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“The forgotten front” : a walking tour of Vancouver during the First World War Stickland, Courtney 2013

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“The Forgotten Front”: A Walking Tour of Vancouver During the First World War Courtney Stickland Report Prepared at the Request of Heritage Vancouver in Partial Fulfilment of UBC GEOG 429: Research in Historical Geography, for Dr. David Brownstein  Abstract The First World War significantly impacted the physical and social landscapes of Vancouver, disrupting the established social conventions that dictated daily life in the pre-war period. Prior to the War, EnglishCanadian society was circumscribed by patriarchy and colonialism; however, the demographic shift created by the First World War provided a temporary opportunity for women and non-white groups to challenge existing social structures through participation in the war effort. Vancouver’s war effort re-inscribed the city’s built environment as a place of overt imperialism and loyalty to the British Empire, as well as patriotism to a fledgling Canadian nation. Various areas of the city’s built environment was transformed into spaces of militarism and patriotism, localizing the wider processes of global war within the familiar spaces of Vancouver’s home front; these newly defined spaces constantly reinforced duty to the Empire as an integral component of citizenship and subjecthood. This walking tour explores a number of sites located in and around Vancouver’s historical business district (including West Hastings, Pender and Beatty Streets, and Victory Square) that were involved in various home front activities during the First World War. The tour is intended to illustrate the spatiality of Vancouver’s war effort in the downtown area, revealing the lost history of the city’s built environment and how the war effort was deeply embedded into the physical landscape of the city. The tour also discusses the social changes that occurred within these spaces during the First World War, particularly the temporary advancements made by women and Japanese Canadians as a result of their participation in the war effort.  2  Introduction 3  •  •  Canada entered the First World War on August 5 1914, participating in the conflict as a Dominion of the British Empire; however, over the course of the war, Canada distinguished itself as a nation in its own right on the home front and the Western Front, taking tentative steps towards an identity independent of Britain. This tour will focus on the sacrifices made at home in Vancouver, and how those left behind on the home front in Vancouver fought their own battle for Canada and the Empire. In doing so, we will explore how life in the city was reoriented around patriotism, imperialism and duty by the events of the Great War.  Beatty Street Drill Hall (620 Beatty Street)  Figure 1. Beatty Street Drill Hall, Vancouver B.C., 1906. Photo by Philip Timms. Vancouver Public Library Special Collections, Historical Photographs. Item no. 6798.  Figure 2. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • Built between 1898 and 1901, the Drill Hall served as an armoury for the British Columbia Regiment, Duke of Connaught’s Own (D.C.O.), Vancouver’s oldest military unit, formed in 1883.1 • Prior to the First World War, the Regiment’s last major military conflict was the Boer War (18991902).2 WWI History: • At the outset of the war, the Canadian Minister of Militia elected to create numbered battalions for Canada’s military contribution. In total, seventeen infantry battalions were raised across British Columbia with volunteers from around the province and other areas of Canada.3 • The 29th (Vancouver) Battalion, also known as “Tobin’s Tigers,” was made up of volunteers from the 6th Regiment Duke of Connaught’s Own Rifles, the 72nd Seaforth Highlanders, the 104th Regiment Westminster Fusiliers and the 11th Irish Fusiliers.4 Named for commanding Lieutenant Colonel H.S. Tobin, the battalion was first mobilized at Hastings Park (Vancouver’s second major military training grounds) on November 1 1914 and departed from Vancouver on May 14 1915. The 29th Battalion gained notoriety overseas for being in the thick of every battle it participated in, including Somme and Vimy Ridge.5  Cambie Street Grounds/Parking Lot 4  (Bounded by Cambie, Georgia, Beatty & Dunsmuir Streets)  Figure 3. [6th Regiment, The Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles on parade on the Cambie Street Grounds], Vancouver B.C., 1908. City of Vancouver Archives, Major Matthews Collection. Item no. AM54-S4-: Mil P278.  Figure 4. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • Also known as Larwill Park, the site was utilized as training grounds for units stationed at the Beatty Street Drill, as well as exhibition grounds for local events. WWI History: • Cambie Street Grounds also served as accommodation for soldiers during the First World War. In November 1915, a proposal was put forward by the 6th Regiment Duke of Connaught’s Own Rifles to build additional accommodation for soldiers of the 158th Battalion on Cambie Street Grounds. The battalion was initially quartered in the Vancouver Athletic Club opposite the grounds on Dunsmuir Street, next to the Y.M.C.A.; however, their growing ranks soon demanded more room. Temporary accommodations were constructed in the spring of 1916, running along the Dunsmuir Street edge of the Grounds. These barracks were demolished sometime between 1921 and 1922.6 • In addition to military activities, the Cambie Street Grounds were regularly used for rallies, parades and carnivals to raise money for the war effort. The grounds were frequently used to raise money for victory loans, which were used to fund the Canadian military; these victory loan carnivals further reinforced the grounds’ role in the city’s military sphere. • In 1915, the initial influx of enthusiastic volunteers for service was waning and the public was beginning to face the sobering reality that the war was not going to be quickly resolved. To boost morale, the city organized a grand “Day of Consecration,” celebrating the first anniversary of Canada’s entry into the war. The day began with a parade of 12,000 people marching from Main and Hastings Street and attracted 50,000 attendants to Cambie Street Grounds.7  5  Georgia Street Viaduct/1972 Georgia Viaduct (Begins at Georgia Street & Beatty Street)  Figure 5. View of the Georgia Street Viaduct Under Construction, Vancouver B.C., 1914. City of Vancouver Archives, Major Matthews Collection. Item no. AM54-S4-2-: CVA 371-852.  Figure 6. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • The first Georgia Viaduct was built between 1913 and 1915. It was demolished in the early 1970s and replaced with the Georgia and Dunsmuir Viaducts in 1972. WWI History: • During the First World War, the False Creek area behind the Beatty Street Drill Hall was used as ship and rail yards. • Wartime demand created a boom in False Creek’s shipbuilding industry as a number of Vancouver firms began producing ships for the British Empire. Some of the major shipbuilding companies operating out of False Creek included J. Coughlan and Sons, Ltd. and the Western Canada Shipyards, Ltd; Wallace Shipyards (later incorporated into the Burrard Drydock and Co.) operated out of North Vancouver.8 • The viaduct itself was used for local war effort activities, serving as a parade route and carnival ground for patriotic demonstrations.9 One such event occurred in May 1917 for the B.C. Commercial Traveller’s War Dance, a three-day carnival held at Cambie Street Grounds and the Viaduct in support of the Canadian Patriotic Fund, Red Cross and Returned Soldiers Club.10  6  The World Building/The Sun Tower (128 West Pender Street)  Figure 7. Pender Street Near Beatty, Vancouver B.C., 1915. Photo by Richard Broadbridge. Vancouver Public Library Special Collections, Historical Photographs, Item no. 8388.  Figure 8. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • L.D. Taylor (later the Mayor of Vancouver) built The World Building between 1911 and 1912 as an office space for his newspaper, The Vancouver World. The building was purchased by The Vancouver Sun in 1937.11 WWI History: • The Vancouver World, The Vancouver Sun, The Daily Province, and The News-Advertiser played an integral role in proliferating information during the war, providing civilians with news from the Western Front. Vancouver’s newspapers regularly featured “honour rolls” of men killed in action, recruitment information and advertisements for a variety of volunteer organizations and charities. • The Vancouver World not only promoted the war effort, but also directly participated in fundraising efforts. The Vancouver World, The Vancouver Sun and Daily Province opened their columns to help raise money for the Vancouver War Fund, a charitable organization organized by the Vancouver Board of Trade to provide for the wives and children of the city’s soldiers. The two newspapers provided publicity and acted as middlemen for the cause, receiving donations from readers and passing them along to the War Fund.12 • Ironically, while The Vancouver World newspaper aided in Vancouver’s war effort, the First World War ultimately cost L.D. Taylor his newspaper and building. The war’s impact on local business prevented Taylor from renting out the offices in the building and he was forced to sell in 1915.13  7  Woodward’s Department Store/Woodward’s Building (149 West Hastings Street)  Figure 9. [Woodward's Department Store building, 101 West Hastings Street], Vancouver B.C., 190-. Photo by Philip Timms. City of Vancouver Archives, Vancouver Museum and Planetarium Association Fonds. Item no. AM336-S3-3-: CVA 677-611.  Figure 10. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • Opened at Main and Georgia Street in 1892, Woodward’s moved to its current location at West Hastings and Abbott Street in 1902 and gradually expanded in the following decades to occupy the entire block.14 The store was a major shopping destination for the city’s residents throughout the twentieth century. WWI History: • Commonly associated with the Second World War, rationing impacted civilians during the First World War as well. Rationing was advertised to Canadians as another means by which they could serve the Empire.15 The government urged Canadians to contribute by growing their own food in victory gardens, saving materials and spending their money wisely by eliminating luxuries.16 Contemporary advertising during the war reflected the militaristic and patriotic fervour sweeping the nation.17  The Flack Block (163 West Hastings Street)  Figure 11. Street Scene Outside the Bank of Vancouver, Vancouver B.C., 1913. Photo by Richard Broadbridge. Vancouver Public Library Special Collections, Historical Photographs. Item no. 8401.  Figure 12. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  8  Building/Site Facts: • The Flack Block has served as office and shop space since its completion in 1899. WWI History: • During the First World War, the Flack Block housed recruiting offices for the Royal Flying Corps, just one of several recruiting offices located around the city.18 Unit officers would circulate around their local area, collecting the names of volunteers. Once recruited, an Army Medical Corps Officer examined volunteers and their names would be submitted to Militia headquarters. After militia headquarters received lists of names, placements were made to fill the quotas of each unit.19 • The initial enthusiasm among Canadians to enlist meant that recruiters could afford to be selective in their choice of volunteers. At the outset of the war, the ideal recruit was at least 5’3” tall; had a chest measurement of no more than 33 ½”; was between the ages of 18 and 45; possessed a high standard of skill in musketry and general fighting proficiency; and was unmarried (married men without children and married men with children were also considered, although unmarried men were the ideal).20 • Highly selective recruitment requirements saw men turned away for poor eyesight, insufficient chest measurements, weak hearts, defective teeth, alcoholism and varicose veins.21  The Carter-Cotton Building/Daily Province Building (198 West Hastings Street)  Figure 13. Province Building with Dominion Day Decorations, Vancouver B.C., 1927. Photo by Dominion Photo Company. Vancouver Public Library Special Collections, Historical Photographs. Item no. 22589A.  Figure 14. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  9  Building/Site Facts: • Built in 1908 by Francis Carter-Cotton, the Carter-Cotton Building was one of Vancouver’s early steel structures. The Daily Province newspaper moved into the lower floors of the building in 1925.22 • The Carter-Cotton Building has retained its original usage as a mixed-use office building, and currently houses the Vancouver Film School. WWI History: • Following the war, the Carter-Cotton building was home to the offices of the Asiatic Exclusion League, an organization dedicated to “keep[ing] this Province and this Dominion for the White Man, by stopping any further Oriental Immigration.”23 Compared to modern-day rhetoric of multiculturalism and diversity, early English-Canadian society was predicated on the exclusion of non-white populations, including both aboriginal and immigrant groups. As a major Pacific port, Vancouver received a large number of Asian immigrants compared to the rest of the country; accordingly, racist sentiments within the city were oriented towards the Chinese, Japanese and Indian groups that settled in the city.24 • Despite the hostility towards Asians, Japanese Canadians sought to establish themselves within EnglishCanadian society. After war was declared, Vancouver’s Canadian Japanese Association took it upon itself to form a battalion to serve in the Canadian Expeditionary Force as a sign of loyalty to the country and improve conditions for the Japanese community.25 The Association undertook the training of volunteers, paying their wages, board and other expenses; however, the Canadian Minister of Militia denied the Association’s petition to serve and the recruits were disbanded in May 1915. Undeterred, many of the rejected volunteers travelled to Calgary and successfully enlisted in a variety of Alberta battalions.26 Their contributions to the country and Empire were honoured with the Japanese War Memorial, erected in Stanley Park on April 2 1920.27  Old Courthouse Square/Victory Square (Bounded by Hamilton, Hastings, Cambie & Pender Streets)  Figure 15. Unveiling of cenotaph - Victory Square [viewing stand at ceremony], Vancouver B.C., 1924. Photo by Stuart Thomson. City of Vancouver Archives, Stuart Thomson fonds. Item no. AM1535-: CVA 99-1218.  Figure 16. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • Victory Square was originally the site of Vancouver’s first courthouse, built in 1898.28 It was demolished in 1912 and the city’s courthouse was relocated to a new building on Hornby Street (currently the Vancouver Art Gallery). 10  WWI History: • Discussions of using the square as a memorial for the First World War began as early as 1914 when the province was petitioned to set the site aside for a war memorial. Plans for the site included a museum to house war trophies and memorabilia related to the First World War.29 • Ultimately, the city decided to convert the vacant block into a memorial park and erect a cenotaph to commemorate the lives lost in the First World War. Funded primarily by donations from the public, the Victory Square cenotaph was unveiled on April 27 1924. • The plaque “In memory of those who gave their lives in the service of this country” encircled by a stone wreath at the base of the cenotaph was added sometime after the Second World War, the original stonework reading “1914-1918.”30  CPR Ticket & Telegraph Offices (434 West Hastings Street)  Figure 17. Canadian Pacific Railway Telegraph Office, Vancouver B.C., 1918. Photo by Dominion Photo Company. Vancouver Public Library Special Collections, Historical Photographs. Item no. 20441A.  Figure 18. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • Previously housed in the New York Block at 646 Granville Street, the Canadian Pacific Railway’s ticketing and telegraph offices were relocated to this location between 1899 and 1900.31 WWI History: • For those turned away by recruiters, the CPR Ticket Office was the next step for enlistment, some travelling to Alberta (or farther) in the hopes of being accepted by more lenient recruiting officers. This was the case for members of Vancouver’s Canadian Japanese Association.32 Soldiers who had successfully enlisted in the armed forces had the cost of their ticket paid for by the government, but these hopefuls would have had to pay for their journey out of their own pockets.33 The financial cost of this journey – without the promise of approval for military service – illustrates the persistence of Vancouver’s non-white population in joining the war and proving its worth to the Empire. 11  Standard Bank Building/Standard Building (510 West Hastings Street)  Figure 19. Standard Bank Building at West Hastings and Richards Street, Vancouver B.C., 1921. Photo by Leonard Frank. Vancouver Public Library Special Collections, Historical Photographs. Item no. 10740.  Figure 20. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • Originally the site of the Bank of British North America, the Standard Bank Building was built between 1913 and 1915.34 WWI History: • During the war, the Standard Bank Building’s offices were rented out to a number of war-related organizations, including the Canadian Red Cross Society, the Comrades of the Great War and the “Khaki Club” (located on the third floor, second floor and basement, respectively).35 • Vancouver’s Red Cross Society was active in organizing a number of different events and projects to raise money for the war effort. In August 1915, the Vancouver Red Cross established a Prisoners of War Department, appealing to the public for donations to increase prisoners’ comfort overseas.36  12  Rogers Building (470 Granville Street)  Figure 21. [Rogers Building 470 Granville Street], Vancouver B.C., 1911. City of Vancouver Archives, Major Matthews Collection. Item no. AM54-S4-1-: M-11-82.  Figure 22. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • One of Vancouver’s early pioneers, arriving on the first passenger train from Montreal in 1887, Jonathan Rogers built his eponymous building between 1911 and 1912.37 WWI History: • Rogers’ wife, Anne, worked in the building as a member of the Women’s Canadian Club. She was an active philanthropist in Vancouver, organizing relief for a number of war-related charities.38 Many upper and middle class women were integral to the operation of Vancouver’s war effort, managing donated funds; organizing fundraisers, meetings and rallies; and knitting various articles of clothing, all to provide comfort and support to the men serving overseas and returning home.39 Through their charitable work, these philanthropists were able to expand their public presence; the patriotic orientation and maternal nature of the work they were conducting legitimized their otherwise unusual participation in the public realm. • Women also provided much needed labour in the economy during the First World War, taking over jobs left vacant by departing soldiers; however, the jobs deemed appropriate for females were light, unskilled and piecemeal. It was unusual to find women working in managerial positions at this time, but some were able to break through this ceiling. Mrs Arthur Shrapnel (first name unknown) became Vancouver’s 13  first female insurance agent at the Canada Life Assurance Company in 1918, located around the corner from the Rogers Building in the Canada Life Building (640 West Hastings Street).40  Pacific Building/Pemberton Building (744 West Hastings Street)  Figure 23. [Pacific Building at 744 West Hastings Street], Vancouver B.C., 1921. Photo by W.J. Moore. City of Vancouver Archives, Major Matthews Collection. Item no. AM54-S4-: Bu N343.  Figure 24. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • Built in 1911, the Pacific Building contained the offices of real estate entrepreneur, Alvo von Alvensleben.41 A German immigrant, Alvensleben was responsible for the construction of a number of buildings along Vancouver’s skyline. WWI History: • Pre-war rumours that Alvensleben had close ties to the Kaiser had helped foster optimism in his business dealings; however, after war was declared, Alvensleben was quickly denounced as an enemy of the state. His assets seized by the Canadian government, he fled to Seattle in 1914 to avoid internment, but was arrested by American officials after the United States joined the war in 1917. He was detained at an internment camp in Utah until 1920.42 • Alvensleben’s fate was a spectacular example of the climate of fear and suspicion created by the war. With the passing of the War Measures Act in 1914, the Canadian government was given free reign to arrest and detain suspected “enemy aliens” in defence of the Empire. German, Austrian and Ukrainian immigrants were sent to internment camps far removed from major cities to prevent sedition and espionage.43 • Immigrants were not the only individuals in danger of persecution. In October 1914, Vancouver Board of Trade member T.A. Fee was removed from his position for his “unpatriotic remarks” that Canada 14  •  would be economically stronger if part of the United States, and that Alvensleben should be re-admitted to Vancouver to encourage continued foreign investment in British Columbia. Although Fee’s remarks were in the interest of strengthening Canada economically, he was publicly denounced as a traitor. The fates of Alvensleben, Fee and Canada’s German, Austrian and Ukrainian populations illustrate the power that imperial loyalty still held in the minds of Canadians during the war.  Post Office Building/Sinclair Centre (757 West Hastings Street)  Figure 25. Vancouver Post Office [Hastings and Granville Street], Vancouver B.C., 191-. Photo by Richard Broadbridge. City of Vancouver Archives, Major Matthews Collection. Item no. AM54-S4-1-: M-11-31.  Figure 26. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • Built in 1910, this building housed the city’s main post office until it was relocated to West Georgia Street in 1958.44 WWI History: • In addition to recruiting offices and stations, volunteers for service were also able to enlist with the local postmaster, who would send their information on to the local military headquarters.45 • Two years of war drastically reduced Canada’s military manpower and slowed enlistment rates across the country. The Canadian government began to consider enacting conscription to meet Britain’s demands for soldiers, but stalled legislation for fear of creating disharmony with French Canada. The Conscription Crisis ultimately contributed to women’s enfranchisement.46 Vancouver suffragettes contributed their time and energy in support of the soldiers in part to demonstrate that they were equally dedicated to defending the Empire and deserving of the vote.47 15  •  Bolstered by votes from the nation’s women, Prime Minister Robert Borden’s Unionist government enacted the Military Service Act on August 29 1917, allowing the government to draft men if necessary. On October 13 1917, the Military Service Council announced that all men of the “First Class” (meaning bachelors and widowers with children) between 20 and 34 had to present themselves for military service by November 10, providing their forms for service to the postmaster. The following summer, the Canada Registration Board issued a notice to all eligible men over 16, emphasising their registration for the draft as part of their democratic duty and threatening imprisonment for those failing to register.48  C.P.R. Station/Waterfront Station (601 West Cordova Street)  Figure 27. [Construction progress photograph of the third CPR station], Vancouver B.C, 1914. Photo by H.A. Price. City of Vancouver Archives, H.A. Price Collection. Item no. AM358-S1-: CVA 152-1.100.  Figure 28. Photo by Courtney Stickland.  Building/Site Facts: • The first C.P.R. Station was a small building located on the shore of Burrard Inlet, built in 1887.49 The second station was built in 1897 at the foot of Granville Street.50 The current station at the foot of Granville Street was built in 1914. WWI History: • C.P.R. Station was Vancouver’s major transportation hub during the First World War. All departing soldiers boarded trains in Vancouver, travelling east to Halifax by rail, before boarding a ship to Europe.51 • The demobilization of Canada’s soldiers was a long and drawn out process, some not arriving home until years after Armistice was signed. Unfortunately, soldiers returning from Europe through C.P.R. Station introduced a new strain of influenza to the city on October 5 1918, leading to the 1918 Influenza Epidemic.52 • Despite the sobering effects of the epidemic, when Armistice was signed a month later, Vancouverites were jubilant and celebrated in the city’s streets. Soldiers in town were given beer bottles full of whiskey (despite Prohibition being in effect at this time) and the city’s battalions informally paraded along Abbott, Hastings, Granville, Robson, Richards, Dunsmuir, Hastings and Cambie Streets, ending at Cambie Street Grounds.53 • In commemoration of employees lost in the war, the Canadian Pacific Railway commissioned three bronze statues depicting a soldier being carried to Heaven, to be simultaneously unveiled in Vancouver, Montreal and Winnipeg. Dedicated at noon on April 29 1922, the bronze was originally located at the 16  southwest corner of the station (now a parking garage) and was one of the city’s first monuments to the Great War; today, the statue is located at the southeast corner of the station.54  Conclusion • •  •  As we have seen today, it would have been impossible to walk through Vancouver during the First World War and not be confronted with some form of material or activity related to the war effort. The Great War was meant to be the war to end all wars, ushering in a new era of peace and justice; for those who had fought on the home front, it was a less optimistic future. Although they had achieved the vote and proved their patriotism through their work, women were expected to return to the home and their roles as mothers and wives.55 The non-white soldiers that risked (and sacrificed) their lives to a country that saw them as second-class citizens returned home to continued marginalization from English-Canadian society. Although the First World War happened on the other side of the world, it had resounding impacts on life in Vancouver, reorganizing daily life towards the unfaltering support of the Canadian and British war effort. Uncovering stories of the buildings that we pass by every day offers a glimpse into how the distant battle fields of Europe were rooted in the familiar spaces of Vancouver, compelling the city’s residents into action for their country and Empire.  1  City of Vancouver Archives (hereafter CVA), Heritage Inventory Research Files and Building Photographs, Box: 79-D-2, file 5, Beatty Street Drill Hall – 620 Beatty Street. 2 In the intervening years, the armoury played host to a number of non-military activities, including the Provincial Badminton Championship finals in January 1914. Similarly, the Duke of Connaught’s Own were requested to act as security for local events due to their lack of active military duties. A few months before the outbreak of the war, the Regiment was asked to serve as security walking alongside a sandwich cart during a parade; however, the commanding officer declined the request. CVA, 6th Regiment Duke of Connaught’s Own Rifles fonds, Box: 502-F-6, file 4, Major Hulme to Secretary Treasurer Washington, 19 November 1913. 3 Notable battalions raised and trained around Vancouver included the 7th, 29th, 47th and 158th Battalions. Further research on the British Columbia Regiment’s activities in Vancouver during the First World War could utilize soldier databases to locate individual soldiers, their official soldier portraits, residences and where they served to provide audiences with a more intimate understanding of Vancouver’s soldiers. 4 “Twenty-Ninth Battalion, ‘Vancouver’s Own,’ Brought Fame and Honour to Terminal City,” The Vancouver Daily Sun, 22 September 1919, p. 8. 5 Ibid. 6 CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Map Collection, Map 748: Plan of Cambie St. Grounds, Vancouver, B.C.; Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1915 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1915). Troops at Cambie Street Grounds, Vancouver, B.C., 1914-1917. Photo by Stuart Thomson. CVA, Stuart Thomson fonds. AM 1535-: CVA 99-1150. 7 Given the size of the venue and crowds, six podiums were erected around the park and various prominent civil figures spoke throughout the day, including Mayor L.D. Taylor and Conservative politician H.H. Stevens. CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Pamphlet Collection, AM1519-: PAM 1915-31, Consecration Day Services at Cambie Street Grounds, 1915. Frank Thirkell, Vancouver and Beyond: During the Golden Age of Postcards, 1900-1914 (Vancouver, B.C.: Heritage House Publishing Co. Ltd., 2000), 102-4. 8 J. Coughlan and Sons, Ltd. had previously supplied the steel for the construction of many prominent buildings during the city’s boom years (1910-1913), including the Carter-Cotton Building and the new Courthouse. In addition to its shipyards in False Creek, the company also operated a steel plant at 6th Avenue and Bridge Street (Cambie Street). The plant’s address is listed in Henderson Directory as 2100 Cambie Street in 1913, following the renaming of Bridge Street. The site of the plant is now a mixed-use residential and commercial building, 17  located between the Cambie Street Best Buy and Vancouver Police Department. Following the company’s successes throughout the 1910s, a fire destroyed the shipyard on May 15 1918; it was rebuilt shortly afterwards, appearing intact in photographs from the early 1920s. CVA, Coughlan & Sons Shipyard, Box: 504-B-2, file 325, review of J. Coughlan and Sons, Ltd.; CVA, Heritage Inventory Research Files and Building Photographs, Box: 79-D-5, file 6, Sun Tower – 100 West Pender; Elizabeth Walker, Street Names of Vancouver (Vancouver, BC: Gordon Soules Book Publishers, Ltd., 1999), 18; Fire at J. Coughlan & Sons Ltd. Shipyards at the Foot of Columbia Street on False Creek, Vancouver, B.C., 15 May 1918. Photo by Stuart Thomson. CVA, Stuart Thomson fonds. AM1535-: CVA 991279; Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1913 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1913); J. Coughlan & Sons Ship yards, Vancouver, B.C., 9 May 1918. Photo by W.J. Moore. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-3-: PAN N73; Southward View of Downtown Vancouver from the World Building Showing False Creek, Vancouver, B.C., June 1921. Photo by W.J. Moore. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-3-: PAN N221; View of Waterfront J. Coughlan and Sons, Limited Shipyards, Vancouver, B.C., 24 January 1920. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-2-: CVA 371-2782; View of Western Canada Shipyards, False Creek, Vancouver, B.C., 23 May 1918. Photo by W.J. Moore. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-3-: PAN N249B; Wallace Shipyards from the water, North Vancouver, B.C., 1910. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-: Out P1164; Western Canada Shipyards, False Creek, Vancouver, B.C., 30 April 1918. Photo by W.J. Moore. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-3-: PAN N249A.2; Launching of “War Camp” from J. Coughlan and Sons Shipyard, Vancouver, B.C., 1918. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-: Bo P165. 9 The Georgia Viaduct Decorated and Closed to Vehicular Traffic During a Carnival, Vancouver, B.C., 1918. Photo by James Crookall. CVA, James Crookall fonds. AM640-: CVA 260-1050. 10 CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Pamphlet Collection, microfilm, AM1519-: PAM 1917-13, Souvenir Programme for the British Columbia Commercial Travellers’ War Dance in Aid of Red Cross Material Fund, Returned Soldiers, Canadian Patriotic Fund,…Royal Naval Service Fund, 1917. 11 Upon its completion, The World Building was the tallest structure in the British Empire. CVA, Heritage Inventory Research Files and Building Photographs, Box: 79-D-5, file 6, Sun Tower – 100 West Pender. 12 “Board of Trade Gives a Thousand to the War Fund,” The Vancouver Sun, August 1914; “Organize for the War Fund,” The Daily Province, 7 August 1914; “Vancouver War Fund Opened by Board of Trade,” The Vancouver World, 7 August 1914. 13 CVA, Heritage Inventory Research Files and Building Photographs, Box: 79-D-5, file 6, Sun Tower – 100 West Pender. 14 CVA, Woodward’s Department Stores Limited fonds, Add. Mss. 220, collection description. 15 “Production and Thrift,” The Western Call, 5 May 1916. 16 More research is required on how rationing was carried out during the First World War. Archival research produced a number of ration books from the Second World War, containing tabs/stamps for goods and War Savings Stamps from the First World War; however, no coherent archival source was found indicating how these stamps were used. A newspaper clipping describing a Women’s Canadian Club meeting notes that a Mrs. Harrison gave a detailed speech on how to use war stamps and distributed instructive booklets, which would provide useful information on rationing during the First World War. CVA, Women’s Canadian Club of Vancouver fonds, Box: 591-D-4, file 1, Scrapbook: “Urge to Public Service,” 13 February 1919.  18  17  An advertisement for local boot company Leckie’s depicted marching soldiers clad in shiny, black boots. Fittingly, Leckie’s provided footwear to Vancouver’s military units during the war. Newspapers advertised the sale of Union Jack flag kits at discounted prices, spreading the Empire’s mark across downtown Vancouver. CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Pamphlet Collection, microfilm, AM1519-: PAM 1917-13, Souvenir Programme for the British Columbia Commercial Travellers’ War Dance in Aid of Red Cross Material Fund, Returned Soldiers, Canadian Patriotic Fund,…Royal Naval Service Fund, 1917; CVA, 6th Regiment Duke of Connaught’s Own Rifles fonds, Box: 502-F-6, file 4, Major Hulme to Esquimalt, 21 September 1914; Thirkell, 105. 18 Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1918 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1918); The Vancouver Sun, 21 October 1917. 19 CVA, 6th Regiment Duke of Connaught’s Own Rifles fonds, Box: 502-F-6, file 4, CPR Lettergram Adjutant General to Major Hulme, 6 August 1914. 20 Ibid. 21 “6th Has Given Many Officers,” The Daily Province, 27 July 1916. 22 Interestingly, Carter-Cotton owned rival newspaper The News Advertiser, which was denounced by montly newspaper The Hindustanee as being one of the most vehemently racist papers in the city. The Hindustanee: Official Organ of United India League, 1 January 1914. 23 CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Pamphlet Collection, microfilm, AM1519-: PAM1921-20, Asiatic Exclusion League of Canada, Formed to Keep This Province and This Dominion For the White Man, By Stopping Any Further Oriental Immigration, 1921. 24 Contemporary racist ideology, combined with fears over the threat of Asian labour to English-Canadian employment, led to a massive riot in Vancouver in 1907, resulting in significant damage to Chinese and Japanese properties. The infamous Komagata Maru incident occurred months prior to the beginning of the war, during which a ship carrying Indian immigrants was denied entrance to Vancouver. Efforts to block the Indian passengers from disembarking were spearheaded by Vancouver’s Immigration Agent Malcolm J. Reid, and local Member of Parliament H.H. Stevens; although their actions met with some disapproval from citizens, Vancouverites were generally supportive of Reid and Stevens’ actions. CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Pamphlet Collection, microfilm, AM1519-: PAM1908-24, Losses Sustained by Chinese Population of Vancouver BC on the Occasion of the Riots in That City September 1907, 1908; Ibid., AM1519-: PAM190813, Losses Sustained by Japanese Population of Vancouver BC on the Occasion of the Riots in That City September 1907, 1908. CVA, H.H. Stevens fonds, Box: 509-D-1, file 1, Anonymous to H.H. Stevens, November 1912; CVA, H.H. Stevens fonds, Box: 509-D-1, file 1, H. Davis to H.H. Stevens, 10 December 1913. 25 Lyle Dick, “Sergeant Masumi Mitsui and the Japanese Canadian War Memorial: Intersections of National, Cultural and Personal Memory,” Canadian Historical Review 91, no. 3 (2010): 441. 26 “Local Japanese Proved Good Citizens and True by Sprit of Sacrifice,” The Vancouver Sun, 22 September 1919. 27 On the home front, the women of the Japanese Canadian Society worked with English-Canadian organizations to raise money for the war effort, carrying on their community’s efforts for citizenship and recognition. CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Pamphlet Collection, microfilm, AM1519-: PAM1920-28, Luncheon Given by Canadian Japanese Association on the Occasion of the Unveiling of a Memorial to the Japanese Who Served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1920; “Vancouver Is To Make a New Departure,” The Vancouver Sun, 3 October 1915. 28 The Williams’ Official British Columbia Directory (Victoria, BC: R.T. Williams, 1899). 29 CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Pamphlet Collection, microfilm, AM1519-: PAM1917-13, Souvenir Programme for the British Columbia Commercial Travellers’ War Dance in Aid of Red Cross Material Fund, Returned Soldiers, Canadian Patriotic Fund,…Royal Naval Service Fund, 1917. 30 Although the cenotaph appears to be made of solid stone, it is actually a hollow shell of granite. Cenotaph Under Construction, Vancouver, B.C., 15 April 1924. Photo by Dominion Photo Company. Vancouver Public 19  Library Special Collections Historical Photographs. 21733; Thirkell, 184-5; Mexican Orchestra Member Laying Wreath at Cenotaph, Vancouver, B.C., July 1928. Photo by Stuart Thompson. Ibid. AM1535-: CVA99-1674; Unveiling of Cenotaph – Victory Square, Vancouver, B.C., 27 April 1924. Photo by Stuart Thomson. CVA, Stuart Thomson fonds. AM1535-: CVA99-1216. 31 The Vancouver City Directory, Jun 1899-1900 (Vancouver, BC: Rowland E. Green, 1899-1900); The Williams’ Official British Columbia Directory (Victoria, BC: R.T. Williams, 1899); Henderson Directory 1899, 1899-1900. 32 Additional research is required on other groups that were disproportionately rejected by enlistment officers. Timothy C. Winegard’s book For King and Kanata: Canadian Indians and the First World War provides parallels to the Japanese Canadian experience of the war, particularly in terms of First Nations’ motivations for fighting for an oppressive country and Empire; however, Winegard’s focus on the whole of Canada neglects British Columbia, focusing on reserves in the Okanagan as they would have been more likely to provide census data. More research into government and military correspondence (particularly any correspondence between enlistment officers and Indian Agents), as well as oral histories with the descendants of First Nations soldiers could provide additional information on aboriginal experiences of the war in Vancouver. 33 A sign outside of a recruiting office for the 131st Battalion humorously advertised a free round trip to Berlin for all recruits. “Local Japanese Proved Good Citizens and True by Spirit of Sacrifice,” The Vancouver Sun, 22 September 1919; Soldiers and Others In Front of the 131st Battalion C.E.F. Recruiting Office on Carrall Street, Vancouver, B.C., 1916. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-2-: CVA371-757. 34 Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1913 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1913); Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1914 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1914); Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1915 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1915). 35 Articles published in the Montreal Gazette indicate that Khaki Clubs provided meals and sleeping accommodations for returning veterans. An article in the British Columbia Record notes that the Comrades of the Great War held a three-week carnival at the Horse Show Building sometime in late December 1918 or early 1919 but does not indicate the purpose of the Comrades. Further research on the activities of Vancouver’s Khaki Club will include archival collections kept by local female philanthropists, as many of the organizers mentioned in regards to the Montreal club were women. Research into Vancouver’s branch of the Comrades of the Great War requires newspaper searches for mention of the organization, as well as locating any pamphlets or programmes related to the carnival at the Horse Show Building. “At Khaki Club,” The Montreal Gazette, 14 December 1918, 7; “In New Khaki Club: Preparations for Receiving Soldiers Underway,” The Montreal Gazette, 9 October 1918, 7; “Khaki is Club is Busy: Accommodation Taxed To Capacity on ‘Peace Day,’” The Montreal Gazette, 21 July 1919, 4; “May Cost $1000 to Make Horse Show Building Safe for Big Meetings,” British Columbia Record, 6 December 1918, 1. 36 In conjunction with the Women’s Canadian Club, the Prisoners of War Department organized Dime Days to raise funds for Canadian prisoners overseas, organizing female volunteers to solicit donations from the public across Vancouver. Additional research on the Red Cross Society’s activities in Vancouver is required, including where various branches were located within the city, the services they provided to returning soldiers, additional fundraising activities conducted by women’s organizations, and possibly evidence on cases of shell shock in Vancouver soldiers. “Dime Day Will Soon Be Here,” Calgary Daily Herald, 18 November 1915; "Prisoners of War Work Was Instituted by Red Cross," The Daily World, 11 November 1919. 37 CVA, Major Matthews Collection, Box: 505-B-6, file 142, Invitation to Vancouver Pioneers’ Dinner, 15 April 1957; Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1913 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1913). 38 Anne Rogers organized tag days for Syrian and Palestinian Relief, the National Institute for the Blind, Serbian Relief, the French Red Cross, the Overseas Chaplain’s Emergency Fund, and Halifax Relief. She was awarded two medals for the work she conducted for the French Red Cross. CVA, City of Vancouver Archives Pamphlet Collection, microfilm AM1519-: PAM1919-28, Calendar of Women War Workers, 1919. 20  39  Notable women’s war organizations during the First World War included the Women’s Canadian Club and the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire. 40 Further research is required on the employment statistics of women in Vancouver during the war; however, as women’s employment during the war was considered to be a temporary aberration, it may be difficult to locate accurate statistics. In addition, more information is required regarding wartime work performed by working class women, as most of the information on women’s employment available in secondary and primary literature is focussed on wealthy and middle class females. Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1917 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1917); “Insurance Field Now Has Vancouver Woman,” The Vancouver Sun, 8 April 1918. 41 Henderson’s Greater Vancouver City Directory 1912 (Vancouver, BC: Henderson Publishing Company, 1912). 42 CVA, A. Stewart McMorran 29th (Vancouver) Battalion Collection, microfilm, AM1519-: PAM1977-29, Alvo von Alvensleben, 1977. 43 Additional research on German internment in Vancouver is needed to understand the experiences of less prominent figures that did not have the financial means to flee the country. This research should include population statistics, business records, directory listings, written oral histories and diaries to examine how internment impacted German, Austrian and Ukrainian society in the city. 44 The block also features the Winch Building, the Customs Examining Warehouse Building, and the Federal Building. In 1986, these four buildings were renovated into Sinclair Centre. Vancouver Public Library (hereafter VPL), Historical Building Register, Post Office Building. 45 The City of Vancouver Archives possesses a number of lists compiled by the city’s postmaster, detailing the men killed or missing in action from the 29th Battalion. The lists reveal significant losses in April and September 1916, August 21 1917 and August 9 1918, corresponding with the 29th Battalion’s participation at St. Eloi Craters, the Battle of the Somme, the Battle of Lens and the Battle of Amiens, respectively. Further research is needed to verify the purpose of the lists compiled by the postmaster. The archival description provided by the City of Vancouver suggests that these lists may have been used to check the register (following conscription); however, the notation has been applied to lists dated from 1916 to 1918, so the postmaster may have compiled them for another reason prior to the enactment of conscription. CVA, 29th (Vancouver) Battalion Association fonds, Box: 565-B-2, file 5, Postmaster’s List Presumably To Check Register, 1916-1918; Ibid., Box: 565-B-3, file 2, Postmaster’s List – To Check Register, 1918; Ibid., Box: 565-B-3, file 1, Postmaster’s Register, 1917-1918. 46 “6th Has Given Many Officers,” The Daily Province, 27 July 1916. 47 On April 5 1917, British Columbian women were given the right to vote and hold office in provincial elections; shortly thereafter, the Wartime Elections Act allowed any women serving in the armed forces (as a nurse) or related to a man serving in the war to vote in federal elections. CVA, Major Matthews Collection, Box: 505-D-7, file 95, Story of Women’s Suffrage; “Dedicate the Nation – Women’s Assistance,” The Vancouver Sun, 16 April 1915; “Miss Una Saunders Addresses Canadian Club, ” The News Advertiser, 16 April 1915; The Vancouver Sun, 4 December 1917. 48 Ibid., 21 June 1918. 49 A photograph of the station shows the sparse settlement of Vancouver in the 1880s, requiring a much smaller terminal station than today. First Vancouver Station, Vancouver, B.C., 1888. Canadian Pacific Archives (hereafter CPA). NS11267. 50 nd 2 Vancouver Station, Vancouver, B.C., 5 September 1899. Photo by Joseph W. Heckman. CPA. A12594. 51 29th Military Departure In Front of C.P.R. Station Old Station Partially Dismantled, Vancouver, B.C., 1914. Photo by Stuart Thomson. CVA, Stuart Thomson fonds, AM1535-: CVA99-1090; 72nd Regiment, Seaforth Highlanders of Canada Prior to Entraining at New C.P.R. Station, Vancouver, B.C., 22 August 1914. Photo by Stuart Thomson. CVA, Stuart Thomson fonds. AM54-S4-: Mil P224; 72nd Seaforths Band and Crowd at Railway Station, Vancouver, B.C., 1914. Photo by Stuart Thomson. CVA, Stuart Thomson fonds, AM1535-: CVA99-1173; Crowds Waving Goodbye to Troops in Train, Vancouver, B.C., 1914. Photo by James Luke 21  Quiney. CVA, James Luke Quiney fonds. AM1584-: CVA7-143; Military Men With Kit Waiting to Board Train, Vancouver, B.C., 1914-1918. Photo by Stuart Thomson. CVA, Stuart Thomson fonds. AM1535-: CVA99-1182. 52 The epidemic resulted in 900 deaths (out of a population of 100,000) and sickened 30,000. Additional primary research is required on public responses to the epidemic; however, there is a shortage of newspaper material on the epidemic as city officials wanted to prevent chaos and overburdening hospitals. Thus, diaries and letters may be the best source of information on individual perceptions of the influenza epidemic. Margaret W. Andrews, “Epidemic and Public Health: Influenza in Vancouver, 1918-1919,” BC Studies, no. 34 (1977): 27. 53 Armistice Day Procession on Granville Street at Georgia Street, Vancouver, B.C., 11 November 1918. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-: Mil P14.2; Crowd Gathered for Armistice Day on Granville Street North of Georgia Street, Vancouver, B.C., 11 November 1918. Photo by Stuart Thomson. CVA, Stuart Thomson fonds. AM54-S4-: Mil P14.1; “Germany Surrenders – How Vancouver Celebrated,” The Vancouver, 11 November 1926; Officers and Civilians on Granville Street at Georgia Street on Armistice Day, Vancouver, B.C., 11 November 1918. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-: Mil P90. 54 CPR War Memorial – CPR Station, Vancouver, B.C., 193-. Photo by Walter E. Frost. CVA, Walter E. Frost fonds. AM1506-S-1: CVA447-252; Thirkell, 108; Unveiling of Memorial for C.P.R. Employees, Vancouver, B.C., 29 April 1922. CVA, Major Matthews Collection. AM54-S4-: Mon P100. 55 CVA, Women’s Canadian Club of Vancouver fonds, Box: 591-D-4, file 1, Scrapbook, “After War Problem Confronts Women,” 24 September 1918.  22  

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