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Exploring the history of women in botany : tracing seven female contributors of the UBC Herbarium Blachford, Brittany 2013

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Exploring the History of Women in Botany: Tracing Seven Female Contributors of the UBC Herbarium By Brittany Blachford  Report prepared at the request of the University of British Columbia Herbarium in partial fulfillment of UBC Geography 429: Research in Historical Geography for Dr. David Brownstein  Blachford 1 The purpose of my research is to identify seven female collectors, who collected plant specimens from all over British Columbia for John Davidson, during the late 1800s until 1919. I am researching Miss Alice Holman, Mrs. Dora F. Kerr, Miss A.B. MacKenzie, Miss A.S. MacKenzie, Mrs. L.E. Wallace, Miss E. Warren, and Mrs. J.T. Higgins. These women acted as correspondents for different cities within British Columbia. The female field collectors would send their newly discovered plant specimens to Davidson, a professional male botanist, to have their specimens identified and kept record of.1 The UBC Herbarium provided their records,  Figure 1: Female Field Collectors of British Columbia  which list where each female collector collected plant specimens from in British Columbia, which can be seen in Figure 1.2 At a broader level, I am exploring the different ways eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth century women contributed towards the development of the field of botany around the world. In doing so, I hope to uncover the different challenges women experienced while they strived to achieve public recognition for the tremendous amount of work 1 2  D. Mosquin and D. Brownstein, John Davidson, UBC Botanical Garden & Centre for Plant Research, 2008, Web. Felicite Dodd, Personal Communication, UBC Herbarium Database, 16 Feb 2013.  Blachford 2 they conducted in this scientific field. The information I uncovered on the seven female collectors will be used as a case study to look at specific examples of women who collected plant specimens during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in British Columbia. Little is known about these seven women, which tells me that their contributions towards this field had not been valued highly by the botanical community. The additional secondary sources I have researched will be used in this paper to support my theory; I argue that eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth century women faced many obstacles in their attempts to achieve power within the professional field of botany and in turn respect from their male botanical peers.3 Since the majority of women were not valued in the scientific field of botany, their contributions were often thwarted, resulting in the majority of female botanists receiving little or no public recognition for their findings.4 Challenges Faced by Eighteenth Century Women During the eighteenth century, society maintained the perspective that all scientific subjects, excluding botany, were beyond women’s comprehensive capacity. For this reason, botany became the acceptable scientific field for women to begin to participate in. Women were expected to stay within their homes under the supervision of male members of their household. This cultural expectation contributed towards an increasing number of women entering into the field of botany because women were allowed to practice this field of study from the confines of their own home. The scientific field of botany became referred to as a polite field of science, which women were allowed to informally involve themselves in while still remaining modest and pure members of society; however, if women pursued a high level of education in this 3  Henrietta Shirk, Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators, Technical Communication Quarterly 6 (1997) 297. 4 Ann Shteir, Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science: Flora’s Daughters and Botany in England, 1760 to 1860, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, 52.  Blachford 3 subject, they were shunned by society and labelled as masculine and unmarriageable. 5 Women that received informal training in the scientific study of botany were often those who worked for their “fathers, brothers, or husbands”6 where these women would assist with the collection and identification of plant specimens. Women of the aristocracy and bourgeoisie class formed the majority of female collectors that received the opportunities to work for male botanists; however, most eighteenth century women were never publicly acknowledged for their contributions towards the progression of this field.7 Social Attitude Maintained by Society In the eighteenth century, men enacted a movement to restrict the professional field of botany to gentlemen and because of this exclusionary act women, who participated in this field of work, were labelled by society as amateurs regardless of the work they contributed towards the development of botany.8 John Lindley, a prominent male botanist in the nineteenth century, was a front runner in encouraging men to engage in exclusionary acts preventing academic women from entering into this professional field because Lindley believed women should only participate in botany to entertain their simple amusements and, for that reason, were not intellectually qualified for the scientific world.9 The belief that botany was a fashionable form of leisure was a social attitude that prevailed and, for that reason, many women of the upper class engaged in this activity during their spare time in order to provide themselves with an academic interest to pursue.10 A common misconception held by society was that women were born with  5  Shteir, Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science: Flora’s Daughters and Botany in England, 1760 to 1860, 57. Shirk, Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators, 294. 7 Gabriella Berti Logan, Women and Botany in Risorgimento Italy, Nuncius 19 (2004) 603. 8 Elizabeth B Keeney, The Botanizers, United States of America: The University of North Carolina Press, 1992, 82. 9 Shteir, Gender and ‘Modern’ Botany in Victorian England, Osiris 12 (1997) 36. 10 Shteir, Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science: Flora’s Daughters and Botany in England, 1760 to 1860, 36. 6  Blachford 4 innate traits to develop into delicate and nurturing human beings and, for this reason, women were seen by society as better capable than men to collect and preserve the specimens that were discovered while conducting this field of work.11 Charles Darwin also enforced this distinct divide between men and women as he proclaimed in his book, Descent of Man, that a man would “[attain] to a higher eminence, in whatever he takes up, than can [a] woman.”12 Darwin argued that men excelled over women in all human aspects, including thought, reasoning, imagination and bodily strength and for that reason it was argued that men would always be superior to women.13Although an increasing number of women entered into the field of botany at the end of the eighteenth century and into the early nineteenth century, society continued to maintain a sexist attitude regarding the involvement of women in this scientific field. Women’s Increasing Contributions to the Field of Botany Women involved themselves in various aspects of botany, which included collecting plants alongside male companions, identifying and naming plant specimens from their home, creating their own personal herbarium, writing books or poems on botany, studying Latin botanical terms or taking lessons from a teacher, a tutor or from a relative on the subject of botany.14 Many women pursued careers as botanical writers; however, because professional male botanists so rarely acknowledged female botanist’s academic contributions, women had to find different ways to have their work published and shared with the public.15 Gates argued that although men tried to inhibit academic women from publishing pieces on botany, women fought 11  Shteir, Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science: Flora’s Daughters and Botany in England, 1760 to 1860, 35. Kimberlie M. Roberts, Women’s Botanical Illustration in Canada: It’s Gendered, Colonial and Garden Histories (1830-1930), Thesis, Concordia University, Montreal (2008) 28. 13 Roberts, Women’s Botanical Illustration in Canada, 28. 14 Shirk, Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators, 294. 15 Shirk, Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators, 297. 12  Blachford 5 back and in order to have their work viewed by the public they chose to instead conduct their writing in non-traditional ways.16 Women were able to generate new target audiences by writing pieces that were for different intended uses than traditional academic botanical writing, including travel books, children’s tales, farming tips and garden tips.17 Another strategy women used to overcome barriers they faced in achieving prominence for their work was to dedicate their pieces to influential, male botanists that were highly respected in the field and to publicly acknowledge that without receiving this individual’s approval their work would never have been considered for publication.18 Demonstrating such humility and modesty was a method many eighteenth century women used in an attempt to acquire the honour of having their work published; however, even after achieving such an accomplishment, these women were still not respected on an equal level with their male peers and remained labelled as amateurs.19 Case Study 1: Mrs Dora F Kerr Mrs Dora Kerr was a female correspondent for John Davidson, who collected plant specimens in Kelowna, B.C and then sent the plant specimens to John Davidson for identification.20 Dora Kerr was an exceptional woman. Kerr participated in the movement to overcome sexist barriers and continually fought to initiate changes in societal attitudes through her writing. The Kelowna Voters list revealed that Mrs Dora F Kerr lived in Rossland, B.C. in  16  Barbara T. Gates, Kindred Nature: Victorian and Edwardian Women Embrace the Living World, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998, 132. 17 Shteir, Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science: Flora’s Daughters and Botany in England, 1760 to 1860, 61. 18 Shirk, Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators, 297. 19 Shirk, Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators, 309. 20 John Davidson, Newspaper Cuttings 1914-1917 (Cont.), [c. 1914-1917] Box 565, F-6, John Davidson Fonds, City of Vancouver Archives, Vancouver, B.C.  Blachford 6 1901 and then Kelowna, B.C. in 1911.21 In the early twentieth century, Dora Kerr worked as a columnist for The Kelowna Courier newspaper where she wrote articles listing local plant specimens that were newly discovered in order to provide Kelowna residents with the knowledge to identify plants.22 Dora Kerr’s husband was Robert Kerr; Robert Kerr worked as a lawyer and was also a member of the Kelowna Board of Trade.23 Dora Kerr worked in the Kelowna Provincial Botanical Office (P.O. Box 565 Kelowna, B.C.) where she remained in constant contact with John Davidson.24 Dora Kerr participated in the Women’s Suffragist Movement and was an active member of the Okanagan community.25 Kerr was mentioned in an article called, The Chewing Gum, written by Melanie Ihmel in 1914, which acknowledged Kerr for her part in the women’s movement. Kerr wrote columns that challenged her fellow citizens to realize the “simple justice of the right to vote” for women.26 Kerr also created a group called the ‘Equal Franchise League,’ which encouraged women of the Okanagan to meet each week in order to fight for women’s rights and to bring about changes that would allow for citizens to show their beliefs in an enlightened societal attitude towards women.27 Increasing Opportunities Available for Women Although women did not enter into the professional field of botany in high numbers, the amount of women practicing botany as amateurs continued to increase throughout the nineteenth century.28 Near the end of the nineteenth century, the women’s sphere in botany had begun to expand as women were slowly allowed to participate in a wider range of botanical activities as 21  Tara Hurley, Personal Communication, The Kelowna Public Archive, 6 Mar. 2013. Davidson, Newspaper Cuttings 1914-1917 (Cont.) Box 565, F6, CVA. 23 Hurley, Personal Communication. 24 Davidson, Newspaper Cuttings 1914-1917 (Cont.) Box 565, F6, CVA. 25 Hurley, Personal Communication. 26 Hurley, Personal Communication. 27 Hurley, Personal Communication. 28 Rudolph, Women in Nineteenth Century American Botany, 1346. 22  Blachford 7 well as pursue a greater degree of amateur job opportunities. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, fieldwork had been greatly restricted to men because women could not collect in hard to access locations nor could women risk the chance of getting themselves dirty while in the process of searching for specimens. Society strongly emphasized the importance of maintaining a respectable social image and one of the requirements women had to adhere to was to wear their traditional garments at all times when entering into the public sphere. However, women, who were particularly interested in partaking in the field work of botany, were greatly limited to the distances they could search for and collect specimens because women’s traditional garments restricted their ability to move preventing them from walking far distances. In the late nineteenth century, some women were able to overcome this preventive aspect by borrowing clothes from their male companions, while others chose to remain traditional and instead overcome this barrier by hiring a male collector to travel to these distant places to collect specimens and bring it to the women’s home where she could then examine it from the privacy of her own house.29 Women had also begun to pursue additional areas of work related to botany, including working as an elementary school teacher, high school teacher, writer, curator, librarian or laboratory assistant.30 Girls were increasingly encouraged by society to attend an all girls school in order to provide themselves with a basic education; one of the main subjects taught at these schools was botany because the subject was believed to improve one’s health as it encouraged individuals to leave the stuffy classroom and instead spend at least a few hours a day outside in the fresh air.31 Rudolph argues that after the American Civil War came to an end, women had more openings available to them to pursue higher levels of education, which was demonstrated in Rudolph’s statistic that claimed in 1870 21% of women were enrolled in a post-secondary level of 29  Keeney, The Botanizers, 19. Rudolph, Women in Nineteenth Century American Botany, 1350. 31 Keeney, The Botanizers, 74. 30  Blachford 8 education, but by 1900 36.8% women had enrolled.32 Even though women were receiving more chances to acquire a better education near the end of the nineteenth century, a woman’s ability to acquire a professional job after completing her degree was still very limited because of the sexist standards society continued to uphold.33 Case Study 2: Miss A.S. MacKenzie In British Columbia there was a large increase in the number of women taking up positions in the education system where they worked as teachers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. By the 1920’s teaching had become “a well established career” for young women, who had begun to enter the work force with the desire to become independent individuals.34 Miss A.S. MacKenzie, who collected in Mission City, was listed as a high school teacher for Mission High School (Appendix A).35 Miss A.S. MacKenzie attended the 4th Annual Convention of the Fraser Valley Teachers’ Institute, which was held in Mission City, B.C. in 1915 (Appendix B).36 A newspaper article listed that Miss MacKenzie, B.A. led a discussion at this meeting, which engaged other teaches on the topic of her choice (Appendix A).37 On September 3, 1912, Mission High School was opened in Mission City and was the only high school between the coast cities and Chilliwack. The school had only one teacher, Miss Baker, who also served as the principle. On September 18, 1913 an article was published stating that “Miss MacKenzie arrived in town to take up her duties as high school teacher” where she became Mission’s second high school teacher. Miss MacKenzie worked as the assistant to Miss  32  Rudolph, Women in Nineteenth Century American Botany, 1349. Rudolph, Women in Nineteenth Century American Botany, 1346. 34 Sonya Petznek, BC Education: The Story of The One-Room Schoolhouse, British Columbia Ministry of Education, Web. 35 Davidson, Newspaper Cuttings 1914-1917 (Cont.), Box 565, F-6, CVA. 36 Davidson, Newspaper Cuttings 1914-1917 (Cont.), Box 565, F-6, CVA. 37 Davidson, Newspaper Cuttings 1914-1917 (Cont.), Box 565, F-6, CVA. 33  Blachford 9 Baker and the two ladies staffed the high school until 1917. On August 2, 1917 the local newspaper stated that Miss MacKenzie would be offered the position as principal in the following year; however, on the 16th an article was published stating that Miss MacKenzie had decided to leave Mission High School. On June 1, 1922, on page 3 of the Fraser Valley Record, another article was published on Miss Annie MacKenzie, which congratulated her for heading the list of dental surgeon graduates of the Royal College. The article noted that Miss Annie MacKenzie had been born in Nova Scotia and from there she continued on to graduate from Pictou Academy and Dalhousie University. She was also acknowledged for the work she conducted in two scientific fields, chemistry and physics, at the University of Washington.38 Additionally, Miss A.S. MacKenzie was prominently mentioned in a published article called, The Mosquitoes of The Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, and Their Control, which was written by Eric Hearle.39 Miss A.S. MacKenzie was recognized in this article for the research she conducted in the Lower Fraser Valley while she was as a member of the National Research Council. This article was published in 1926 and during this time it listed that Miss A.S. MacKenzie held the position of President at the Dalhousie University of Halifax, Nova Scotia, which was an exceptional accomplishment for a woman living in the Twentieth Century (Appendix D).40 Working as a teacher was a very reputable career for young women to have engaged in; however, during this time period the Department of Education upheld rigorous rules for women to adhere to as female teachers had been expected by society to maintain moral perfection while working in this field of work.41  38  Val Billesberger, Personal Communication, Mission Community Archives, 27 Mar 2013. Eric Hearle, The Mosquitoes of The Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, and Their Control, National Research Council 17 (1926): 5. 40 Hearle, The Mosquitoes of The Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, and Their Control, 5. 41 Petznek, BC Education: The Story of The One-Room Schoolhouse. 39  Blachford 10 Challenging Socially Constructed Gender Roles By the late nineteenth century, there was an increasingly supported movement taken up by Canadian women to begin to challenge traditional gender societal beliefs.42 Although by the end of the nineteenth century women had received the right to attend universities, schools were still resistant to award women with degrees and even after women completed their schooling they were still, in most cases, restricted from taking up work in the professional field of botany. Within the universities, the subjects taught to men and women were very different as the curriculum for women tended to focus on teaching women how to be good mothers, carry out household duties, practice religion and remain obedient to their husband, which were not considered important responsibilities for men to adhere to; however, in the early twentieth century, gender equality began to progress in Canada. In 1910, all Canadian universities finally agreed to offer women graduate degrees for their completed studies. By 1921, Robert claimed that a remarkable transformation occurred within the academic field of botany as a statistic revealed that in this year 40.8% of males earned a PhD in botany, while 55.2% of females earned a PhD; however, this progress was not yet reflected in the professional work field of botany as the majority of women continued to be refused admittance even after receiving their degrees.43 Botany in the New World There was an increasing economic incentive for Europeans to immigrate to the New World to participate in the growing field of botany; Europeans were motivated to retrieve New World plant specimens and send them back to Europe to expand Europe’s plant classification  42 43  Roberts, Women’s Botanical Illustration in Canada, 30. Roberts, Women’s Botanical Illustration in Canada, 32.  Blachford 11 system.44 This increased influx of immigrants arriving in the New World from Europe, with the intention to discover new plant specimens, contributed towards the colonization of Canada.45 Roberts claimed that women, who were interested in botany at this time, played a major role in shaping the settlement of the New World. Women increasingly participated as field collectors because this activity provided women with the thrill of “adventuring into new lands” and the chance to see beautiful scenery and amazing wildlife, which women would not have access to if they remained inside the home.46 A field collector had to have patience and had to be well organized, which were traits often attributed to women. Although late Nineteenth and early Twentieth Century women played an important role in the development of the field of botany in the New World, they were hardly recognized for their work. Women continued to remain in the periphery, while prominent male figures were publicly acknowledged for their accomplishments, even though these accomplishments would not have been as successful without the assistance of the female collectors. John Davidson’s Additional Female Contributors Little is known about the additional five female contributors, chosen for this research paper, which further reiterates the claim that women contributed a great amount of work towards the field of botany, but unfortunately, were not publicly recognized for their efforts. Case Study 3: Miss Alice Holman Mrs Dora F Kerr acknowledged Miss Alice Holman in one of her columns published in the Kelowna Courier newspaper, which addressed that Miss Alice Holman also held a position 44  Keeney, The Botanizers, 10. Roberts, Women’s Botanical Illustration in Canada, 43. 46 VC Brink and RS Silver, Mary Henry: Pioneer Botanist of the Northern Rockies, B.C. Historical News 30 (1997): 18. 45  Blachford 12 working in the Kelowna Provincial Botanical Office (P.O. Box 126 Kelowna East, B.C.) in 1915.47 The British Columbia Museum Index has a death certificate on record for an Alice Idella Holman, which listed her as born June 8, 1887 in Ontario and died October 14, 1973 in West Vancouver, B.C (Appendix E). The death certificate lists Miss Holman as a ‘transient’ who did not permanently reside in a city. Alice Holman came to British Columbia in 1910 and lived here for sixty-three years until she died. The death certificate listed Miss Holman as working ‘at home’ reinforcing the fact that Miss Holman was not recognized for the work she conducted during her lifetime. The index also has a marriage certificate for an Alice Feren, who married a Verl Holman in Vancouver, B.C. in 1913 (Appendix F). The two were married at the age of twenty-one. Verl Holman was recognized as an electrician and Alice Holman was listed as a spinster, once again not crediting Miss Holman for the field work she conducted in British Columbia during the early twentieth century.48 Case Study 4: Miss E. Warren Miss E. Warren was noted in John Davidson’s journal for collecting plant specimens in Barnston Island, B.C. and Victoria, B.C.49 A death certificate for an Elizabeth Warren was found using the British Columbia Museum Index (Appendix G). The death certificate revealed that Elizabeth Warren was born on March 7, 1877 in Scotland and died on December 29, 1973. Miss Warren lived in Victoria, B.C. for fifty-five years and had lived in Canada for sixty years after she emigrated from Scotland. Miss E Warren could potentially have chosen to immigrate to British Columbia in order to pursue the desire to leave the confines of the private sphere and pursue work in the public sphere, which she did working as a field collector for John Davidson. 47  Davidson, Newspaper Cuttings 1914-1917 (Cont.) Box 565, F6, CVA. BC Archives – Genealogy, Royal BC Museum, Royal British Columbia Museum Corporation, 2010, Web. 49 John Davidson, Journal, Includes Letter Register and Diary, [c. Apr. 1917-1919] Box 6, File 6-2, John Davidson Collections, UBC Archives, Vancouver, B.C. 48  Blachford 13 On the death certificate, Elizabeth Warren was listed as working ‘at home’ leaving her unrecognized for the contribution she made towards the development of the UBC Herbarium.50 Case Study 5: Miss A.B. MacKenzie John Davidson published three Annual Reports, which listed the newly discovered plant specimens and the collectors, who discovered each plant specimen. In John Davidson’s Third Annual Report, Miss A.B. MacKenzie was listed as the correspondent who worked for the Windermere Botanical Office.51 However, currently nothing else has been uncovered on Miss A.B. MacKenzie leaving her unacknowledged for the tremendous amount of work she conducted in the field of botany. Conclusion Women during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth century faced many challenges while they attempted to achieve public recognition for the work they conducted in the field of botany. The case studies used in this paper provided examples of women local to British Columbia, who faced different challenges in receiving acknowledgement during the twentieth century. Two of the female collectors, Mrs Dora Kerr and Miss A.S. MacKenzie were exceptional women who lived during this time period. The two women were active members of their community and through their efforts were able to overcome sexist barriers that had been socially constructed by society. Although these women were influential members of their community during their lifetime, today little is known about the tremendous contributions these women made. Kerr and MacKenzie’s participation in their community has currently been  50  BC Archives – Genealogy, UBCA. John Davidson, Third Annual Report of the Botanical Office of British Columbia, Publications by Davidson, [c.1915] Box 5, File 5-4, John Davidson Collections, UBC Archives, Vancouver, B.C. 51  Blachford 14 unacknowledged by present day society; however, the contributions made by each of these women must further be uncovered in order to provide these women with the recognition that they so deserve. Even less is known about Miss Alice Holman, Miss E Warren and Miss A.B. MacKenzie, which adds support to the argument in this paper, that women, who lived during this time period, faced many obstacles in their attempts to achieve power in society.52 Social barriers were constructed by society, which unfortunately, resulted in the exclusion of women from many aspects of society.53 Women were undervalued and rarely received praise for the work they contributed towards the field of botany. During this time, no information has been uncovered for two of the additional contributors that were in contact with John Davidson, Miss J.T. Higgins, of Victoria, B.C., and Miss L.E. Wallace, of Boswell, B.C. This paper has provided these specific seven female collectors with the recognition that they deserve and the addition of supplementary research on these specific women will further credit these women for the work they have conducted not only in the field of botany, but also for the contributions they made towards the betterment of their communities.  52  Shirk, Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators, 294. 53 Keeney, The Botanizers,  Blachford 15 Bibliography Primary Sources BC Archives – Genealogy, Royal BC Museum, Royal British Columbia Museum Corporation, 2010, Web. John Davidson, Journal, Includes Letter Register and Diary, [c. Apr. 1917-1919] Box 6, File 6-2, John Davidson Collections, UBC Archives, Vancouver, B.C. John Davidson, Newspaper Cuttings 1914-1917 (Cont.), [c.1914-1917] Box 565, F-6, John Davidson Fonds, City of Vancouver Archives, Vancouver, B.C. John Davidson, Third Annual Report of the Botanical Office of British Columbia, Publications by Davidson, [c.1915] Box 5, File 5-4, John Davidson Collections, UBC Archives, Vancouver, B.C. Tara Hurley, Personal Communication, The Kelowna Public Archive, 6 Mar. 2013. Val Billesberger, Personal Communication, Mission Community Archives, The Fraser Valley Record Newspaper, 27 Mar 2013. Secondary Sources Ann Shteir, Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science: Flora’s Daughters and Botany in England, 1760 to 1860, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.  Blachford 16 Ann B. Shteir, Gender and ‘Modern’ Botany in Victorian England, Osiris 12 (1997) 29-38. Barbara T. Gates, Kindred Nature: Victorian and Edwardian Women Embrace the Living World, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998. Daniel Mosquin and David Brownstein, John Davidson, UBC Botanical Garden & Centre for Plant Research, 2008, Web, botanyjohn.org/en. Elizabeth B. Keeney, The Botanizers, United States of America: The University of North Carolina Press, 1992. Emanuel D. Rudolph, Women in Nineteenth Century American Botany; A Generally Unrecognized Constituency, American Journal of Botany 69 (1982) 1346-1355. Eric Hearle, The Mosquitoes of The Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, and Their Control, National Research Council 17 (1926): 5. Felicite Dodd, Personal Communication, UBC Herbarium Database, 16 Feb 2013. Gabriella Berti Logan, Women and Botany in Risorgimento Italy, Nuncius 19 (2004) 601-628. Henrietta Shirk, Contributions to Botany, the Female Science, by two Eighteenth-Century Women Technical Communicators, Technical Communication Quarterly 6 (1997) 293312.  Blachford 17 Kimberlie M. Robert, Women’s Botanical Illustration in Canada: Its Gendered, Colonial and Garden Histories (1830-1930), Thesis, Concordia University, Montreal (2008) 1-129. Sonya Petznek, BC Education: The Story of The One-Room Schoolhouse, British Columbia Ministry of Education, Web. VC Brink and RS Silver, Mary Henry: Pioneer Botanist of the Northern Rockies, B.C. Historical News 30 (1997): 16-19.  Blachford 18 Appendices Appendix A  Appendix B  Blachford 19 Appendix C  Appendix D  Blachford 20 Appendix E  Blachford 21 Appendix F  Blachford 22 Appendix G  

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