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Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Bradley, Carter Dec 2, 2009

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Energy Opportunities from Lignocellulosic Biomass in British Columbia  Brad Carter WOOD 493 14 April, 2009  Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter ii April 09 Contents List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ iv Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Energy Market in British Columbia and Canada ............................................................................ 2 Merits of woody biomass over other agricultural biomass ............................................................. 2 Fuel Availability ............................................................................................................................. 3 Sawmill Residues ........................................................................................................................ 3 Roadside Residues ...................................................................................................................... 5 MPB Killed Trees ....................................................................................................................... 5 Raw Material Preparation ............................................................................................................... 7 Energy Extraction Methods ............................................................................................................ 8 Direct Combustion ...................................................................................................................... 8 Gasification ............................................................................................................................... 11 Bioethanol ................................................................................................................................. 13 Bio-oil ....................................................................................................................................... 15 Environmental Impacts ................................................................................................................. 16 Social Effects ................................................................................................................................ 17 Economic Effects .......................................................................................................................... 19 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 20 Works Cited .................................................................................................................................. 21 Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter iii April 09 Image Sources ............................................................................................................................... 22   Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter iv April 09 List of Figures Figure 1 Sawmill production process and residue sources ............................................................. 4 Figure 2 Map of Mountain Pine Beetle infestation as of 2006 ....................................................... 6 Figure 3 Brunette Industries Grizzly-mill hog ................................................................................ 7 Figure 4 Jeffrey Rader AB Hammermill ........................................................................................ 8 Figure 5 Pellet fuel home heating system ..................................................................................... 10 Figure 6 Combined heat and power (CHP) generation plant ........................................................ 11 Figure 7 wood-gas powered type 60 wartime VW Beetle ............................................................ 12 Figure 8 Gasification system diagram .......................................................................................... 13 Figure 9 Bioethanol production process ....................................................................................... 14 Figure 10 Dynamotive fast pyrolysis process for bio-oil production ........................................... 15   Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 1 April 09 Introduction The Green movement is a global shift which is causing people to change lifestyle habits and ways of thinking to improve their use of natural resources.  Alternative energy is one of the most important components in this shift and is necessary to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels for energy in our everyday lives.  Solar, wind, geothermal and biomass are the main sources of energy being explored and are in use throughout the world today in various capacities and with varied degrees of success.  Due to the climatic and topographic limitation of solar, wind and geothermal energies, biomass is becoming increasingly desirable as the standard method of renewable energy production. Solid wood has been used as fuel for heating and cooking since the stone ages and emerging technologies may once again involve wood more prominently in our daily lives.  When the general public hears about wood energy they automatically think of dirty fireplaces and woodstoves which are the traditional methods of wood heating.  The future of this resource is more likely to involve commercialized production of energy and bio-fuels while also finding new technologies to allow for residential use of wood for heating in more efficient ways. Bio-energy potential from the Mountain Pine Beetle devastated Lodgepole Pine in central British Columbia may pose the best opportunity for renewable energy production Canada.  As Canada has some of the lowest household electricity rates in the world the market is a difficult one for bio-energy to penetrate.  In Europe there has been a larger move towards bio-energy projects due to the substantially higher electricity costs, but can these same technology platforms be viable in Canada.  Looking at the country as a whole is too broad due to the varied lifestyles and the large gaps between metropolitan centers.  Drilling down to look at British Columbia, and more Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 2 April 09 specifically the interior where the population is much less dense and the availability and access to raw fuel are much greater. There are various methods of producing energy from woody biomass such as direct combustion, cogeneration, gasification, co-firing and production of bio-ethanol or bio-oil.  The methods of energy production will be outlined and evaluated based on ease of implementation, required technology and overall costs associated with operation. Energy Market in British Columbia and Canada Before delving into the technical merits of the different bio-energy platforms, a look at the potential markets is required.  The feasibility of any energy platform is based on the ability to sell that power to the current consumers for the same price or cheaper than the current rate. When looking across Canada, the lowest average unit price for residential electricity is between 7 and 8 cents per kWh in British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec, with the other provinces having higher rates near 12 cents per kWh (NRCAN, 2009).  These price differences depend on the energy production methods and market demand for that energy.  Overall Canada has some of the lowest energy prices in the world, making this the toughest market for bio-energy to compete. Merits of woody biomass over other agricultural biomass There are many different forms of biomass which can be utilized for the production of bio- energy such as wood, corn, sugar cane etc. but there are many factors which make the choice of woody biomass the clear leader.  When considering the sustainability of a biomass supply, one must consider both the energy output of that biomass source and the energy input required to produce the biomass, yielding the net energy of the biomass.  According to Berndes et al. the net Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 3 April 09 energy from woody biomass is much greater than that from other lignocellulosic alcohol crops due to the lesser machinery usage throughout the growth process and the decreased demand for fertilizers and limited pesticide requirements after establishment of the crop (2001). Another reason for woody biomass being the best candidate fuel for future bio-energy development is the large amount which is available sustainably without disrupting current forest practices and trade flows.  In the case of corn for ethanol production the corn is diverted from the food market and substituted into the fossil fuel market, increasing the cost of foods and other products which are made with corn.  The potential availability of woody biomass from sawmill residues and roadside residues allows the production of ethanol from woody biomass on much the same scale as from corn yet there is little to no disruption to current practices. Fuel Availability The availability of fuel is also one of the determining factors affecting the feasibility of bio- energy operations.  The fuel supply for any bio-energy plant must be sufficient to sustain continuous operation of the plant throughout the designed life.  In British Columbia the main raw material stocks for bio-energy production from wood are sawmill residues, roadside residues and MPB killed trees. Sawmill Residues There are several different residues produced throughout the sawmilling process which can be used for energy production.  The various resiudues, known as hog, can be divided into two categories; wet (before kiln drying) and dry (after kiln drying) (VERKERK, 2008).  The sources of these fuels can be seen in Figure 1 below. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 4 April 09  Figure 1 Sawmill production process and residue sources The main constraints on the amount of sawmill residues available for bio-energy production depends first on the throughput and efficiency of the mill, and second on the value of the biomass for other processes.  The internal defects in the drier MPB wood causes a larger percentage of degrade throughout the production process, yielding higher amounts of residues and making it a good source of biomass currently but once the timber has reached a certain point of deterioration and is no longer useable, mills will return to sawing lower volumes of green wood which will reduce the total amount of sawmill residues available for bio-energy use (VERKERK, 2008).  According to Verkerk the total amount of sawmill residues available for Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 5 April 09 bio-energy production in BC is approximately 1.3 million oven dry tones (ODT) of the total 9.7 million ODT produced (2008). Roadside Residues Roadside residues consist of all the non-timber use wood material left in the forest after harvesting trees.  This is often referred to as slash and contains broken logs, tree tops, branches, stumps and a variety of other materials that are removed during harvest.  These materials are most often burned on site for disposal, capturing none of the energy available.  By utilizing this material for bio-energy the energy can be captured and the emissions can be expected to be reduced due to more thorough combustion and air filtration technology. Using only sawmill and roadside residues, and not increasing the AAC to allow for bio-energy tenures, Canada as a whole could produce the equivalent  energy from lingo-cellulosic biomass to account for 8% of national fossil fuel use (MACFARLANE et al., 2008). MPB Killed Trees The recent Mountain Pine Beetle attack on the forests in BC have lead to widespread devastation of the interior forests, leaving approximately 450 million cubic meters of lodgepole pine dead in the forest (NRCAN, 2006).  A large proportion of this fiber will be left standing for too long and will become unusable for the traditional timber products produced in BC.  The use of this fiber for bio-energy production will allow for the land to be cleared and replanted, returning the forest stocks sooner than natural re-forestation.  The map below shows that nearly 50% of the total lodgepole pine stocks in BC are infected; this number is expected to increase to 80% by 2013 (NRCAN, 2006). Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 6 April 09  Figure 2 Map of Mountain Pine Beetle infestation as of 2006 The assumed method of harvest for trees used in energy production is clear-cutting on the same scale as the current MPB tree harvesting.  Trees would be skidded to roadside and chipped whole, including limbs and tops, into chip trucks which would transport the material to the processing plant (KUMAR et al., 2005).  Harvesting in this manner has much lower transportation and handling costs than are associated with traditional forestry operations where whole trees are transported to facilities for processing. When looking at roadside residues and whole trees, on issue that arises is the inability to harvest at certain times of the year, as with other forestry operations in British Columbia.  To overcome these supply disruptions, biomass plants must maintain a large inventory of raw fuel at the plant, maybe as much as three months worth.  When large piles of wood are stored, especially the extremely dry chips from MPB killed Lodgepole Pine, there is a great risk of fire from Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 7 April 09 spontaneous ignition or other spark sources.  The cogeneration plant operated by Dow Corning Corp. in Midland, MI experienced this in the early years of operation and was forced to ensure strict controls were in place to turn over chip inventory every six months to prevent another incident of this type (AERTS et al.). Raw Material Preparation Raw materials for the above methods of bio-energy extraction from woody biomass are prepared in much the same way.  The biomass, be it sawmill residues, roadside residues or whole trees, are hogged to produce a material with uniform size and shape, which can be easily handled and processed.  A hog or hammermill, as seen in Figure 5 and Figure 6 below, has a series of knives or strikers which force to incoming material against an anvil, breaking it apart until it will fit through a grate on the bottom of the machine.  These machines are extremely simple to operate, long-lasting, and are also available as portables for use in the bush.  Figure 3 Brunette Industries Grizzly-mill hog Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 8 April 09  Figure 4 Jeffrey Rader AB Hammermill The hog from different sources will undoubtedly have varied moisture contents dependant on species and composition, be it wood fiber or bark.  The fuel mixture for most bio-energy process needs to be between 10 and 20 percent moisture content for the process to be most efficient (OREGON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, 2007).  To be able to manage the moisture content of the incoming process fuel, storage of biomass in several piles based on approximate moisture content is advisable.  The only process which is much more tolerant of fuel moisture is direct combustion which is able to operate efficiently with up to 60% fuel moisture content (OREGON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, 2007). Energy Extraction Methods Direct Combustion Direct combustion is the process of burning wood fiber to produce heat.  Woody biomass can be combusted for energy in its natural state, after hogging, or further processed into compressed pellets.  Industrial application of wood combustion use wood in its natural state due to the relatively lower cost and the amount required, and pellets are more often used in household and institutional applications of direct wood combustion. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 9 April 09 Institutional and residential energy extraction from woody biomass traditionally involved the use of solid wood logs.  More recently there is a shift from the use of solid wood logs to wood pellets for space heating and domestic hot water.  Pellets can be used for space eating in a stove similarly to solid wood, but can also be used in place of electricity or natural gas for heating of domestic hot water which can be used in radiators for space heating.  Systems burning wood pellets are often more efficient than traditional wood stoves burning solid logs and the wood pellets, due to being compressed, have a higher energy density than solid wood.  The cost of wood pellets is the major reason for the limited usage of the technology for residential properties because in British Columbia, and many other places, harvesting trees for home heating if free. The major competitors of wood pellet heating are natural gas and electricity which are much simpler to live with.  Electricity and natural gas are available continuously from the provider without any action from the user whereas wood pellet systems fuel levels must be monitored and replenished to ensure the supply does not run out.  The systems employing natural gas and electricity also require much less maintenance than wood pellet systems. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 10 April 09  Figure 5 Pellet fuel home heating system Wood combustion for commercial energy production takes place in large boilers which produce high pressure steam to turn turbines and produce electricity.  The electricity produced is sold to the grid to increase available power and meet consumers’ electricity demands.  The steam used to produce electricity remains hot and is used to pre-heat the water entering the boiler and can also be used for domestic hot water systems in towns, or as steam for industrial and chemical processes.  Use of steam for power and other processes such as domestic heating, combined heat and power (CHP) generation, and industrial processing is known as cogeneration.  One of these CHP plants is shown in Figure 6 below.  Small Cogen plants are often located near wood and paper mills where wood waste produced on site is burned to produce heat for other processes such as kiln drying.  Direct combustion and cogeneration technology is well known and could easily be adapted to capacities of 300MW with little risk, making it the most viable option to consider at this time (KUMAR et al., 2005).  The systems used to generate power from wood combustion are also able to be run on natural gas and possibly fuel oil during fuel shortages as Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 11 April 09 was the case at a cogeneration plant operated by Dow Corning Corp. in Midland, Michigan (AERTS et al.).  Figure 6 Combined heat and power (CHP) generation plant Another process using wood combustion is co-firing.  This process uses wood as fuel in coal plants to offset some of the coal usage, reduce emissions and maintain energy output at relatively low costs (USDA FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY, 2004).  This method of offsetting coal emissions is a step in the positive direction but is only a short term option for disposal of unwanted wood residues as it still relies highly on the use of fossil fuels. Gasification Wood Gasification is the process used to create hydrogen, and carbon monoxide gases from wood by heating it in a oxygen deprived environment.  The fuel resulting from gasification can be combusted as is, or filtered and used as fuel for internal combustion engines, micro turbines and gas turbines (USDA FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY, 2004).  Gasification Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 12 April 09 technology was used in vehicles such as the VW Beetle shown in Figure 7 below during the WWII fuel shortages; the gasification chamber was located in the front of the car and the resulting gases were plumbed into a slightly modified engine at the rear of the car (LUX, 1996).  Figure 7 wood-gas powered type 60 wartime VW Beetle Wood gasification was analyzed by Kumar et al. (2005) and was found to have a lower cost per unit of power than direct combustion but the technology has not been proven on a large scale.  At the time of the study, the largest gasification turbine in operation was 6MW and would require extensive up-scaling to be of use in power domestic power generation making it a very risky option. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 13 April 09  Figure 8 Gasification system diagram Bioethanol The ethanol produced from biomass such as corn or sugar cane is known as bioethanol.  Woody biomass can be used for this process but requires pre-treatment with sulphuric acid to break down the lignin prior to the extraction of sugars for fermentation (KUMAR, 2009).  The fermentation of the sugars produces ethanol which is refined and can be combusted to produce steam and electricity or sold as a fuel for internal combustion engines.  Commercial production of bioethanol from woody biomass is unproven, making it risky to attempt large scale implementation.  Figure 9 below shows the basic bioethanol production process. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 14 April 09  Figure 9 Bioethanol production process Currently, the majority of bioethanol is produced from corn or sugar cane and added to petroleum fuels to offset the fossil fuel content but there are two sides to this story.  The positive side is that the ethanol created from the corn offsets fossil fuel usage in automobiles and creates another revenue stream for farmers, but the negative side is that corn is diverted away from other markets causing the cost of corn containing goods to increase.  One option that has become more prevalent is the production of ethanol from corn stover, the stalk and leaves left over after harvesting the grain, but there are also limitations to this method.  Under normal harvesting these unused portions of the corn plants are left in the field to rot, restoring nutrients in the soil and improving the hydrology.  When the material is removed from the fields there are problems with erosion and the soil becomes spent, requiring increased use of non-natural fertilizers. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 15 April 09 The use of woody biomass for ethanol production, with adequate technological advancement, would allow for the phasing out of corn-based bioethanol and reduce the associated market effects. Bio-oil Bio-oil is a dark brown liquid produced through fast pyrolysis of biomass; post processing can yield a fuel which can be combusted to produce heat and power, or an ingredient in specialty chemicals (KUMAR, 2009).  Figure 10 below shows the fast pyrolysis process for producing bio-oil where the feedstock is rapidly heated to a temperature of 450-500°C in the absences of oxygen, vapours are separated from solid Char in a cyclone and then condensed; the whole process lasting less than two seconds (DYNAMOTIVE ENERGY SYSTEMS, 2007).  Figure 10 Dynamotive fast pyrolysis process for bio-oil production Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 16 April 09 The production of bio-oil and the generated power are more expensive than electricity from other sources, making bio-oil unattractive for large-scale, stand-alone power generation.  Bio-oil is best suited for the transportation fuels market as green diesel and according to Brown et al. (2006) can replace crude oil as the feedstock for refineries with some modification. Environmental Impacts The devastation caused by the MPB epidemic in BC can be seen throughout the provinces forests.  In the central interior of BC, the hardest hit area; it is often difficult to see a green tree in the forest of red and grey.  One of the problems with the dead trees is the likelihood of forest fires which can devastate the local landscape and wildlife.  These forest fires could also release any carbon stored in the trees into the atmosphere and further slow the natural restocking of the forest and create even greater economic impacts (KUMAR et al., 2005). The risks associated with leaving this biomass standing in the forest can be mitigated by harvesting for bio-energy programs.  The reduction in fire risk and increased resource utilization are two of the key benefits.   Resource utilization is important as the carbon stored in the trees will eventually be released through fire or decay with few productive effects.  If the resource is used for bio-energy production, the release of carbon will be associated with other uses which reduce the net output of carbon by replacing the use of higher-polluting fossil fuels.  There is also the ability of access after harvesting for reforestation programs and other silvicultural functions.  When the new forest begins to grow, the sequestration of carbon is quite rapid and removing carbon from the atmosphere through new tree growth and offsetting fossil fuel power plants would help reduce the national emissions and contribute to Canada meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (KUMAR et al., 2005).  The global environmental Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 17 April 09 effects of bio-energy from wood can be viewed as a positive but effects of pollution on the local level are very different. The most likely place to construct bio-energy and bio-refinery plants are rural communities near the source of the raw materials required.  In most cases these would be new installations in location where these kinds of emissions have not been present in the past, subjecting communities that may be prized for having clean air to pollution.  Wood-based power generation generates significantly lower emissions than coal-fired plants of the same capacity, 42.6 g of CO2e per kWh and 984.6 g of CO2e per kWh respectively (KUMAR et al., 2005), these emissions are not normal in these areas and could have unknown environmental effects.  Also, the health of local communities and topographic features can cause problems such as inversions which trap pollution in valley areas for extended periods of time producing other chemical reactions in the atmosphere which produce other dangerous pollutants.  This however can be mitigated by choosing specific sites where wind and climate patterns remove the pollutants such that there are negligible health and climatic effects on the local population. One other side effect of removing wood for energy production is that reforestation practices may not be adequate or may even not take place leading to soil erosion and hydrology problems. Government legislation and enforcement is required to ensure problems like this do not arise and the resource is utilized and replenished in the best possible ways. Social Effects In many rural BC communities the impact of the mountain pine beetle is visible on the main street, where businesses have closed down because mills have shut down and there is little money left in the town.  The effects of the MPB attacks has been multiplied by the US housing Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 18 April 09 collapse, and the high Canadian dollar which has caused lumber prices to plummet over the past decade.  For these reasons, the possibility of turning this biomass into energy is becoming increasingly attractive as an option to keep communities alive. The creation of a power plant to run on MPB wood would create numerous jobs, including construction, harvesting, silviculture, production and management, throughout its life cycle. Employing people displaced by closures in traditional forestry sectors would keep them in the community and reduce many negative aspects of the current situation in the forest sector.  The BC Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources (2007) estimates that bio-energy may create up to 1500 jobs throughout the interior.  The construction of a power plant in a rural community could also provide for infrastructure upgrades such as roads and power transmission which would lead to the well-being of the community well into the future. Some of the downsides of bringing a power plant to a rural BC community are the possible health impacts, which could cause social problems in the community, and the aesthetics of a power plant burning wood and the associated smog and clear-cutting of forests for fuel.  If the negative impacts are too great and the community does not support the project, it cannot proceed in a socially responsible way.  Another issue arises from the unknown life cycle of these types of power plants.  In the studies performed by Kumar et al. (2005) the plants are assumed to have a twenty year life cycle.  Although the plant may last longer, the availability of fuel after that time may become scarce because the plants run best on drier fuel and newer green wood has a lower heating value and higher associated cost, which may lead to the plant being unviable. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 19 April 09 Economic Effects Installation of a wood fired electricity plant in a rural community would have many financial effects, both positive and negative.  The most noticeable impact would be higher cash flow through the community where workers would be living and purchasing the majority of their goods.  This kind of project would provide incentive for business to operate within the community, and keep communities alive that have been adversely affected by closures of other forestry operations.  As was highlighted in the section on social impacts, the workers displaced from traditional forestry jobs would be well suited for work in wood power generation, and this continued use of skilled workers, would ensure these contractors and suppliers remain in the communities so that in the event of a mill restart, the expertise will be available to facilitate that. One possible outcome of using MPB wood for power generation could be an increased value for the fiber.  Even though it is expected that approximately forty percent of the total affected volume will be left standing (KUMAR et al., 2005), the higher demand could be seen as an opportunity to increase stumpage rates.  Although this possible increase in prices for wood fiber could increase government revenue to fund social programs in small communities, it could also undo many of the positive social outcomes from generated jobs and revenue of the project. Increased fiber costs for other users such as sawmills and panel producers would have an adverse effect on the communities as they produce a commodity product which does not allow efficient transfer of cost increases to the consumer further reducing very small, and sometimes non- existent, profit margins.  A new type of forest tenure for bio-energy uses would mitigate the possible effects of the higher demand for wood fiber and allow all the industries to co-exist without causing undue pressure on the more traditional users. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 20 April 09 One economic impact that affects projects using wood biomass to produce energy is fluctuations in fossil fuel prices.  If prices for natural gas decline drastically, economic incentives are needed to sustain the benefits of using wood fuel such as keeping wood waste out of landfills, conserving fossil fuels and slowing the threat of global warming (AERTS et al.).  This possibility of switching to more polluting fuels to make profits requires government control and monitoring to ensure that green energy projects have a chance of surviving.  In BC this may be facilitated by BC Hydro's requirement that all new electricity has zero net GHG emissions, ensuring that clean or renewable electricity generation accounts for at least 90 percent of total generation, and the $25 million Innovative Clean Energy Fund (BC MINISTRY OF ENERGY, MINES, AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES, 2007). Conclusion Although bio-energy from woody biomass shows promise in BC, it is more suited to niche applications than large-scale power generation and fuel supply operations.  The costs of power generation from wood residues are higher than the current hydro-electric installations and because of this are not competitive in the market.  Future advancements of the technology and process improvements should provide other opportunities for implementation and review, leading hopefully to large-scale usage and less dependence on fossil fuels for transportation and power generation.  Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 21 April 09 Works Cited AERTS, Danny and Kenneth RAGLAND. Northeast Regional Biomass Program. [online]. [Accessed 9 February 2009]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.nrbp.org/papers/055.pdf> BC MINISTRY OF ENERGY, MINES, AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES. 2007. Bioenergy in BC: Moving Forward. [online]. BERNDES, Goran, Christian AZAR, Tomas KABERGER, and Dean ABRAHMSON. 2001. The feasibility of large-scale lignocellulose-based bioenergy production. Biomass and Bioenergy., pp.371-383. BROWN, Robert C. and Jennifer HOLMGREN. 2006. Fast Pyrolysis and Bio-Oil Upgrading. [online]. DYNAMOTIVE ENERGY SYSTEMS. 2007. Fast Pyrolysis Process. [online]. [Accessed 13 April 2009]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.dynamotive.com/en/technology/index.html> KUMAR, Amit. 2009. A conceptual comparison of bioenergy options for using mountain pine beetle infested wood in Western Canada. Bioresource Technology. 100, pp.387-399. KUMAR, Amit, Shahab SOKHANSANJ, and Peter C. FLYNN. 2005. BIOCAP Canada: Reports and Publications. [online]. [Accessed 9 February 2009]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.biocap.ca/files/reports/2005-11-03_MPB_Study-Phase2-Final_Report.pdf> LUX, James. 1996. Woodgas powered VW's and other vehicles. [online]. [Accessed 13 April 2009]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://ww2.whidbey.net/jameslux/woodgas.htm> MACFARLANE, Paul, Emmanuel ACKOM, Jerome ALTEYRAC, and Vic ADAMOWICZ. 2008. Global Energy. NRCAN. 2006. Mountain pine beetle: The economics of infestation. [online]. [Accessed 08 Apr 2009]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://foretscanada.rncan.gc.ca/articletopic/8#Figure> NRCAN. 2009. Energy Sector: Energy Sources: Electricity: About Electricity. [online]. [Accessed 08 Apr 2009]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.nrcan- rncan.gc.ca/eneene/sources/eleele/abofai-eng.php#prices> OREGON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. 2007. Biomass Energy Homepage: Biomass Energy Technology. [online]. [Accessed 09 Apr 2009]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Biomass/bioenergy.shtml> USDA FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY. 2004. Techlines. [online]. [Accessed 8 February 2009]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/techline/wood- biomass-for-energy.pdf> VERKERK, Bas. 2008. Current and future trade opportunities for woody biomass end-products from British Columbia, Canada. Utrecht University. Energy opportunities from lignocellulosic biomass in British Columbia Brad Carter 22 April 09 Image Sources Figure 1 – Verkerk, 2008 Figure 2 – http://mpb.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/map_e.html Figure 3 – http://www.brunetteindustries.com/equipment/cbi-grizzly-mill/ Figure 4 – http://www.jeffreyrader.com/size_reduction/Crushers/AB_Hammermills.cfm Figure 5 – http://www.unendlich-viel-energie.de/uploads/media/Wood_pellet_heating.pdf Figure 6 – http://www.unendlich-viel-energie.de/uploads/media/Biomass_CHP.pdf Figure 7 – http://ww2.whidbey.net/jameslux/bugwood.gif Figure 8 – http://www.fossil.energy.gov/images/programs/powersystems/gasification_schematic.jpg Figure 9 – http://www.biofuels-platform.ch/en/images/site/figures/lightbox/bioethanol_figure_1c.png Figure 10 – http://i.treehugger.com/images/2007/10/24/dynamotive%20fast%20pyrolysis%20process-jj- 001.jpg  

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