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Around the corner : the life and death of Grandview's corner grocery stores Shackles, Kevin R. Apr 30, 2015

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    Around the Corner:  The Life and Death of Grandview’s Corner Grocery Stores    By    Kevin R. Shackles       Report prepared at the request of The Grandview Heritage Group in partial fulfillment of UBC Geography 429: Research in Historical Geography, for Dr. David Brownstein   In   Faculty of Arts  (Department of Geography)     THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)      April 2015   ! 2!ABSTRACT  The corner grocery store stands as a venerable urban landmark in cities across North America yet the history of these businesses is often absent from the stories of our cities. The neighbourhood of Grandview in Vancouver, Canada’s east side was, at varying points in time, the site of many corner grocery stores. While some research has been conducted on Grandview’s main street (Commercial Drive), a thorough investigation into the corner grocery stores of “back-street” Grandview is needed. This paper attempts to map out the neighbourhood’s old corner grocery stores and seeks to reveal the multiple layers of history that lie beneath each building. To do so, the paper discusses the changing pattern of grocery retailing in Vancouver from small independent corner stores to large ‘modern’ supermarkets to argue that the demise of the corner grocery is a result of these shifting consumer patterns. By investigating the history of these often-neglected businesses, this paper argues that we can begin to see the changing shifts in demographics that characterize Grandview today.           ! 3!Introduction  When people think of grocery stores they invariably picture a large supermarket surrounded by acres of empty asphalt. They picture a variety of items from deli meats to soups and all manner of products now sold at grocery stores. The grocery stores of today have become one-stop shopping centres. Yet the grocery store of yesterday was something much different. Vancouver’s old corner stores were once venerable landmarks in neighbourhoods across the city. Now, as many of these stores struggle to stay in business, Vancouver’s corner grocery stores stand as an urban palimpsest revealing the multiple layers of history that lie beneath it.    These businesses represented many different things for many different people. For many children who grew up in Vancouver the corner store represents their childhood.1 For others the corner store served as a focal point of the community, a place to meet, and a place to catch up. Grocery store proprietors were well known in the community and often served as “public characters”.2 Still others saw the corner grocery as a chance to earn a living in Vancouver. Many immigrant families, particularly Chinese-Canadians used the grocery store as a source of income and housing – a trend that would garner these stores the nickname of “Chinese groceries”.3  Over the past several decades, however, these corner stores have all but disappeared. In the face of competition from supermarkets, 7-11’s and gas station convenience stores, small family run grocery stores have been overrun by shifting !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1 The corner store was often the first place parents allowed their children to go to on their own.  2 Jane Jacobs proposed the idea of “public characters” and argued that local storekeepers perform a variety of informal community tasks that help strengthen community. See J. Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities New York, 1992.   3 M. Kluckner, Vanishing Vancouver: The Last 25 Years, Vancouver, 2012, 72.!!! 4!consumer patterns. This shift has seen shoppers move away from their local greengrocer, butcher and baker in search of modern convenience. Enormous shopping carts, laser checkout scanners and thousands of different items in any number of sizes characterize today’s supermarkets. The corner store does not stand a chance.   The neighbourhood of Grandview in Vancouver’s east side was, at varying points in time, the site of many corner grocery stores. Although the heart of the neighbourhood runs along Commercial Drive and Hastings Street, there were a variety of corner grocery stores in residential areas along non-commercial streets. While the retailing history of Commercial Drive is well documented,4 a thorough investigation into the neighbourhood corner stores of “back-street” Grandview – that is, not Commercial Drive or Hastings Street – is needed. Thus, this project will attempt to map the historic corner stores of Grandview in order to create an introductory history of this quickly vanishing urban landmark. Moreover, I will examine the shifting pattern of store proprietors from primarily Anglo-Canadian to predominantly Chinese-Canadian storekeepers that are reflected in the shifting demographics of Grandview still witnessed today. In the process, I argue that the death of Grandview’s corner grocery stores is the result of shifting consumer patterns in search of supermarket convenience and that contemporary policy-makers ought to work to resurrect the neighbourhood store.   To do this, I will first examine the idea of the grocery store as an urban palimpsest. Next, I present a brief community profile of Grandview. Following this, I look at how corner grocery stores came to be and their architectural styles. Before presenting the history of individual stores, I will document the evolution of grocery !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!4 See J. King, The Drive: A Retail, Social and Political History of Commercial Drive, Vancouver, to 1956, Vancouver, 2011.  ! 5!retailing in Vancouver to help contextualize the demise of Grandview’s corner grocery stores. Together, these narratives will create a story that highlights the importance of corner grocery stores and what cities and their residents can do to help resurrect them.   The Grocery Store as an Urban Palimpsest  In the introduction of Patrick Cummins’ photographic book, Full Frontal T.O: Exploring Toronto’s Architectural Vernacular, Shawn Micallef states that, “every change to [a] building is attached to a human narrative.”5 This idea, that our buildings can be read for their layers of history, is one that runs throughout this paper. A change in ownership or a change in signage is attached to a human narrative and although they occur on the peripheries of our lives, these changes have significant impacts on the way we experience our cities. Think for example of how corner stores have become engrained into our mental maps of our neighbourhoods. A change in signage alters our view of the city. Thus, this project is a reminder that cities are constantly changing, always fluid. Our non-descript streets and stores have a story to tell and it is my hope that this project will begin to do that.   Grandview: A Community Profile  Grandview, one of Vancouver’s first suburbs, slowly developed following the introduction of the Interurban in 1891. Early residents were primarily of British origin and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!5  P.Cummins and Shawn Micallef, Full Frontal T.O.: Exploring Toronto’s Architectural Vernacular, Toronto, 2012, 6.  ! 6!the building boom that began in 1905 quickly ended by 1912.6 Following both World War I and II, an influx of Italian, Chinese, and Eastern European immigrants moved into the neighbourhood. The Italian-Canadians in particular made a significant mark on the neighbourhood, “renovating old homes with stucco and masonry and noticeably changing the face of Commercial Drive with their shops, restaurants and lively conversations.”7 However it was not long before the Italian population began moving east into Burnaby. At the same time the Chinese population dramatically increased so that by 1981, 18.7% of Grandview’s population was Chinese speaking.8 These changes are reflected in the shifting ethnicity of grocery store proprietors as listed in Appendix I.9  The Emergence of the Corner Grocery Store  Prior to the introduction of zoning in Vancouver, commercial buildings were interspersed throughout many of Vancouver’s residential neighbourhoods. Much of the development of Grandview occurred prior to this adoption in 1928,10 and as such, corner stores popped up along many residential streets. When zoning was adopted, ‘intrusions’ in residential areas were outlawed but allowed existing commercial !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!6 Development in Kitsilano, Point Grey and Shaughnessy contributed to the building decline in Grandview. See Vancouver Planning Department, Grandview-Woodland Area Policy Plan, Part 3, 1983.   7 W. Buholzer, Grandview-Woodland: An Information Handbook, City of Vancouver Planning Department, 1975, 6.   8 C. Nielsen, The People of Grandview-Woodland and Strathcona: A Community Profile, Vancouver, 1984.  9 See Appendix I for a complete listing and inventory of Grandview’s corner grocery stores.  10 Vancouver’s zoning came at the recommendation of Harland Bartholomew’s Plan for Vancouver, 1927 and sought to establish the separation of land uses, whereby commercial activity was funnelled onto high streets, as in the British tradition. See, for example, L. Berelowitz, Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination, Vancouver, 2005, 215; B.A. Petit, Zoning and the single-family landscape: Large new houses and neighbourhood change in Vancouver, (PhD), The University of British Columbia (1993), 16.   ! 7!storefronts to continue (see Figure 1). So began the process known as the “grandfather clause,” which allowed non-conforming uses to operate in residential areas provided they were not substantially altered. This clause has become policy in the Vancouver Charter of 1953 and has allowed many of Grandview’s corner stores to continue.11  When Grandview’s corner grocery stores were first built they generally took on one three forms. The modified house design as seen at Scott’s Grocery (see Figure 5) had a main floor business with a suite above. The apartment style grocery store was also prevalent in Grandview, and featured a main floor grocery and several suites above (see Figure 4). The final design often seen in Grandview was what Michael Kluckner described as “boxy additions occupying the front yard of an ordinary house”12 (see Figure 7).  Grandview’s corner grocery stores, like so many in Vancouver, often featured sheltered corner doors and transom windows designed to let in maximum sunlight. The stores were often recognizable with their decaying metal or neon Coca-Cola signs. As Kluckner notes, neighbourhood grocery stores often became magnets for the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11 The clause states that, “If such non-conforming use is discontinued for a period of ninety days, any future use of these premises shall be in conformity with the provisions of the bylaw. The Board of Variance may extend the aforesaid period of ninety days to a maximum of 180 days.” The grandfather clause was originally limited to thirty days, however, in 1959 Council recommended a change to ninety days and an application to amend Section 568 of the Vancouver Charter was approved. See City of Vancouver Archives, Minutes of Vancouver City Council, November 1959, vol. 72, 26, 241; Vancouver Charter, SBC1953, Chapter 55, Section 568.  !12 Kluckner, Vanishing Vancouver, 70.   Figure 1 A picture taken from the Harland Bartholomew Plan for Vancouver depicting a ‘store intrusion’ that would soon be outlawed by zoning (p. 211). ! 8!surrounding school children, selling candy and other various goods.13 Oftentimes children were sent to the local grocery to pick up food but as the advertisement depicted in Figure 2 shows, the changing nature of grocery store proprietors often brought about community anxiety. As the corner groceries were gradually taken over in large numbers by Chinese-Canadian proprietors beginning in the 1950’s, these racial anxieties were heightened. The ‘middle-class’, convenient, and modern supermarket provided a more desirable shopping experience for many Vancouverites and the slow demise of the corner grocery continued.  From Corner Stores to Supermarkets  The evolution of Vancouver’s shifting retail is a rich and varied history similar to changes seen in cities across North America. The early general stores and public markets eventually gave way to the independent grocer, characterized by full-service shopping and elaborate displays behind the counter of the store clerk. 14  Two !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!13 Kluckner, Vanishing Vancouver, 71.  14 See, for example, J.M. Mayo, The American Grocery Store: The Business Evolution of an Architectural Space, Westport, CT, 1993, for a summary of the evolution of grocery retailing.   Figure 2. A Shelly’s 4X Bakery advertisement asking where it is safe to send your children. The changing nature of grocery retailing brought about racial anxiety (Source: William Curtis Shelly Fonds, Scrapbook 3, CVA, AM 163, Box 558-G). ! 9!developments helped contribute to the demise of the corner grocery store: the opening of department stores and the rise of supermarkets.  The opening of department stores in downtown Vancouver signalled a drastic shift in the very idea of shopping. When Woodward’s Department store opened in 1892, and later moved to its iconic location at Hastings and Abbott in 1903, and with the opening of Spencer’s Department Store on Hastings in 1906, Vancouver shoppers were “offered an experience of aristocratic grandeur”15  never experienced before. According to Rachel Bowlby, “as a palace, the department store offered a spectacle of opulence accessible to anyone who cared to enter and participate in an image of aristocratic life.”16 The very nature of shopping had changed and according to Jak King detailing a news article from Grandview’s local newspaper, The Highland Echo, “many women habitually do their buying in the larger stores for a variety of reasons the chief is that they enjoy the experience.”17  Vancouver’s department stores quickly became competition for Grandview’s corner grocery stores. They offered twice a day deliveries and because of their size, the department stores were able to adopt an economy of scale.18  As consumers began demanding lower prices, self-service shopping was introduced as a way to reduce grocery costs. In 1919 Woodward’s was the first store to !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!15 R. Bowlby, Carried Away: The Invention of Modern Shopping, New York, 2000, 8  16 Bowlby, Carried Away, 10.  17 King, The Drive, 17.  18 Vancouver’s Department stores were famous for their food floors displaying thousands of products from all around the world. Customers were able to phone in a grocery order and they would receive their delivery that afternoon. See C. Davis, The Vancouver Book, Vancouver, 1976, 345.    ! 10!introduce self-service in Vancouver.19  As most corner grocery stores continued to operate as full-service businesses, the department stores gained a decided edge with consumers desiring an engaging and cost-saving grocery experience.20  The second development that led to the decline of independent grocers’ is the rise of chain stores and supermarkets.21 The depression created a climate well suited to the development of these stores, as businesses looked for ways to reduce prices for price-conscious consumers. The result was the removal of services in stores, meaning the elimination of home deliveries and the introduction of self-service in order to reduce grocery prices. This change meant that, “instead of the pleasures of being served, consumers could congratulate themselves on saving money by doing the work themselves.”22 Following the Second World War, the wide adoption of the private automobile meant that auto-oriented supermarkets, with easy highway access and ample parking space gave supermarkets a decided edge with consumers. The introduction of home refrigeration also increased this edge, as together the private automobile and home refrigeration meant that families could shop for more and less often, eliminating the daily trip to the grocer around the corner.   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!19 Clarence Saunders first introduced self-service at his Piggly Wiggly chain store in Memphis, Tennessee in 1916. Saunders promised his customers that, “he would slay the dragon of high prices.” Incidentally, Piggly Wiggly operated stores in Vancouver before being bought out by Safeway. See A. Seth and G. Randall (Eds), The Grocers: Rise and Rise of the Supermarket Chains 2nd Ed., London, 2001.  !20 By adopting self-service, grocery stores were able to allow shoppers to handle the products and suggest similar products, thereby increasing sales. Full-service grocery stores did not provide this option, so shoppers merely bought what they intended to buy without discovering new products.  21 J.L. Brock, A Forecast for the Grocery Retailing Industry in the 1980’s, Ann Arbor, MI, 1981, 11.    22 Bowlby, Carried Away, 8. !! 11!!     In Grandview the shift to supermarkets began with the opening of Safeway at First and Commercial in 1941. The Highland Echo carried a large news article announcing its opening titled “Safeway Accents Modernism in new Grandview Store.” In it the author says:  [Safeway] will embody the most modern of merchandising methods.  Adequate lighting and specialty designed fixtures bring the new store  into line with the best practice, as can be said for the adjacent parking  lot, arranged for convenient use of the store’s auto-driving  customers.23  In 1954, Super-Valu opened across the street, representing the first ‘true’ supermarket in Grandview. The store was built with parking for fifty cars, and as an 8,000 square foot store, represented the largest retail operation in Grandview. 24  Both stores eliminated home-deliveries and adopted self-service as a strategy for keeping prices low. In 1953 chain stores and supermarkets only represented 32% of grocery retail !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!23 The Highland Echo, 9 January 1941. In the following weeks edition, Safeway took out a 2-page advertisement showcasing their discounted prices and modern products.  24 King, The Drive, 219.  Figure 3. 1700 block Commercial Drive.  The new ‘modern’ Safeway at the corner of First and Commercial. Dominion Photo Co., January 19, 1941 (Source: VPL 25516). ! 12!business in Vancouver, but by 1963 that number had increased to 56%, with independent businesses declining from 68% to 44% during that time (see Appendix II).25 With the acceptance of supermarkets in Grandview, we begin to see a shift away from the local greengrocer, butcher, and baker in search of modern convenience. As a result, corner grocery stores retreated into candy-pop-cigarette convenience stores that we know them as today.   Grandview’s Corner Grocery Stores  The following stories depict just some of Grandview’s grocery stores and help to show the challenging nature of owning such a business. The full list of grocery stores is available in Appendix I. The intention of telling these stories is to provide a glimpse into Grandview’s past. Rather than any political or economic storytelling, these histories discuss Grandview’s social history. That is, a history of the mundane day-to-day activities of store proprietors and their customers.   Thus far I have presented the ‘death’ of Grandview’s corner grocery stores. The overall shift in consumer patterns towards modern supermarkets is reflected in the research presented thus far. But this next section delves into the history of individuals and their stores, as they existed. In the process, I hope to reveal the multiple layers of history that lie beneath the façade of each building. While Grandview’s stores are not unique in the Vancouver context, they were integral parts of the community and their demise has had a significant impact on the way Grandview residents shop.   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!25 H.M. Begg, Factors in the location of the wholesale grocery industry in metropolitan Vancouver, (Masters), University of British Columbia, 1968, 55.   ! 13!      Figure 4. The Odlum Grocery, seen here in the early 1990’s and again in 2015 as an apartment (Photo      courtesy of Brendan Jang; Kevin Shackles, 2015).   1007 Odlum Drive  An apartment style commercial building, 1007 Odlum Drive is first listed in the City Directories in 1912 but was hooked up to water service in 1904.26  Daniel and Joseph Mass were the first to operate a grocery and confectionery here in 1912 but as with many early grocers’, their business did not last for long. From 1922 until 1936 Kate Manson ran a grocery and confectionery here. Kate and her husband John, who was a motorman for B.C. Electric Railway, lived above the store. It was quite typical to see wives running grocery stores during these years, as it was one of the few accepted forms of employment and also provided housing above.   In 1939, Genji Yada and his wife Yoshiko opened the Odlum Grocery, a name that would last until the mid-1990’s when it closed. Following their internment during World War Two, Genji and Yoshiko moved back to Vancouver in 1951 and ran the Berkeley General Store at 2396 E 41 Avenue. By 1952 Lum S. Way operated the Odlum Grocery at a time when large numbers of Chinese immigrants were moving into !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!26 City of Vancouver Archives, Water Applications, MCR 26, RG 14, Series B, Roll No. 8, Application No. 7007.  ! 14!Grandview. After twenty-one years in business, Lum S. Way handed the business over to his son, Lee Hong Way.     Figure 5. Scott’s Grocery at the corner of Victoria Drive and East Georgia, seen here in 2013 and   again as the Found and the Freed repurposed goods store in 2015 (Photo Courtesy of Heritage   Vancouver Society; Kevin Shackles, 2015).   706 Victoria Drive    This modified house was built in 1921 for Thomas Givens, who had applied for a building permit the year before. It remained a grocery store for its entire existence and was the last grocery store of its kind in Grandview (see Figure 5). Givens, born in 1875,immigrated to Canada with his wife Annie in 1909 from Ireland.27 The couple operated the Thomas Givens Grocery here from 1922 until 1933 before moving to the West Side to operate a dry goods store. Between 1933 and 1953 the store changed hands several times, becoming the Norman Elliot Grocery in 1933, the Hamilton Grocery in 1940, the Maxwell Grocery in 1945, and eventually the Caravan Grocery in 1950, where William R. Caravan ran his grocery along with his son William Caravan Jr.28  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!27, 1921 Census of Canada. Reference Number: RG 31; Folder Number: 19; Census Place: Ward 4, Vancouver Centre, British Columbia; Page Number: 7.  28 The Norman Elliot Grocery was most likely named as such so as to differentiate from the chain grocery stores known as Elliot’s Grocery, with one located at 1432 Commercial Drive (Vancouver Public Library. British Columbia City Directories, 1933-1953.  ! 15! In 1953 May Elizabeth Scott opened Scott’s Grocery, which Scott ran until she retired in 1986. Scott’s father, Ernest, came to Vancouver in 1912 from England and worked as a shoemaker on Robson Street.29 May Scott grew up next door  (at 710 Victoria Drive) to the store she would later run. Winnie Leung took over the business for close to a decade before Steve and Aster Ng ran Scott’s Grocery, keeping the name that had been familiar to Grandview for so long. By February 2014, Scott’s Grocery closed its doors for good after sixty-one years of serving Grandview, and with it the last corner grocery in Grandview was lost.  2075, 2085, 2095 Victoria Drive  The area around East Fifth and Victoria quickly became a commercial hub with a variety of businesses locating around the B.C. Electric Railway’s Burnaby Lake Line, which cut across what is now McSpadden Park towards Victoria Drive at East Second (see Figure 6). The most well known of these businesses was Irwin’s Grocery and Confectionery, which served the neighbourhood from 1916 until it was demolished in 1970. The store was built by Thomas L. Hughes in 1915 for Mrs. Edith Rachael Irwin30, whose family immigrated to Ontario from Ireland before moving to Vancouver.31 Irwin ran her grocery store here from 1919 until her death in 1949.  Walter Wong took over the grocery store, keeping the name that was familiar to so many Grandview residents.   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!29, 1921 Census of Canada. Reference Number: RG 31; Folder Number: 19; Census Place: Ward 4, Vancouver Centre, British Columbia; Page Number: 2  30 Heritage Vancouver, Building Permit 7704, Retrieved from <>.  31 Death certificate for Edith Rachael Irwin, 14 December 1949, File Number B13202, Province of British Columbia Department of Health and Welfare, B.C. Archives, Vital Events.    ! 16!  Next door at 2085 Victoria Drive a number of different stores set up shop. The original owners first operated the London Grocery, which eventually gave way to the Victoria Grocery. After changing hands several times, Charlotte Louise’s Beauty Salon operated out of this address until its closure.  Beside the Salon at 2095, Home Meat Market served the neighbourhood for several years before George Robertson took over the business in 1935, renaming it what many locals remember it as, Supreme Meat Market.  Ownership of Supreme Meat Market was in a constant state of flux, however Louie Sun and Lui Quing and later Chuck and Doreen Quan would eventually run the butcher shop, paralleling the influx of Chinese immigrants into Grandview. However, on August 24, 1965 Council approved authorization for the negotiation of purchase of properties on the proposed park site.32 After more than fifty years, the commercial hub around East Fifth and Victoria now ceased to exist.   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!32 Irwin’s Grocery, along with other buildings on the proposed Park Site 20, were acquired by the City of Vancouver for $21,000. See Minutes of Vancouver City Council, 27 February 1968, CVA, Vol. 97, 919, 947-948. !Figure 6. This 1927 Fire Insurance map depicts the row of commercial storefronts between 2075 and 2095 Victoria Drive (Source: The British Columbia Underwriters’ Association. CVA, “Fire Insurance Plan of the City of Vancouver,” September 1927, Map 599, Sheet, 338).  ! 17!1902 Victoria Drive  The building at 1902 Victoria Drive is a front-yard style grocery store that is first listed in the City Directories in 1912. The area around 1902 Victoria was a bustling neighbourhood with a grocery store across the street at 1896 Victoria Drive, and for fifty-five years the businesses on what is now McSpadden Park contributed to the many storefronts in the neighbourhood.  John Boscott ran his grocery business here briefly but it was not until 1926 that a grocery store was firmly established. From 1926 until 1948 Charles F. Rogers ran the Third Avenue Grocery and lived in the house next door. After several years as a Fish and Chips shop, Charles and James N. McCready operated the McCready Brother’s Grocery for close to thirteen years.  In 1969 Mrs. Doris Fong took over the grocery store along with her husband Earl, and together the couple renamed the store A & B Grocery (Figure 7). Earl worked at the store as a clerk but Doris was the main proprietor until handing the business over to Leo Yat Chan in 1989.   Figure 7.!The A & B Grocery, seen here in the early 1970’s, again in the early 1990’s, and finally in its current state of vacancy in February, 2015 (CVA 780-330; Photo Courtesy of Brendan Jang; Kevin Shackles, February, 2015). ! 18! 1190 Victoria Drive  The Victoria Drive Grocery was an apartment style grocery store, with several rooms located above. The store was built in 1922 and first operated by Peter Pappas in 1923. Pappas emigrated from Montenegro in 1908 and would run the store until 1946 when he passed the business on to his two sons, George and John.33 After leaving the Victoria Drive Grocery in 1949, George operated a grocery store at 2828 Turner Street while John became a manager of National Dairies at 1132 East Hastings Street.  In 1949 Mrs. Victoria Chow was the first in a long line of Chinese-Canadian grocery store proprietors, all of whom kept the Victoria Drive Grocery name. Yod Ho and York Wai Ho operated the store for nearly two decades and by 1974 Hung Woo Cheung took over the Victoria Drive Grocery. Cheung would be the last proprietor of the store, which closed in 1990. When the owners of the Via Tevere restaurant began restoration work before they opened in March 2012, they revealed a 1930’s Shelly’s 4X Bakery Products sign that had been a part of the Victoria Drive Grocery until the store !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!33  Peter’s family name changes between Pepyanovich, Pepianovits, Pepjanovich, and Pappas. His immigration records show his last name as Pappas and his sons took on the name Pappas as well;, 1921 Census of Canada, Reference Number: RG 31; Folder Number: 19; Census Place: Ward 4, Vancouver Centre, British Columbia; Page Number: 8   Figure 8. The old Victoria Drive Grocery, seen here in 2015 as Via Tevere Restaurant, adorned with the 1930’s Shelly’s 4X Bakery Products advertisement. This was one of the few grocery stores that retained the same name throughout its existence (Kevin Shackles, 2015). ! 19!was modernized and covered up with stucco (Figure 8). Most likely, the Victoria Drive Grocery was supplied by Shelly’s Bakery, which had become Canadian Bakeries Limited in 1925. At this time, the bakery was serving 100,000 B.C. families.34 Most grocery stores were supplied by one of three wholesalers in downtown Vancouver: W.H. Malkin Co., Kelly-Douglas, or H.Y. Louie. Today the sign exists as reminder of the building’s storied past.  Resurrection of the Corner Grocery?  The demise of the corner grocery store has led to a wave of nostalgia for these simple businesses. But should we, as citizens, and our cities help resurrect corner grocery stores and other small businesses? Stacy Mitchell makes the case for independent businesses in her book, Big Box Swindle, arguing that, “local retailers help sustain a network of informal relationships that help nurture community” and that “every dollar spent at a locally owned store sends a ripple effect of benefits through the local economy supporting not only the store itself but many other businesses too.”35 So despite their highly fluid nature, independent businesses are vital social institutions embedded within communities. Ironically, the Grandview-Woodland Area Plan from 1979 acknowledged the importance of corner grocery stores and policy number 21 sought to “investigate methods to allow upgrading and new construction of corner !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!34 William Curtis Shelly Fonds, Scrapbook 2 and 3, CVA, AM 163, Box 558-G  35 S. Mitchell, Big Box Swindle: The True Cost of Mega-Retailers and the Fight for America’s Independent Businesses, Boston, 2006, 78, 39.   ! 20!grocery stores in residential areas.”36  So what can we do now to encourage the continued use of corner groceries?  Corner groceries must develop a niche to supplement their grocery business. Two successful examples in Vancouver are Wilder Snail in Strathcona and Le Marché St. George in Riley Park, both of which focus on local products and have added a coffee shop to their businesses.37 Two ways cities can encourage these businesses is by relaxing parking restrictions and relaxing the grandfather clause. The Board of Variance oversees these matters in Vancouver, and on occasion relaxes the bylaws. By supporting such businesses over larger supermarkets, residents have the ability to encourage the continued operation of neighbourhood stores.    Conclusion  At the beginning of this project I argued for seeing Grandview’s corner grocery stores as an urban palimpsest. Throughout this paper I have attempted to peel back the layers of history hidden in these urban institutions. While the day-to-day life of corner grocery stores often occurred on the periphery of our lives, the changes in ownership and changes in signage are attached to a human narrative. The gradual shift of a primarily Anglo-Canadian Grandview to these corner groceries becoming “Chinese-groceries” is reflected in the research conducted here. Interestingly, very few Italian proprietors are noted as operating the “back-street” corner grocery stores, which !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!36 Grandview-Woodland Area Plan: Grandview-Victoria (single-family duplex and conversion areas), Standing Committee of Council on Planning and Development, 1979.  37 Wilder Snail is known for their locally sourced products and adjoining coffee shop. Le Marché St. George also operates a coffee shop alongside their grocery businesses, but also sells ceramics, textiles and other home amenities. These added products have helped each corner store develop a niche in the grocery retailing business enabling the stores to survive in what is a competitive retail industry.  ! 21!perhaps illustrates how Chinese-Canadian storekeepers were relegated to these stores with the Italian population concentrated on Commercial Drive. Such changes speak to the fluid nature of Grandview. Rather than a static moment in time, the research presented here illustrates the constantly changing, highly varied cultural mix that continues to characterize Grandview today.  It is my hope that this research will begin a conversation around the importance of independent and local businesses and how these businesses have changed in conjunction with broader population shifts witnessed in Grandview. While the history presented here is by no means comprehensive, it points towards future avenues of research, such as a detailed history of Vancouver’s changing retail scene and a comparison of Grandview’s corner grocery stores to those seen elsewhere in North America. Grocery stores are only one part of a rich and varied history in Grandview, and its uniqueness lies in this diversity of housing, people and land use.! 22!Bibliography Primary Sources:  1921 Census of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, Retrieved from CRA, Vancouver Criss-Cross Directories, 1994-2001.  CVA, A & B Grocery and Produce at 1902 Victoria Drive, Vancouver, B.C. [between 1960 and 1980]. Photo by Vancouver Planning Department. 1 photograph: col. Slide; 35mm. Item no 780-330.  CVA, Minutes of Vancouver City Council, November 1959, vol. 72, 26, 241. CVA, Minutes of Vancouver City Council, 27 February 1968, Vol. 97, 919, 947-948.  CVA, The British Columbia Underwriters’ Association, “Fire Insurance Plan of the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, 1927.” 1:600. September 1927. 1 Map: 54 sheets. AM 1594, Map 599.  CVA, Vancouver City Directories, 1955-1994. CVA, Vancouver Planning Department, Grandview-Woodland Area  Policy Plan, Part 3, 1983, PD 1981. CVA, Vancouver Revenue and Treasury Tradition. “Water Service Record Cards, 1888-1965.” Application No. 7007-57928. COV S294.  CVA, W. Buholzer, Grandview-Woodland: An Information Handbook, City of Vancouver Planning Department, 1975. CVA, Water Applications, MCR 26, RG 14, Series B, Roll No. 8, Application No. 7007. CVA, William Curtis Shelly Fonds, Scrapbook 2 and 3, AM 163, Box 558-G. City of Vancouver Planning Department, Grandview-Woodland Area Plan: Grandview- Victoria (single-family duplex and conversion areas), Standing Committee of Council  on Planning and Development, 1979. ! 23!Harland Bartholomew and Associates, A Plan for the City of Vancouver, British Columbia,  1928. Retrieved from <> Heritage Vancouver Building Permits, Retrieved from <>  Province of British Columbia Department of Health and Welfare, B.C. Archives, Vital Events.   Vancouver Charter, SBC1953, Chapter 55, Section 568. Vancouver Public Library, British Columbia City Directories, 1860-1955. Retrieved from Vancouver Public Library Special Collections, 1700 Block Commercial Drive [January 19,  1941]. Photo by Dominion Photo Co. No. 25516.  Vancouver Public Library Special Collections, The Highland Echo, 1936 to 1954. All images are © 2015 Kevin R. Shackles except as follows:  The following Figure(s) are used with the permission of Heritage Vancouver Society  Figure 5(1).  The following Figure(s) are used with the permission of Brendan Jang  Figure 4(1), 7(2).  Secondary Sources: H.M. Begg, Factors in the location of the wholesale grocery industry in metropolitan  Vancouver, (Masters), University of British Columbia, 1968. L. Berelowitz, Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination, Vancouver, 2005. R. Bowlby, Carried Away: The Invention of Modern Shopping, New York, 2000.  J.L Brock, A Forecast for the Grocery Retailing Industry in the 1980’s, Ann Arbor, MI, 1981 P.Cummins and Shawn Micallef, Full Frontal T.O.: Exploring Toronto’s Architectural  Vernacular, Toronto, 2012.  C. Davis, The Vancouver Book, Vancouver, 1976.  ! 24!J. Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities New York, 1992. J. King, The Drive: A Retail, Social and Political History of Commercial Drive, Vancouver, to  1956, Vancouver, 2011. M. Kluckner, Vanishing Vancouver: The Last 25 Years, Vancouver, 2012.  J.M. Mayo, The American Grocery Store: The Business Evolution of an Architectural Space,  Westport, CT, 1993. S. Mitchell, Big Box Swindle: The True Cost of Mega-Retailers and the Fight for America’s  Independent Businesses, Boston, 2006. C. Nielsen, The People of Grandview-Woodland and Strathcona: A Community Profile,  Vancouver, 1984.  B.A. Petit, Zoning and the single-family landscape: Large new houses and neighbourhood  change in Vancouver, (PhD), The University of British Columbia, 1993. A. Seth and G. Randall (Eds), The Grocers: Rise and Rise of the Supermarket Chains 2nd  Ed., London, 2001. T. Tupechka and K. Martin, Our Own Backyard Walking Tours of Grandview-Woodland,   Vancouver, 1997, Rare Books and Special Collections UBC.  Appendix I:  Table 1: Grandview’s Corner Grocery Stores Store Address Year Store Name Owner/Operator Notes 706  Victoria Drive 1921- Not listed; but constructed Thomas Givens listed as living here  -1918 1922-1933 The Thomas Givens Grocery Thomas Givens   1933-1940 Norman Elliot Grocery Norman E. Elliot   1940-1944 Hamilton Grocery Arthur S. Hamilton  Lived at 3692 W 29 Ave; proprietor of Franklin Grocery 1719 Franklin  1945-1948 Maxwell Grocery Mrs. S.M. and A.M. Maxwell   1948-1950 grocery L.E. Barrie   1950-1953 Caravan Grocery William R. Caravan  His son, William R. Caravan Jr. worked as a clerk at the store  1953-1986 Scott's Grocery Mrs. May E. Scott May Scott grew up next door at 710 Victoria   1986-1995 Scott's Grocery Winnie Leung May E. Scott retires in 1986; lives above  1995-2014 Scott's Grocery Steve and Aster Ng            1902  Victoria Drive 1912-1922 grocery John Boscott; later run by his wife  -1908 1922-1926 grocery Arthur F. Soole and Charles Soole Arthur Soole would later co-own Soole and Young Grocery at 3630 W 16 Ave  1926-1948 Third Avenue Grocery Charles F. Rogers  Lived at 1904 E 3rd; from 1927-1955 Clark C. Shoe repair operated at 1902 1/2  1948-1953 Balmoral Fish and Chips J.L. and L. Scott Balmoral   1953-1966 McCready Brothers Grocery Charles Franklin McCready and James N. McCready Listed as 1908 Victoria Drive  1966-1969 Betty and Ken's Grocery Ken Zuch and Elizabeth A. Smith Ken was a painter; store operated by Elizabeth A. Smith; lived at 1904 E 3rd  1969-1989 A & B Grocery Mrs. Doris Fong Husband Earl worked as clerk at the store; lived at 1904 E 3rd  1989-1992 A & B Grocery Leo Yat Chan   1992- A & B Grocery Chi Koo and Cindy Chow            1302  Victoria Drive 1923-1945  John Blaine  Lived Above -1912 1945-1946  O. Branes   1946-1953  George Platt   1953-1954 Lynes Grocery William J. Lynes Married to Joyce Lynes; Mrs. Florence M. Lynes worked here as clerk  1954-1968 Home C. Brandt Worked as an electrician  1969-1971 Dimorn Confectionery A. Dimorn Lived above  1971-1977 Bruno's Grocery Pasquale Bruno Lived above  1977-1996 Bruno's Grocery Chung Tam Chung Tam and Sau Han Tam operated store  1996-1997 Chuck and Vicky's    1997- Point In Time Inc.              1107  McLean Drive 1910-1920  Mrs. Minnie Robitaille  In 1910 name listed as Robitaiulle; her name is first listed as Minnie in 1916 directory; Marion Robitaille lived here too (daughter) -1905 1921-1922  George W. Belford   1922-1924  Mrs. Annie MacBeth   1924-1926 Confectionery Elizabeth G. Johnston   1926-1935 Confectionery Mrs. Annie M. Bowyer   1935-1937 Confectionery H.C. Smay   1937-1941 Confectionery Robin Longmuir Widow  1941-1943 Confectionery Mrs. Agnes B. O'Brien Widow  1943-1946 Grocery L. Erickson   1946-1955 Grocery Helen M. Crabtree  Married to Horace Crabtree  1955-1961 Towle's Grocery Mary S. Towle Married to Robert S. Towle, an electrician  1961-1962 McLean Grocery Carl Gertz Married to Gertrude Mertz  1962-1966 McLean Grocery Tim Leong Married to Suk Fong; lived above  1966-1975 McLean Grocery Jim Hing. Chow Married to Wai Lun Chow  1975-1980 Store vacant Jim Hing. Chow            1007  Odlum Drive 1912-1915 Daniel and Joseph Mass Grocery Daniel and Joseph Mass  -1912 1915-1920 Grocery Pasqual Masi Owned cigar store as well at 700 Main  1920-1921 Vacant    1921-1922 Grocery Oscar Bisaillon Lived Above  1922-1936 Grocery and confectionery Mrs. Kate Manson Husband John Manson was a motorman for BCER  1936-1939  Mrs. A.M. Winter    1939-1943 Odlum Grocery Genji Yada  Married to Yoshiko Yada; went on to run Berkeley General Store at 2396 E 41st   beginning in 1951  1943-1947 Grocery James E. Hammond Married to Nellie Hammond  1947-1949 Grocery Norman J. Lowe Married to Lillian A. Lowe  1949-1952 Grocery George F. Cochrane Married to Salie  1952-1973 Odlum Grocery Lum S. Way   1973-1977 Odlum Grocery Lee Hong Way Son of Lum S. Way  1977-1993 Odlum Grocery Gun Fong Lee Lived Above  1993- Odlum Grocery Benson Ko            1190  Victoria Drive 1923-1926 Grocery Peter Pepjanovich  Lived at 442 Salsbury; His name is listed as Pepjanovich, Pepyanovich, Pepianovits, and Pappas -1922 1926-1946 Victoria Drive Grocery Peter Pepyanovich Married to Annie; Victoria Beauty Shop (1940-), Victoria Shoe Renew (1945-) also operated from this address  1946-1949 Victoria Drive Grocery George L. Pappas and John Pappas Sons of Peter Pepyanovich (Pappas); Annie listed as widow in 1946 (still lives there); In 1949 George becomes grocer at 3828 Turner; John becomes a manager of National Dairies 1132 East Hastings Street  1949-1955 Victoria Drive Mrs. VIctoria Chow Lived at 821 Keefer Street Grocery  1955-1957 Victoria Drive Grocery Chow Hall and Chow Foo   1957-1974 Victoria Drive Grocery Yod Ho and York Wai Ho   1974-1990 Victoria Drive Grocery Hung Woo Cheung Lived in rear           2075  Victoria Drive 1914-1916 Home Mrs. Edith Irwin lives here  -1915 1916-1918 Grocery Operated by Mrs. Janet Forse in 1916; by Alfred E. Martin in 1917  Built by Thomas L. Hughes and designed and owned by Edith 1919-1950 Irwin's Grocery and Confectionery  Mrs. Edith Irwin In 1918 she's listed as widow to William T. Irwin Irwin  1951-1953 Irwin's Grocery and Confectionery Managed by Thomas L. Hughes The same gentleman who built the store in 1915  1953-1956 Irwin's Grocery and Confectionery George H. Gilbert Married to Gladys A. Gilbert  1956-1970 Irwin's Grocery and Confectionery Walter and Della Wong Lived at same address           2095  Victoria Drive 1933-1934 Home Meat Market Edward Molley  Lived at 1816 E 13th; son John J. Molley helper/clerk at Home Meat Market  1934-1935 Home Meat Market Boris Nemets  Lived at 968 W 13th  1935-1945 Supreme Meat Market George S. Robertson   1945-1955 Supreme Meat Market Jesse A. Hyndman Lived at 2059 Graveley  1955-1958 Supreme Meat Louie Sun and Lui Quing  Market  1958-1959 Supreme Meat Market Chuck and Doreen Quan Lived at 6250 Lougheed Highway, Burnaby  1959-1962 Supreme Meat Market George G. and Vicky Lowe Lived at 1881 E 5th  1962-1964 Buck and Dell Grocery Eric and Delia Buckman Lived at 1881 E 5th  1964-1970 Supreme Meat Market Chuck and Doreen Quan Lived at 1881 E 5th           1142  Semlin Drive 1910-1911 Shop Hugh McDonald  -1910 1911-1923 Acadia Grocery Theodore H. Burpee Witter Lived at 747 Lakewood Drive; Married to Ann Witter (widow in 1926) Built by W. Acorn; Owned by Hugh 1923-1927 Acadia Grocery Thomas E. Collins  Lived Above McDonald  1927-1928 Acadia Grocery Frederick H. Knight Previously owned a confectionery on 2165 East Hastings  1928-1931 Acadia Grocery Frank Smith   1931-1937 Acadia Grocery  Elizabeth Smith  Widow  1937-1938 Grocery William D. Dobi   1938-1940 Grocery Mrs. Anne Vieau Daughter Frances worked at the store  1940-1941 Grocery George M. Melville  Married to Violet Melville  1941-1943 Lighthouse Grocery Mrs. Sharen Lawes Widow to P. Lawes  1943-1944 Lighthouse Grocery Mrs. Mary Kerr   1944-1945 Lighthouse Grocery Mrs. Ethel E. Dunn   1945-1946 Lighthouse Grocery Miss M. T. Greensword   1946-1947 Lighthouse Mrs. Hilda Curtis  Grocery  1947-1948 Lighthouse Grocery Mrs. Daisy Dyer   1948-1949 Joan's Grocery W. Lloyd and Mrs. Joanna McEwen   1949-1956 Joan's Grocery Alex W. Mah   1956-1961 Beaucamp Grocery Mrs. Cora Beaucamp Married to J.E. Beaucamp  1961-1962 Semlin Drive Grocery Elmer Melsted   1962-1963 Semlin Drive Grocery George L. Watts Married to Maybelle Watts  1963-1968 Semlin Drive Grocery George L. Munro   1968-1970 Semlin Drive Grocery N.F. Jee   1970-1973 Semlin Drive Miss Karen. Stromsmoe Lived Above Grocery  1973-1974 Semlin Drive Grocery E. Lew   1974-1986 Semlin Grocery Mrs. Marney Raynier   1990-1992 Semlin Grocery No proprietor listed            1896  Victoria Drive 1949-1951 Listed as new house   -1948 1951-1953 House Albert F. Gill   1953-1956 House Erick P. Sczesny   1956-1961 Friendly Grocery Erick P. Sczesny Married to Miyoko Sczesny  1961-1962 Friendly Grocery Ernest Peters Wife named Lori; Store listed at 1894  1962-1966 Mira Monte Grocery & Delicatessen Silvio and Elizabeth Lucchin Elizabeth Lucchin ran the store; Silvio worked for Parks Canada  1966-1985 Friendly Grocery & Delicatessen Erick P. Sczesny and Miyoko Sczesny   1985-1992 Friendly Grocery Frank Dias Lived above; by 1992, the Grocery Store closed  1996-1999 Figaro's Garden    1999- Art Knapp Plantland    Present Figaro's Garden             1602  Victoria Drive 1911-1914  First resident was Ernest Ebbage; moved to North Van  -1912 1915-1919 Royal Grocery Mrs. Millie A. McComber  Lived same; Married to John A. McComber, a wireman for Vancouver Power Company and later B.C.E.R  1919-1923  Julius G. Gordon  Lived same  1923-1927 Bell's Grocery and Meat Market William C. Bell  Lived same; William Bell grocer at 2510 Commercial Drive in 1928; National Grocery; then became manager at Stop and Shop Meat Market at 1608 Commercial Drive (owned by Mrs. Hazel Little; Bell and Little both lived at 1602 Victoria Drive)  1927- McMullin's Grocery    1934-1938 Dad's Grocery Albert W. Stauffer Lived at 1928 Graveley  1938-1939 Crown Grocery Jack Elstyne  Lived same; married to Fannie Elstyne  1939-1948 Crown Grocery Max Levinson Married to Bella Levinson  1948-1952 Crown Grocery Jack.H. Campbell Married to Margaret Campbell           1191  Victoria Drive (1155  Victoria Drive) 1926-1928 Miller's Grocery; Miller's Confectionery G.H. Miller  -1926 1929-1931 Sunrise Dairy George Ramsell  Lived above  1931-1933 Grocery Mrs. O. Miller   1933-1934 Confectionery John Adams   1934-1936 Confectionery John A. Rodgers   1936-1937 Grocery Leroy A. Carlson Married to Leona Carlson  1937-1938 Confectionery    1938- 1939 Confectionery George R. McCabe Married to Florence E. McCabe  1939-1940 Royal Grocery Charles P. Honeybourne  Lived same; Robert A. and Lyle C. Honeybourne listed as his children  1940-1955 Four Star Cleaners Alfred Barnes Married to Louise Barnes  1955-1956 Four Star Cleaners Sam Corbin   1956-1958 Four Star Cleaners L.F. Gurney   1958-1962 Star Brite Cleaners R. Steir  1185 Victoria Drive 1962-1982 Velvetone Cleaners F. Farrell   1982-1993 Ray's Repairs and Installations   1191 Victoria Drive 1995- K & K Grocery Andy Nguyen            1904 Grant Street (now 1502 Victoria Drive) 1912-1916 Nothing Carmen Ciccone the first occupant of the building  Foreman for City water works -1912 1916-1918 Grocery Frederick J. Cody   1918- Vacant    1919-1920 Cleaners Percy E. Snook  Lived at 5673 McKinnon  1920-1921 Cleaners Mrs. R. T. Bassett  Lived at 1976 Grant Street  1921-1922 Confectionery M. Jopko  Lived same  1922-1923 Confectionery Mrs. M.A. McDonald   1923-1924 Grocery Allen Arsenault  Lived same  1925-1926 Grocery John W. Head   1926-1927 Confectionery Samuel Soames   1927-1931 McFarlane's William McFarlane  Grocery  1931-1932 Grocery Syndey H. Godden  Lived at 1928 Grant Street  1932-1938 Grocery William E. Godden and Amelia Godden  Married to June Godden; Pearl Godden listed as child  1938-1939 Grocery Charles M. Colby Married to Catherine Colby  1939-1940 Grocery Ian B. Allan Married to Edna Allan  1940-1941 Confectionery James M. Hope Married to Isabelle G. Hope  1941-1942 Confectionery Christine Damon  Widow to J. Damon; Lived same  1942-1944 Grocery and confectionery Mrs. Elizabeth Maughan   1944-1946 Confectionery Norman MacDonald Married to Florence MacDonald  1946-1948 Confectionery R. Hayter Lived same  1948-1951 Confectionery John Hardy Married to Violet Hardy  1951-1953 Confectionery Operated by Q. Hoy Chong Owned by John J. Hardy  1953-1989 Hardy's Grocery Store Operated by Lin Ng Chuck Married to Kwan Chuck; Owned by John J. Hardy  1989- Hardy's Grocery Store Jamie Maynes   2001- Bettykins Coffee Shop             601 Victoria Drive 1909-1910 Seabrook Bro's Grocery Herbert and Robert H. Seabrook Lived at 470 E Hastings  1910-1911 People's Grocery and Bakery Co. Ltd. Robert Marsh Marsh managed both People's Grocery locations (395 Powell and 601 Victoria)  1911-1913 Lambie and Potter Hugh Lambie and Albert E. Potter  Lived at 1443 E 11 Ave; 2036 Turner  1913-1914 Gilt Edge Grocery Operated by Albert E. Potter Lived at 1963 Turner  1914-1919 Meston and Co. Grocers Alex Meston  Lived at 1137 Semlin Drive; John Meston: clerk at Vancouver Hotel William M. Meston: reporter at Bradstreet Company Joseph Meston: clerk at Kelly and Douglas In 1919 Meston and Co move to 1195 Burrard  1920-1921 Grocery John R. Snelgrove  Lived at 1365 W 10th;  Joseph Snelgrove: clerk at the store Mabel Snelgrove: Musician  1921-1922 Grocery Henry W. Ireland Lived at 1119 Thurlow  1922-1923 Povey Meat Market    1923-1924 Delicatessen Mrs. Sarah Arnold  Lived at 1956 Venables  1924-1925 Arnold and Egerton Grocery Sarah Arnold and Lillian Egerton Lived at 1956 Venables; 822 Semlin  1925-1926 Confectionery Almaer Sigvarsden Baker at 1549 E Hastings and 601 Victoria Drive  1926-1927 Quon Bros Produce    1927-1928 Nanaimo Market (produce) F. Way   1928-1934 Victoria Produce Co. operated by G. Woy (until 1929); Fong Yow (until 1930); Yee Lun (until 1934)   1934-1945 Lee Loy Produce Company Lee Loy   1945-1947 Square Deal Grocery Charles Taggart  Lived same; Married to Kay E. Taggart  1947-1955 Square Deal Grocery Stephen H. Pesto  Lived same; Married to Dorothy Pesto (would go on to work for Sweet Sixteen Ladies Wear 2315 Main St)  1957-1958 Galloway Upholstery George Galloway   1958-1959 General Shoe Renew James Pon   1961-1966 Pacific Paper Products   603 Victoria Drive 1967-1970 Rainbow Grocery Y.T. Mah Business now listed at 603 instead of 601  1970-1977 Italian Grocery F. Dilanno and M. Mastromonaco   1977-1981 Italian Grocery Charles T. Kam Married to Shirley Kam  1981-1986 Steve's Grocery Steve Chow  601 Victoria Drive 1986- James Grocery James Ngan Married to Wendy Ngan Business now listed at 601            1328  Lakewood Drive 1911-1912  W.G Dowling  -1911 1912-1915 Lakewood Grocery Presley James  Lived same Built and designed by J.E. Pederson 1915-1917 Lakewood Grocery George Moir Lived same and owned by W.G. Dowling  1917-1918 Lakewood Grocery Charles Hocking  Lived at 339 E 27th, North Van  1918-1921 Lakewood Grocery Thomas G. Bertram  Lived same  1921-1924 Lakewood Grocery Albert E. Rose   1924-1928 Lakewood Grocery Charles W. Williams   1928-1929 Lakewood Grocery Susie Decker  Lived same; Widow  1929-1930 Lakewood Grocery Managed by William E. Jones   1931-1932 Lakewood Grocery Luigi Fuoco Lived same  1932-1933 Lakewood Mrs. Elizabeth Campbell Lived same Grocery  1933-1934 Lakewood Grocery Mrs. Phyllis McLean  Lived at 375 E 14  1950-1953 Lakewood Grocery Albert E. Thomas Married to Margaret H.  1953-1955 Lakewood Grocery Lo T. Kim  Lived same; Lee H. Kim works as clerk  1959-1960 Lakewood Grocery Hong Lee   1960-1972 Lakewood Grocery G. Choo   1972-1974 Lakewood Grocery John Eng Married to Foo Yong Eng  1974-1976 Lakewood Grocery Leo Zachariadis   1979-1980 Lakewood Grocery Zoi Zachariadis            2076 1/2 Venables 1920-1921 Grocery Vincent Leo   1921-1922 Grocery Joe Pennaway   1922-1933 Confectionery Martha M. Harris   1934-1939 Confectionery Mary E. Davidson  Widow  1939-1966 Confectionery Operated by Carl. W. Peterson Building owned by Anthony Penneway  1966-1969 Low Lum Chuck Grocery Chuck Low Lum Married to Shui May Lum; Chuck is also listed as a cook at Ding Ho Drive-in at 828 E Pender  1969-1983 Chuck's Grocery Chuck Low Lum   1983-1986 Chuck's Grocery Sam Cheung   1987-1995 Venables Groceries Choi Boy Lam   1995- Venables Groceries Hung Nguyen            Appendix II:  Table 2: Estimated Retail Trade in British Columbia1 Year Total Retail Trade  ($ Millions) Chain (%) Independent (%) 1953 198,000 32 68 1954 202,000 35 65 1955 220,000 39 61 1956 236,000 41 59 1957 265,000 43 57 1958 289,000 46 54 1959 302,000 50 50 1960 309,000 53 47 1961 317,000 54 46 1962 333,000 55 45 1963 340,000 56 44   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1 Hugh M. Begg, “Factors in the location of the wholesale grocery industry in metropolitan Vancouver.” (Masters), University of British Columbia, 1968. 


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