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Infrastructural adaptation : barriers and challenges municipalities encounter when responding to climate… Bishop, Breanna May 7, 2015

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        	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  M a y 	   7 	   2 0 1 5 	  Report prepared at the request of Dillon Consulting Ltd. in partial fulfilment of UBC Geography 419: Research in Environmental Geography, for Dr. David Brownstein.	  Infrastructural	  Adaptation:	  Barriers	  and	  Challenges	  Municipalities	  Encounter	  When	  Responding	  to	  Climate	  Change	  Breanna	  Bishop	  	  	  	  	  	  	  08 Fall	  Bishop 2 Table	  of	  Contents	  Executive	  Summary	  ........................................................................................................................................	  3	  Introduction	  ......................................................................................................................................................	  4	  Methodology	  .....................................................................................................................................................	  5	  The	  Issues	  Being	  Encountered	  by	  Metro	  Vancouver	  Municipalities	  .............................................	  5	  Adaptation	  Options	  .........................................................................................................................................	  7	  Municipal	  Responsibilities	  and	  Infrastructural	  Adaptation	  ............................................................	  9	  Adaptation	  Challenges	  and	  Barriers	  .........................................................................................................	  9	  Recommendations	  and	  Future	  Research	  .............................................................................................	  15	  Bibliography	  ..................................................................................................................................................	  17	   	      Bishop 3 Executive	  Summary	  Climate change has the potential to impact infrastructure in Metro Vancouver municipalities through the changing hydrological regime including increased frequency and severity of storm and rainfall events, as well as through sea level rise. Municipalities are at different stages of responding to climate change, and different challenges and barriers exist when adapting infrastructure to climate change. These challenges and barriers are as follows:  Organizational	  and	  Regulatory	  These challenges include issues of jurisdiction in terms of what the municipality controls and what is outside of their control, and ensuring that different groups are able to work together and comprise different timelines, budgets, needs and goals. There could be a stronger level of coordination and leadership to better connect different municipalities in the region. Recommendation: Conduct partnership studies and projects with municipalities that have  shared geographies (i.e. coastlines), infrastructure, or interests. This will better connect the region and create a more unified and strengthened response to climate change.  Perception	  Some municipalities have identified perception barriers when responding to climate change. These occur based on the degree of public understanding and willingness to support adaptation initiatives, as well as the amount of political will for mayor and council. These are influenced by the perception of climate change as being in the distant future, as well as competing priorities for immediate action. Recommendation: Public outreach should occur around the benefits of pursuing infrastructural adaptations to climate change. Because few infrastructural changes have been implemented thus far as a direct response to climate change, less public outreach has occurred. However, this will influence public perceptions and the willingness of city council to pursue decisions around climate change adaptation.  Economic	  One continual challenge when implementing infrastructural adaptations is the amount of funding available. This is both with regards to time and resources allocated towards conducting studies and developing strategies, as well as implementing these strategies through infrastructural changes.  Recommendation: Conduct partnership studies and projects with multiple municipalities. This will facilitate cross-municipal collaboration as well as reduce the financial and resource pressures placed on one individual municipality.  Informational	  Although data and information about climate change is available, this is not practical for establishing design criteria. This can lead to adjacent municipalities interpreting values differently, and responding in different ways. Additionally, a challenge exists when trying to adapt to climate change while considering seismic potential of the region.  Recommendation: Work with municipalities to translate climate change data and studies into more coherent design criteria. Additionally, when establishing design criteria this should consider seismic potential, and how climate change will interact with that.    Bishop 4 Introduction	  There are increasing global and national catastrophic events that are directly related to global climate change. Thus far, Metro Vancouver has not experienced such severe weather as the droughts, floods, and record levels of precipitation that other areas of the world are experiencing. However, climate stresses related to severe heat, heavy precipitation and a declining snowpack will increase in frequency and/or severity in North America within the next decade (IPCC-North America 2014, p. 1443). This gives Metro Vancouver municipalities an opportunity to implement infrastructural development and policy strategies that address future climate change scenarios, prior to experiencing such catastrophic events.  The purpose of this report is to answer the question: what are the major barriers and challenges that municipalities encounter when responding to climate change? In answering this question, this report will provide a comprehensive assessment of Metro Vancouver municipal adaptations to climate change, highlighting present barriers and challenges encountered by municipalities when responding to climate change. An emphasis will be placed on infrastructural adaptations. Presently, there are discrepancies between aging infrastructure, current development pressures and past planning decisions. The infrastructure that exists in many Metro Vancouver municipalities was designed and built based on past climate data. Although this may have been accurate at the time of construction, it may not correspond with current climate projections. This is compounded by a lack of information on how climate change may impact municipal assets in the future (Geist & Howlett 2013, p. 135). Although municipal sustainability plans may identify climate change mitigation targets and potential adaptation strategies, they do not always address what barriers may be encountered when adapting to climate change.  Bishop 5 Method	  This investigation has been informed by two different research methods. A literature review was conducted, identifying expected climate change impacts in the Metro Vancouver region, as well as frameworks to assess adaptation strategies. Expert interviews took place, and questions were designed to identify what adaptation methods are being pursued, what barriers are being encountered, and the level of cross-sector integration of adaptation strategies. All research was conducted according to the ethics standards outlined in Tri-Council Policy Statement on Ethical Research Involving Humans, and abiding by the UBC Behavioural Research Ethics Board requirements. Nine interview took place with representatives from Metro Vancouver municipalities with populations over 30,000. These include the cities of Vancouver, West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Surrey, Port Moody, and Coquitlam, in addition to 3 anonymous municipal representatives. The following section will outline the climate change related issues being encountered by Metro Vancouver Municipalities that impact infrastructure. Following that I will discuss adaptation options available to the region; municipal roles and responsibilities with respect to these options; and concluding with adaptation challenges and barriers. Areas of crossover will be identified; where policies and strategies are not yet implemented or major barriers exist, and climate change projections have identified potential threats. This will serve to inform recommendations for future action and research.  The	  Issues	  Being	  Encountered	  by	  Metro	  Vancouver	  Municipalities	  	  Some infrastructural vulnerabilities to climate change in Metro Vancouver may emerge from a changing hydrological regime impacting rainfall and flood events. Most precipitation indices project an increase in total rainfall amount, and in the frequency and magnitude of rainfall events (Engineers Canada, 2008). Although no individual event can be attributed solely to climate change, the increased frequency and severity of such events could indicate that climate Bishop 6 change is a factor in this, and could be raising the baseline (B. Cross, personal communication, March 5, 2015). This has implications for sewerage systems, floodplain developments, and infrastructure in low-lying coastal areas. In some areas of Metro Vancouver the potential impacts are more evident. For example, the Corporation of Delta is a low-lying coastal community, home to approximately 100,000 citizens. Because of its low elevation it is already reliant on dikes, and a large proportion of the community is at risk from climate change induced sea level rise and storm surges (Barron, 2012, p. 2177).  Other municipalities are also vulnerable to flooding and inundation of coastal, creek and low lying areas due to more intense precipitation and sea level rise. Although the region has an extensive system of dikes, this system was not designed with climate change in mind, and may be insufficient in protecting communities from increased flooding and sea level rise expected to accompany global climate change (Stephens & Hanschka, 2014, p. 913). This has significant implications for municipal infrastructure and development. Sea level rise has the potential impact of coastal flooding, which when combined with increased rainfall flooding could worsen drainage systems (B. Badelt, personal communication, March 5, 2015). The City of North Vancouver has identified that buildings, infrastructure and development patterns are not well adapted to future climate scenarios. Infrastructural problems have been identified as including undersized storm sewers, excess heat gain and lack of cooling in buildings, as well as roads and buildings built below sufficient flood construction levels (City North Vancouver, 2013, p. 9). The City of Port Moody has identified that sewer drainage and road infrastructure surrounding the foreshore may be impacted most by climate change. Sea level rise of 1 meter may impact storm water outfalls into the ocean. Additionally, if rainfall levels increase, municipalities may see greater inflow and infiltration into the sanitary system, reducing the overall capacity of the Bishop 7 pipes (J. Little, personal communication, March 11, 2015). Municipal shorelines may also be threatened by climate change, where the impacts of sea level rise may be exacerbated by storm surge and king tides (R. Fung, personal communication, March 26, 2015). For the most part, there is an awareness of the potential problems of climate change and what updates would be required for dike heights, drainage systems, and issues that it may create for storm water conveyance (Municipal Representative A, personal communication, March 12, 2015).  Municipalities of Metro Vancouver have been exposed to extreme weather events, which are projected to affect British Columbians more than any other climate risk (Hardford, 2008, p. 5). The projected increase in frequency and severity has major implications for communities and infrastructure. Furthermore, increased frequency and severity of precipitation events also has implications for infrastructure such as storm sewers, which may not be large enough to support increased rainfall levels. The City of West Vancouver has identified this as a potential vulnerability because storm sewers were designed according to Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curves based on historical data (R. Fung, personal communication March 26, 2015). This has also been identified as a potential vulnerability for the Vancouver Sewerage Area, which spans across multiple municipalities. With projected climate trends indicating increased rainfall quantities, the likelihood of overflows will also increase (Engineers Canada, 2008). Protection and reinforcement of this infrastructure, and others, requires collaboration between multiple municipalities and agencies.  Adaptation	  Options	  Although there is no overarching set of guidelines that is consulted when implementing adaptation policies and developments, many municipalities have developed their own guiding documents. Municipalities such as the cities of Vancouver, North Vancouver and Surrey have identified specific adaptation priorities that fall under municipal jurisdiction. These also highlight Bishop 8 the importance of targeting infrastructure when adapting to climate change, especially because the long lifespan that infrastructure has exposes it to past, present and future climate scenarios. In addition to the direct impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure, maladapted infrastructure may incur indirect impacts through asset management costs, insurance claims, and negative effects on reputation (City of Vancouver, nd, p. 14). Although this report places a stronger emphasis on infrastructural adaptations and related barriers being encountered by municipalities, the strongest adaptation policies are characterized by integration across sectors – infrastructure, energy, water, economic development, resource management, and agriculture – requiring an integrated response in long term strategies (Hardford, 2008). This cross-sector integration is an adaptation strategy applied in different municipalities of Metro Vancouver. For example, the City of West Vancouver sees climate change and sustainability as a responsibility and consideration that permeates throughout all municipal departments (R. Fung, personal communication, March 26, 2015). However, adaptations specific to infrastructure are typically targeted through engineering and public works departments, and other departments may have less of a focus on climate change (D. Soong, personal communication, March 13, 2015).  Several different adaptation strategies and options exist, and based on interviews that have been conducted, municipalities are currently working to increase their understandings of climate change through looking at current climate data and future projections, using projections that have been provided by senior levels of government and external scientific bodies. Different municipalities are at different stages in this process; some have completed assessments, some are in the process or have intentions to, and others have yet to pursue any major projects around increasing understandings of climate change. However, but is a desire within these municipalities to understand what climate change will mean for different municipal services. The next section Bishop 9 of this paper will be discussing municipal roles and responsibilities in Metro Vancouver, with an emphasis on targeting infrastructure as a mechanism for adaptation to climate change.  Municipal	  Responsibilities	  and	  Infrastructural	  Adaptation	   Municipal responsibilities with respect to infrastructure and climate change typically involve providing infrastructure to manage rainfall runoff as well as approving development  and providing flood protection in low lying areas (D. Soong, personal communication, March 13, 2015). However, there is also a role that municipalities play in terms of encouraging public action (B Cross, personal communication, 2015). The amount of public outreach around climate change is often determined by the particular project being approached by the municipality, and is restricted depending on time and resources available. There seems to be a lot of responsibility placed on the municipal level of government. Provinces have struggled to shape their own climate change policies and because of this many climate change responses have devolved to the municipal level (Geist and Howlett, 2013, p. 134). For example, diking along the Fraser River is a municipal responsibility, even though the provincial government will dictate the guidelines and standards for dike heights and structure (Municipal Representative B, personal communication, March 2, 2015). This disjuncture can pose a challenge when trying to adequately respond to climate change. The following section will outline key barriers and challenges such as this that municipalities encounter when responding to climate change.   Adaptation	  Challenges	  and	  Barriers	  This section of the report will be informed largely by interviews with representatives from Metro Vancouver municipalities. Based on the key barriers identified, overarching categories have been identified as Organizational & Regulatory; Perception; Economic; and Informational. Under these categories specific barriers will be discussed in further detail. Some overarching barriers that have been identified in existing literature are scientific uncertainty of Bishop 10 future climate trends as well as a lack of effective public engagement. These have been identified as barriers in building support of flood-related policy and action (Barron, 2012 p. 2177). I will now outline constraints on infrastructure adaptations as a mechanism and response to climate change. These have been categorically broken down into the 4 areas mentioned previously, and I will be providing both broad and specific examples from municipalities in Metro Vancouver. The majority of this section has been informed by expert interviews conducted with Metro Vancouver municipal employees.  Organizational	  &	  Regulatory	  Barriers	  One challenge that has been identified is the notion of jurisdiction issues in terms of what the municipality controls and what is outside of their control. It is important to make sure that the different groups are working together and corresponding different timelines, budgets, needs, and goals. For example, North Vancouver is subject to building codes set by the province, which may not correspond with what North Vancouver needs to address with regards to climate change projections and infrastructure (B Cross, personal communication, 2015). Integrating adaptation actions and policies across sectors and scales remains a key challenge when responding to climate change (Adger et at. 2005, p79). Coordinating different organizational policies on multiple scales becomes essential in creating a strong adaptation policy. Internally, there is the need for a space to have conversations around climate change adaptation. Some people may be reluctant to acknowledge sea level rise as dampening investments in the city, and this sort of environment is not necessarily conducive to productive conversations around climate change adaptation (Municipal Representative A, personal communication, March 12, 2015). When these conversations are not happening, a municipality is less likely to move forward with infrastructural adaptations to climate change. A survey conducted by British Columbia’s Environment Ministry with public sector employees found that 49% of survey respondents Bishop 11 indicated that it is not clear to them how climate change will affect their work (BC Stats, 2012 p. 6). This lack of understanding can be a significant barrier, especially when municipalities are wanting to integrate climate change response strategies into multiple sectors. Moving to a larger scale, regionally there could be more leadership in connecting the region and coordinating responses (B. Badelt, personal communication, March 5, 2015), although the Fraser Basin Council does a good job facilitating cross-municipality collaboration. An example of successful regional collaboration is with networks created amongst  European Cities by the Climate Alliance, which brings advantages by promoting the exchange of experience, knowledge, tools and recommendations (qtd. in Geist and Howlett,  2013 p. 138). Collaboration across municipalities may help bridge the main gaps between policy and action. However, the willingness to collaborate will also be impacted by local perceptions of climate change.  Perception	  Challenges	  Although municipalities may have identified adaptation priorities or infrastructural vulnerabilities, often climate change is considered less important than other concerns (Cohen et al., 2012, p. 26). Because of conflicting priorities, things like a projected mean sea level rise of 1.2 m by 21001 (Barron, 2012, p. 2186) may be perceived as something worth addressing in the distant future. Less priority could be given to addressing sea level rise because it is not presently visible, and changes occur incrementally over a longer period. However, events with more visible and immediate consequences may inspire more targeted short term action to accompany long term planning. For example, the City of Surrey has experienced king tides, which when combined with storm surges are becoming high enough to top the dikes. The tides are also                                                 1 “This is a median projection between higher forecasts of around 2 m and lower forecasts of around 0.5 m by 2100. The 1.2 m forecast corresponds to the British Columbia Ministry of Environment’s recommended projection of sea level rise and other coastal hazards for planning and design in BC” (Barron, 2012, p. 2186).  Bishop 12 directly impacting ground water in Crescent Beach, and these evident impacts have led to infrastructural adaptations. One adaptation was  rebuilding a pump station to be adaptable if sea level rises before the end of its life. Seismic potential was also considered when rebuilding this infrastructure in order for it to be more resilient. Community consultation also occurred with this project, ensuring that the building for the pump station would work with community standards (C. Baron, personal communication, 2015). The extent to which a municipality will pursue infrastructural adaptations to climate change is determined by the willingness and ability of that municipality. There is a potential barrier in terms of having the political will for the Mayor and Council. When politics operate on short term horizons, people may be reluctant to make long term decisions, especially if these are less favourable and may impact their ability for re-election (Municipal Representative B, personal communication, March 2, 2015). This is influenced by the degree of public understanding of climate change, and how it may impact their future. Even when communities express a high level of concern around climate change, there is often resistance to some adaptation solutions based on economic or quality of life concerns. For example, there can be opposition to raising seawalls where views and property values may be impacted (Barron, 2014, p. 2178).   When climate change is framed as something that will be experienced 100 years from now, any adaptation actions will not be viewed as essential to address immediately. What may prove helpful in harnessing support from City Council is translating scientific data and studies of climate change to more approachable terms that can be understood outside of a scientific context. The City of Surrey is currently working on developing a communication strategy to simplify technical details of climate reports in order to better communicate adaptation needs to both Bishop 13 public and city council (C. Baron, personal communication, 2015). When resources are limited within a municipality and money is spent according to priorities, if residents do not speak up about climate change or are passionate about a different project, the money will often be allocated elsewhere (Municipal Representative C, personal communication, March 23, 2015). Because climate change often competes with other priorities, this is a barrier both in terms of perception and resource availability.  Economic	  Barriers	  Municipalities are responsible for both providing and upgrading infrastructure, as well as providing funding sources for specific projects (Municipal Representative A, personal communication, March 12, 2015). This can be a problem for smaller municipalities with fewer constituents, as it limits the amount of funds internally available. For example, if any drastic and immediate infrastructural adaptations needed to occur in a municipality such as the City of Port Moody, these could not occur given the resources available. There would need to be additional engineering and scientific support to make informed decisions about design criteria for infrastructure (J. Little, personal communication, March 11, 2015). Decision making is also driven by economic efficiency, and the viability of implementing ‘best-value’ objectives (Adger et al., 2005, p. 80). When finances are not available within the municipality, external support would be required to implement these infrastructural changes. There is aging infrastructure which needs to be renewed, however, the financial burden to address climate change issues is added to the municipal level, and this is challenging with respect to responding in an adequate way (R. Fung, personal communication, March 26, 2015). The perceived economic efficiency of an adaptation action will be influenced by the timing of the action in relation to the climate change impact. Short term planning accompanied by high capital turn over rates results in the perception that adapting to short term climate variability is more economically efficient that Bishop 14 adapting to long term climate variability (Adger et al, 2005, p. 82), and this can be a major barrier in terms of introducing any major infrastructural changes. While perception influences where finances will be allocated, availability of adequate resources is one of the largest barriers in adapting to climate change. Essentially, if there is not enough budget available, municipalities cannot allocate time and resources to assessing the impact and ability to adapt (Municipal Representative B, personal communication, March 2, 2015). The issue with funding for climate change adaptation is that it is often in competition with other municipal priorities, which may seem more pressing. A potential solution to this would be finding municipal infrastructure that is being upgraded for reasons other than climate change, and finding ways to incorporate climate change projections into the existing project. Research identifies the importance of incorporating adaptation strategies into existing plans and policies, as actions are rarely implemented with climate change adaptation as the primary motivator (Picketts, 2012, p. 83). Many municipalities are at the stages of planning, conducting or completing studies and assessments, so what is really needed is funding in order to start building and implementing things that are coming out of the strategies and studies (B. Badelt, personal communication, March 5, 2015). Additionally, moving from data and projections towards implementing infrastructural changes is also influenced by the way climate data is depicted.  Informational	  Challenges	   Finally, infrastructural adaptations can only occur by having adequate data and projections on which they can be based. One major challenge with regards to this is the long timeframe and level of uncertainty that exists when planning for something that may occur 50 to 100 years from now (B. Badelt, personal communication, March 5, 2015). Often this long time frame is combined with a lack of practical information and guidelines. For example, there are not necessarily practical guidelines for managing rainfall runoff. Although there is information Bishop 15 available such as projected changes in IDF curves, this is often not practical in terms of establishing design criteria, and there has not been strong guidance to assist with establishing such criteria to adapt to climate change (D. Soong, personal communication, March 13, 2015). Documents pertaining to sea level rise and expected projections are provided by senior levels of government. These are not necessarily prescriptive and could lead to municipalities beside each other interpreting values differently and building their coastlines differently (B. Cross, personal communication, March 5, 2015). Although this has not necessarily happened, it could potentially be a major barrier especially when unified responses from multiple municipalities would result in a stronger and more resilient coastline.    Metro Vancouver is in a particularly vulnerable area in terms of seismic potential. This is something that many municipalities have been incorporating into their building codes and zoning laws. As municipalities begin to incorporate climate change projections into their design criteria, a few interviewees identified the challenge of trying to adapt to climate change while simultaneously planning new infrastructure developments considering the seismic potential of the area (C. Barron, personal communication, 2015). This was successfully applied during the rebuilding of a pump station at Crescent Beach in the City of Surrey. For future adaptations such as dike construction, assessments are looking at determining what type of infrastructure the ground can support, and whether or not the soil will be able to support the construction of dikes for example (C. Barron, personal communication, 2015).  Recommendations	  and	  Future	  Research	  Based on the main barriers identified by interviewees a few areas of cross-over have been identified; where policies and strategies are not yet implemented or major barriers exist, and climate change projections have identified potential threats. Given the number of barriers identified by interviewees and explained in the previous section, I have developed some Bishop 16 recommendations. It would benefit municipalities to translate climate change data and studies into more coherent design criteria. This will allow for infrastructural adaptations to be more readily implemented, and on a more consistent basis. Additionally, translating data into design criteria will also make the information easier to communicate with different stakeholders, including community members and City Council. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to try to incorporate long term planning as a framework shaping short term policy (Geist and Howlett, 2013, p. 141).   As a solution to the financial barriers that exist, and as a means to improve regional coordination and cross-municipality collaboration, it may be beneficial to pursue partnership studies working with multiple municipalities that share infrastructure, or coastlines. This will assist in strengthening regional collaboration, while reducing the economic and resource pressures placed on one individual municipality. It would also be beneficial to look at the ways in which infrastructural adaptations and design criteria can incorporate both expected climate change impacts as well as seismic potential for the region. Although earthquake standards are built into design criteria and zoning laws, the intersection of how climate change may impact this was identified as an area of interest for future studies and developments. Finally, as infrastructural adaptations are pursued, public outreach should occur continually to ensure that barriers around perception are minimized.       Bishop 17 Bibliography	   Adger, N.W., Arnell, N.W., & Tompkins, E.L.. (2005) Successful adaptation to climate  change across scales. Global Environmental Change, 15, 77-86. Barron, S., Canete, G., Carmichael, J., Flanders, D., Pond, E., Sheppard, S., & Tatebe, K. (2012).  A Climate Change Adaptation Planning Process for Low-Lying, Communities Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise. Sustainability, 4(12), 2176-2208. BC Stats. (2012) Preparing for a Changing Climate Perceptions of BC Public  Service Employees. Climate Action Secretariat. 1-70. City of Vancouver (n.d.). Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. Greenest City 2020, 1-56. City of North Vancouver. (2013). City of North Vancouver Climate Change Adaptation Plan,  1-26.  Cohen, S. J., Sheppard, S., Shaw, A., Flanders, D., Burch, S., Taylor, B., Hutchinson, D.,  Cannon, A., Hamilton, S., Burton, B., & Carmichael, J. (2012). Downscaling and visioning of mountain snow packs and other climate change implications in North Vancouver, British Columbia. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 17(1), 25-49. Engineers Canada. (2008). Vulnerability of Vancouver Sewerage Area Infrastructure to Climate  Change. Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability Committee. Geist, S. & M, Howlett. (2013) Multi-Level Governance and Place-Based Policy- Making for  Climate Change Adaptation: The European Experience and Lessons for British Columbia. BC Studies, 176, 133-154. Harford, D. (2008). Climate Change Adaptation: Planning for BC. Adaptation Priorities, Pacific  Institute for Climate Solutions, 3-28. IPCC. (2014). Chapter 26: North America. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and  Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1439-1498. Picketts, I. M., Werner, A. T., Murdock, T. Q., Curry, J., Déry, S. J., & Dyer, D. (2012).  Planning for climate change adaptation: Lessons learned from a community-based workshop. Environmental Science and Policy, 17, 82-93. Stevens, M. R., & Hanschka, S. (2014). Municipal flood hazard mapping: The case of British  Columbia, Canada. Natural Hazards, 73(2) 907-32. 	  Interviews	  Badelt, Brad. City of Vancouver. Personal Interview. March 5, 2015.  Baron, Carrie. City of Surrey. Personal Interview. March 12, 2015.  Cross, Ben. City of North Vancouver. Personal Interview. March 5, 2015.  Fung, Raymond. City of West Vancouver. Personal Interview. March 26, 2015. Little, Jeff. City of Port Moody. Personal Interview. March 11, 2015. Municipal Representative A. Personal Interview. March 12, 2015.  Municipal Representative B. Personal Interview. March 2, 2015. Municipal Representative C. Personal Interview. March 23, 2015.  Soong, Dana. City of Coquitlam. Personal Interview. March 13 2015.  


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