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Venue transportation management : an analysis of Transportation Management Plans in the City of Vancouver Moore, Rebecca Mar 22, 2015

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Venue Transportation Management An Analysis of  Transportation Management Plans in the City of  Vancouver Rebecca Moore  University of  British Columbia 22 March 2015 Report prepared at the request of  Charlotte Watson Consulting in partial fulfilment of  UBC Geography 419: Research in Environmental Geography, for Dr. David Brownstein. 
VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?1Contents  Executive Summary	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 3 Introduction	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 4 	 Importance of  Sustainable Transportation	 	 	 	 	 4 	 Methods	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 6 Literature Review	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 6 	 Characteristics of  Effective Measures	 	 	 	 	 	 6 	 Segmentation to Target Spectator Groups	 	 	 	 	 7 	 Best Practices from Other Venues and Cities		 	 	 	 8 	 Key Points to Carry Forward	 	 	 	 	 	 	 9 Nat Bailey Stadium	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 10 CFL and TravelSmart Partnership	 	 	 	 	 	 	 12 Conclusions & Recommendations	 	 	 	 	 	 	 13 Areas for Further Study	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 15 Bibliography	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 17 VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?2Executive Summary Making transport practices within the City of  Vancouver more sustainable is a key goal of  the current city administration. Sustainability must be incorporated into all areas of  transportation management for these goals to be achieved. This study examines how sustainability can be meaningfully incorporated into the Transport Management Plans (TMP) of  venues within the City of  Vancouver. This was achieved by carrying out expert interviews with key stakeholders, conducting a literature review and considering case studies. It was concluded that there were three key ways sustainability can be incorporated into TMPs. The following conclusions and recommendations were made for venues in Vancouver: 1. Incentivise the accommodation of  cars further away from the venue.  1.1. Use distanced-based parking tariffs. 1.2. Encourage carpooling.  2. Incentivise the use of  transit and bicycles to access the venue. 2.1. Use segmentation spectator analysis to determine incentives.  2.2. Provide discounted transit fares.  2.3. Provide complimentary, secure bike parking. 3. Provide easy-to-access information on transportation options.  3.1. Provide clear information on the venue website.  3.2. Make information accessible.  3.3. Advertise transit options. 
VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?3Introduction Transport and traffic are key to the functioning of  sporting and cultural venues, with the plans a venue puts into place becoming incredibly informative of  the methods spectators use to access the venue. Therefore, whether the venue promotes sustainable modes of  transport or the use of  cars critically influences visitor choices. For real changes to be made in mode share, sustainability must be meaningfully incorporated into all stages of  the Transport Management Plan (TMP). This study attempts to answer the research question: how can sustainability be meaningfully incorporated into Transport Management Plans of  venues within the City of  Vancouver? The intention of  this research is to gain an understanding of  current transport management practices of  key venues in Vancouver and make planning and communication based recommendations that can be implemented by venues within Vancouver Importance of  Sustainable Transportation The increasing reliance individuals have on the use of  private vehicles as their primary mode of  transportation is generating vast environmental; societal; and economic problems - ranging from the production of  toxic gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, to increasing local air and noise pollution - threatening the current quality of  urban life.  Though there have been 1technological innovations aimed at reducing the impact of  cars on the environment, these have not been effective enough to achieve sufficient reductions in the negative impacts of  private vehicles.  Instead, it is now widely believed that behavioural changes must be made to help create 2more sustainable transportation systems.  These issues are highlighted in venues where 3individuals may prefer to walk or cycle instead of  using a car, however concerns such as safety and comfort prevent them from doing so. For example, parking may be the cheapest option, public transportation may not run late enough into the evening, or there may not be enough bicycle parking spots.  A sustainable transportation system is one where there is “a continuum of  decisions, actions and practices encompassing all aspects of  transportation” that aims to “protect the environment and conserve natural resources while taking into consideration societal needs, as well as benefits and costs”.  Sustainable transportation initiatives aim to address most of  these concerns, by 4attempting to provide safer and more convenient transport opportunities for individuals.  Lind Steg, “Sustainable Transportation - A Psychological Perspective,” IATSS Research 31, no. 2 (2007): 58.1 Ibid, 58.2 Jillian Anable, “‘Complacent Car Addicts’ or ‘Aspiring Environmentalists’? Identifying travel behaviour segments 3using attitude theory,” Transport Policy 12, no. 1 (2005): 69.  Jim Helmer, “Best Practices in Sustainable Transportation,” ITE Journal 80, no. 3 (2010): 26.4VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?4In attempting to increase the sustainability of  a transportation system mode-share split is generally considered - that is the percentage of  travellers using a particular type of  transportation or the number of  trips using said type.  When considering the four most common modes 5(walking, bicycling, transit and private vehicles), attempts must be made to decrease the share of  automobiles and increase those of  bikes, walkers and transit.  These three modes are considered 6to be more sustainable as they produce considerably less gas emissions per user. That said, private vehicles can be made more sustainable if  the occupancy is maximised.   Such considerations are of  high importance in the City of  Vancouver, as the city government has identified its key goal as becoming the greenest city in the world by 2020.  As part of  this, a long-7term strategic plan for the city - Transportation 2040 - was created to guide transportation and land use decisions as well as public investments for the coming years (see Figure 1). To achieve the goals laid out in this document, ‘sustainability’ must be incorporated into all aspects of  the city’s transportation, including that of  venues and events. Having transport options that are easily accessible, and flexible allows people to save time and money while increasing their health and well-being.  Though these are framed as city government goals and issues, implementing 8sustainability into venue’s transport management is crucial for the prosperity of  the venue.  9Venues will not get permission from the city to make any capacity expansions they may have planned if  they do not take into consideration these goals.  10?  Figure 1: City of  Vancouver, “Mode Share Target for 2020 and 2040,” Transport 2040 (2012): 10. Sue-Ellen Atkinson, “The Application of  Transportation Demand Management Measures to Reduce Event Related 5Congestion: A case study of  shoreline amphitheatre in Mountain View, CA,” Masters of  Urban Planning edn, San Jose State University (2011): 5. Jason Potter, interview by author, Vancouver, BC, February 4, 2015.6 City of  Vancouver, “Greenest City: 2020 Action Plan,” (2012).7 Anonymous, interview by author, Vancouver, BC, February 27, 2015.8 James Musgrave, “Moving Towards Responsible Event Management,” Worldwise Hospitality and Tourism Theme 9(2011): 261. Brent Dozzi, interview by author, Vancouver, BC, February 6, 2015. 10VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?5Methods A literature review of  academic articles and dissertations, government reports and consultant reports was undertaken. Policy measures successfully used in other jurisdictions were identified. In addition, three interviews were conducted with key stakeholders within the City of  Vancouver. Interview questions were ethically reviewed and informed consent was obtained from all participants. These interviews provided two case studies of  best practices within the city: the Vancouver Canadians Professional Baseball Club Nat Bailey Stadium Transport Management Plan; and the Travel Smart Grey Cup and Translink partnership. Combining the available literature with interviews and case studies helped provide a better understanding of  why more sustainable practices are not being implemented and what methods are suitable for the Vancouver context. Best practice suggestions were then determined for how sustainability can be meaningfully incorporated into the creation of  transport management plans within the City of  Vancouver. Literature Review A literature review was undertaken to provide a succinct understanding of  the context in which plans should be considered. Additionally it was a guide for how to assess plans in Vancouver based on research already carried out and information on what levels of  sustainability are expected to be achievable. Much research has been undertaken in the USA to better understand how sustainability can be incorporated into the management of  transport at sporting venues with weekly events. There is less research available for Canadian cities, this is assumed to be because the applicability of  research on American cities, as well as the higher frequency and spectator capacity of  many American venues.  Characteristics of  Effective Measures  Transportation demand management (TDM) is often the first management method to be considered. TDM measures include: encouraging higher vehicle occupancy; providing incentives to reduce travel or change timings of  trips; and promoting the completion of  tasks without traveling.  Gärling and Schuitema found TDM measures to be effective in reducing car use 11without facing strong public or political opposition - though only if  coercive and non-coercive TDM measures were implemented.  Management strategies must address all areas of  the 12transportation network, TMPs must go beyond TDM measures and consider all modes and  Atkinson, 2.11 Tommy Garling & Geertje Schuitema, “Travel Demand Management Targeting Reduced Private Car Use: 12Effectiveness, public acceptability and political feasibility,” Journal of  Social Issues 63, no. 1 (2007): 150.VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?6management possibilities. For a TMP to be truly sustainable it must be considered as a catalyst from which longer term environmental, social and political change will occur.   13The “divide and conquer” approach, as used by the Tennessee Titan’s Adelphia Coliseum venue, enables venues to break down transportation needs by geographical area and assess the constraints and benefits for each area.  This can aid in attempting to influence and control 14spectator arrival and departure routes. It is important to note that most management plans will only influence the mode choice of  regular visitors - extra advertising and messaging must be undertaken to attempt to reach one-off  visitors.  15Simulations of  traffic movements before, during, and after the event should be fully utilised to predict the fluctuations in traffic levels that will occur. This allows challenges to be anticipated and planned for. Such comprehensive initial planning - combined with strategies for all spectator movements to be served exclusively by mass transportation - led to a problem free Athens 2004 Olympics Games.   16Segmentation to Target Spectator Groups Individuals are more likely to accept positive (pull) factors than negative (push) factors, as such meaningful change must consider what classes as an incentive to an individual.  Understanding 17the underlying factors that influence the decision to perform - or not - a given behaviour enhances the probability that mode choice behaviour can be modified, and thus the most effective interventions can potentially be identified.  The European Commission’s Intelligent 18Energy Europe study showed that segmented marketing can lead to growth in the uptake of  more sustainable transportation by targeting specific values and attitudes.  Anable highlighted that the 19segmentation approach illustrates that policy interventions need to be responsive to the different motivations and constraints of  subgroups, given the same behaviours can take place for different reasons and the same attitudes can lead to different behaviours.  Influencing factors must be 20 Stefanie Beyer, “The Green Olympic Movement: Beijing 2008,” Chinese Journal of  International Law 5, no. 2 (2006): 13433. Rodney Chester & David Himes, “Transportation Planning Made the Titans’ New Stadium a Success,” ITE 14Journal 70, no. 6 (2000): 31. Beyer, 435.15 John Frantzeskakis & Michael Frantzeskakis, “Athens 2004 Olympic Games: Transportation Planning, Simulation 16and Traffic Management,” Institute of  Transportation Engineers Journal 76, no.10 (2006): 30. Atkinson, 19.17 Anable, 28.18 Intelligent Energy Europe, Segmented marketing for energy efficient transport, European Commission (2013): 5.19 Ibid, 27.20VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?7identified given Cao et al. found that individuals’ travel decisions are a function of  the traits of  the built environment and socio-demographic characteristics.   21Best Practices from Other Venues and Cities Transportation management plans from a variety of  event venues, and literature analysing them, have been reviewed and compared to determine best practices that are relevant to venues in Vancouver. All of  the plans contained elements addressing traffic management and strategies for other possible mode shares. Cars have the highest mode share uptake in the majority of  venues. Incentivising carpooling by offering free parking, food/beverage coupons, or reduced admission for carpools, will increase the number of  occupants per vehicle and reduce the total number of  vehicles used, thus reducing car emissions per person. Qwest Field in Seattle actively encourages this by providing attendees with a free event-specific ride-matching service to help spectators find carpools .  The University 22of  Washington reduces parking costs for cars with 3 or more occupants.   23Encouraging staggered arrivals and departures to the event by offering special programs before or after the event to space out traffic will reduce congestion levels.  The provision of  off-site 24parking options such as park-and-rides and free shuttle services will further reduce congestion.  25Reducing congestion around the venue will make walking and cycling more appealing. Additionally, requiring the use of  transit to travel from carparks to the venue will encourage more individuals to use transit for their whole journey. A number of  venues successfully employed varied parking charges based on location relative to the venue to minimise congestion.  The University of  Wisconsin uses special event parking 26prices, where lots closest to the venue cost between $10 and $12, with prices decreasing to as low as $3 as the distance from the venue increases.  Wherever possible, the use of  transit to reach events should be highly encouraged. To make this option more appealing, transit hours should be extended on event days and reduced prices offered to event attendees. AT&T Park in San Francisco offered attendees pre-paid transit tickets, rewarding purchases with points in the San Francisco Giants fan appreciation scheme.  Xinyu Cao, Patricia Mokhtarian & Susan Handy, “The Relationship between the Built Environment and 21Nonword Travel: A case study of  Northern California,” Transportation Research Part A 43 (2009): 555. Keven Luten et al., “Mitigating Traffic Congestion: The role of  demand-side strategies,” U.S. Department of  22Transportation - Federal Highway Administration (2004): 68. Atkinson, 24.23 Ibid, 27.24 Ibid, 24.25 Chester & Himes, 31.26VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?8Additionally the closure to cars of  key streets surrounding the venue ensured smooth journeys for pedestrians and transit users.   27Accommodation for bicyclists must be provided in forms such as secure and valet parking services, and safe bike paths, to encourage spectators to consider not driving. The City of  Santa Monica offers free bike valet parking for events, this includes a secure area for attendees to leave their bicycles during the event. Bicycle and pedestrian paths are separated from vehicular traffic at both the City of  Santa Monica and Nashville’s Adelphia Coliseum.  In Nashville, a bridge 28used for shuttle services and pedestrian routes is closed to traffic beginning two hours before kickoff, only reopening once the area is clear post-event. To put sustainability into practice, it is essential to make attendees aware of  their transport options by providing route information.  Venue websites can be effectively used to distribute 29transportation information to event attendees including: transit options; parking lot locations; and best routes. The Dallas Cowboys’ website provides attendees with the option to input their ZIP code and assigned parking lot number to find the most efficient route based on construction and traffic.  Cleland and Winters found that encouraging the use of  trip-chaining and substitution by 30providing travel information can lead to a reduction in vehicle miles of  travel.  AT&T Park 31made “Transit Ambassadors” available at events to answer questions and guide attendees to transit options. Additionally, venues must ensure clear way-finding signs are present from key transit hubs.  If  service providers coordinate, special events provide a unique opportunity to 32market the transportation services available within the community.   33Key Points to Carry Forward The literature review has shown that it is important to be aware of  the existing transportation conditions at the venue and the reasoning for spectator choices of  transport mode. Additionally preplanning and breaking up modes to consider how to make each one more sustainable are  City of  Sacramento, “Sacramento Entertainment and Sports Center & Related Development: Draft Event 27Transport Management Plan,” City of  Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (2013): 14. Atkinson, 25.28 Yulan Yuan, “Adding Environmental Sustainability to the Management of  Event Tourism,” International Journal of  29Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 7, no.2 (2013):179. Atkinson, 26.30 Francis Cleland & Philip Winters, “Reducing Vehicle Trips and Vehicle Miles of  Travel Through Customised 31Travel Options,” Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of  Engineering, University of  Florida South, Tallahassee, FL. (1999): 1. City of  Sacramento, 47.32 Jay Goodwill & Ann Joslin, “Special Event Transportation Service Planning and Operations Strategies for 33Transit,” National Centre for Transit Research, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of  South Florida, Tampa, FL. (2006): 1.VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?9crucial. When creating recommendations for sustainable best practices for venues in Vancouver three key themes must be addressed: 1. Congestion around the venue should be reduced by providing spectators with information on the best access routes and incentivising the accommodation of  cars further away from the venue.  2. How can sustainable alternatives to the car be made more attractive to the spectator?  3. Attendees must be provided with easy to access information on transportation to the venue.  Nat Bailey Stadium The Vancouver Canadians Professional Baseball Club currently calls the Scotiabank Field at the Nat Bailey Stadium in Vancouver home. In an attempt to expand venue capacity, they recently redeveloped their TMP in partnership with the City of  Vancouver. The new TMP is one of  the most sustainable within the city, providing an example of  strategies that should and can be used by other venues within Vancouver. Venue management has effectively used incentives to make sustainable alternatives to the car more attractive. The details of  this case-study were collected in an interview with Brent Dozzi, who works in the Neighbourhood Parking and Transportation Branch at the City of  Vancouver. The recent application for expansion of  capacity aimed to offset any impact from increased vehicle traffic with alternative modes of  transportation and an improved parking lot layout, maximising the number of  available spaces.  This led to a process of  community engagement to 34determine opinions towards a range of  possible parking options, in order to prioritise the neighbourhood’s best interests. Ultimately a negative strategy was established, punishing driving. The Nat Bailey Stadium is located next to Queen Elizabeth Park in South Vancouver (Figure 2). Bordered by the park and residential areas, the City of  Vancouver intentionally did not create enough parking when the venue was established, as they wanted to maintain parkland - instead aiming to make transit use, walking and cycling more attractive modes to access the stadium. In lots where parking was uncontrolled, charges based on maximum parking times have been introduced. The venue was able to marginally increase the number of  parking spots as part of  this process but this was not enough to meet the increased demand. The community consultation led to permitted parking being established in residential streets surrounding the stadium on event days. This ensured attendees had to pay the parking costs if  they drove and that residents were not disrupted.  Nat Bailey Stadium Expansion, Development Permit 418533, Traffic Management Plan, January 2015: 1.34VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?10?  Figure 2: City of  Vancouver, “Hilcrest Park” VanMap (2014) Driving to the venue has been effectively de-incentivised, however, on its own this is not enough to encourage mode share changes. In addition, the venue now encourages non-driving through a number of  strategies. Firstly they have increased available bicycle parking spots from 50 to 200, while also introducing secure bike-parking facilities and a valet service.  These services are 35complimentary with an event ticket. Furthermore, the first 200 people to arrive by transit receive 50¢ off  their event ticket.  During the redevelopment application, the City asked them to 36increase this incentive. They have entered into talks with Translink to create either an incentive available pre-event or combine transit cost with ticket price at a reduced cost. Not driving to the venue was considered to be a better customer experience and the City of  Vancouver wanted instructions to be provided on how to get to the stadium using non-vehicle means. The 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver increased transit use through heavy advertising to attendees, the same method has been used by the Nat Bailey Stadium in this TMP.  Attractive 37 Nat Bailey StadiumExpansion, 1.35 Ibid, 2.36 Dozzi.37VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?11signage and advertising to all fans who arrive at the park will be used to raise awareness for these new facilities.   38A number of  further improvements were highlighted as part of  the redevelopment application. This included that it is hard to find information on the available transit incentives on the website, this information must be made more obvious to visitors. This should be furthered with advertising on social media to reach more event-goers. There was also a need to advertise more heavily to season-ticket holders, with strategies such as providing information in leaflets or on the tickets.  Messaging during games would further these strategies. 39The Nat Bailey Stadium provides an example of  how both incentivising and deterrence strategies can be used to make a TMP more sustainable overall. By segmenting the different mode shares and creating management strategies based on understanding the factors that would make each option more attractive, they have ensured the selected measures will be effective. However, the venue is a private organisation and it can be said that the redevelopment application process was used by the City of  Vancouver as an opportunity to ensure more sustainable planning was implemented in order to achieve its own goals. Therefore this shows the proactive nature of  the City to increase sustainability as well as providing practices that can be applied to other venues within Vancouver. However, it also highlights that sustainable thinking in venues may not come without pressure from the government and the opportunities applications for redevelopment provide them to do this. CFL and TravelSmart Partnership For the Grey Cup 2014 in Vancouver, the Canadian Football League decided to partner with TravelSmart to create an advertising campaign for transport to the game and the pre-game festival. TravelSmart is a customer-facing brand for Translink, providing tips and tools to encourage smarter and sustainable modes of  transport, including cycling; walking; carpooling; and taking transit in Metro Vancouver.  The Grey Cup campaigned that by “travelling smart”, 40spectators would save money and remove the hassle of  attempting to park downtown.  This 41strategy aimed to promote and ensure sustainability in two ways - firstly by reducing congestion in the downtown area, and secondly by providing easy to access information on possible routes to the venue.   Nat Bailey StadiumExpansion, 2.38 Dozzi.39 Anonymous interview.40 “One Cup, Dozens of  Ways to Get There,” TravelSmart, accessed March 23, 2015, http://www.travelsmart.ca/41en/GVRD/Transit/TravelSmart-to-the-Game.aspx, paragraph 2. VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?12In an attempt reduce the expected increases in congestion in the downtown core associated with the event, TravelSmart advertised how easy it would be to get to BC Place without using a car (Figure 3). They highlighted the “dozen’s of  ways to get there”, providing tips on taking rapid transit; sea bus; West Coast Express; buses; ‘Barrier-free’ transportation; rideshare/carshare/carpool; and, park-and-ride lots.  Using transport demand techniques to encourage spectators to 42travel in full vehicles or use other modes of  transport led to a reduction in congestion around the venue. As well as relieving pressure from the streets around the venue, this reduced the emissions associated with the event, helping to make it more sustainable. Additionally, by providing visitors with clear  and easy-to-access information on the multiple ways to access the venue, the TravelSmart campaign increased the likelihood of  spectators not using their cars. The Grey Cup Festival Guide presented information on a broad variety of  transport methods in a clear and easy to read format (Figures 4 & 5). This booklet was available on the event website. Providing information on transport options in such an accessible way increases spectator awareness of  these, which in turn is likely to lead to more individuals choosing to use more sustainable modes. The advertising strategies used in the TravelSmart Campaign combined to encourage spectators to consider more sustainable alternative modes of  transport to the car. Though statistics are not available to show how effective this campaign was, the combination did raise awareness and is likely to have led to more spectators using public transit or cycling.  Conclusions & Recommendations Venues within the City of  Vancouver must consider sustainability in their TMPs. A failure to do so will lead to the City of  Vancouver government not approving venue redevelopment applications. Additionally, as the city continues to grow and demand for events increases, maintaining status quo will lead to increased congestion around the venue and increased emissions from vehicles. Together these will lead to the city not meeting its climate change goals and will worsen the overall impact the city has on global warming. That said, sustainability can be meaningfully incorporated into TMPs in order to reduce the impact specific events have on the city.  Having reviewed literature on transport management practices, conducted interviews and considered two case studies from the City of  Vancouver, the following best practice recommendations for successfully incorporating sustainability into the Venue Transport Management plans of  venues are recommended: 1. Incentivise the accommodation of  cars further away from the venue to reduce congestion. 1.1. Use distance-based parking tariff  schemes and/or park-and-ride schemes as incentives.   Travel smart, paragraphs 5 - 9. 42VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?13VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?14Figure 3: Invision Creative, “TravelSmart Grey Cup Campaign,” Translink.Figures 4 & 5: Grey Cup, “Getting There,” 102nd Grey Cup Festival Guide (2014): 19 - 20.1.2. Encourage carpooling to reduce the number of  cars attempting to reach the venue.  By reducing the congestion around the venue, the venue will become safer for pedestrians and easier to manage due to fewer large vehicles being present. This is more sustainable as it will reduce the number of  cars used and make sustainable mode shares more attractive.  2. Venues should incentivise the use of  transit and bicycles to access the venue.  2.1. Spectators should be segmented to allow for analysis of  what incentives would make them most likely to use non-private vehicle modes of  transport.  2.2. Venues should enter into talks with Translink to try to provide discounts for transit use, either for the transit ticket or for the event ticket if  transit is used. They should also create agreements to ensure transit options are available to spectators after the event ends.  2.3. Venues should provide complimentary secure bike-parking options, optimally with a valet service and regular security patrols.  2.4. Directions to bike-park locations and from transit locations to the venue should be clearly marked for ease of  access.  The use of  transit and bikes must be incentivised for spectators to want to switch to using them. These modes should be heavily incentivised as they are more sustainable than using private cars, given their higher densities and lower emissions.  3. Attendees must be provided with easy-to-access information on transportation options to reach the venue.  3.1. The venue website should have a section that clearly explains all options for accessing the venue. Pedestrian, transit and bicycle routes should be prioritised over car access by placing them higher up the page.  3.2. Information on transport options should be easily accessible, linked from the venue homepage, as well as provided in event communication. Spectators should be provided with this information upon purchasing their ticket. 3.3. Advertising campaigns should be used to highlight transit options for accessing the venue. Providing clear, easy-to-find, and comprehensive information on how to access the venue early, will ensure spectators are made aware of  all of  their transport options and are therefore able to make an informed decision on how they will travel to the venue.  VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?15Areas for Further Study This study has considered how sustainability can be incorporated into the action points in venue TMPs. Future work should consider the motivations behind venues implementing them: are they designed to increase sustainability at a venue; or to increase mode share, due to physical constraints such as a lack of  parking, therefore making sustainability a side effect. Considering the incentive for the venue will enable strategies to be framed in a way that will most appeal to the venue.  Additional research could consider how segmentation theory can be used by venues more effectively. The reviewed literature highlights the importance of  this theory in creating effective management strategies. However, in most situations it was used by city governments or researchers. Considering how it can be easily and cheaply used by venues will lead to it being incorporated into planning more frequently.  VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?16Bibliography Anonymous. Interview by author, Vancouver, BC, February 27, 2015.  Anable, J. "'Complacent Car Addicts' or 'Aspiring Environmentalists'? Identifying travel behaviour segments using attitude theory,” Transport Policy12, no. 1 (2005): 65-78.  Atkinson, S.K. The Application of  Transportation Demand Management Measures to Reduce Event Related Congestion: A Case Study of  Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View, California, Masters of  Urban Planning edn, San Jose State University 2011: PG Beyer, S. "The Green Olympic Movement: Beijing 2008,” Chinese Journal of  International Law 5, no. 2 (2006): 423-440.  Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P. & Handy, S. "The relationship between the built environment and nonwork travel: A case study of  Northern California,” Transportation Research Part A 43 (2009): 548-559.  Chester, R. & Himes, D. "Transportation Planning Made the Titans’ New Stadium a Success,” Institute of  Transportation Engineers Journal 70, no. 6 (2000): 30-33.  City of  Sacramento, Sacramento Entertainment and Sports Center & Related Development: Draft Event Transport Management Plan, City of  Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (2013): PG City of  Vancouver, Greenest City: 2020 Action Plan, City of  Vancouver, Vancouver, BC (2012): PG —— “Hilcrest Park” VanMap (2014) —— Transportation 2040: Moving Forward, City of  Vancouver, Vancouver, BC (2012): PG Cleland, F. & Winters, P. “Reducing Vehicle Trips and Vehicle Miles of  Travel Through Customised Travel Options,” Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of  Engineering, University of  Florida South, Tallahassee, FL (1999): PG Dozzi, Brent. Interview by author, Vancouver, BC, February 6, 2015. Frantzeskakis, J. & Frantzeskakis, M. "Athens 2004 Olympic Games: Transportation Planning, Simulation and Traffic Management,” Institute of  Transportation Engineers Journal 76, no. 10 (2006): 26-32.  VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?17Garling, T. & Schuitema, G. "Travel Demand Management Targeting Reduced Private Car Use: Effectiveness, Public Acceptability and Political Feasibility,” Journal of  Social Issues 63, no. 1 (2007): 139-153.  Goodwill, J. & Joslin, A. Special Event Transportation Service Planning and Operations Strategies for Transit, National Centre for Transit Research, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of  South Florida, Tampa, FL (2006): PG Grey Cup, “Getting There,” 102nd Grey Cup Festival Guide (2014): 19 - 20. Helmer, J. “Best Practices in Sustainable Transportation,” ITE Journal 80, no. 3 (2010): PG  Intelligent Energy Europe, Segmented marketing for energy efficient transport, European Commission (2013) PG Invision Creative, “TravelSmart Grey Cup Campaign,” Translink.  Luten, K. et al., “Mitigating Traffic Congestion: The role of  demand-side strategies,” U.S. Department of  Transportation - Federal Highway Administration (2004): PG  Musgrave, J. "Moving Towards Responsible Events Management,” Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes 3, no. 3 (2011): 258-274.  Nat Bailey Stadium Expansion, Development Permit 418533, Traffic Management Plan, January 2015: 1-3.  Potter, Jason. Interview by author, Vancouver, BC, February 5, 2015. Steg, L. “Sustainable Transportation - A Psychological Perspective,” IATSS Research 31, no. 2 (2007): PG  TravelSmart “One Cup, Dozens of  Ways to Get There,” accessed March 23, 2015, http://www.travelsmart.ca/en/GVRD/Transit/TravelSmart-to-the-Game.aspx.  Yuan, Y.Y. "Adding environmental sustainability to the management of  event tourism,” International Journal of  Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research 7, no. 2 (2013): 175-183. VENUE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ?18

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