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The UBC Herbarium : an institutional history Godwin, Nicole 2013

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   The	
  UBC	
  Herbarium:	
  an	
  institutional	
  history	
   	
   	
   Nicole	
  Godwin	
   	
    	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
   Report	
  prepared	
  at	
  the	
  request	
  of	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
   Herbarium	
  in	
  partial	
  fulfillment	
  of	
  UBC	
  Geog	
  429:	
  Research	
  in	
  Historical	
   Geography	
  for	
  Dr.	
  David	
  Brownstein	
    	
    Godwin	
  2	
    	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   Abstract:	
  	
   	
    The	
   University	
   of	
   British	
   Columbia	
   (UBC)	
   Herbarium	
   was	
   created	
   by	
   John	
    Davidson	
  in	
  1912	
  and	
  he	
  saw	
  the	
  expansion	
  of	
  the	
  institution	
  until	
  he	
  retired	
  in	
  1948.	
   Since	
  then,	
  little	
  has	
  been	
  documented	
  about	
  its	
  history	
  involving	
  the	
  individuals	
  who	
   have	
   played	
   important	
   roles	
   in	
   its	
   development.	
   The	
   Directors	
   of	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   aligned	
  with	
  the	
  Head	
  of	
  the	
  Botany	
  Department	
  after	
  John	
  Davidson	
  retired,	
  and	
  before	
   Gerald	
   Straley	
   was	
   appointed	
   in	
   1992;	
   because	
   of	
   this,	
   many	
   individuals	
   were	
   seen	
   largely	
   as	
   figureheads	
   and	
   it	
   is	
   the	
   curatorial	
   staff,	
   technicians,	
   and	
   collection	
   managers	
   who	
   have	
   been	
   essential	
   for	
   the	
   institution’s	
   operation	
   and	
   growth.	
   The	
   computerization	
   process	
   beginning	
   in	
   the	
   late	
   1970s	
   and	
   early	
   1980s	
   was	
   a	
   major	
   project	
   that	
   brought	
   a	
   welcomed	
   advancement	
   and	
   ease,	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   difficulty	
   and	
   frustration.	
  This	
  paper	
  will	
  set	
  the	
  stage	
  for	
  further	
  research	
  and	
  begins	
  to	
  fill	
  the	
  gap	
  in	
   the	
  institution’s	
  history.	
  	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    Godwin	
  3	
    1.	
  Introduction	
  	
   John	
   Davidson	
   created	
   the	
   University	
   of	
   British	
   Columbia’s	
   herbarium	
   and	
   oversaw	
  the	
  expansion	
  of	
  the	
  institution	
  from	
  1912-­‐1948.	
  Once	
  John	
  Davidson	
  retired	
   from	
   his	
   position,	
   little	
   is	
   known	
   about	
   the	
   institutions	
   history,	
   including	
   who	
   the	
   directors	
   were,	
   what	
   years	
   they	
   were	
   in	
   charge,	
   and	
   what	
   major	
   changes	
   or	
   projects	
   aligned	
   with	
   certain	
   directors.	
   The	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   is	
   an	
   institution	
   that	
   stores	
   dried	
   and	
   mounted	
   specimens	
   for	
   research	
   purposes,	
   and	
   it	
   includes	
   one	
   of	
   the	
   largest	
   Bryophyte	
   Collections	
   in	
   all	
   of	
   North	
   America.	
   All	
   levels	
   of	
   staffing	
   of	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium,	
  including	
  assistant	
  curators,	
  technicians	
  and	
  collection	
  managers,	
  have	
  been	
   integral	
   to	
   its	
   operation.	
   In	
   this	
   paper,	
   I	
   begin	
   with	
   setting	
   up	
   the	
   context	
   how	
   John	
   Davidson	
   was	
   able	
   to	
   create	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   and	
   Botanical	
   Gardens	
   in	
   1912	
   and	
   then	
   go	
   on	
   to	
   write	
   briefly	
   about	
   the	
   expansion	
   from	
   1912-­‐1948.	
   Moving	
   on	
   to	
   1948-­‐ present,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  giving	
  an	
  overview	
  of	
  the	
  timeline	
  of	
  directors,	
  will	
  explore	
  the	
  UBC	
   Herbarium	
  as	
  an	
  institution	
  through	
  analyzing	
  three	
  separate	
  job	
  positions:	
  a	
  Director,	
  a	
   Curator,	
  and	
  a	
  Collection	
  Manager.	
  I	
  will	
  focus	
  this	
  further	
  by	
  exploring	
  the	
  process	
  of	
   the	
  computerization	
  of	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium.	
  The	
  information	
  in	
  the	
  paper	
  pertaining	
  to	
   the	
   more	
   recent	
   history	
   was	
   derived	
   from	
   oral	
   history	
   interviews.	
   I	
   hope	
   to	
   begin	
   to	
   fill	
   a	
  gap	
  in	
  the	
  knowledge	
  of	
  the	
  undocumented	
  history	
  of	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium.	
  	
   2.	
  Pacific	
  Northwest	
  Botanical	
  History	
  before	
  1911	
   The	
   University	
   of	
   British	
   Columbia’s	
   (UBC)	
   Herbarium	
   has	
   an	
   extremely	
   short	
   history	
   relative	
   to	
   the	
   history	
   of	
   botany	
   itself.	
   	
   Before	
   John	
   Davidson	
   arrived	
   in	
   1911	
   and	
   began	
   his	
   journey	
   to	
   create	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   and	
   Botanical	
   Gardens,	
   the	
   botanical	
  history	
  in	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Northwest	
  is	
  largely	
  undocumented	
  and	
  pertains	
  to	
  two	
    	
    	
    Godwin	
  4	
    separate	
   histories:	
   the	
   indigenous	
   people’s	
   oral	
   knowledge	
   passed	
   down	
   through	
   generations	
   for	
   practical	
   uses	
   of	
   plants,	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   the	
   colonial	
   extraction	
   of	
   botanical	
   specimens	
  from	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Northwest	
  in	
  the	
  1800s.1	
  	
   Until	
   the	
   early	
   1800s	
   the	
   Pacific	
   Northwest	
   was	
   largely	
   unexplored;	
   David	
   Douglas	
  was	
  the	
  first	
  botanist	
  to	
  explore	
  such	
  an	
  extensive	
  area,	
  make	
  discoveries,	
  and	
   send	
   a	
   large	
   amount	
   of	
   seeds	
   back	
   to	
   Europe	
   from	
   the	
   area.2	
   David	
   Douglas	
   came	
   to	
   the	
   region	
  in	
  1825	
  and	
  was	
  there	
  for	
  two	
  years	
  before	
  returning	
  home;	
  in	
  that	
  time	
  he	
  made	
   relations	
  with	
  natives	
  and	
  explored	
  a	
  vast	
  area	
  of	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Northwest	
  Region.	
  Douglas	
   sent	
   many	
   specimens	
   back	
   to	
   Europe,	
   and	
   took	
   a	
   great	
   number	
   more	
   with	
   him	
   on	
   his	
   journey	
   home.3	
   The	
   extraction	
   of	
   specimens	
   was	
   important	
   at	
   this	
   time,	
   and	
   with	
   no	
   large	
   infrastructure	
   or	
   settlements	
   on	
   the	
   West	
   Coast,	
   there	
   was	
   no	
   incentive	
   to	
   keep	
   records	
  locally.	
  This	
  short	
  botanical	
  history	
  of	
  the	
  1800s	
  accounts	
  partly	
  for	
  why	
  there	
   was	
  no	
  regional	
  herbarium	
  or	
  botanical	
  collection	
  in	
  the	
  region	
  made	
  before	
  Davidson	
   moved	
  to	
  Vancouver	
  in	
  1911.	
  	
   Botanical	
   history	
   does	
   not	
   only	
   include	
   European	
   learning	
   by	
   extraction	
   of	
   specimens	
   through	
   expansion	
   and	
   exploration.	
   The	
   history	
   of	
   botany	
   in	
   the	
   Pacific	
   Northwest	
   goes	
   largely	
   undocumented,	
   as	
   Aboriginal	
   traditional	
   plant	
   use	
   knowledge	
   has	
  largely	
  been	
  passed	
  through	
  generations	
  by	
  way	
  of	
  oral	
  histories	
  and	
  story	
  telling.	
   That	
   knowledge	
   pertains	
   to	
   foods,	
   medicines,	
   technology	
   and	
   handicrafts.4	
   Because	
   aboriginal	
   botanical	
   knowledge	
   is	
   passed	
   through	
   oral	
   histories	
   rather	
   than	
   keeping	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   1	
  Davies,	
  John,	
  Douglas	
  of	
  the	
  forests,	
  11-­‐24.;	
  Marles,	
  R.J.,	
  C.	
  Clavelle,	
  L.	
  Monteleone,	
  N.	
  Tays	
  and	
  D.	
  Burns,	
  Aboriginal	
   Plant	
  Use	
  in	
  Canada’s	
  Northwest	
  Boreal	
  Forest,	
  Vancouver,	
  2000.	
   2	
  Davies,	
  John,	
  Douglas	
  of	
  the	
  forests,	
  11-­‐24.	
   3	
  Davies,	
  John,	
  Douglas	
  of	
  the	
  forests,	
  Seattle,	
  1980,	
  17.	
   4	
  Marles,	
  et	
  al.	
  Aboriginal	
  Plant	
  Use	
  in	
  Canada’s	
  Northwest	
  Boreal	
  Forest.	
   	
    	
    Godwin	
  5	
    textual	
  records	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  European	
  extraction	
  of	
  specimens	
  rather	
  than	
  keeping	
  them	
   local,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  arrived	
  to	
  Vancouver,	
  B.C.	
  in	
  1911	
  to	
  a	
  botanical	
  ‘blank-­‐slate’,	
  for	
   creating	
  a	
  Botanical	
  Garden	
  and	
  herbarium	
  institution	
  in	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Northwest.	
  	
   3.	
  Herbaria:	
  the	
  necessity	
  of	
  the	
  institution	
   	
    John	
  Davidson	
  saw	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  keeping	
  a	
  record	
  of	
  botanical	
  specimens	
  in	
    the	
  Pacific	
  Northwest,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  hosting	
  a	
  conjunctive	
  Botanical	
  Garden.	
  Herbaria	
  host	
   specimens	
  that	
  are	
  whole	
  or	
  portions	
  of	
  plants	
  that	
  are	
  pressed	
  flat	
  on	
  a	
  stiff	
  sheet.5	
  The	
   specimens	
   are	
   selected	
   to	
   show	
   features	
   such	
   as	
   leaves,	
   flowers,	
   stems,	
   roots	
   and	
   fruits.	
   The	
   collected	
   specimens	
   are	
   given	
   a	
   number	
   tag	
   relating	
   to	
   the	
   field	
   notebook.	
   After	
   being	
   pressed	
   flat	
   and	
   dried	
   they	
   are	
   ready	
   for	
   the	
   herbarium.6	
   Collectors	
   in	
   the	
   field	
   write	
  in	
  their	
  notebooks	
  characteristics	
  such	
  as	
  locality,	
  latitude,	
  longitude	
  and	
  altitude;	
   frequency,	
   how	
   much	
   of	
   that	
   plant	
   is	
   in	
   the	
   immediate	
   area;	
   habitat,	
   description	
   of	
   things	
  like	
  topography,	
  soil,	
  water	
  supply;	
  description	
  of	
  the	
  plant	
  itself,	
  leaves,	
  flowers,	
   fruit,	
  local	
  and	
  vernacular	
  names,	
  bark;	
  and	
  a	
  collecting	
  number.7	
  	
   	
    Herbaria	
  are	
  institutions	
  that	
  collect	
  specimens	
  from	
  field	
  collectors	
  and	
  arrange	
    them	
   so	
   that	
   the	
   same	
   species	
   are	
   located	
   together	
   and	
   related	
   plants	
   are	
   close	
   with	
   each	
  other	
  forming	
  a	
  collection.8	
  The	
  staffing	
  of	
  herbaria	
  will	
  vary	
  greatly	
  in	
  response	
  to	
   availability	
   of	
   funding	
   and	
   the	
   overall	
   goal	
   of	
   the	
   size	
   of	
   the	
   institution.	
   Staffing	
   requirements	
   can	
   include	
   a	
   Director,	
   nominated	
   assistant,	
   Botanists	
   who	
   are	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   5	
  Womersley,	
  J.S.,	
  Ch.	
  1:	
  Field	
  Collecting	
  in:	
  Plant	
  collecting	
  and	
  herbarium	
  development:	
  a	
  manual,	
  Rome,	
  1981.	
  	
  	
   6	
  Womersley,	
  Ch.	
  1:	
  Field	
  Collecting	
  in:	
  Plant	
  collecting	
  and	
  herbarium	
  development.	
   7	
  Womersley,	
  Ch.	
  1:	
  Field	
  Collecting	
  in:	
  Plant	
  collecting	
  and	
  herbarium	
  development,	
  2.	
  	
   8	
  Womersley,	
  J.S.,	
  Ch.	
  4:	
  The	
  Function	
  and	
  Organization	
  of	
  an	
  Herbarium	
  in:	
  Plant	
  collecting	
  and	
  herbarium	
   development:	
  a	
  manual,	
  Rome,	
  1981.	
   	
    	
    Godwin	
  6	
    professionally	
   qualified,	
   short	
   term	
   contracts	
   for	
   specific	
   jobs,	
   curatorial	
   staff	
   for	
   processing	
  collections,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  clerical	
  and	
  administrative	
  staff.9	
   	
    The	
  UBC	
  herbarium	
  houses	
  many	
  specimens	
  that	
  are	
  now	
  on	
  their	
  way	
  to	
  being	
    endangered	
  or	
  extinct;	
  because	
  of	
  this	
  issue,	
  herbaria	
  and	
  botanical	
  gardens	
  are	
  ways	
  to	
   document	
   and	
   preserve	
   these	
   species.10	
   John	
   Davidson	
   held	
   this	
   point	
   of	
   view.	
   As	
   he	
   created	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium,	
  he	
  also	
  jointly	
  created	
  the	
  University’s	
  Botanical	
  Gardens,	
   which	
   is	
   Canada’s	
   oldest	
   University	
   Botanical	
   Garden.11	
   The	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   and	
   the	
   Botanical	
   Garden	
   were	
   both	
   created	
   by	
   John	
   Davidson,	
   and	
   both	
   are	
   still	
   very	
   alive	
   today.	
  	
   4.	
  Botany	
  in	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Northwest	
  1911-­1948:	
  The	
  Davidson	
  Years	
   	
    John	
   Davidson	
   was	
   born	
   in	
   1878	
   in	
   Aberdeen,	
   Scotland.12	
   He	
   married	
   Annie	
    Seivwright	
   Fraser	
   on	
   August	
   3,	
   1903	
   who	
   was	
   also	
   Scotland	
   born.	
   They	
   had	
   three	
   children	
   together,	
   one	
   of	
   which	
   was	
   adopted:	
   Jean	
   Elizabeth	
   Walker	
   Davidson,	
   born	
   August	
   1904,	
   John	
   Fraser	
   Davidson,	
   born	
   January	
   1911,	
   and	
   their	
   last	
   daughter	
   was	
   born	
  in	
  November	
  1918	
  and	
  adopted	
  in	
  April	
  1921.13	
  In	
  1910	
  John	
  Davidson	
  had	
  double	
   pneumonia	
   and	
   after	
   recovering	
   his	
   doctor	
   told	
   him	
   to	
   leave	
   Aberdeen	
   for	
   a	
   better	
   climate.	
   While	
   looking	
   into	
   where	
   to	
   go,	
   he	
   found	
   that	
   BC’s	
   botany	
   had	
   very	
   little	
   recorded,	
   he	
   decided	
   that	
   if	
   he	
   moved	
   there,	
   he	
   would	
   try	
   to	
   set	
   up	
   an	
   institution	
   to	
   record	
   the	
   province’s	
   botany;	
   John	
   Davidson	
   arrived	
   in	
   Vancouver	
   in	
   January	
   1911,	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   9	
  Womersley,	
  J.S.,	
  Ch.	
  8:	
  Herbarium	
  Administration	
  in:	
  Plant	
  collecting	
  and	
  herbarium	
  development:	
  a	
  manual,	
  Rome,	
   1981.	
   10	
  Marles,	
  et	
  al.	
  Aboriginal	
  Plant	
  Use	
  in	
  Canada’s	
  Northwest	
  Boreal	
  Forest.	
   11	
  Blackdog	
  Publishing	
  Limited,	
  Botanic	
  Gardens,	
  37.	
   12	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  Information	
  Services	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  1	
  File	
  4,	
  “Biographical	
  notes	
  Davidson,	
   John”.	
    13	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  1	
  File	
  1,	
  “Historical	
  Sketch	
  of	
  the	
  late	
  John	
    Davidson”.	
  	
    	
    	
    Godwin	
  7	
    followed	
  by	
  his	
  family	
  in	
  July	
  1911.14	
  Davidson	
  inaugurated	
  BC’s	
  Provincial	
  herbarium	
   in	
   1911	
   and	
   in	
   the	
   following	
   year,	
   he	
   was	
   appointed	
   BC’s	
   first	
   official	
   ‘Provincial	
   Botanist’.15	
  Dr	
  H.E.	
  Young,	
  BC’s	
  Minister	
  of	
  Education	
  gave	
  Davidson	
  the	
  responsibility	
   and	
   honour	
   to	
   lay	
   the	
   foundation	
   of	
   Botanical	
   survey	
   for	
   the	
   Province	
   which	
   resulted	
   in	
   the	
  formation	
  of	
  the	
  herbarium	
  for	
  the	
  University’s	
  Botany	
  Department.16	
  He	
  expanded	
   the	
  UBC	
  herbarium	
  greatly	
  by	
  writing	
  around	
  the	
  province	
  through	
  schools	
  asking	
  for	
   specimens	
  to	
  be	
  sent	
  in.	
  He	
  also	
  went	
  on	
  many	
  field	
  collecting	
  missions	
  and	
  was	
  the	
  first	
   to	
   prepare	
   a	
   map	
   showing	
   the	
   river	
   basins	
   of	
   BC	
   in	
   1912.17	
   The	
   new	
   Provincial	
   University	
   (later,	
   UBC)	
   had	
   its	
   first	
   Botanical	
   Office	
   set	
   up	
   at	
   821	
   W.	
   Pender	
   St.	
   Vancouver,	
  British	
  Columbia;	
  this	
  location	
  was	
  the	
  beginnings	
  of	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium.18	
   In	
   1915	
   the	
   herbarium	
   had	
   grown	
   so	
   much	
   that	
   Davidson	
   sent	
   a	
   request	
   for	
   more	
   workers	
   -­‐	
   he	
   noted	
   that	
   there	
   was	
   too	
   much	
   for	
   Mary	
   Grutchy,	
   his	
   assistant,	
   to	
   do.19	
   Davidson	
  retired	
  in	
  1948	
  after	
  37	
  years	
  overseeing	
  the	
  expansion	
  of	
  the	
  UBC	
  herbarium	
   and	
   Botanical	
   Garden.20	
   His	
   first	
   wife,	
   Annie	
   Davidson,	
   died	
   February	
   19,	
   1936	
   at	
   the	
   age	
   of	
   45;	
   Davidson	
   remarried	
   to	
   Edna	
   Catherine	
   Baily	
   Stoddart	
   on	
   June	
   5,	
   1939	
   and	
   stayed	
  with	
  her	
  until	
  he	
  died	
  on	
  February	
  10,	
  1970	
  due	
  to	
  stroke	
  complications	
  in	
  the	
   Vancouver	
  General	
  Hospital.21	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   14	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  1	
  File	
  1,	
  “Historical	
  Sketch	
  of	
  the	
  late	
  John	
   Davidson”.	
   15	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  1	
  File	
  3,	
  “J.	
  Davidson’s	
  Firsts”.	
   16	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  1	
  File	
  2,	
  “Application	
  for	
  job”.	
   17	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  1	
  File	
  3,	
  “J.	
  Davidson’s	
  Firsts”.	
   18	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  1	
  File	
  1,	
  “Historical	
  Sketch	
  of	
  the	
  late	
  John	
   Davidson”.	
   19	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  5	
  File	
  3,	
  “Second	
  Annual	
  Report”.	
   20	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  3	
  File	
  2,	
  “The	
  Botany	
  Department”.	
   21	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds,	
  Box	
  1	
  File	
  1,	
  “Historical	
  Sketch	
  of	
  the	
  late	
  John	
   Davidson”.	
   	
    	
    Godwin	
  8	
    5.	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Herbarium	
  1948-­Present	
  	
   	
    After	
   John	
   Davidson	
   retired	
   in	
   1948,	
   the	
   UBC	
   herbarium’s	
   history	
   is	
   less	
    documented.	
  The	
  Director	
  corresponded	
  with	
  the	
  Head	
  of	
  the	
  Botany	
  Department	
  until	
   1992,	
   when	
   Gerald	
   Straley	
   was	
   appointed	
   to	
   the	
   position.	
   Through	
   correspondence	
   and	
   oral	
   interviews	
   with	
   Jack	
   Maze	
   and	
   Iain	
   Taylor,	
   I	
   have	
   found	
   that	
   until	
   Gerald	
   Straley	
   was	
   appointed,	
   the	
   director	
   acted	
   largely	
   as	
   a	
   ‘figurehead’	
   and	
   overseer	
   of	
   the	
   institution	
  as	
  a	
  whole,	
  rather	
  than	
  having	
  a	
  heavy	
  direct	
  involvement.	
  The	
  exeptions	
  are	
   T.M.C.	
  Taylor	
  and	
  R.F.	
  Scagel	
  who	
  both	
  had	
  heavy	
  involvement	
  with	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
   before	
   being	
   appointed	
   Head	
   of	
   the	
   Department,	
   and	
   the	
   Director	
   of	
   the	
   Herbarium.	
   Table	
  1	
  shows	
  the	
  timeline	
  of	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  Directors	
  from	
  1912	
  to	
  present.	
  It	
  is	
   important	
  to	
  expand	
  on	
  certain	
  individuals	
  and	
  events	
  that	
  took	
  place	
  in	
  this	
  timeline.	
  	
   	
    The	
  UBC	
  Herbarium’s	
  collections	
  are	
  sizeable;	
  the	
  Bryophyte	
  collection	
  is	
  one	
  of	
    the	
   largest	
   in	
   Canada,	
   and	
   one	
   of	
   the	
   bigger	
   ones	
   in	
   all	
   of	
   North	
   America.	
   The	
   Lichen	
   Collection	
   still	
   brings	
   many	
   surprises	
   as	
   they	
   are	
   receiving	
   new	
   species	
   all	
   the	
   time.22	
   The	
  Herbarium	
  extensively	
  covers	
  British	
  Columbia	
  and	
  lots	
  of	
  North	
  America	
  and	
  has	
   received	
   specimens	
   by	
   donations	
   from	
   research	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   exchange	
   with	
   other	
   institutions.	
   Notable	
   contributors	
   have	
   been	
   R.	
   Bandoni,	
   K.I.	
   Beamish,	
   J.	
   Calder,	
   J.	
   Davidson,	
  J.W.	
  Eastham,	
  H.	
  Kennedy,	
  V.J.	
  Krajina,	
  P.	
  Lebednik,	
  R.	
  Scagel,	
  W.B.	
  Schofield,	
   G.B.	
   Straley,	
   and	
   T.M.C.	
   Taylor.23	
   The	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   is	
   one	
   of	
   the	
   first	
   places	
   that	
   a	
   researcher	
   in	
   the	
   Pacific	
   Northwest	
   will	
   stop	
   to	
   get	
   material	
   and	
   as	
   an	
   institution	
   continues	
  to	
  be	
  a	
  valuable	
  asset	
  to	
  the	
  academic	
  community.	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   22	
  Olivia	
  Lee,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  25,	
  2013.	
  	
   23	
  Member	
  Herbaria,	
  Consortium	
  of	
  Pacific	
  Northwest	
  Herbaria	
  website,	
  http://www.pnwherbaria.org/herbaria.php	
   	
    	
    Godwin	
  9	
    Table	
  1:	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  Directors	
  from	
  1912-­Present24	
    Name	
    Start	
    End	
    Notes	
    John	
  Davidson	
    1912	
    1948	
    “Demonstrator”	
    T.M.C.	
  Taylor	
    1950	
    1969	
    “Curator”	
  	
    G.N.H.	
  Towers	
    1964	
    1972	
    “Director”	
    R.F.	
  Scagel	
  	
    1972	
  	
    1986	
    “Director”	
    A.D.M.	
  Glass	
    1986	
    1991	
    “Director	
    A.J.F.	
  Griffiths	
    1991	
    1992	
    “Acting	
  Director”	
    D.H	
  Turpin	
    1991	
    1992	
    Title	
  but	
  not	
  Acting	
    G.B.	
  Straley	
  	
    1992	
    1997	
    “Director”	
    None	
    1998	
    1999	
    	
    F.R.	
  Ganders	
    2000	
    2005	
    “Director”	
    J.	
  Whitton	
    2005	
    Present	
    “Director	
    	
    Director:	
  Robert	
  Scagel	
   Robert	
   Scagel	
   had	
   the	
   opportunity	
   to	
   be	
   a	
   student	
   of	
   John	
   Davidson	
   while	
   completing	
   his	
   B.A.,	
   1947	
   and	
   M.A.	
   1948	
   at	
   UBC.	
   This	
   was	
   “when	
   the	
   Department	
   of	
   Biology	
  &	
  Botany	
  was	
  in	
  the	
  Faculty	
  of	
  Arts	
  -­‐	
  before	
  the	
  establishment	
  of	
  the	
  Faculty	
  of	
   Science”.25	
   Further	
   degrees	
   include	
   a	
   Ph.D	
   from	
   the	
   University	
   of	
   California,	
   Berkeley	
   in	
   1952,	
   and	
   F.R.S.C.,	
   1954.26	
   Scagel	
   has	
   four	
   children:	
   “Robert	
   Kevin,	
   B.Sc.,	
   M.A.(U.B.C.);	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   24	
   Timeline	
  of	
  Directors	
  for	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  from	
  1912-­‐Present.	
  Source:	
  Information	
  drawn	
  from	
  archived	
  UBC	
   Calendars	
  available	
  at:	
  http://ubcpubs.library.ubc.ca/?db=calendars2	
   25	
  Robert	
  Scagel,	
  Personal	
  Communication,	
  2013.	
  	
   26	
  Robert	
  Scagel,	
  Personal	
  Communication,	
  2013.	
  	
    	
    	
    Godwin	
  10	
    Nancy	
   Kathleeen;	
   Ernest	
   John;	
   Carolyn	
   Frances,	
   B.Sc.	
   (U.B.C.),	
   Ph.D.	
   (Oregon	
   State	
   University)”.27	
  As	
  well	
  as	
  being	
  Director	
  of	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  1972-­‐1986,	
  Scagel	
  was	
   the	
   Curator	
   of	
   the	
   Phycological	
   Collection	
   from	
   1952-­‐2000;	
   he	
   also	
   spent	
   time	
   as	
   the	
   Assistant	
  Dean	
  of	
  Science,	
  and	
  the	
  Associate	
  Dean	
  of	
  Science.	
  Scagel’s	
  involvement	
  with	
   the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  was	
  long	
  lasting,	
  during	
  his	
  time	
  as	
  director,	
  the	
  computerization	
  of	
   the	
   specimens	
   began,	
   a	
   difficult	
   process	
   in	
   which	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   was	
   one	
   of	
   the	
   first	
  to	
  attempt	
  in	
  North	
  America.	
  	
   In	
   the	
   late	
   1970s	
   to	
   early	
   1980s	
   Director	
   Scagel	
   decided	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   should	
  be	
  a	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Northwest	
  Consortium;	
  to	
  do	
  this	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  had	
   to	
   know	
   the	
   physical	
   size	
   of	
   the	
   collections	
   it	
   housed.	
   Before	
   this	
   time	
   only	
   the	
   Vascular	
   and	
   Algae	
   Collections	
   had	
   an	
   exact	
   count	
   with	
   accession	
   numbers.	
   This	
   led	
   to	
   the	
   hiring	
   of	
   a	
   summer	
   student	
   to	
   take	
   an	
   exact	
   physical	
   count	
   of	
   the	
   specimens	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   had.	
   The	
   Bryophyte	
   Collection	
   was	
   so	
   huge	
   that	
   all	
   new	
   additions	
   have	
   accession	
   numbers	
   stemming	
   from	
   that	
   summer’s	
   physical	
   count,	
   however	
   not	
   every	
   specimen	
  currently	
  has	
  an	
  accession	
  number	
  assigned	
  to	
  it.	
  It	
  is	
  hoped	
  that	
  one	
  day	
  all	
   specimens	
  will	
  be	
  in	
  the	
  database	
  properly	
  and	
  have	
  an	
  accession	
  number,	
  for	
  now	
  at	
   least	
  the	
  specimens	
  are	
  preserved	
  properly	
  and	
  will	
  not	
  be	
  forgotten.28	
   Curator:	
  Jack	
  Maze	
   	
    Jack	
   Maze	
   was	
   the	
   Curator	
   of	
   the	
   Vascular	
   Plant	
   Collection	
   from	
   1979	
   to	
   1988.	
    Dr.	
  Maze	
  signed	
  papers	
  necessary	
  for	
  loans	
  of	
  specimens,	
  made	
  some	
  decisions	
  about	
  to	
   which	
   institutional	
   exchanges	
   took	
   place,	
   and	
   he	
   “would	
   occasionally	
   go	
   through	
   the	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   27	
  Robert	
  Scagel,	
  Personal	
  Communication,	
  2013.	
  	
   28	
  Olivia	
  Lee,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  25,	
  2013.	
  	
   	
    	
    Godwin	
  11	
    herbarium	
  and	
  throw	
  out	
  stuff	
  that	
  shouldn’t	
  take	
  up	
  space”.29	
  There	
  was	
  some	
  policy	
   involved	
  having	
  to	
  do	
  with	
  the	
  exchange	
  process:	
  which	
  institution	
  would	
  benefit	
  from	
   British	
  Columbia	
  specimens,	
  and	
  which	
  would	
  benefit	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium.	
  While	
  Maze	
   was	
   the	
   Curator,	
   he	
   notes	
   that	
   a	
   major	
   project	
   was	
   trying	
   to	
   get	
   Vladimir	
   Krajina’s	
   Collection	
   incorporated	
   into	
   the	
   Herbarium.	
   Maze	
   believed,	
   while	
   he	
   was	
   at	
   the	
   Herbarium,	
  that	
  the	
  most	
  valuable	
  collection	
  was	
  the	
  Bryophyte	
  Collection,	
  and	
  that	
  the	
   Vascular	
  Plants	
  Collection	
  was	
  a	
  good	
  regional	
  and	
  teaching	
  collection.	
  	
  	
   	
    Jack	
   Maze	
   was	
   at	
   the	
   herbarium	
   at	
   the	
   time	
   when	
   the	
   director,	
   Robert	
   Scagel	
    began	
  the	
  attempts	
  to	
  computerize	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium’s	
  specimens	
  into	
  a	
  database.	
  The	
   Technician	
  at	
  the	
  time	
  was	
  John	
  Pinder-­‐moss.	
  Pinder-­‐moss	
  would	
  look	
  after	
  “day-­‐to-­‐day	
   running	
   of	
   the	
   place,	
   sending	
   stuff	
   out	
   on	
   exchange,	
   processing	
   loans	
   that	
   go	
   out,	
   processing	
   loans	
   that	
   came	
   back	
   in”.30	
   Pinder-­‐moss	
   also	
   had	
   much	
   to	
   do	
   with	
   the	
   beginnings	
   of	
   the	
   computerization	
   process,31	
   until	
   his	
   position	
   was	
   eventually	
   eliminated.	
   Jack	
   Maze	
   left	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   after	
   Cynthia	
   Dorant’s	
   position	
   was	
   terminated	
  so	
  that	
  the	
  money	
  could	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  hire	
  students.	
  	
   Collections	
  Manager:	
  Olivia	
  Lee	
   	
    Olivia	
  Lee	
  is	
  a	
  Collections	
  Manager	
  at	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  and	
  has	
  been	
  with	
  the	
    institution	
   since	
   September	
   1975.	
   She	
   received	
   her	
   Bachelors	
   of	
   Science,	
   Majoring	
   in	
   Botany	
   from	
   the	
   University	
   of	
   British	
   Columbia	
   before	
   she	
   began	
   working	
   at	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium.	
   Lee	
   originally	
   was	
   hired	
   to	
   deal	
   with	
   the	
   Bryophyte	
   Collection,	
   Fungi	
   Collection	
   and	
   Lichen	
   Collection.	
   Her	
   main	
   function	
   has	
   been	
   to	
   curate	
   collections,	
   to	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   29	
  Jack	
  Maze,	
  Oral	
  history	
  Interview,	
  March	
  4,	
  2013.	
  	
   30	
  Jack	
  Maze,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  4,	
  2013.	
  	
   31	
  Pinder-­‐moss,	
  John,	
  Computerization	
  of	
  the	
  herbarium	
  of	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  in:	
  Faber,	
  Daniel	
  J.,	
   Proceedings	
  of	
  1981	
  workshop	
  on	
  care	
  and	
  maintenance	
  of	
  natural	
  history	
  collections,	
  Syllogeus	
  44	
  (1983)	
  145-­‐149.	
    	
    	
    Godwin	
  12	
    make	
   sure	
   they	
   are	
   ready	
   for	
   use.	
   When	
   there	
   is	
   a	
   Curator	
   designated	
   for	
   a	
   collection,	
  –	
   for	
  example,	
  the	
  Bryophyte,	
  Lichen	
  and	
  Fungi	
  -­‐	
  Lee	
  is	
  there	
  for	
  the	
  physical	
  work:	
  she	
   makes	
   sure	
   the	
   specimens	
   that	
   come	
   in	
   are	
   processed,	
   labeled,	
   filed,	
   and	
   does	
   some	
   identification.	
  Her	
  job	
  does	
  not	
  allow	
  much	
  time	
  for	
  identification,	
  and	
  main	
  tasks	
  have	
   been	
  to	
  prepare	
  specimens	
  for	
  users	
  and	
  to	
  help	
  researchers	
  and	
  deal	
  with	
  loans.	
  	
   	
  	
    The	
  UBC	
  Herbarium,	
  although	
  they	
  have	
  more	
  staff	
  than	
  most	
  herbaria,	
  has	
  faced	
    the	
   issue	
   of	
   being	
   short	
   of	
   staff.	
   The	
   numerous	
   donations	
   of	
   specimens	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   the	
   constant	
   struggle	
   for	
   space	
   have	
   added	
   to	
   the	
   workload	
   seen	
   by	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium’s	
   staff.	
  Lee	
  remarks	
  she	
  has	
  spent	
  much	
  time	
  re-­‐shuffling	
  the	
  Herbarium	
  to	
  create	
  space;	
   during	
   the	
   time	
   where	
   the	
   specimens	
   were	
   kept	
   in	
   “shoe	
   boxes	
   in	
   open	
   shelving”	
   the	
   constant	
  reshuffling	
  meant	
  that	
  she	
  did	
  not	
  “really	
  seem	
  to	
  be	
  able	
  to	
  have	
  the	
  time	
  to	
   progress	
  further	
  in	
  real	
  work”.32	
  The	
  constrained	
  space	
  and	
  constant	
  reshuffling	
  as	
  an	
   issue	
  has	
  been	
  accompanied,	
  at	
  times,	
  by	
  a	
  lack	
  of	
  staff	
  to	
  handle	
  the	
  workload.	
  When	
   Julie	
  Oliviera	
  retired,	
  having	
  held	
  a	
  position	
  similar	
  to	
  Olivia	
  Lee’s,	
  there	
  was	
  a	
  period	
  of	
   five	
   years	
   when	
   Lee	
   had	
   the	
   added	
   responsibility	
   of	
   doing	
   entries	
   for	
   the	
   Vascular	
   Collection.	
   The	
   two	
   women	
   had	
   previously	
   shared	
   the	
   responsibility	
   for	
   doing	
   the	
   databasing	
   and	
   loans	
   for	
   the	
   Vascular	
   Collection;	
   Lee	
   would	
   do	
   the	
   loans	
   for	
   the	
   collection	
  and	
  Oliviera	
  did	
  the	
  entering	
  of	
  specimens	
  into	
  the	
  new	
  database.	
  	
  It	
  took	
  five	
   years	
  until	
  there	
  was	
  a	
  part	
  time	
  employee,	
  Cindy	
  Sayer,	
  hired	
  to	
  take	
  on	
  some	
  of	
  the	
   workload,	
   hired	
   as	
   a	
   Vascular	
   and	
   Algae	
   Collections	
   Manager.	
   Sayer’s	
   position	
   is	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   32	
  Olivia	
  Lee,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  25,	
  2013.	
   	
    	
    Godwin	
  13	
    presently	
   held	
   by	
   Linda	
   Jennings	
   who	
   is	
   the	
   Assistant	
   Curator	
   of	
   the	
   Vascular	
   and	
   Algae	
   Collections.33	
  	
   	
    Although	
  there	
  has	
  been	
  a	
  heavy	
  workload,	
  Lee	
  has	
  always	
  encouraged	
  people	
  to	
    deposit	
   material	
   and	
   has	
   never	
   wanted	
   to	
   refuse	
   donations	
   of	
   specimens.	
   The	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
  is	
  important	
  in	
  that	
  sense	
  because	
  the	
  deposited	
  specimens	
  and	
  the	
  “habitat	
   might	
   not	
   be	
   there	
   anymore	
   so	
   [Lee]	
   always	
   encourage	
   people	
   to	
   deposit,	
   but	
   at	
   the	
   same	
  time	
  every	
  time	
  people	
  deposit	
  material	
  [Lee]	
  will	
  have	
  to	
  find	
  space	
  for	
  it	
  to	
  add	
   onto	
   the	
   backlog”.34	
   The	
   backlog	
   is	
   unavoidable;	
   for	
   an	
   institution	
   as	
   ambitious	
   as	
   the	
   UBC	
  Herbarium,	
  the	
  important	
  matter	
  is	
  that	
  there	
  will	
  be	
  “material	
  for	
  the	
  future	
  when	
   that	
   might	
   be	
   the	
   only	
   representation	
   of	
   that	
   organism”.35	
   It	
   is	
   the	
   individuals	
   who	
   care	
   about	
  expanding	
  and	
  caring	
  for	
  the	
  institution	
  that	
  let	
  it	
  thrive	
  in	
  more	
  recent	
  years.36	
  	
   Computerization	
  of	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  	
   	
    The	
   process	
   of	
   the	
   computerization	
   of	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   began	
   in	
   the	
   late	
    1970s.	
   A	
   representative	
   from	
   the	
   Botany	
   Department	
   had	
   written	
   to	
   the	
   National	
   Museums	
   of	
   Canada	
   to	
   ask	
   for	
   financial	
   assistance	
   to	
   begin	
   creating	
   a	
   database	
   of	
   the	
   specimens	
   in	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium.	
   After	
   being	
   declined,	
   Robert	
   Scagel,	
   as	
   the	
   Director,	
   designated	
   funds	
   for	
   the	
   computerization	
   project.37	
   Organizing	
   for	
   the	
   large	
   undertaking	
   was	
   largely	
   done	
   by	
   Jack	
   Maze,	
   and	
   the	
   herbarium	
   hired	
   a	
   graduate	
   student,	
  David	
  Crow,	
  to	
  create	
  a	
  program	
  to	
  write	
  data	
  input,	
  label	
  making,	
  data	
  storage	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   33	
  Olivia	
  Lee,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  25,	
  2013.	
   34	
  Olivia	
  Lee,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  25,	
  2013.	
  	
   35	
  Olivia	
  Lee,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  25,	
  2013	
  	
   36	
  Iian	
  Taylor,	
  Personal	
  communication,	
  2013.	
  	
    37	
  Pinder-­‐moss,	
  Computerization	
  of	
  the	
  herbarium	
  of	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  145.	
    	
    	
    Godwin	
  14	
    and	
  data	
  retrieval.38	
  The	
  problems	
  involved	
  with	
  the	
  creation	
  of	
  the	
  database	
  included	
   time,	
   cost,	
   error	
   correction	
   issues	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   creating	
   another	
   layer	
   of	
   work	
   for	
   employees.	
   Originally	
   the	
   storage	
   of	
   the	
   database	
   was	
   on	
   magnetic	
   tape,	
   which	
   made	
   making	
  corrections	
  very	
  difficult.	
  The	
  time	
  and	
  cost	
  of	
  this	
  project	
  was	
  immense	
  –	
  the	
   UBC	
  Herbarium	
  was	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  first	
  of	
  its	
  kind	
  to	
  attempt	
  such	
  a	
  mission.	
  New,	
  slow,	
  and	
   expensive	
  technology	
  was	
  used	
  for	
  many	
  years.39	
  What	
  became	
  initially	
  quite	
  useful	
  was	
   the	
  speeding	
  up	
  of	
  work,	
  however,	
  there	
  was	
  also	
  an	
  enormous	
  backlog	
  of	
  work	
  created,	
   as	
   every	
   new	
   specimen	
   would	
   need	
   to	
   be	
   put	
   in	
   the	
   database	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   the	
   old	
   specimens	
   dating	
   back	
   from	
   when	
   John	
   Davidson	
   began	
   Collections.40	
   After	
   Maze	
   had	
   left,	
   René	
   Bland	
   got	
   the	
   programs	
   shifted	
   around	
   so	
   that	
   they	
   could	
   be	
   put	
   on	
   a	
   PC.41	
   The	
  initial	
  attempts	
  to	
  put	
  the	
  specimens	
  from	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  in	
  an	
  online	
  database	
   is	
   a	
   fascinating	
   process	
   as	
   the	
   institutions	
   advances	
   were	
   in	
   a	
   sense,	
   ahead	
   of	
   what	
   technology	
  allowed	
  them	
  to	
  do	
  at	
  the	
  time.	
  	
  	
   6.	
  Conclusion	
   	
    The	
   botanical	
   history	
   in	
   the	
   Pacific	
   Northwest	
   was	
   not	
   locally	
   documented	
    before	
   John	
   Davidson	
   arrived	
   in	
   1911.	
   This	
   is	
   because	
   there	
   was	
   very	
   late	
   colonial	
   exploration	
   in	
   the	
   region,	
   and	
   little	
   settlement	
   until	
   the	
   late	
   1800s.	
   John	
   Davidson	
   oversaw	
  the	
  expansion	
  of	
  the	
  UBC	
  Herbarium	
  and	
  Botanical	
  Garden.	
  The	
  collections	
  in	
   the	
  Herbarium	
  have	
  grown	
  substantially	
  and	
  are	
  invaluable	
  today	
  as	
  a	
  record	
  of	
  Pacific	
   Northwest	
   botanical	
   specimens.	
   The	
   Directors	
   of	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   aligned	
   with	
   the	
   Head	
   of	
   the	
   Botany	
   Department	
   until	
   Gerald	
   Straley	
   was	
   appointed	
   in	
   1992.	
   Apart	
   from	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   38	
  Jack	
  Maze,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  4,	
  2013.	
  	
   39	
  Pinder-­‐Moss,	
  Computerization	
  of	
  the	
  herbarium	
  of	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  148.	
  	
   40	
  Olivia	
  Lee,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  25,	
  2013.	
  	
   41	
  Jack	
  Maze,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  4,	
  2013.	
  	
   	
    	
    Godwin	
  15	
    Robert	
   Scagel	
   who	
   was	
   the	
   Director	
   from	
   1972-­‐1986,	
   many	
   of	
   the	
   Directors	
   before	
   Gerald	
   Straley	
   were	
   seen	
   more	
   as	
   a	
   figurehead.	
   Positions	
   that	
   had	
   high	
   involvement	
   were	
   the	
   Curators,	
   Assistant	
   Curators,	
   Collection	
   Managers	
   and	
   Technicians.	
   More	
   research	
   is	
   needed	
   to	
   further	
   explore	
   the	
   inner-­‐workings	
   of	
   the	
   UBC	
   Herbarium	
   and	
   identify	
  individuals	
  who	
  had	
  important	
  involvement	
  in	
  its	
  history.	
  	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    	
    Godwin	
  16	
    References	
   Secondary	
  Sources	
   Blackdog	
  Publishing	
  Limited,	
  Botanic	
  Gardens:	
  a	
  living	
  history,	
  London,	
  2007.	
  	
   Brockway,	
  Lucile	
  H.,	
  Science	
  and	
  Colonial	
  Expansion:	
  The	
  role	
  of	
  the	
  British	
  Royal	
  Botanic	
   Gardens,	
  New	
  York,	
  1979.	
   Brownstein,	
   D.,	
   Nature,	
   order,	
   and	
   chaos	
   in	
   John	
   Davidson’s	
   archive.	
   BC	
   Studies	
   159	
   (2008)	
  121-­‐130.	
   Davies,	
  John,	
  Douglas	
  of	
  the	
  forests,	
  Seattle,	
  1980.	
  	
   Kozloff,	
  Eugene,	
  Plants	
  and	
  Animals	
  of	
  the	
  Pacific	
  Northwest:	
  an	
  illustrated	
  guide	
  to	
  the	
   natural	
  history	
  of	
  western	
  Oregon,	
  Washington,	
  and	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  Seattle,	
  1976.	
  	
   Marles,	
   R.J.,	
   C.	
   Clavelle,	
   L.	
   Monteleone,	
   N.	
   Tays	
   and	
   D.	
   Burns,	
   Aboriginal	
   Plant	
   Use	
   in	
   Canada’s	
  Northwest	
  Boreal	
  Forest,	
  Vancouver,	
  2000.	
  	
   Member	
    Herbaria,	
    Consortium	
    of	
    Pacific	
    Northwest	
    Herbaria	
    website,	
    http://www.pnwherbaria.org/herbaria.php	
   Pinder-­‐Moss,	
  J.,	
  Computerization	
  of	
  the	
  herbarium	
  of	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
   in:	
   Faber,	
   Daniel	
   J.,	
   Proceedings	
   of	
   1981	
   workshop	
   on	
   care	
   and	
   maintenance	
   of	
   natural	
  history	
  collections,	
  Syllogeus,	
  No	
  44,	
  Ottawa,	
  1983,	
  145-­‐149.	
  	
   Saarela,	
   J.M.,	
   Lipsen,	
   L.,	
   Sayre,	
   C.M.,	
   Whitton,	
   J.,	
   Vascular	
   plant	
   type	
   specimens	
   in	
   the	
   University	
   of	
   British	
   Columbia	
   Herbarium	
   (UBC),	
   Journal	
   of	
   the	
   Botanical	
   Research	
   Institute	
  of	
  Texas,	
  1.1	
  (2007)	
  437-­‐448.	
  	
   Schefke,	
   B.,	
   Imperial	
   Science:	
   a	
   naturalist	
   in	
   the	
   Pacific	
   Northwest.	
   Endeavour,	
   32.3	
   (2008)	
  111-­‐116.	
    	
    	
    Godwin	
  17	
    Stevenson,	
   S.K.,	
   H.M.	
   Armleder,	
   A.	
   Arsenault,	
   D.	
   Coxson,	
   C.	
   DeLong	
   and	
   M.	
   Jull,	
   British	
   Columbia’s	
  Inland	
  Rainforest,	
  Vancouver,	
  2011.	
   Waskey,	
   Andrew	
   J.,	
   Botany,	
   in:	
   Philander,	
   George	
   S.	
   (ed),	
   Encyclopedia	
   of	
   Global	
   Warming	
  and	
  Climate	
  Change,	
  SAGE	
  Publications	
  Inc.,	
  2008,	
  131-­‐135.	
   Womersley,	
  J.S.,	
  Plant	
  collecting	
  and	
  herbarium	
  development:	
  a	
  manual,	
  Rome,	
  1981.	
  	
  	
   Primary	
  Sources	
  	
   Iain	
  Taylor,	
  Personal	
  Communication,	
  2013.	
   Jack	
  Maze,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  4,	
  2013.	
  	
   Olivia	
  Lee,	
  Oral	
  history	
  interview,	
  March	
  25,	
  2013.	
  	
   Saundra	
  Lindstrom,	
  Personal	
  Communication,	
  2013.	
   University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  John	
  Davidson	
  Fonds	
   University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  The	
  Department	
  of	
  Botany	
  Fonds	
   University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Archives,	
  Information	
  Services	
  Fonds	
    	
    

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