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The everyday experiences of a north coast Japanese-Canadian fisherman, at home and in the workplace Staeck, Justin 2013

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Full Text

	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  The	
  Everyday	
  Experiences	
  of	
  a	
  north	
  coast	
  Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Fisherman,	
  at	
  Home	
  and	
  in	
  the	
  Workplace	
  	
  	
   By:	
  Justin	
  Staeck	
  	
  	
  	
  Report	
  prepared	
  at	
  the	
  request	
  of	
  The	
  North	
  Pacific	
  Cannery	
  National	
  Historic	
  Site,	
  in	
  partial	
  fulfillment	
  of	
  UBC	
  Geography	
  429:	
  Research	
  in	
  Historical	
  Geography,	
  for	
  Dr.	
  David	
  Brownstein	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
   	
   1	
   ABSTRACT	
  	
   For	
  many	
  years	
  before	
  World	
  War	
  II,	
  the	
  Japanese	
  workmen	
  at	
  North	
  Pacific	
  Cannery	
   in	
   Port	
   Edward,	
   BC,	
   were	
   subject	
   to	
   what	
   was	
   believed	
   to	
   be	
   racial	
  discrimination	
  based	
  on	
  unfair	
  economic	
  competitiveness.	
  By	
  focusing	
  on	
  different	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
  lives	
  of	
  Japanese	
  workmen	
  at	
  NPC,	
  this	
  historical	
  narrative	
  aims	
  to	
  fill	
  some	
   of	
   the	
   gaps	
   still	
   existent	
   in	
   Japanese-­‐Canadian	
   history.	
   The	
   essential	
  experience	
   and	
   direction	
   that	
   was	
   transferred	
   from	
   Japanese	
   fishermen	
   to	
   the	
  fishing	
  industry	
  was	
  unmatched	
  yet	
  with	
  it	
  came	
  little	
  respect	
  and	
  acknowledgment	
  rooted	
   in	
   social,	
   political,	
   and	
   economic	
   reasons.	
   Some	
   scholars	
   have	
   emphasized	
  the	
   roots	
   of	
   Canadian	
   discrimination	
   against	
   the	
   Japanese	
   were	
   sewn	
   out	
   of	
   the	
  Japanese’s’	
  own	
  economic	
  competitiveness	
  in	
  a	
  place	
  that	
  was	
  then	
  referred	
  to	
  as	
  a	
  ‘white	
  man’s	
  province’.	
  This	
  argument	
  is	
  misleading	
  and,	
  after	
  undertaking	
  archival	
  and	
  oral	
  history	
  research,	
  it	
  has	
  since	
  shown	
  that	
  what	
  first	
  began	
  as	
  anger	
  towards	
  Japanese	
   immigrants	
   born	
   of	
   economic	
   aggression	
   very	
   quickly	
   shifted	
   towards	
  hostility	
  entirely	
  based	
  on	
  racial	
  prejudice.	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   2	
   INTRODUCTION	
  While	
  other	
  canneries	
  that	
  used	
  to	
  thrive	
  along	
  North	
  America’s	
  west	
  coast	
  had	
  much	
   shorter,	
   unstable	
   pasts,	
   the	
  North	
  Pacific	
   Cannery’s	
   history	
  was	
   unique	
  because	
   of	
   the	
   plant’s	
   prolonged	
   usage	
   and	
   the	
   integration	
   of	
   foreign	
   immigrants	
  amongst	
   its	
   workforce.	
   But	
   ever	
   since	
   the	
   NPC	
   ceased	
   commercial	
   operations	
   in	
  1981,	
   part	
   of	
   its	
   legacy	
   has	
   remained	
   inadequately	
   preserved.	
   A	
   lot	
   of	
   today’s	
  literature	
  is	
  devoted	
  to	
  describing	
  the	
  cannery’s’	
  historic	
  white	
  workforces,	
  but	
  few	
  have	
   recounted	
   the	
   Japanese	
   workmen	
   that	
   made	
   the	
   plant	
   such	
   a	
   success,	
  particularly	
   in	
   the	
   early	
   20th	
   century.	
   In	
   truth	
   the	
   fishing	
   industry	
   in	
   British	
  Columbia	
   owes	
   much	
   to	
   the	
   diligence	
   and	
   expertise	
   that	
   the	
   Japanese	
   provided	
  during	
   those	
   years	
   of	
   prominence.	
   They	
   contributed	
  much	
   of	
   the	
   experience	
   they	
  had	
  developed	
  throughout	
  generations	
  of	
  fishing	
  off	
  the	
  coast	
  of	
  their	
  native	
  Japan,	
  and	
   in	
   spite	
   of	
   discrimination	
   and	
   hardship,	
   they	
   did	
   so	
   for	
   their	
   own	
   economic	
  wellbeing.1	
  In	
   the	
   years	
   leading	
   up	
   to	
   World	
   War	
   II,	
   racism	
   and	
   alienation	
   were	
  strife	
  and	
   the	
   challenges	
   for	
   the	
   Japanese	
  were	
   immense.	
  By	
   focusing	
  on	
  different	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
  lives	
  of	
  Japanese	
  workmen	
  at	
  the	
  NPC,	
  this	
  historical	
  narrative	
  aims	
  to	
  fill	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  gaps	
  still	
  existent	
  in	
  Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  history.	
  Some	
  scholars	
  have	
  emphasized	
   the	
   roots	
   of	
   Canadian	
  discrimination	
   against	
   the	
   Japanese	
  were	
   sewn	
  out	
   of	
   the	
   Japanese’s’	
   own	
   economic	
   competitiveness	
   in	
   a	
   place	
   that	
   was	
   then	
  referred	
  to	
  as	
  ‘white	
  man’s	
  province’.	
  This	
  argument	
  is	
  misleading	
  and	
  research	
  has	
  since	
   shown	
   that	
  what	
   first	
   began	
   as	
   anger	
   towards	
   Japanese	
   immigrants	
   born	
  of	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  1	
  Ujimoto, K. Victor. "Contrasts in the prewar and postwar Japanese community in British Columbia: conflict and change." Canadian Review of Sociology. 13.1 (2008): 80- 89. Web. 2 Apr. 2013. 	
   3	
   economic	
  aggression	
  very	
  quickly	
  shifted	
  towards	
  hostility	
  entirely	
  based	
  on	
  racial	
  prejudice.2	
  WHO	
  WERE	
  THE	
  WORKERS	
  OF	
  JAPANESE	
  DESCENT	
  AT	
  NORTH	
  PACIFIC	
  CANNERY?	
  	
   Following	
   the	
   opening	
   up	
   of	
   Japan	
   by	
   American	
   forces	
   in	
   1854,	
   the	
  emigration	
   of	
   Japanese	
   to	
   Canada	
   began.	
   The	
   year	
   1877	
   witnessed	
   a	
   landmark	
  moment,	
  as	
  it	
  is	
  known	
  to	
  be	
  the	
  year	
  the	
  first	
  Japanese	
  immigrant,	
  Manzo	
  Nagano,	
  landed	
   in	
   British	
   Columbia.3	
  By	
   the	
   year	
   1890,	
   increased	
   numbers	
   of	
   Japanese	
  pushed	
   on	
   past	
   Hawaii	
   and	
   the	
   American	
   states	
   to	
   settle	
   in	
   the	
   salmon	
   fishing	
  industry	
  of	
   the	
  Fraser	
  River.4	
  From	
   this	
  point	
  on,	
   and	
  especially	
  at	
   the	
   turn	
  of	
   the	
  century,	
   British	
   Columbia	
   entered	
   into	
   a	
   period	
   of	
   rapid	
   expansion	
   and	
  development.	
   The	
   excessive	
   inflow	
   of	
   capital	
   from	
   Great	
   Britain	
   allowed	
   the	
  province	
   to	
   expand	
   its	
   rail	
   lines	
   through	
   mountains,	
   paving	
   the	
   way	
   for	
   the	
  exploitation	
  of	
  rich	
  resources	
  along	
  British	
  Columbia’s	
  coast,	
  such	
  as	
  salmon	
  fishing,	
  coal	
  mining,	
   lumber,	
  and	
  farming.	
  The	
  demand	
  for	
  manual	
   labor	
  that	
  accompanied	
  such	
  rapid	
  expansion	
  called	
  for	
  more	
  hands	
  than	
  the	
  Atlantic	
  seaboard	
  alone	
  could	
  supply.5	
  Thus,	
   the	
   Orient,	
   whose	
   immigrants	
   were	
   in	
   search	
   of	
   greener	
   pastures	
  away	
  from	
  home,	
  began	
  to	
  stake	
  a	
  claim	
  in	
  the	
  labor	
  market.	
  	
  	
   Between	
   the	
   years	
   1896	
   and	
   1908,	
   approximately	
   26,000	
   workers	
  immigrated	
  to	
  British	
  Columbia	
  from	
  the	
  Orient,	
   lured	
  to	
  the	
  province	
  through	
  the	
  promise	
  of	
  higher	
  wages	
  and	
  word	
  of	
  mouth	
  claiming	
  substantial	
   improvement	
   in	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  2	
  Roy,	
  Patricia	
  E.	
  A	
  White	
  Man’s	
  Province:	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Politicians	
  and	
  Chinese	
   and	
  Japanese	
  Immigrants,	
  1858-­‐1914.	
  Vancouver:	
  UBC	
  Press,	
  1989.	
  7.	
  Print.	
  3	
  Sunahara,	
  Ann.	
  “Japanese	
  Canadians”	
  The	
  Canadian	
  Encyclopedia.	
  Historica	
  Foundation,	
  2011.	
  http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com.	
  30th	
  Mar.	
  2013. 4	
  Campbell,	
  Mack.	
  Cannery	
  Village,	
  Company	
  Town.	
  Trafford,	
  2004.	
  Print.	
  5	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  5-­‐7]	
   	
   4	
   general	
  wealth.	
  Of	
   these	
  26,000	
  workers,	
  a	
   few	
  thousand	
  Japanese	
  came	
  to	
  British	
  Columbia	
  through	
  arrangements	
  made	
  by	
  Japanese	
  emigration	
  companies	
  that	
  were	
  working	
   under	
   contract	
   with	
   Canadian	
   development	
   concerns,	
   most	
   notably	
   the	
  Wellington	
   Colliery	
   Company	
   and	
   the	
   Canadian	
   Pacific	
   Railway.	
   It	
   must	
   be	
   said,	
  however,	
  that	
  a	
  large	
  portion	
  of	
  the	
  immigrants	
  that	
  landed	
  in	
  BC	
  swiftly	
  made	
  their	
  way	
  to	
  the	
  United	
  States	
  or	
  returned	
  home,	
  in	
  the	
  case	
  of	
  seasonal	
  workers.	
  In	
  other	
  cases,	
  the	
  fruits	
  of	
  many	
  Japanese	
  workers’	
  manpower	
  were	
  to	
  be	
  short-­‐lived.6	
  	
  	
   Hostility	
  beckoned	
   for	
   the	
  many	
   Japanese	
   immigrants	
   that	
   remained	
   in	
  BC.	
  Caucasian	
  workers	
  began	
  accusing	
  the	
  Japanese	
  of	
  unfair	
  competition,	
  stating	
  their	
  lower	
   wages,	
   poorer	
   living	
   conditions,	
   and	
   their	
   inability	
   to	
   assimilate	
   as	
   the	
  reasons	
   behind	
   their	
   agitation. 7 	
  Racism	
   and	
   discrimination	
   against	
   Japanese	
  workers	
  began	
  to	
  escalate	
  and,	
  as	
  a	
  result,	
  this	
  also	
  led	
  to	
  a	
  few	
  thousand	
  Japanese	
  immigrants	
   fleeing	
  BC	
   to	
   find	
  work	
   in	
   the	
  United	
   States	
   or	
   return	
  home	
   to	
   Japan.	
  With	
   the	
  disenfranchisement	
  of	
   naturalized	
   Japanese	
   in	
  British	
  Columbia	
   in	
  1895,	
  they	
  were	
  barred	
  from	
  voting	
  in	
  federal	
  elections,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  excluded	
  from	
  elections	
  to	
   join	
   the	
  British	
   Columbia	
   legislature,	
  municipal	
   offices,	
   school	
   boards,	
   and	
   jury	
  service.	
  	
  By	
  1907,	
  the	
  Asiatic	
  Exclusion	
  League	
  formed	
  with	
  the	
  hope	
  of	
  driving	
  the	
  Japanese,	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   the	
   Chinese	
   and	
   Indian	
   Sikhs,	
   out	
   of	
   BC.8	
  Subsequently,	
   the	
  Gentlemen’s	
   Agreement	
   came	
   into	
   effect	
   in	
   1908,	
   whereby	
   Japan	
   agreed	
   to	
   only	
  allow	
  the	
  emigration	
  of	
  the	
  following	
  four	
  classes	
  into	
  BC:	
  (1)	
  returning	
  immigrants	
  and	
  their	
  wives	
  and	
  children;	
  (2)	
  emigrants	
  specially	
  engaged	
  by	
  Japanese	
  residents	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  6	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  5-­‐7]	
  7	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.,	
  61-­‐3]	
  8	
  See	
  Figure	
  1	
  in	
  Appendix	
  A,	
  exhibiting	
  a	
  meeting	
  held	
  in	
  Mississauga,	
  ON.	
  	
  	
   	
   5	
   in	
  Canada	
  for	
  bona	
  fide	
  personal	
  or	
  domestic	
  service;	
  (3)	
  laborers	
  under	
  specially-­‐worded	
   contracts	
   approved	
   by	
   the	
   Canadian	
   government;	
   and	
   (4)	
   immigrants	
  brought	
  in	
  under	
  contract	
  by	
  Japanese	
  resident	
  agricultural	
  holders	
  in	
  Canada.9	
  By	
  	
  1924,	
  the	
  agreement	
  was	
  modified	
  to	
  the	
  point	
  where	
  a	
  maximum	
  of	
  150	
  Japanese	
  immigrants	
  could	
  enter	
  each	
  year.	
  The	
  demographics	
  of	
  Japanese	
  men	
  and	
  women	
  in	
   Canada	
   showed	
   significant	
   change,	
   as	
   reflected	
   in	
   census	
   data.	
   The	
   Issei	
   (first	
  generation	
  Japanese	
  in	
  Canada),	
  in	
  1901,	
  included	
  4,700	
  Japanese,	
  all	
  of	
  whom	
  were	
  male.	
  By	
  1921,	
  the	
  Japanese	
  demographic	
  was	
  composed	
  of	
  10,500	
  males	
  and	
  5,300	
  females,	
  of	
  which	
  4,300	
  children	
  were	
  born	
  in	
  Canada.	
  By	
  1931,	
  there	
  were	
  13,000	
  males	
  and	
  9,200	
  females,	
  including	
  Canadian-­‐born	
  children.10	
  	
  	
   The	
   occupational	
   distribution	
   of	
   Japanese	
   experienced	
   much	
   change	
  throughout	
   the	
   pre-­‐war	
   years.11	
  Young,	
   Reid,	
   and	
   Carrothers	
   provide	
   an	
   honest	
  summery	
  of	
  the	
  shifts.	
  “In	
  four	
  decades	
  the	
  Japanese	
  immigrants	
  extended	
  the	
  range	
  of	
  their	
  economic	
  activities	
  from	
  six	
  occupations	
  in	
  1893	
  to	
  over	
  sixty	
  by	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  the	
   period.	
  During	
   the	
   early	
   years	
   they	
  were	
   concentrated	
   in	
   industries	
   involving	
  heavy	
   labor	
   and	
   a	
   moderate	
   amount	
   of	
   skill,	
   such	
   as	
   lumbering,	
   fishing,	
   mining,	
  railroading…The	
   shift	
   from	
   the	
   major	
   industries	
   to	
   the	
   commercial	
   occupations	
  occurred	
  particularly	
  in	
  the	
  twenties	
  when	
  expansion	
  in	
  fishing,	
  lumbering,	
  mining	
  and	
  railroading	
  came	
  to	
  an	
  end	
  and	
  a	
  decline	
  set	
  in,	
  partly	
  because	
  of	
  the	
  agitation	
  and	
   discrimination	
   against	
   the	
   Japanese	
   in	
   these	
   industries,	
   but	
   also	
   because	
   the	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  9	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  5-­‐9]	
  10	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  8-­‐2]	
  11	
  Gladstone,	
  Percy,	
  and	
  Stuart	
  Jamieson.	
  "Unionism	
  in	
  the	
  fishing	
  industry	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia."	
  Canadian	
  Journal	
  of	
  Economics	
  and	
  Political	
  Science.	
  16.2	
  (1950):	
  	
   146-­‐171.	
  Print.	
   	
   6	
   Japanese	
  like	
  other	
  people	
  were	
  seeking	
  better	
  conditions	
  and	
  a	
  higher	
  social	
  status	
  in	
  the	
  community.”12	
  As	
   the	
   focus	
   of	
   this	
   research	
   is	
   strongly	
   oriented	
   towards	
   the	
   Japanese	
  workmen	
  of	
  the	
  North	
  Pacific	
  Cannery,	
  it	
  is	
  important	
  to	
  trace	
  the	
  exact	
  origins	
  that	
  the	
   workmen	
   came	
   from.	
   Rintaro	
   Hayashi,	
   a	
   Japanese	
   fisherman	
   born	
   in	
   1901,	
  moved	
  to	
  Canada	
  at	
  the	
  age	
  of	
  twelve	
  to	
  join	
  his	
  father.	
  Although	
  Rintaro	
  lived	
  and	
  worked	
   with	
   2000	
   other	
   Japanese	
   fishermen	
   in	
   Steveston	
   at	
   the	
   time,	
   his	
   story	
  provides	
   a	
   very	
   traceable	
   route	
   to	
   his	
   origins	
   that	
   is	
   relevant	
   to	
  workmen	
   of	
   the	
  North	
  Pacific	
  Cannery.13	
  Rintaro	
  moved	
  to	
  Canada	
  from	
  Mio-­‐Mura,	
  Wakayama-­‐Ken,	
  Japan.	
  At	
   the	
   time,	
  Mio-­‐Mura	
  was	
  referred	
  to	
  as	
   the	
  “American	
  Village”	
  (or,	
   in	
   this	
  case,	
  Canadian	
  Village)	
  because	
  every	
  family	
  that	
  lived	
  in	
  the	
  village	
  had	
  relatives	
  in	
  Canada.	
   The	
   greater	
   region	
   that	
   this	
   village	
   falls	
   under	
   is	
   known	
   as	
   the	
   Kansai	
  region.	
   Additionally,	
   a	
   number	
   of	
   diaries	
   kept	
   by	
   the	
   workmen	
   at	
   North	
   Pacific	
  Cannery	
  have	
  been	
  preserved	
  to	
  this	
  day.	
  Most	
  of	
  these	
  men	
  did	
  not	
  speak	
  English	
  as	
  they	
  were	
  first	
  generation	
  Japanese	
  and	
  therefore	
  wrote	
  in	
  a	
  traditional	
  form	
  of	
  Kansai	
  dialect	
   that	
   is	
  not	
   commonly	
   spoken	
   today.	
  Masako	
  Fukawa’s	
  book	
   “Nikkei	
   Fishermen	
   on	
   the	
   BC	
   Coast:	
   Their	
   Biographies	
   and	
   Photographs”	
   further	
   provides	
  evidence	
   that	
   the	
  roots	
  of	
  a	
   large	
  portion	
  of	
   fishermen	
  emigrated	
   from	
  the	
  Kansai	
  region,	
  most	
  commonly	
  Wakayama.14	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  12	
  Young, Charles H., W.A. Carrothers, and Helen R.Y. Reid. The Japanese Canadians. New York: Arno Press and University of Toronto Press, 1938. 295. Print; See	
  Table	
  1	
  in	
  Appendix	
  A.	
  13	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  3-­‐6]	
  14	
  Fukawa,	
  Masako.	
  Nikkei	
  Fishermen	
  on	
  the	
  BC	
  Coast.	
  Harbour,	
  2007.	
  208.	
  Print;	
  See	
  Figure	
  2	
  in	
  Appendix	
  A.	
   	
   7	
   CANNERY	
  LIFE	
  The	
  Japanese	
  in	
  Canada	
  have	
  had	
  a	
  long-­‐standing	
  association	
  with	
  the	
  fishing	
  industry	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia	
  (see	
  Table	
  1).	
  Fishing	
  was	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  easily	
  transferable	
  skills	
   for	
  many	
  of	
   the	
   Japanese	
  workmen	
  because	
   it	
   required	
   little	
   training	
   (if	
  you	
  were	
  not	
  already	
  adept	
  at	
  fishing)	
  and	
  was	
  a	
  job	
  that	
  was	
  ably	
  done	
  without	
  many	
  language	
  barriers.	
  In	
  fact,	
  if	
  it	
  were	
  not	
  for	
  the	
  presence	
  of	
  Japanese	
  fishermen,	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  the	
  industry	
  would	
  have	
  never	
  become	
  one	
  of	
  basic	
  importance	
  to	
  the	
  British	
  Columbia	
  economy.15	
  “It	
  appears	
  a	
  historical	
  fact	
  that	
  the	
  development	
  of	
  the	
   industry	
  would	
  have	
  been	
  retarded	
   if	
   it	
  were	
  not	
   for	
   the	
   Japanese	
   immigrants	
  who	
  brought	
  certain	
  valuable	
  experience	
  from	
  their	
  homeland.”16	
  At	
  a	
  later	
  stage	
  in	
  the	
   industry,	
   dependence	
   on	
   immigrant	
   manual	
   labor	
   started	
   to	
   decline.	
  Competition	
   grew	
   more	
   intense	
   with	
   late	
   arrivals	
   of	
   Canadian	
   laborers,	
   which	
  resulted	
  in	
  strong	
  restrictions	
  on	
  the	
  activities	
  of	
  Japanese	
  fishermen.	
  For	
  example,	
  Japanese	
   fishermen	
   were	
   the	
   only	
   group	
   of	
   fishermen	
   that	
   were	
   not	
   allowed	
   to	
  move	
   from	
  one	
   fishing	
  district	
   to	
   another.17	
  This	
   led	
   to	
   the	
  necessity	
   for	
   Japanese	
  fishermen	
   to	
   improve	
   their	
   techniques	
   to	
   the	
  highest	
   level	
  possible,	
  which	
   in	
   turn	
  involved	
  high	
  investment	
  for	
  the	
  best	
  boats	
  and	
  gear.18	
  	
  From	
  the	
  beginning	
  of	
  the	
  fishing	
  industry	
  at	
  the	
  Northern	
  canneries,	
  Skeena	
  River	
   gillnetters	
   used	
   flat-­‐bottomed	
   river	
   sailboats.	
   Prior	
   to	
   the	
   turn	
   of	
   the	
   20th	
  century,	
  the	
  boats	
  that	
  were	
  being	
  used	
  then	
  switched	
  to	
  the	
  more	
  stable	
  Columbia	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  15	
  Newell,	
  Dianne.	
  Personal	
  Interview.	
  28	
  Mar	
  2013.	
  16	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  5-­‐7]	
  17	
  Fukawa,	
  Masako.	
  Spirit	
  of	
  the	
  Nikkei	
  fleet:	
  BC's	
  Japanese	
  Canadian	
  fishermen.	
  Madeira	
  Park:	
  Harbour	
  Pub.	
  2009.	
  Print.	
  18	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  5-­‐8]	
   	
   8	
   River	
   Double-­‐enders.19	
  The	
   Columbia	
   River-­‐double	
   Enders	
   would	
   require	
   Steam	
  tugs	
   to	
   tow	
   the	
   line	
   of	
   the	
   small	
   sailboats	
   to	
   the	
   river	
  mouth.	
   It	
   wasn’t	
   until	
   the	
  1930s	
  when	
  gas-­‐fishing	
  boats	
  became	
  common	
  on	
  the	
  Skeena	
  River.	
  Bill	
  Ross,	
  manager	
  of	
  North	
  Pacific	
  Cannery	
  in	
  1936,	
  claimed,	
  “In	
  the	
  thirties,	
  the	
   fishermen	
  were	
  mostly	
  native,	
  a	
   few	
  Japanese,	
  but	
  mostly	
  native	
  and	
  very	
   few	
  white	
   people.”20	
  When	
   it	
   came	
   to	
   the	
   wages	
   of	
   workers	
   at	
   North	
   Pacific,	
   there	
  existed	
  clear	
  differences	
  in	
  the	
  amount	
  a	
  workman	
  earned	
  based	
  on	
  his	
  ethnicity.	
  In	
  addition,	
   the	
   jobs	
   that	
  were	
   available	
   to	
   you	
   also	
   varied	
   based	
   on	
   your	
   ethnicity.	
  “The	
  other	
  day	
  65	
  Chinks	
  came	
  to	
  work	
  in	
  one	
  cannery.	
  There	
  are	
  10	
  canneries	
  on	
  the	
  Skeena	
  [that	
  are]	
  going	
  to	
  operate.	
  They	
  employ	
  over	
  fifty	
  Chinks	
  each	
  and	
  they	
  get	
  paid	
  $2.50	
  a	
  day.	
  The	
  other	
  day	
  300	
  Japs	
  got	
  licenses	
  to	
  go	
  fishing	
  and	
  before	
  the	
  season	
  is	
  over,	
  another	
  hundred	
  or	
  two	
  will	
  go	
  fishing,	
  license	
  or	
  no	
  license.	
  All	
  the	
  fish	
   packers	
   around	
   the	
   canneries	
   are	
   Japs.	
   So	
   if	
   half	
   of	
   that	
   number	
  were	
  white	
  men,	
   it	
   would	
   take	
   500	
   unemployed”	
   (anonymous	
   retired	
   fisherman,	
   1932).21	
  Furthermore,	
  the	
  retired	
  fisherman	
  alludes	
  to	
  the	
  Japanese	
  invasion	
  of	
  Manchuria	
  in	
  September	
  1931.	
   “The	
   Japs	
  and	
  Chinks	
  are	
   fighting	
  over	
  Manchuria,	
  but	
   they	
   took	
  the	
  Skeena	
  and	
  Fraser	
  Rivers	
  without	
  firing	
  a	
  shot.	
  Peaceful	
  penetration	
  you	
  call	
  it,	
  but	
  we	
  got	
  another	
  name	
  for	
   it”	
  (anonymous	
  retired	
  fisherman,	
  1932).22	
  Much	
  can	
  be	
  taken	
  from	
  the	
  words	
  of	
  this	
  retired	
  fisherman.	
  A	
  distinct	
  feeling	
  of	
  bitterness	
  can	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  19	
  Skogan,	
  Joan.	
  Skeena:	
  A	
  River	
  Remembered.	
  Vancouver:	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Packers	
  Ltd.,	
  1983.	
  60.	
  Print.	
  20	
  Skogan,	
  Joan.	
  Skeena:	
  A	
  River	
  Remembered.	
  Vancouver:	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Packers	
  Ltd.,	
  1983.	
  32.	
  Print. 21	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  7-­‐3]	
  22	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  7-­‐3]	
   	
   9	
   still	
  be	
  felt	
  echoing	
  through	
  his	
  words	
  to	
  this	
  day,	
  especially	
  in	
  his	
  use	
  of	
  the	
  racial	
  slurs	
   “Chink”	
   and	
   “Jap”.	
   The	
   overwhelming	
   presence	
   of	
   Japanese	
   workmen	
  occupying	
  jobs	
  that	
  would	
  otherwise	
  serve	
  Caucasian	
  workers	
  is	
  evident.	
  	
  	
   Figure	
   3	
   (see	
   Appendix	
   A)	
   is	
   a	
   snapshot	
   of	
   the	
   payroll	
   at	
   North	
   Pacific	
  Cannery	
   in	
   April	
   1919.	
   	
   The	
   first	
   half	
   of	
   the	
   page	
   displays	
   names	
   of	
   Caucasian	
  workmen,	
  along	
  with	
   their	
  specific	
  occupation	
  and	
  amount	
  due	
  at	
   the	
  end	
  of	
  each	
  month.	
  Although	
   it	
   is	
   not	
   entirely	
   clear,	
   it	
   seems	
   that	
   by	
   taking	
   the	
   ‘Amount	
  Due’	
  column	
  and	
  dividing	
  that	
  by	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  days	
  in	
  the	
  month,	
  the	
  daily	
  amount	
  paid	
  to	
  each	
  workmen	
  can	
  be	
  derived.	
  	
  As	
  an	
  example,	
  T.	
  Katayama,	
  a	
  Japanese	
  workman	
  with	
  the	
  occupation	
   ‘laborer’,	
  was	
  due	
  $78.00	
  for	
  the	
  month	
  of	
  April.	
  Dividing	
  this	
  number	
   by	
   thirty	
   derives	
   a	
   rate	
   of	
   $2.60	
   each	
   day.	
   This	
   amount	
   is	
   approximately	
  what	
  most	
  Japanese	
  laborers	
  earned,	
  with	
  some	
  exceptions	
  earning	
  less	
  and	
  others	
  more.	
  The	
  other	
  interesting	
  observation	
  in	
  this	
  snapshot	
  is	
  the	
  entirely	
  different	
  job	
  types	
  between	
  Caucasian	
  workmen	
  and	
  Japanese	
  workmen.	
  Many	
  of	
  the	
  Caucasian	
  jobs	
   are	
   office	
   jobs	
   that	
   are	
   held	
   by	
   one	
   or	
   two	
  people,	
  whereas	
   the	
   jobs	
   held	
   by	
  Japanese	
  workmen	
  are	
  more	
  generalized	
  and	
  shared	
  between	
  many	
  of	
  them.	
  	
  	
   Although	
  language	
  barriers	
  were	
  not	
  necessarily	
  an	
  issue	
  when	
  it	
  came	
  to	
  the	
  physical	
  act	
  of	
  fishing,	
  Japanese	
  contractors	
  themselves	
  took	
  advantage	
  of	
  their	
  own	
  fishermen.	
   Prior	
   to	
   the	
   year	
   1932,	
   it	
   was	
   a	
   practice	
   of	
   the	
   Dominion	
   Fisheries	
  Department	
   when	
   issuing	
   licenses	
   to	
   Japanese	
   fishermen	
   to	
   state	
   the	
   particular	
  cannery	
  the	
  contractor	
  would	
  be	
  attached	
  to.	
  This	
  “gave	
  the	
   Japanese	
  contractor	
  a	
  strangle	
  hold	
  on	
  the	
  fisherman.	
  In	
  fact,	
  the	
  contractor	
  owned	
  him	
  as	
  far	
  as	
  his	
  means	
   	
   10	
   of	
   earning	
   his	
   living	
   was	
   concerned”	
   (Northern	
   B.C.	
   Fishermen’s	
   Association).23	
  Following	
   the	
   discontinuance	
   of	
   this	
   practice	
   around	
   1930,	
   contractors	
   no	
   longer	
  were	
  required	
  to	
  state	
  the	
  particular	
  cannery	
  he	
  would	
  be	
  attached	
  to,	
  allowing	
  his	
  fishermen	
  to	
  work	
  freely.	
  However,	
  through	
  the	
  inabilities	
  that	
  Japanese	
  fisherman	
  had	
   in	
   speaking	
   English	
   and	
   the	
   refusal	
   of	
   the	
   Japanese	
   press	
   to	
   inform	
   Japanese	
  communities	
  of	
  this	
  discontinuance	
  (which	
  were	
  apparently	
  under	
  the	
  control	
  of	
  the	
  contractor),	
   Japanese	
   fishermen	
   remained	
   under	
   the	
   control	
   of	
   their	
   contractor,	
  who	
  would	
  “sell	
   them	
  like	
  sheep	
  to	
   the	
  canneries	
  at	
  so	
  much	
  per	
  head”	
  (Northern	
  B.C.	
  Fishermen’s	
  Association).24	
  	
   An	
  interview	
  I	
  carried	
  out	
  with	
  Allan	
  Okabe,	
  a	
   ‘cannery	
  kid’	
  at	
  North	
  Pacific	
  Cannery	
   from	
   1960-­‐1973,	
   revealed	
   some	
   aspects	
   of	
   the	
   Japanese	
   lifestyle	
   and	
  working	
  conditions	
  that	
  were	
  present	
  during	
  the	
  pre-­‐war	
  period	
  as	
  well.	
  Speaking	
  about	
  the	
  set-­‐up	
  of	
  the	
  cannery,	
  Allan	
  explained,	
  “The	
  Japanese	
  village	
  had	
  its	
  own	
  net	
  loft	
  and	
  floating	
  net	
  racks	
  for	
  maintaining,	
  washing,	
  and	
  looking	
  after	
  gear.	
  They	
  did	
  not	
  integrate.”	
  In	
  reference	
  to	
  the	
  interactions	
  between	
  different	
  ethnic	
  groups,	
  “They	
  were	
  completely	
  segregated	
  in	
  all	
  aspects.	
  There	
  was	
  a	
  Japanese	
  bunkhouse,	
  and	
  a	
   community	
   Japanese	
  bath.	
  A	
   couple	
  of	
  other	
   Japanese	
  bunkhouses,	
   the	
  Miki	
  house	
  and	
  the	
  Shikatani	
  house,	
  had	
   five	
  or	
  six	
  rooms	
  and	
  ten	
  rooms	
  respectively.”	
  An	
   interesting	
   remark	
   made	
   by	
   Allan	
   was	
   that,	
   “At	
   North	
   Pacific,	
   the	
   Chinese	
  bunkhouse	
  was	
  on	
  the	
  other	
  side	
  of	
  the	
  rail	
  tracks	
  and	
  very	
  separate	
  from	
  the	
  other	
  communities.”	
   When	
   all	
   other	
   bunkhouses	
   were	
   on	
   pilings	
   over	
   the	
   water,	
   the	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  23	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  7-­‐3]	
  24	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  7-­‐3]	
   	
   11	
   Chinese	
  bunkhouse	
  was	
  the	
  only	
  ethnic	
  group	
  located	
  across	
  the	
  railway	
  tracks	
  on	
  land.	
  In	
  a	
  very	
  a	
  subtle	
  way,	
  did	
  this	
  suggest	
  that,	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  social	
  standing	
  at	
  North	
  Pacific	
  (and	
  at	
  other	
  canneries),	
  the	
  Chinese	
  were	
  regarded	
  as	
  the	
  least	
  respected?	
  Furthermore,	
   “there	
  are	
  stories	
  of	
   the	
  Chinese	
  crews	
   that	
  came	
   in	
  which	
   they	
  had	
  working	
   on	
   the	
   really	
   dangerous	
   equipment,	
   like	
   some	
  of	
   the	
   canning	
   equipment.	
  They	
  named	
  some	
  of	
  this	
  equipment	
  the	
  ‘Iron	
  Chink’,	
  which	
  was	
  a	
  name	
  given	
  to	
  a	
  fish-­‐gutting	
  machine	
  in	
  tribute	
  to	
  the	
  expensive	
  Chinese	
  laborers	
  that	
  lost	
  their	
  jobs	
  to	
   this	
  machine.”	
  Further	
  sources	
  have	
  supported	
   the	
  existence	
  of	
   the	
   ‘Iron	
  Chink’	
  from	
  before	
  the	
  war	
  period.	
  Allan	
  continued	
  to	
  discuss	
  the	
  working	
  conditions	
  in	
  the	
  Cannery,	
  where	
  his	
  mother	
  worked.	
  “You	
  were	
  up	
  on	
  pilings	
  at	
  the	
  bank	
  of	
  the	
  river.	
  Lots	
  of	
   freshwater	
   for	
  washing	
   fish,	
  huge	
  boilers	
  cooking	
  canned	
  salmon,	
   fish	
  guts	
  and	
  cutting	
  all	
  over	
  the	
  place.	
  Everything	
  was	
  put	
  down	
  holes	
  that	
  drained	
  straight	
  into	
   the	
   Skeena	
   River.	
  Was	
   it	
   sanitary?25	
  At	
   the	
   end	
   of	
   the	
   day,	
   they	
   took	
   a	
   high-­‐pressure	
   hose,	
   washed	
   down	
   everything,	
   and	
   took	
   a	
   brush	
   and	
   scrubbed	
   it.	
   The	
  floors	
  were	
  wood	
  and	
  some	
  were	
  painted.	
  The	
  original	
  production	
  areas	
  were	
  heavy	
  planking	
  with	
  gaps	
  between	
  the	
  planking	
  and	
  water	
  simply	
  drained	
  through.”26	
  	
  INTERNMENT	
  AND	
  POST-­‐WAR	
  	
   On	
  December	
   7,	
   1941,	
   a	
   difficult	
   time	
  began	
   for	
   the	
   Japanese-­‐Canadians	
   in	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  Japanese-­‐Canadians	
  were	
  now	
  more	
  economically	
  stable	
  and	
  had	
  a	
   substantial	
   amount	
   of	
   capital	
   investment.27	
  For	
   all	
   the	
   unrest	
   that	
   the	
   Japanese	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  25	
  See	
  Figure	
  4	
  in	
  Appendix	
  A	
  to	
  see	
  how	
  canneries	
  were	
  rated.	
  26	
  Okabe,	
  Allan.	
  Personal	
  Interview.	
  09	
  Mar	
  2013;	
  See	
  Figure	
  5	
  and	
  6	
  in	
  Appendix	
  A.	
  Figure	
  5	
  exhibits	
  NPC	
  today	
  and	
  Figure	
  6	
  is	
  a	
  drawing	
  done	
  by	
  Allan	
  Okabe	
  showing	
  what	
  the	
  Cannery	
  used	
  to	
  look	
  like.	
  27	
  Miki,	
  Roy.	
  Redress:	
  Inside	
  the	
  Japanese	
  Canadian	
  call	
  for	
  justice.	
  Vancouver:	
  Raincoast	
  Books,	
  2004.	
  361.	
  Print.	
   	
   12	
   were	
  blamed	
  for	
  in	
  the	
  province,	
  British	
  Columbia	
  now	
  had	
  its	
  reason	
  to	
  rid	
  itself	
  of	
  the	
   so-­‐called	
   ‘Japanese-­‐Canadian	
   problem.’28 	
  With	
   the	
   evacuation	
   underway	
   in	
  1942,	
  Japanese-­‐Canadians	
  were	
  assured	
  that	
  their	
  property	
  and	
  possessions	
  would	
  remain	
   under	
   safekeeping	
   by	
   the	
   federal	
   government. 29 	
  To	
   their	
   unknowing	
  disbelief,	
   however,	
   official	
   communications	
  between	
  British	
  Columbia	
  officers	
   and	
  the	
   Federal	
   Government	
   at	
   Ottawa	
   were	
   already	
   in	
   progress	
   to	
   dispose	
   of	
   all	
  Japanese-­‐Canadians’	
  property	
  and	
  possessions.30	
  	
  	
   The	
  end	
  of	
  the	
  war	
  did	
  not	
  signal	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  the	
  repressive	
  measures	
  put	
  in	
  place	
   for	
   Japanese-­‐Canadians.	
   It	
   was	
   not	
   until	
   the	
   year	
   1949	
   when	
   the	
   last	
  remaining	
  restrictions	
  were	
  lifted,	
  as	
  Japanese-­‐Canadians	
  gained	
  their	
  right	
  to	
  vote	
  provincially	
  and	
  travel	
  to	
  the	
  previously	
  protected	
  coastal	
  areas.	
  The	
  struggles	
  and	
  suffering	
   throughout	
   the	
   war	
   years	
   and	
   the	
   decades	
   before	
   that	
   were	
   given	
   new	
  meaning.	
  If	
  it	
  wasn’t	
  clear	
  already,	
  it	
  was	
  now.	
  The	
  confinement	
  and	
  mistreatment	
  of	
  the	
  Japanese	
  was	
  never	
  solely	
  a	
  precautionary	
  act	
  due	
  to	
  strictly	
  wartime	
  motives,	
  but	
   the	
   result	
   of	
   a	
  move	
   on	
   racism	
   against	
   the	
   Japanese.31	
  Was	
   the	
  war	
   the	
  mask	
  Canada	
  needed	
  to	
  act	
  on	
  a	
  racist	
  dispute	
  that	
  had	
  been	
  brewing	
  for	
  decades?	
  	
  CONCLUSION	
  Some	
  scholars	
  have	
  emphasized	
  the	
  roots	
  of	
  Canadian	
  discrimination	
  against	
  the	
   Japanese	
  were	
  sewn	
  out	
  of	
   the	
   Japanese’s’	
  own	
  economic	
  competitiveness	
   in	
  a	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  28	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.,	
  61-­‐5]	
  29	
  Adachi,	
  Ken.	
  The	
  Enemy	
  That	
  Never	
  Was:	
  A	
  History	
  of	
  the	
  Japanese	
  Canadians.	
  Toronto:	
  McClelland	
  &	
  Stewart,	
  1976.	
  456.	
  Print.	
  30	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  9-­‐3];	
  See	
  Figure	
  7	
  in	
  Appendix	
  A.	
  31	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.,	
  62-­‐1]	
   	
   13	
   place	
   that	
   was	
   then	
   referred	
   to	
   as	
   a	
   ‘white	
   man’s	
   province’.	
   This	
   argument	
   is	
  misleading	
   and	
   research	
   has	
   since	
   shown	
   that	
  what	
   first	
   began	
   as	
   anger	
   towards	
  Japanese	
   immigrants	
   born	
   of	
   economic	
   aggression	
   very	
   quickly	
   shifted	
   towards	
  hostility	
  entirely	
  based	
  on	
  racial	
  prejudice.	
  Patricia	
  Roy	
  asserts	
  in	
  her	
  book,	
  “While	
  economic	
  motives	
   inspired	
  many	
  anti-­‐Asian	
  outbursts,	
   the	
   reasons	
   for	
  demanding	
  restrictions	
  on	
  Asians	
  were	
  often	
  couched	
   in	
  racial	
   terms.”32	
  Under	
   the	
  skin	
  of	
   the	
  racialization	
   of	
   Japanese-­‐Canadians,	
   one	
   cannot	
   help	
   but	
   wonder	
   the	
   role	
   that	
  British	
   Columbia	
   politicians	
   had	
   in	
   keeping	
   racial	
   prejudices	
   alive	
   at	
   the	
   time.	
  Although	
  race	
  played	
  a	
  big	
  role	
  in	
  the	
  first	
  sixty	
  years	
  of	
  Japanese	
  presence	
  in	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  it	
  is	
  important	
  to	
  understand	
  that,	
  in	
  the	
  years	
  following	
  1949,	
  Japanese	
  Canadians	
   resumed	
   from	
  what	
  was	
   left	
   of	
   their	
   lives	
   and	
  have	
  become	
  one	
  of	
   the	
  most	
  respected	
  and	
  successful	
  minority	
  groups	
  in	
  Canada.33	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  32	
  Roy, Patricia E. A White Man's Province : British Columbia Politicians and Chinese and Japanese Immigrants, 1858-1914. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1989. 231. Print. 33	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.,	
  61-­‐5]	
   	
   14	
   APPENDIX	
  A	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
   Figure	
  1,	
  Source:	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.,	
  7-­‐3]	
   	
   15	
  	
   Table	
  1,	
  Source:	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.,	
  5-­‐6]	
   Figure	
  2,	
  source:	
  http://wikitravel.org/upload/shared/thumb/6/6d/Japan_Kansai_Map.png/574px-­‐Japan_Kansai_Map.png	
   	
   16	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   Figure	
  3,	
  source:	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.,	
  61-­‐3]	
   	
   17	
  	
  Figure	
  4,	
  source:	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.,	
  6-­‐3]	
  	
   	
   18	
  	
   Figure	
  5,	
  source:	
  Skogan,	
  Joan.	
  Skeena:	
  A	
  River	
  Remembered.	
  Vancouver:	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Packers	
  Ltd.,	
  1983.	
  32.	
  Print.	
  	
   Figure	
  6,	
  NPC.	
  Source:	
  Okabe,	
  Allan.	
  Personal	
  Interview.	
  09	
  Mar	
  2013.	
   	
   19	
   	
   Figure	
  7,	
  source:	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection,	
  7-­‐2]	
   	
   20	
   BIBLIOGRAPHY	
  	
  	
  Adachi,	
  Ken.	
  The	
  Enemy	
  That	
  Never	
  Was:	
  A	
  History	
  of	
  the	
  Japanese	
  Canadians.	
  	
   Toronto:	
  McClelland	
  &	
  Stewart,	
  1976.	
  456.	
  Print.	
  	
  Campbell,	
  Mack.	
  Cannery	
  Village,	
  Company	
  Town.	
  Trafford,	
  2004.	
  Print.	
  	
  Fukawa,	
  Masako.	
  Nikkei	
  Fishermen	
  on	
  the	
  BC	
  Coast.	
  Harbour,	
  2007.	
  208.	
  Print.	
  	
  Fukawa,	
  Masako.	
  Spirit	
  of	
  the	
  Nikkei	
  fleet	
  :	
  BC's	
  Japanese	
  Canadian	
  fishermen.	
  	
   Madeira	
  Park:	
  Harbour	
  Pub.,	
  2009.	
  Print.	
  	
  Gladstone,	
  Percy,	
  and	
  Stuart	
  Jamieson.	
  "Unionism	
  in	
  the	
  fishing	
  industry	
  of	
  British	
  	
   Columbia."	
  Canadian	
  Journal	
  of	
  Economics	
  and	
  Political	
  Science.	
  16.2	
  (1950):	
  	
   146-­‐171.	
  Print.	
  	
  Miki,	
  Roy.	
  Redress:	
  Inside	
  the	
  Japanese	
  Canadian	
  call	
  for	
  justice.	
  Vancouver:	
  Raincoast	
  	
   Books,	
  2004.	
  361.	
  Print.	
  	
  Okabe,	
  Allan.	
  Personal	
  Interview.	
  09	
  Mar	
  2013.	
  	
  Roy,	
  Patricia	
  E.	
  A	
  White	
  Man's	
  Province	
  :	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Politicians	
  and	
  Chinese	
  and	
   	
   Japanese	
  Immigrants,	
  1858-­‐1914.	
  Vancouver:	
  UBC	
  Press,	
  1989.	
  345.	
  Print.	
  	
   	
   21	
   Skogan,	
  Joan.	
  Skeena:	
  A	
  River	
  Remembered.	
  Vancouver:	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Packers	
  	
   Ltd.,	
  1983.	
  32.	
  Print.	
  	
  Sunahara,	
  Ann.	
  “Japanese	
  Canadians”	
  The	
  Canadian	
  Encyclopedia.	
  Historica	
  	
   Foundation,	
  2011.	
  http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com.	
  30th	
  Mar.	
  	
   2013.	
  	
  Ujimoto,	
  K.	
  Victor.	
  "Contrasts	
  in	
  the	
  prewar	
  and	
  postwar	
  Japanese	
  community	
  in	
  	
   British	
  Columbia:	
  conflict	
  and	
  change."	
  Canadian	
  Review	
  of	
  Sociology.	
  13.1	
  	
   (2008):	
  80-­‐89.	
  Web.	
  2	
  Apr.	
  2013.	
    University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  	
   [Japanese-­‐Canadian	
  Research	
  Collection]	
  	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Library,	
  Rare	
  Books	
  and	
  Special	
  Collections,	
  [A.B.C.	
  	
   Packing	
  Co.	
  Ld.]	
  	
  Young,	
  Charles	
  H.,	
  W.A.	
  Carrothers,	
  and	
  Helen	
  R.Y.	
  Reid.	
  The	
  Japanese	
  Canadians.	
  	
   New	
  York:	
  Arno	
  Press	
  and	
  University	
  of	
  Toronto	
  Press,	
  1938.	
  295.	
  Print.	
  	
  

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