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Healthy buildings Jones, Dylan 2011

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 Healthy
Buildings
 April
18th
2011
 
 Prepared
by:
 Dylan
Jones

 for
 Healing
Cities
working
group
 and
 Dr.
David
Brownstein,
Geography
419:
Research
in
Environmental
Geography
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 The
21st
century
presents
an
ever‐changing
landscape
to
all
aspects
of
health.
In
the
 developed
world
over
85%
of
people
live
in
urban
environments

(Turcotte
2006).
Urban
form
 shapes
the
social
aspects
of
our
well
being
such
as
our
sense
of
home
in
our
neighbourhoods,
 our
level
of
stress
and
our
opportunities
to
connect
to
particular
space
and
place.
Our
 understanding
of
the
phrase
'healthy
buildings'
is
structured
by
a
range
of
definitions.
In
the
 urban
paradigm
buildings
are
centres
for
all
human
social
interactions.
Focusing
on
a
micro
 approach
to
cities
the
very
buildings
humans
live
in
must
first
be
re‐evaluated
and
design
in
a
 way
which
promotes
health.
What
can
planners
do
to
influence
the
growth
of
positive
social
 interactions,
resulting
in
the
promotion
of
healing
cities?
The
main
reasoning
behind
the
search
 for
a
healthy
city
design
is
the
rapidly
declining
physical
and
economic
health
of
our
society.

 
 The
ever
growing
state
of
human
urban
lifestyle
drives
us
to
ask
the
question,
who
are
 cities
built
for?
Traditionally
cities
grew
out
of
places
of
commerce
and
wealth,
as
the
human
 race
centres
itself
increasingly
around
cities
the
new
purposes
present
difficult
definition.
A
 frightening
fact
of
the
massive
growth
of
urbanism
is
also
the
growth
of
sedentary
lifestyle
 related
disease;
in
cities
obesity,
diabetes,
asthma,
lung
cancer,
liver
cancer
and
a
myriad
of
 other
disease
plague
large
populations
of
both
the
developed
and
developing
worlds
(Dodds
 and
Tavernor
2002

 A
widely
held
definition
of
health
is
that
of
the
World
Health
Organization
(WHO):
“a
 state
of
complete
physical,
mental,
and
social
well‐being
and
not
merely
the
absence
of
disease
 or
infirmity”
(WHO,
1948).
This
definition
extends
beyond
the
traditional
biomedical
emphasis
 on
the
negative,
instead
setting
a
high
bar
for
human
biological,
psychological,
and
social
2
 
 functioning.
Under
this
definition
fall
many
outcomes
traditionally
studied
by
psychologists,
 including
sensation,
perception,
cognition,
arousal
and
alertness,
memory,
emotion,
learning,
 sleeping,
and
motor
performance.
A
truly
healing
building
will
take
all
of
these
aspects
of
 human
living
into
account.

 
 
The
other
Healths

 
 There
are
four
aspects
of
healthy
cities
described
by
the
Healing
Cities
project.
Although
 only
social
is
discussed
in
this
paper
the
other
aspects:
mental,
physical
and
spiritual
are
all
 essential
facets
in
fully
understanding
the
true
holistic
truth
behind
healing
cities.

 
 Physical
health
can
be
described
in
two
senses:
the
body
and
the
environment.
In
many
 cases
these
two
perspectives
of
the
physical
are
intertwining
in
most
situations.
Urban
heat
 islands
are
urban
areas
which
have
a
higher
average
temperature
year
round
than
the
 surrounding
rural
areas
(Environmental
Protection
Agency
2008).
This
is
because
of
the
low
 albedo
of
concrete
and
poor
vegetative
cover
which
in
nature
provides
large
amounts
of
shade
 (Environmental
Protection
Agency
2008).
This
increased
heat
can
affect
the
human
population
 adversely
through
increased
instances
of
heat
stroke
while
the
increased
amount
of
concrete
 decreases
ground
water
absorption
and
increases
pollutant
run
off
(Changnon,
Kunkel
and
 Reinke
1996).
These
two
problems
can
be
solved
by
simply
installing
urban
forests
and
trees
 while
installing
high
tech
photocatalytic
concrete
which
absorbs
runoff
pollutants
and
reflects
 heat
rather
than
absorb
(Cassar
2009).
3
 
 
 Mental
and
spiritual
aspects
of
health
are
much
more
difficult
to
differentiate
from
one
 another
although
with
an
in
depth
evaluation
their
differences
are
vast.
One
recommendation
 in
relation
too
these
two
aspects
pertains
to
the
health
of
retirees
in
assisted
living
homes.
 Retirement
communities
which
offer
gardening
plots
for
their
tenants
noticed
an
increased
in
 mental
awareness
as
well
as
tenants
using
the
space
for
positive
reflection
and
spiritual
 awareness
(Sugihara
and
Evans
2000).
 Social
Health
 Humans
are
social
animals,
no
more
is
this
highlighted
than
in
the
cities
we
have
built.
 There
is
no
possible
way
a
single
person
could
create
a
skyscraper
or
even
in
most
cases
a
single
 family
home
by
his/hers
self.
Many
of
the
difficulties
and
stresses
people
deal
with
in
a
regular
 lifespan
can
be
more
positively
and
efficiently
coped
with
through
social
support
groups
(Holt‐ Lunstad,
et
al.
2010).
People
who
have
a
lack
of
social
interactions
experience
negative
health
 symptoms
tantamount
to
other
major
sources
of
negative
health
such
as
cigarette
smoking,
 alcoholism,
and
obesity
(Holt‐Lunstad,
et
al.
2010).
Social
health
is
difficult
to
attain
because
of
 the
complexity
of
human
lives.
In
comparison
to
a
person
whom
is
physically
ill
or
unfit
who
is
 able
to
go
to
a
doctor
for
treatment;
a
person
suffering
from
the
symptoms
of
poor
social
 health
cannot
be
as
easily
helped
because
of
the
difficulties
in
diagnosing
the
actual
specific
 problems
with
the
person.
Large
majorities
of
social
interactions
take
place
in
the
buildings
we
 work,
live,
learn
and
play
in.
Many
buildings
simply
do
not
provide
the
linkages
and
benefits
 which
will
provide
a
positive
social
environment
for
the
people
working
or
living
within
(Veitch
 2008).
4
 
 Businesses
which
offer
a
positive
physical
setting
to
their
employees
often
experience
 spikes
in
morale
and
productivity
(Heerwagen,
et
al.
1998).
Positive
moods
are
associated
with
 the
physical
setting
at
work
and
daily
activities
such
as
social
interaction
among
employees;
the
 more
positive
the
space
results
in
more
positive
work
ethics
and
social
atmospheres
within
 office
buildings
(Kelloway
and
Day
2005).
This
can
be
achieved
as
simply
as
allowing
people
to
 decorate
their
cubicles
or
offices
and
can
extend
to
the
extremes
of
the
offices
of
Twitter1,
 Facebook2,
and
or
the
award
winning
Electronic
Arts3
building
in
Burnaby,
British
Columbia
all
 of
which
contain
some
of
the
most
creative
and
visually
striking
office
areas
worldwide.

 In
relation
to
the
interior
design
of
buildings
is
the
matching
function
of
a
space.
For
 many
years
in
the
world’s
largest
cultures,
architecture
was
connected
directly
with
religion.
In
 many
cases
the
reasoning
behind
this
connection
was
simply
the
religious
ruling
centers
 controlled
the
most
wealth
and
were
able
to
afford
large
scale
buildings.
With
the
growing
 separation
of
church
and
state
and
the
growth
of
social
pragmatism
in
planning
religion
and
 architecture
have
largely
separated
(Florida
2008).
Religious
pragmatism
in
most
cases
can
be
 seen
as
a
positive
ideal
for
the
general
public,
evidence
of
positive
networks
created
by
and
 within
religious
organizations
is
quite
common
(Beauregard
and
O'Leary
2007).
By
including
 tolerant
religion
back
into
the
designs
and
lives
of
the
public
the
opportunity
of
social
as
well
as
 spiritual
healing
is
created
(Florida
2002).
 




























































 1
http://www.officedesignblog.com/facebook‐office‐headquarters/519/
 2
http://mcminteriors.com/high‐tech.cfm/webid=80/cmd=next/ShowProject=58
 3
http://www.officedesignblog.com/new‐twitter‐office/558/
5
 
 Architecture
obviously
plays
an
important
role
in
the
evolution
of
healthy
buildings.
The
 old
cliché,
you
are
a
product
of
your
environment
is
an
important
notion
to
keep
in
mind.
Two
 examples
of
architecture
negatively
affecting
the
health
of
tenants
are
the
Cabrini‐Green
 buildings
in
Chicago
and
the
Pruitt‐Igoe
buildings
in
St.
Louis.
Being
similar
developments
both
 sites
incorporated
large
area
multi‐building
developments
to
provide
social
housing
to
the
 lower
wage
earners
in
urban
Chicago
and
St.
Louis
(Birmingham
1998).
The
role
of
architecture
 in
social
interactions
quickly
became
devastatingly
clear.
The
tenants
because
of
their
lower
 economic
status
were
already
susceptible
to
higher
crime
rates
experienced
a
sharp
spike
in
 violent
crimes
and
theft.
The
lack
of
open
spaces,
tight
public
corridors
and
poorly
lit
and
 enclosed
staircases
which
were
all
deliberate
designs
to
keep
costs
low,
created
a
huge
lack
in
 the
mutual
benefit
of
safety
through
neighbourhood
interaction
(Birmingham
1998).
In
the
 preceding
years
before
the
developments
were
entirely
torn
down
rates
of
murder,
rape,
 violent
crimes
and
the
number
of
gang
members
were
higher
than
any
other
areas
of
the
cities
 (Murray
1995).
After
these
types
of
disastrous
developments
new
directions
were
taken
in
the
 planning
and
implementation
of
large
area
multi‐use
and
multi‐family
housing
districts.
To
 combat
the
problem
of
crime
architects
moved
away
from
the
modern
type
brutalist
 architecture
and
began
to
incorporate
more
natural
looking
green
spaces
within
the
building
 sites.

 With
the
popularity
of
green
space
growing
in
both
urban
planning
and
architecture
 urban
agriculture
has
become
widely
popularized
and
practiced.
The
concept
of
urban
 agriculture
is
still
evolving;
community
gardens
take
the
aspect
of
urban
agriculture
and
form
a
 solid
social
network
within
the
confines
of
the
garden.
Interaction
within
community
garden
6
 
 spaces
are
networks
which
without
the
bridge
of
the
garden
may
not
have
previously
existed.
 On
one
of
Vancouver’s
busiest
intersections
at
Burrard
St.
and
Davie
St.
a
large
parcel
of
land
in
 one
of
the
cities
hottest
real
estate
markets
has
been
set
aside
for
a
thriving
urban
garden.
 Although
there
may
be
a
myriad
of
different
reasons
for
this
site
to
be
left
fallow,
including
the
 pre‐existence
of
a
gas
station
and
possible
contaminants
underneath;
the
inclusion
of
a
 community
garden
at
this
particular
site
promotes
social
cooperation
and
interaction
above
the
 bottom
line
of
real
estate
markets.

Promotion
of
urban
agriculture
on
the
small
scale
of
 growth,
within
single
family
units
allotted
yards,
creates
physical
activity
and
engages
people
 into
social
networks
which
may
have
not
previously
existed
(Turrel
2002).
In
relation
to
these
 benefits
are
the
economic
benefits
to
small
families
in
growing
and
maintaining
their
own
 gardens.
Food
costs
can
be
heavily
offset
through
the
simple
usage
of
small
garden
plots
in
 single
family
home
backyards
as
well
as
herb
window
boxes
(Smit
1996).


 When
applied
to
larger
urban
communities
the
issue
of
urban
gardening
takes
on
a
 more
controversial
tone.
In
Julie
Guthman’s
2008
research,
Bringing
good
food
to
others:
 investigating
the
subjects
of
alternative
food
practices,
the
point
of
cultural
boundaries
 segregating
the
practice
of
urban
gardening
is
described.
Guthman
challenges
the
practice
of
 urban
gardening
though
a
racial
lens;
stating
how
the
latest
explosion
of
popularity
in
green
 gardening
is
not
being
viewed
as
a
heterogeneous
occurrence
within
urban
communities.
In
 fact
the
rise
in
urban
gardening
is
mostly
only
seen
in
affluent
white
communities
(Guthman
 2008).
The
main
argument
behind
this
reasoning
is
many
of
the
poorer
communities
 throughout
the
United
States
are
constituted
of
mostly
immigrant
and
African‐American
 communities
(Turrel
2002).
Many
of
the
immigrants
within
these
communities
emigrated
from
7
 
 their
country
of
origin
directly
because
the
only
jobs
available
to
them
were
labour
intensive
 agricultural
jobs
(Guthman
2008).
In
the
terms
of
African‐Americans,
there
is
a
particular
 disillusionment
associated
with
small
green
or
grass
root
grocers
because
of
past
histories
 segregation
and
racism
(Guthman
2008).
It
is
important
to
note
Guthman
recognizes
her
 observations
as
typical
generalizations
of
different
communities;
there
are
many
white
affluent
 people
who
turn
up
their
noses
at
urban
gardening
as
well
as
African‐American
peoples
who
 actively
participate
and
enjoy
community
agriculture.
 While
urban
agriculture
is
still
a
controversial
viewpoint
in
some
eyes,
the
idea
of
 biophyllic
design4
and
green
space
to
promote
health
is
rapidly
growing
(Geshwiler
2006).
Dr.
 Roger
Ulrich
has
focused
almost
thirty
years
of
research
on
the
practical
health
benefits
of
 incorporating
nature
into
buildings,
specifically
hospitals.
His
argument
is
built
around
the
 premise
of
hospital
construction
projects
which
stem
into
the
multi
billion
dollars
per
year
 projects
in
the
Western
world
but
very
little
focus
is
put
on
increasing
the
well‐being
of
the
 actual
patients
(R.
Ulrich
1997).
Through
the
implementation
of
small
plots
of
gardens
on
 hospital
grounds,
Dr.
Ulrich
has
proven
the
connection
of
people
and
plants
or
more
specifically
 people
and
nature
in
healing
environments.
In
one
view
the
implementation
of
green
spaces
in
 hospitals
is
almost
a
step
back
in
time.
It
is
well
recorded
both
in
the
Western
and
Asian
 spheres
of
influence
of
using
plants
as
healing
components
in
health
care
for
more
than
1000
 years

(Parsons,
Ulrich
and
Tassinary
1994).
In
fact
up
until
the
early
1900’s
and
the
rapid
 spread
of
what
is
now
considered
modern
medicine
European
and
American
hospitals
had
 




























































 4
Biophilia
is
the
idea
of
the
instinctive
bond
between
human
beings
and
other
living
systems,
namely
plants.
 Presented
by
Edward
O.
Wilson
in
Biophilia,
1984.
8
 
 gardens
and
plants
as
common
features
throughout
their
grounds

(R.
S.
Ulrich
1984).
The
study
 of
these
types
of
interactions
are
important
to
the
development
of
the
healing
cities
ideals;
 although
there
are
countless
LEED
type
papers
promoting
the
benefits
of
green
space
very
few
 take
into
account
a
social
division
of
space.
In
common
social
situations
very
few
interactions
 start
‘cold
turkey’
usually
a
type
of
common
ground
is
shared
before.
When
common
ground
is
 not
immediately
shared
in
social
situations
often
what
are
commonly
referred
to
as
 ‘icebreakers’
are
offered.
In
this
respect
green
space
is
being
offered
within
building
grounds
as
 a
type
of
jump
off
point
for
all
types
of
social
interactions.
In
relation
the
contemporary
 increase
of
urban
dog
parks
are
a
perfect
examples
of
green
space
offered
to
promote
the
 increase
in
positive
social
interactions
within
urban
populations
(Cusack
1988).





 Social
interactions
have
also
gone
past
the
point
of
just
being
important
within
a
 physical
context.
Globalization
has
struck
rapidly
in
the
last
ten
years
mostly
because
of
the
 introduction
of
hyper
fast
internet
and
social
networking
connections.
Incorporating
the
new
 type
of
communication
and
social
interaction
into
healthy
buildings
and
communities
is
an
 important
step
in
the
attempt
to
create
a
holistic
basis
of
study.
This
is
the
belief
of
social
 capital
in
benefitting
the
growth
of
human
interactions
(Kawachi
2006).
In
Ellison
et
al.
2007
 research,
The
Benefit
of
Facebook
“Friends:”
Social
Capital
and
College
Students’
Use
of
Online
 Social
Network
Sites,
the
author’s
examine
the
formation
of
social
capital.
It
was
found
even
 though
these
‘friends’
may
be
non‐physical
the
social
capital
created
and
connected
to
this
type
 of
social
interaction
is
not
only
beneficial
to
the
parties
involved
it
can
also
be
highly
productive
 in
the
terms
of
personal
and
financial
growth
(Ellison,
Steinfield
and
Lampe
2007).
Translating
 the
example
of
social
capital
to
the
realm
of
health
and
communities
allows
people
to
9
 
 understand
creating,
collecting
and
maintaining
social
networks
whether
through
a
screen
or
 face
to
face
is
a
greatly
important
factor
to
the
well
being
and
good
health
of
an
individual
as
 well
as
a
community
(Kawachi
2006).
 Recommendations
 
 The
healing
cities
project
is
attempting
to
create
a
model
for
cities
which
offer
not
just
a
 healthy
lifestyle
choice
for
the
future
but
also
a
city
where
people
don’t
become
unhealthy
due
 to
high
stress
levels
and
overwork.
These
recommendations
are
focused
on
increasing
the
 amount
of
positive
social
interaction
between
generalized
populations
of
people
within
the
 setting
of
their
places
of
work,
living
and
leisure.
They
do
not
take
into
account
the
holistic
 healing
possibilities
of
the
other
three
aspects
of
health
aforementioned.
That
being
said
many
 of
the
recommendations
offered
are
but
parts
of
larger
solutions
offered
through
multi‐lateral
 approaches
to
health.
They
are
catered
directly
towards
the
promotion
of
a
healthy
building
 design
model;
which
specifically
is
incorporating
a
building
in
questions
along
with
the
 structures
and
grounds
directly
related
to
its
developed
space.

 1st
recommendation
 From
a
purely
healing
standpoint
the
first
recommendation
is
to
seriously
look
at
the
 benefits
of
greenspace
within
buildings.
Based
on
the
papers
by
Roger
Ulrich
and
seperatly
 Kellert,
Heerwagen,
&
Mador
I
would
recommend
the
incorporation
of
the
maximum
amount
 of
greenspace
possible
into
every
future
planned
building
site.
As
in
many
cases
of
urban
 density
growth
it
will
not
be
possible
to
maximize
tenants
space
without
exponetinally
raising
 costs
of
living.
This
recommendation
follows
closely
with
Roger
Ulrich’s
study
on
hospital
rooms
10
 
 and
greenspace.
Hospital
rooms
are
tiny
sterile
rooms
but
even
with
a
view
to
a
limited
area
of
 greenery,
a
small
garden
in
this
case,
is
all
that
is
needed
for
the
healing
capabilites
of
 individuals
rises.
This
focus
on
small
garden
or
green
plots
can
and
should
extend
beyong
the
 realm
of
hospitals.
Work
places
can
implement
green
space
techniques
to
improve
the
morale
 and
therefore
the
productivity
of
their
employees.
A
useful
reminder
to
planners
and
designers
 is
the
less
sick
days
a
person
takes
the
more
productive
their
work
is
which
results
in
an
 upswing
in
positive
emotions
and
productivity
because
of
the
fufillment
an
employee
recieves
 at
work.

 2nd
recommendation
 
 The
acceptance
and
tolerance
of
religion
as
potential
positive
influences
in
many
social
 networks.
Contemporary
planning
in
many
pragmatic
cities
and
urban
metropolitan
areas
does
 not
afford
religion
much
status
because
of
its
connection
with
fundamentalism
and
moral
 rigidity
based
on
specific
teachings.
Many
of
these
concerns
remain
true
as
outlined
by
Richard
 Florida,
however
by
creating
places
of
safe
‘spiritual
refuge’
in
buildings
a
designer
can
again
 tap
into
untouched
social
interactions
relative
towards
places
of
residence
and
work.
This
 design
can
manifest
itself
as
simply
as
a
quiet
space
or
meditation
area
within
a
large
multi‐ family
building.
The
meditation
area’s
size
would
be
dependent
on
the
needs
of
the
people
 within
the
building.
A
standard
in
many
of
the
apartment
block
developments
in
Vancouver
at
 this
time
are
gyms
and
shared
party
rooms;
implementing
another
area
for
quiet
reflection
for
 either
groups
or
individuals
would
not
be
difficult
or
detract
from
revenues
of
sale
drastically.

 3rd
recommendation



 
 
11
 
 New
and
retrofitting
buildings
need
to
embrace
technology
and
the
future
of
social
 networks.
Interactive
and
online
social
networking
mediums
are
no
longer
‘arriving’
or
new
 they
are
known
as
integral
and
rapidly
dominating
parts
of
all
social
interactions.
Facebook,
 Twitter,
Linkedin,
and
YouTube
take
the
lions
share
with
dozens
of
smaller
sites
and
services
 being
offered.
Planners
must
access
what
children
are
learning
today
and
what
young
adults
 are
doing
right
now.
Planning
for
the
future
is
something
which
is
difficult
but
not
impossible.
 There
are
many
negatives
in
relation
to
the
mass
use
of
online
information
sharing
such
as
 identity
theft
and
online
predatory
behaviors.
However,
as
in
any
generalization
a
few
negative
 cases
should
not
condemn
the
positives
associated
with
social
networking.
 4th
recommendation
 Buildings
architecture
itself
must
reflect
the
positive
social
lives
of
the
people
living
 within.
The
construction
of
well
lit
areas
and
wider
routes
of
travel
will
promote
positive
 neighbour
interaction.
Rather
than
creating
stairwells
as
simply
utilitarian
means
of
travel
or
 emergency
exit
attempt
to
embrace
the
staircase
as
a
main
source
of
travel.
Simple
aspects
of
 widening
the
space
opening
and
decorating
the
walls
with
common
aesthetic
accoutrements
 such
as
flowers
or
even
cost
effective
re‐print
artwork
can
make
the
area
much
more
attractive.
 In
this
a
planner
is
not
only
extending
the
degree
of
the
positive
environment
the
planner
is
 also
denying
any
area
of
negative
interaction.
Humans
are
notoriously
uncomfortable
and
 aggressive
when
given
only
small
areas
to
live
within.
In
the
western
world
this
may
not
 translate
to
violence
because
of
the
strict
laws
within
society
but
the
aggression
felt
towards
 being
confined
does
affect
people
negatively.
Offering
enough
space
for
people
in
their
12
 
 everyday
lives
is
so
important
because
of
the
negative
connotations
humans
have
for
 confinement
and
small
spaces.

 As
mentioned
before
these
recommendations
are
only
but
a
few
singular
approaches
to
 what
is
a
large
multi‐disciplinary
approach
to
holistic
healing
within
urban
environments.
 Almost
all
of
the
author’s
and
works
cited
within
this
paper
have
much
more
complicated
 points
than
the
ones
which
have
been
simply
pointed
out.
Buildings
are
but
a
single
facet
of
a
 city
however
integral
they
may
be
to
the
strength
and
evolution
of
any
city
it
is
important
for
 any
reader
to
have
in
mind
the
whole
urban
paradigm
while
thinking
specifically
of
certain
 points
whether
it
be
single
buildings
or
entire
cities
infrastructure.
Finally,
the
healing
cities
 groups
approach
to
this
project
creates
an
overlap
in
the
scale
of
the
four
aspects
of
health
 resulting
in
one
large
aspect
with
four
subsections
rather
than
four
separate
aspects.
It
is
the
 environment
in
which
we
not
only
live
in
which
is
important
but
also
the
one
we
create.

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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