon. In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2015, K.E. MacFarlane and M.G. Nordling (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, p. 233-251, including appendices. Ryan, J.J., Zagorevski, A., Williams, S.P., Roots, C., Ciolkiewicz, W., Hayward, N. and Chapman, J.B., 2013a. Geology, Stevenson Ridge (northeast part), Yukon. Geological Survey of Canada, Canadian Geoscience Map 116 (2nd edition, preliminary), scale 1:100 000, doi:10.4095/292407. Ryan, J.J., Zagorevski, A., Williams, S.P., Roots, C., Ciolkiewicz, W., Hayward, N. and Chapman, J.B., 2013b. Geology, Stevenson Ridge (northwest part), Yukon. Geological Survey of Canada, Canadian Geoscience Map 117 (2nd edition, preliminary), scale 1:100 000, doi:10.4095/292408. Wainwright, A.J., Simmons, A.T., Finnigan, C.S., Smith, T.R. and Carpenter, R.L., 2011. Geology of new gold discoveries in the Coffee Creek area, White Gold District, west-central Yukon. In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2010, K.E. MacFarlane, L.H. Weston and C. Relf (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, pp. 233-247.            46    47  Appendix A: Sample Database 48   49    50  Sample Name Source Sampler Area Zone Sample Type              SB15-SG001 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Outcrop                SB15-SG002 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Trench Float                SB15-SG003 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Trench Float                  SB15-SG004 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Trench Float               SB15-SG005 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer                SB15-SG006 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer               SB15-SG007 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer               SB15-SG008 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer              SB15-SG009 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float                SB15-SG010 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float                SB15-SG011 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float                 SB15-SG012 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar outcrop                SB15-SG013 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer                SB15-SG014 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Outcrop             SB15-SG015 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Outcrop                SB15-SG016 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Collar float                 SB15-SG017 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Collar float                SB15-SG018 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Outcrop               SB15-SG019 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Outcrop                SB15-SG020 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer                SB15-SG021 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer               SB15-SG022 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer               SB15-SG023 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer               51  SB15-SG024 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Felsenmeer               SB15-SG025 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Outcrop            SB15-SG026 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float               SB15-SG027 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Outcrop               SB15-SG028 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float             SB15-SG029 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float               SB15-SG030 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float               SB15-SG031 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float              SB15-SG032 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float            SB15-SG033 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float               SB15-SG034 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float               SB15-SG035 MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Float               SGD-0001_248.9m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore               SGD-0001_125.12m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore               SGD-0001_60.0m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore              SGD-0001_183.05m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore             SGD-0001_174.3m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore              SGD-0001_325.0m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore                  SGD-0001_198.05m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore              SGD-0001_238.8m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore             SGD-0001_320.7m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore               SGD-0001_125.65m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore             SGD-0001_338.3m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore            SGD-0001_207.40m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore            52  SGD-0001_79.4m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore                SGD-0011_242.3m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore              SGD-0001_151.4m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore                SGD-0001_79.1m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore               SGD-0011_38.0m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore               SGD-0011_38.0m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore              SGD-0001_86.0m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore               SGD-0001_86.0m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore             SGD-0004_6.2m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore                SGD-0004_5.2m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore             SGD-0004_5.0m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore           SGD-0004_4.9m MDRU Yukon-Alaska Metallogeny 2015 S. Bartlett Coffee Sugar Drillcore                 53                   54                        55                 Appendix B: Geochemical Data  56      57     58      59      60      61     62      63     64   599000599000600000600000601000601000602000602000603000603000604000604000696400069640006965000696500069660006966000    mKqW2?mKqW2?mKqW2?mKqW2mKqW2mKqW2mKaWPK?PqSmKqW1mKqW1mKqW1?mKqW1Sugar Domealtered fault zonecontact, definitecontact, approximatecontact, inferredfault, inferredsoil Au >50 ppbdrill collarmKaWmKdWmKqW1mKqW2PKS?PqSbiotite hornblende plagioclase phyric andesitebiotite hornblende diorite to quartz dioriteK-feldspar phyric hornblende biotite syenogranite, minor monzogranite and quartz monzonitebiotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite, minor quartz syeniteundifferentiated intermediate to mafic schistmonzogranite orthogneiss350040004000350030003000250035004000400045004000400035003000mKdWSGD0012SGD0011 SGD0005SGD0006SGD0009SGD0007Sugar West Sugar EastSGD0004SGD0001-0003elevation in feet a.s.l.rock sample0 1 2 kmSGD0008 SGD0010mKqW1?limit of mappingmKaW Excelsior CreekPK?SB15-SG012SB15-SG001SB15-SG002SB15-SG003SB15-SG004SB15-SG013SB15-SG011SB15-SG005SB15-SG006SB15-SG007SB15-SG008SB15-SG009SB15-SG-010SB15-SG015SB15-SG014SB15-SG016SB15-SG017SB15-SG034SB15-SG-029SB15-SG035SB15-SG031SB15-SG018SB15-SG028SB15-SG027SB15-SG025SB15-SG021SB15-SG020SB15-SG019SB15-SG022Sugar FaultABPlate 1mKqW1mKaWPqSmKqW2500m1000m(meters above sea level)Drillholes 001-003 collarSGD0003SGD0002SGD0001A B?altered fault zonecontact, definitecontact, approximatefault, inferredobserved mineralization360oNmKaWmKdWmKqW1mKqW2PKS?PqSbiotite hornblende plagioclase phyric andesitebiotite hornblende diorite to quartz dioriteK-feldspar phyric hornblende biotite syenogranite, minor monzogranite and quartz monzonitebiotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite, minor quartz syeniteundifferentiated intermediate to mafic schistmonzogranite orthogneissLegendPlate 2

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