UBC Undergraduate Research

The changing culture of detached homes in Vancouver post WW2 Dhaliwal, Nicholas 2013

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   The	
  Changing	
  Culture	
  of	
  Detached	
  Homes	
   in	
  Vancouver	
  Post	
  WW2.	
  	
   	
   Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal	
   	
   Report	
  prepared	
  at	
  the	
  request	
  of	
  The	
  Vancouver	
  Heritage	
  Foundation	
  in	
   partial	
  fulfillment	
  of	
  UBC	
  GEOG	
  429:	
  Research	
  in	
  Historical	
  Geography	
  for	
   Dr.	
  David	
  Brownstein.	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   2	
   Introduction A relatively new city, Vancouver has gone through phases of architectural change in the design of homes since the post war era. Through these changes there has been an perceived loss in character and appreciation for the past. At Vancouver Heritage Foundation this is a major concern. Buildings, homes, places with historic significance are being swept away due to rapid densification and modernization. At Vancouver Heritage Foundation preserving historical structures is an important part in recognizing their contribution to the city’s economy, sustainability, and culture. Understanding why Vancouver has a perfers on the ‘new’, newer buildings, modern homes, the latest technology, goes beyond realizing that Vancouver is simply modernizing like any other city in the neoliberal era. Vancouver is distinctively unique, and different factors have led to a loss of value in history which can be is reflected in the built environment.1 In partnership with the Vancouver Heritage Foundation, this investigation explores Vancouver’s changing culture of detached homes outside of the downtown core. In doing so we hope to understand what has led to changes and shifts in the architecture of homes. Diane Switzer, Executive Director at the Vancouver Heritage Foundation, wanted to begin the investigation with a comparison of immigration and demolition (detached homes) rates in Vancouver to see if there was a correlation, since WWII. The purpose of this was to understand if an increase in demolition rates was connected to immigration. This is important to note because if demolition rates increase as immigration increases then it can be said immigration is an important component in	
  the	
  changing	
  architecture	
  in	
  neighbourhoods Diane and I understood that a factual 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  1	
  David	
  Ley	
  and	
  P	
  Murphy,	
  "Immigration	
  in	
  gateway	
  cities:	
  Sydney	
  and	
  Vancouver	
  in	
  comparative	
  perspective,"	
   Progress	
  in	
  Planning	
  (Elsevier)	
  55,	
  no.	
  3	
  (Mrch	
  2001):	
  119-­‐194.	
   	
   3	
   correlation could not be made because of various other factors occurring to influence an increase in demolition rates. For example, structural engineering of homes may need to be upgraded fully, which would result in a full demolition of a home.2 Therefore, in order to see if immigration was playing a role in the changing culture of Vancouver homes we decided to additionally investigate why the culture of homes was changing and what factors led to these changes in an attempt to see if immigrants was influencing these factors.  What follows, will be a two-part investigation. Firstly, comparing immigration and demolition rates since WWII will provide a contextual background that can be used to understand the second portion of the investigation, which is to determine what has caused architectural changes in Vancouver neighborhoods and why. The investigation will look at statistical information provided by the City Vancouver and Statistics Canada. In addition, a literature review will be undertaken to uncover factors leading to the demolition of homes and the lack of renovation and preservation. Immigration & Demolition  Vancouver is a composite ethnic city where there are visible ethnic enclaves and a coalescing of different ethnicities in neighborhoods. The cultural is present in many metropolitan cities in Canada through the vitality with which we [citizens] retain and express our ‘old world’ values and through the music we make together from our rooted identities3. Moreover, Vancouver is made up of different ethnic identities, which reflect 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  2	
  Burnham	
  Kelly,	
  ed.,	
  Design	
  and	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  houses,	
  ed.	
  Burnham	
  Kelly	
  (McGraw-­‐Hill	
  Book	
  Company,	
  Inc)	
  29-­‐41.	
  	
  3	
  Larry	
  Bourne	
  David	
  Ley,	
  The	
  Changing	
  Social	
  Geography	
  of	
  Canadian	
  Cities	
  (Montreal,	
  QC:	
  Mcgill-­‐Queen's	
  Univeristy	
  Press,	
  1998)	
  75.	
  	
   	
   4	
   back on the built and social environment of cities4. The ethnic composition of Vancouver is built through immigration. Immigration has occurred in waves. As shown in Figure 1, the swells of immigration synchronized with boom periods of city building. Although, the figure represents Montreal, it is similar to Vancouver. Each construction boom has renewed the demand for labor in metropolitan cities, and each wave of immigrant workers has added to the demand for housing.5 	
   Figure 1 - Immigration rates and city-building permits, Montreal – Source: Larry	
  Bourne	
  David	
  Ley,	
  The	
   Changing	
  Social	
  Geography	
  of	
  Canadian	
  Cities	
  (Montreal,	
  QC:	
  Mcgill-­‐Queen's	
  Univeristy	
  Press,	
  1998)	
  65-­‐70 Taking a look at immigration rates is important because it correlates with building permits issued, as seen in Figure 1, and it directly increases the population of Vancouver (minus the out migration), which influences housing in Vancouver because immigrants 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  4	
  Larry	
  Bourne	
  David	
  Ley,	
  The	
  Changing	
  Social	
  Geography	
  of	
  Canadian	
  Cities	
  (Montreal,	
  QC:	
  Mcgill-­‐Queen's	
  Univeristy	
  Press,	
  1998)	
  65-­‐70	
  5	
  Ibid	
  72	
   	
   5	
   will need residency. To understand this further, Figure 2 shows the immigration rates to Vancouver in decade periods from prior to 1961 to 2001 and sub categorizing them by continent of origin. The figure represents important indications. Firstly, immigration rates 	
        Figure 2 - Immigration rates to Metropolitan Vancouver – Source: Institute for Research on Public Policy, Immigrants to Metropolitan Vancouver, prod. UBC Library (Vancouver). into metropolitan Vancouver was 73,200 and the majority of those immigrants came from Europe, in the 60s and 70s. However, the rates of immigration began to increase tremendously in the 80s and 90s, with the dominant immigration group being from Asian. Asian immigration was a new wave establishing in Vancouver and changing its cultural mosaic.  Comparing immigration trends to demolition permit trends was a difficult task to undertake. Firstly, the City of Vancouver does not keep records of its demolition permits historically as a separate category in its records. Instead prior to 2002, the demolition permit records are combined with housing start numbers and renovation permits under 	
   6	
   the heading ‘building permits.’ Statistics Canada and the Canadian Home Builders Association also use the combination of permits into the heading ‘building permits’. Secondly, from 2002 to the present records of demolition permits issued are available, however, these numbers include all demolition permits whether it be an apartment building, a garage, or commercial building. Consequently, it is difficult to get an accurate number of demolition permits issued for detached homes. In order to obtain official building permit records, Statistics Canada does offer a custom table of annual and monthly numbers of demolished units by total buildings or by types of dwellings for a cost of $100. This information was not received in time to be included in this paper.  As a result, correlating immigration rates to detached home demolition rates in Vancouver was not possible based on comparable numbers. However, we can ascertain that demolition of detached homes has increased through the course of time in Vancouver. Vancouver being a relatively new city has gone through much infill prior to WWI and after WWII, indicating that new housing was built on open or uninhabited land prior. This means that demolition rates during these eras must have been lower than rates through the 90s up until the present.  Therefore, during the 90s most of the city’s neighborhoods and uninhabited land was filled up. Resulting in the demolition of an existing home in order to develop a new one.6  In overview, immigration rates in Vancouver have increased significantly from post WWII to the present. In addition, immigration has shifted to the dominant immigrating group coming from the Asian continent overtaking the European domination in the post WWII periods. Likewise, we can derive that demolition rates of detached 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  6	
  Anonyomous	
  informant,	
  interview	
  by	
  Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal.	
  Date	
  March	
  14th	
  2013	
   	
   7	
   homes have increased solely based on the facts that Vancouver has developed overtime and in order to build a new home since the WWII, the last major housing development projects in Vancouver7, you would need to demolish a pre-existing home. Although, a correlation cannot be made directly between increasing immigration and demolition rates, it can be said that demolition rates have increased because of population expansion and urbanization, which is fundamentally tied to immigration in the case of Vancouver.  Historical Architectural Design Changes of Detached Homes in Vancouver Pre 1960s Period In 1930, the City of Vancouver introduced zoning because it was part of the Bartholomew Plan, which was to bring more unity to residential neighborhoods8. The plans provided concentric rings of apartments, dual-family dwellings, and single-family dwellings around a commercial downtown. Most of the city at the time was zoned for single-family dwellings as seen on Figure 3. . With zoning it would allow for the prevention of overcrowding, preservation of amenity and protection of property values. Moreover, it would ensure sustainable growth.9  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  7	
  Bruce	
  MacDonald,	
  Vancouver:	
  A	
  Visual	
  History	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  Talonbooks,	
  1992).	
  8	
  Barbara	
  Ann	
  Pettit,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  the	
  Single-­‐Family	
  Landscape:	
  Large	
  New	
  Houses	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Change	
  in	
   Vancouver	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1993)	
  65	
  9	
  Ibid	
  74	
   Figure 3 - 1930 Vancouver Family Dwelling Zoning – Source Barbara Ann Pettit, Zoning and the Single- Family Landscape: Large New Houses and Neighbourhood Change in Vancouver (Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, 1993) 65 	
   8	
   The 1938 town planning amendment marked the first bylaw change of several regulatory changes, which reduced options for house form and distribution of floor space. Figure 4 shows the 1938 floor space ratio (FSR) bylaw change that made it more practical to build horizontally than vertically (See Appendix A for all zoning changes). 	
   Figure 4 - Comparing FSR of 1900 to 1938 Size – Source: Barbara Ann Pettit, Zoning and the Single- Family Landscape: Large New Houses and Neighbourhood Change in Vancouver (Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, 1993) 65  After the zoning principle was introduced, it discouraged many two and half story dwellings because of height restrictions and with the amendment in 1938, it further discouraged multi story homes because the FSR of upper floors would be restricted. As a result, height and FSR restrictions promoted constructions of homes that consumed a lot of open space, as seen in Figure 410. During the 1940s many builders and home owners wanted to build larger homes instead of being forced to a 1 ½ story house, to which the bylaw of 1938 limited housing 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  10	
  Barbara	
  Ann	
  Pettit,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  the	
  Single-­‐Family	
  Landscape:	
  Large	
  New	
  Houses	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Change	
  in	
   Vancouver	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1993)	
  	
  64-­‐66	
   	
   9	
   construction. Solely based on potential of profit maximization, by converting their homes in the future into apartments or multi family dwellings. After the Second World War the city relaxed the bylaw, and allowed homeowners in single-family zones to build ‘suites to alleviate wartime housing shortages.11 The 1950s marked the development of an early form of ‘Vancouver Special’ homes. The City of Vancouver shifted from their relaxed policy into a stricter one adhering the zoning principles set forth in 1930 and 1938. The post-war period brought a halt to the construction of 1 ½ story houses and introduced styles attuned to new technology and modern preferences12. Still, home design was influenced by older traditions and styles influenced by modernists occasionally appeared in residential neighborhoods. Ranch-style houses dominated construction in the 1950s, as seen in Figure 5. Ranch-style housing was built to appeal to young post war families and recent European immigrants because these two groups of people were the only groups in the market for new homes at the time13. A simple ranch style home suited well with immigrant needs. Basements were used for family members or illegal conversion into a rental unit to help with the mortgage. The new immigrant market facilitated detailed changes to the design of rancher style homes to fit their appetite. In addition, builders began demolishing older smaller homes built before the 1930s, in order to build new homes as uninhabited land became scarce.14 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  11	
  Barbara	
  Ann	
  Pettit,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  the	
  Single-­‐Family	
  Landscape:	
  Large	
  New	
  Houses	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Change	
  in	
   Vancouver	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1993)	
  76.	
  12	
  David	
  Tran,	
  Graduate	
  Student	
  of	
  Architecture	
  at	
  UBC,	
  interview	
  by	
  Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal,	
  March	
  3rd	
  2013	
  13	
  Anonymous	
  Informant,	
  interview	
  by	
  Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal,	
  March	
  14th	
  2013	
  14	
  Susanna	
  Langer,	
  Feeling	
  and	
  Form	
  (Princeton	
  Hall,	
  1977)	
  32.	
  	
   	
   10	
   	
   Figure 5 - Ranch Style Home – Source: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_TfPXQmO8ZvE/TJygsvOZd5I/AAAAAAAAACo/wmvMiUruG1o/s1600/Ranc h.jpg.  Before WWII, Canadian immigration policy discriminated against visible minorities and reflected the conservative bias of the country at the time. However after the war, immigration policy began to change to permit entry on adaptability to Canadian society. These policies removed barriers to Asians in the 1960s15. As a result, the post war period brought about significant changes in housing design. Post War 1960s – 1980s By the 1960s, the city moved further away from land use patterns that shaped Vancouver’s residential neighborhoods before zoning was introduced. With the increasing use of automobiles and the desire by all levels of government to extend single- family ownership as widely as possible, the city promoted a less compact use of land. Builders began to try to replicate aspects of the pre 1930 zoning pattern in single-family areas. This meant, with response to specific market demands, Vancouver’s eastside builders began to build larger homes with floor plans that could easily be converted into two family uses. Although early Vancouver Specials were similar in size to houses built 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  15	
  Donald	
  Gustein,	
  The	
  New	
  Landloads	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  Porcepic	
  Books,	
  1990)	
  44-­‐66.	
   	
   11	
   before zoning, their structural design was different, as seen in Figure 5. Vancouver Specials shifted the design of homes into a new direction. Vancouver Specials were mass-produced and sacrificed quality for speed of construction. Builders and realtors argued that lower land costs in East Vancouver contributed to the design of the special16. Cheaper land prices allowed builders to build large homes with inexpensive materials and minimal details for new immigrants who wanted space at low cost. Specials began to spread through the east side of Vancouver from the mid 1960s through to the 1970s. During this period, neighborhoods began to take a new pattern of design and feel. This new pattern was distinctively different from what neighborhoods were traditionally. The new design differed from the older homes by leaving less space for greenery and catering to a European immigrant demographic and the wave of Asian immigration coming into the city in the 1970s.17 Figure 5 and 7 show what the new design of homes tended to look like during this period. . Italian immigrants were championed with shaping the Vancouver Special into Figure 6 because they preferred the upstairs to be formal and to live and cook downstairs.18 This pattern of Vancouver special continued into the 1980s19. 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  16	
  Confidential,	
  interview	
  by	
  Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal,	
  ,	
  Changing	
  culture	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Homes,	
  (March	
  2013).	
  17	
  David	
  Ley,	
  "Styles	
  of	
  the	
  times:	
  liberal	
  and	
  neoconservative	
  landscapes	
  in	
  inner	
  Vancouver,	
  1968-­‐1986,"	
   Journal	
  of	
  Historical	
  Geography,	
  1987:	
  41-­‐56.	
  18	
  David	
  Tran.	
  19	
  Barbara	
  Ann	
  Pettit,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  the	
  Single-­‐Family	
  Landscape:	
  Large	
  New	
  Houses	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Change	
  in	
   Vancouver	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1993).	
   	
   12	
   	
   Figure 6 - 1960s-1980s Style Vancouver Special – Source: Barbara Ann Pettit, Zoning and the Single- Family Landscape: Large New Houses and Neighbourhood Change in Vancouver (Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, 1993). 	
   Figure 7 - Vancouver Special 60% FSR – Source: VancouverSpeical.com, Vancouver Special, http://www.vancouverspecial.com/?690. In 1974, the City of Vancouver introduced an amendment to the zoning laws which increased floor space from 45% (established in 1956) to 60% FSR (refer to appendix for image), as seen in Figure 8. Basements were not included in the FSR. Therefore, it restricted the size of homes, but at the same time encouraged all builders in the city to 	
   13	
   build to maximums stipulated to satisfy a market now used to buying larger homes.20 Around the same time in 1978, Canada instituted a New Immigration Act, in which, it instituted a points system immigration policy. Consequently, the government gave top priority to family-class, wealthy, and educated immigrants. Coupled with investment into the real estate market by Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka Shing, in the late 1980s, signaled to Asians that Vancouver was a safe place to invest your money and become entrepreneurial. These factors combined to increase the flow of wealthy Asian immigrants to Vancouver in particular due to proximity with the Pacific Rim and an established Asian community already in the city.21 Recall that in figure 1, you can see in the 1970s, and 80s there was a dramatic increase in percentage of Asian immigrants entering metropolitan Vancouver.     	
   Figure 8 - Monster Home Beside a Vancouver Special – Source VancouverSpeical.com, Vancouver Special, http://www.vancouverspecial.com/?690.  1980s Onwards   The increase of affluent Asian immigration led to another phase of neighborhood change. In the 1980s, Asian tastes called for more space above grade, which paved the way for a new kind of large home. These homes were called Monster Homes because of 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  20	
  David	
  Tran,	
  interview	
  by	
  Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal,	
  ,	
  Information	
  on	
  Zoning	
  Changes	
  ,	
  (March	
  2013).	
  21	
  David	
  Ley	
  and	
  P	
  Murphy,	
  "Immigration	
  in	
  gateway	
  cities:	
  Sydney	
  and	
  Vancouver	
  in	
  comparative	
  perspective,"	
   Progress	
  in	
  Planning	
  (Elsevier)	
  55,	
  no.	
  3	
  (Mrch	
  2001):	
  119-­‐194.	
   	
   14	
   their large size and contrasting design to Vancouver Specials and older traditional homes on the west side of Vancouver, as seen in Figure 9. This design is what affluent Asian immigrants preferred, thus, monster homes began to regularly appear on the west side of Vancouver. Affluent immigrants were able to buy in to the west side because they had the finances to do so and desired to live in prestigious neighborhoods in Vancouver.22 	
   Figure 9 - Monster Home Beside a Vancouver Special – Source VancouverSpeical.com, Vancouver Special, http://www.vancouverspecial.com/?690. The houses were more expensively detailed than the Vancouver Specials, but similarly, they maximized zoning and generally had an extra suite to accommodate the larger Asian families or guests. In order to tame the Monster Home, the City of Vancouver changed its single family zoning because of complaints by residents on the 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  22	
  Wei	
  Le,	
  Ethnoburb:	
  the	
  new	
  ehtnic	
  community	
  in	
  urban	
  America	
  (University	
  of	
  Hawaii	
  Press,	
  2009)	
  1-­‐17	
   	
   15	
   ‘monstrous’ nature of the design and the preservation of neighborhoods23. These changes aimed to deal with the suite issue by legalizing suites across the city and permitted legal rental suites, which the majority of city residents favored. In 1988, the city decreased the height and increased the setbacks and decreased the above grade floor space. This resulted in the disappearance of the Vancouver Special and the emergence of a new popular style across the city24, as seen in Figure 10.   Figure 10 - Vancouver Special vs. Present Housing Style – Sources: http://www.vancouverspecial.com/?690 and http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_TfPXQmO8ZvE/TJygsvOZd5I/AAAAAAAAACo/wmvMiUruG1o/s1600/Ranc h.jpg.   The link between size of home and prosperity of purchases was not obvious before the 1980s because earlier immigrants could afford only cheaply built large Vancouver Specials. However, in the 1980s the link became obvious, as immigrants themselves were different .Some Asian immigrants could afford more modestly priced eastside homes on arrival, while others were wealthy enough to buy expensive west homes. Builders, who built for each dominant immigrant group waves since the 1950s, 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  23	
  Avi	
  Friedman,	
  Room	
  for	
  Thought	
  (Toronto:	
  Penguin	
  Canada)	
  Chapter	
  2.	
  	
  24	
  Barbara	
  Ann	
  Pettit,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  the	
  Single-­‐Family	
  Landscape:	
  Large	
  New	
  Houses	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Change	
  in	
   Vancouver	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1993).	
   	
   16	
   started to demolish smaller homes on large west side lots to meet demands by these new affluent Asian immigrants and their taste for large expensive homes.25  Throughout 1989 the neighborhood changes intensified and as land was sparse demolition of smaller homes took place to make room for newer bigger homes. Consequently, the need for affordable housing became a heated issue as the city wide development of newer homes often priced many local born residents (baby boomers children) out of the market and into the suburbs26.   Two fundamental changes occurred over time in Vancouver. First, established neighborhoods districts within the single-family zones in the city began to age, which facilitated the older residents to move out of these traditional neighborhoods and into the suburbs. Secondly, forces outside the single-family zones also exerted pressure for changes. The forces of urbanization brought people from rural areas to the city. Additionally, waves of European immigrants followed the first settlers and included many who initially could not afford to purchase detached homes but were able to accumulate enough wealth to buy housing of their choice.27 This sparked the first phase of architectural change with the onset of the Vancouver special. The affluent Asian immigration led the second change into the monster homes and the newer dominant style of housing seen in Figure 8. Both changes were based on pressures from the city to conform to the wants of the public and to provide sound planning initiatives and because of immigrant preferences in the housing market which led to builders developing homes that pushed the envelope of zoning principles. 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  25	
  Donald	
  Gustein,	
  The	
  New	
  Landloads	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  Porcepic	
  Books,	
  1990).	
  26	
  Wei	
  Le,	
  Ethnoburb:	
  the	
  new	
  ehtnic	
  community	
  in	
  urban	
  America	
  (University	
  of	
  Hawaii	
  Press,	
  2009).	
  27	
  Barbara	
  Ann	
  Pettit,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  the	
  Single-­‐Family	
  Landscape:	
  Large	
  New	
  Houses	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Change	
  in	
   Vancouver	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1993).	
  P6	
   	
   17	
   Conclusion  In summary, changes in Vancouver’s architecture of detached homes have been a confluence of factors. The obvious factors include changes in zoning that have occurred since the 1930s, which allowed builders to design homes to new specifications. Zoning and subsequent amendments to policy effectively changed the allowable size of homes, which dictated style as alluded to earlier. In addition, it is clear to see that immigrants entering Vancouver played a role in the design of design of homes. The the wave of European immigrants wanted cheaper, quickly built homes while the wave of affluent Asian immigration preferred a larger traditional (Asian) design of home and maximization of lot size28. Zoning and Immigration are two fundamental factors influencing home design in Vancouver, however, the discussion can be taken further with some non-visible factors relating to zoning and immigration. We know zoning policy changes led to the ability to create homes of different sizes, but to understand why policy changes occurred needs exploration. What motivates a city to undertake zoning policy changes? It can be said that sustainable growth and reaction to pubic outcry are main sources for change, but I believe it is necessary to look at city planning as a whole to completely understand why zoning changes occurred. Understanding the long-term vision for Vancouver at the time of policy changes will give insight on why specific changes were made without the influence of immigration of public outcry. Additionally, immigration is a visible factor contributing to changes in housing design, however it is important to note the motivations for immigrants to seek formal housing in Vancouver and the type of the housing they choose. Immigrants entering a 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  28	
  David	
  Ley,	
  "Styles	
  of	
  the	
  times:	
  liberal	
  and	
  neoconservative	
  landscapes	
  in	
  inner	
  Vancouver,	
  1968-­‐1986,"	
   Journal	
  of	
  Historical	
  Geography,	
  1987:	
  41-­‐56.	
  David	
  Ley,	
  "Styles	
  of	
  the	
  times:	
  liberal	
  and	
  neoconservative	
  landscapes	
  in	
  inner	
  Vancouver,	
  1968-­‐1986,"	
  Journal	
  of	
  Historical	
  Geography,	
  1987:	
  41-­‐56.	
   	
   18	
   new country seek belonging by entering into a Canadian neighborhood where they want to be able to grow their roots. These choices are imperative to understanding changes in design because immigrants will likely want homes that they are accustomed to in respect to design. It makes them feel more comfortable in a new society.29 At the same, affluent immigrants driving up prices of homes and making Vancouver a hot bed for real estate investment comes with negative impacts. Offshore investors are often purchasing and developing homes in the Vancouver market to gain profit. As a result, change is not coming from within neighborhoods or by new immigrants, but by offshore investors who do not need to be citizens or immigrants to Vancouver to influence changes in housing design in neighborhoods.30 Furthermore, local developers also influence the changing design structure. In the early 70s, Vancouver Specials were so easy to make that you only needed two or three men to build them. This ease of construction made it an attractive home to construct and easy to inspect by the city because all houses relatively took the same shape31. As a result, immigrant builders became developers because building a Vancouver Special became a universal language, which led to the spread of them across the city. Similarly, this happened with the new style of home that has been seen through the 90s up until the present. In addition, if individuals saw these new homes being built around the city and attached the connotation of family prosperity to them, this would have facilitated other individuals wanting to own a home of that design because it became of a symbol of making it, especially for new immigrants.32 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  29	
  Larry	
  Bourne	
  David	
  Ley,	
  The	
  Changing	
  Social	
  Geography	
  of	
  Canadian	
  Cities	
  (Montreal,	
  QC:	
  Mcgill-­‐Queen's	
  Univeristy	
  Press,	
  1998)	
  88.	
  30	
  Donald	
  Gustein,	
  The	
  New	
  Landloads	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  Porcepic	
  Books,	
  1990)	
  55-­‐72	
  31	
  Confidential,	
  interview	
  by	
  Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal,	
  ,	
  Changing	
  culture	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Homes,	
  (March	
  2013).	
  32	
  Avi	
  Friedman,	
  Room	
  for	
  Thought	
  (Toronto:	
  Penguin	
  Canada).	
   	
   19	
    Lastly, renovation rather than demolition in Vancouver hasn’t been popular in all neighborhoods. This is in part, because Vancouver Specials were built with cheap materials, which led to demolition in order to meet with modern structural and building code standards33. In addition, affluent Asian immigrants could afford to demolish a home and build a home of their own liking because they had the financial flexibility to do so. As well, the City makes more tax revenue off the construction of a new home than issuing a renovation permit. It is important to note that these types of homes and waves of immigrants did not affect the city uniformly. Instead Vancouver is built of many unique communities like Kitsilano, Commercial Drive, Mount Pleasant, which were not as widely affected by waves of immigration and changes in zoning policy. These neighborhoods tended to fight off gentrification and have preserved historical significance and culture in a modern way34. Understanding why neighborhoods were able to do this is a source for further investigation.          	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  33	
  David	
  Tran,	
  interview	
  by	
  Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal,	
  ,	
  Information	
  on	
  Zoning	
  Changes	
  ,	
  (March	
  2013).	
  34	
  Confidential,	
  interview	
  by	
  Nicholas	
  Dhaliwal,	
  ,	
  Changing	
  culture	
  of	
  Vancouver	
  Homes,	
  (March	
  2013).	
   	
   20	
   Appendix A 35  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  35	
  Barbara	
  Ann	
  Pettit,	
  Zoning	
  and	
  the	
  Single-­‐Family	
  Landscape:	
  Large	
  New	
  Houses	
  and	
  Neighbourhood	
  Change	
  in	
   Vancouver	
  (Vancouver,	
  BC:	
  The	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  1993)	
  216.	
  	
   	
   21	
   Works Cited Anonymous Informant, interview by Nicholas Dhaliwal. March 14th 2013  David Ley, Larry Bourne. The Changing Social Geography of Canadian Cities. Montreal, QC: Mcgill-Queen's Univeristy Press, 1998.  Friedman, Avi. "Chapter 3: Buy New or Renovate? ." In Peeking through the Keyhole: The Evolution of North American Homes, by Avi Friedman, 71-94. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.  —. Room for Thought. Toronto: Penguin Canada.  Gustein, Donald. The New Landloads. Vancouver, BC: Porcepic Books, 1990.  Heather Conn, Henry Ewert. Vancouver's Glory Years: Public Transit 1890-1915. Vancouver, BC: Whitecap Books, 2003.  Institute for Research on Public Policy. Immigrants to Metropolitan Vancouver. Prod. UBC Library. Vancouver.   Kelly, Burnham, ed. Design and the production of houses. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.  Le, Wei. Ethnoburb: the new ehtnic community in urban America. University of Hawaii Press, 2009.  Ley, David. "Styles of the times: liberal and neoconservative landscapes in inner Vancouver, 1968-1986." Journal of Historical Geography, 1987: 41-56.  MacDonald, Bruce. Vancouver: A Visual History. Vancouver, BC: Talonbooks, 1992.  Murphy, David Ley and P. "Immigration in gateway cities: Sydney and Vancouver in comparative perspective." Progress in Planning (Elsevier) 55, no. 3 (Mrch 2001): 119- 194.  Pettit, Barbara Ann. Zoning and the Single-Family Landscape: Large New Houses and Neighbourhood Change in Vancouver. Vancouver, BC: The University of British Columbia, 1993.  Power, Anne. "Housing and Sustainability: Demolition or Refurbishment?" Urban Design and Planning (London School of Economics and Political Science) 163, no. 4 (December 2010): 205-216.  Tran, David, Graduate Student of Architecture UBC, interview by Nicholas Dhaliwal, March 3rd 2013 	
   22	
   	
   

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