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Investigating the barriers to asphalt shingle recycling within the City of Vancouver Weston, Thomas 2014-04

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!!!!!!!!Investigating!the!Barriers!to!Asphalt!Shingle!Recycling!Within!the!City!of!Vancouver!!!!!!Final!Report!April!2014!!!!!!Thomas!Weston!!!!!!Report!prepared!at!the!request!of!the!City!of!Vancouver!in!partial!fulfillment!of!UBC!GEOG!419:!Research!in!Environmental!Geography,!for!Dr.!David!Brownstein!Table&of&Contents&&!Executive!Summary!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!1!!Background!information!and!Benefits!! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!2!!Method!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!3!!Barriers!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!4!! Organisation!and!Regulatory!!! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!4!! Perception!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!6!! Market!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!7!!Recommendations!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!8!Organisation!and!Regulatory!!! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!8!! Perception!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!10! Market!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!11!!Conclusions!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!12!!Works!Cited! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!13!!Works!Consulted!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!14!!Appendix! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!16!!!! 1!Executive)Summary!!This! report! aims! to! present! the! barriers! and! subsequent! recommendations! as! to! how! the! City! of!Vancouver! could! increase! the! diversion! of! asphalt! shingles! from! landfills! to! recycling! programs.! The!information!included!within!the!report,!in!addition!to!the!final!recommendations,!are!intended!to!inform!the!City!of!Vancouver!on! the! issue!of!asphalt! shingle! recycling,!and! to!develop!and!create!appropriate!policies!that!will!increase!the!diversion!of!asphalt!shingles!from!landfills!to!recycling!programs.!!!Organisation!and!Regulatory!Barrier:!The!lack!of!organisation!and!communication!with!the!different!groups!of!importance!within!the!recycled!asphalt!shingle!(RAS)! industry! in!Vancouver,!has!resulted!in!the!lack!of!an!appropriate!process!flow!procedure!and!a!great!deal!of!separation!within!the!industry!itself.!These!circumstances!mean!that!it!is!difficult!to!be!able!to!prove!the!presence!or!absence!of!asbestos!within!the!captured!shingle!material.!Recommendation:!A!process!flow!procedure!should!be!developed,!incorporating!input!from!all!involved!groups,!to!ensure!that!it!is!both!acceptable!and!feasible.!!!Perception!Barrier:! The! perception! of! RAS! as! a! ‘waste’! product,! has! prevented! engineers! and! highway! paving!companies! from! utilizing! RAS! within! their! hot! mix! asphalt! (HMA),! as! they! do! not! want! to! work! with!products!that!are!perceived!to!be!inferior.!Without!appropriate!resources!documenting!the!utilization!of!RAS!within!current!projects,!this!perception!persists.!Recommendation:! The! City! of! Vancouver! should! reclassify! asphalt! shingles! from! ‘waste’! products,! to!‘recyclable!materials’.!Test!data!from!projects!currently!utilizing!RAS!should!be!collected!and!used,!and!various!test!roadways!utilizing!RAS!should!be!constructed,!to!prove!its!performance!within!the!context!of!Vancouver.!!Market!Barrier:!Gemaco’s!location!in!Delta!coupled!with!the!lack!of!significant!incentives!to!deposit!shingles!at!a!recycling!facility!rather!than!at!a! landfill!site,! limits!the!size!of!the!market!and!therefore!the!volume!of!shingles! that! are! deposited! at! Gemaco’s! facility.! While! at! the! moment! distribution! of! the! recycled!shingles!is!limited,!by!addressing!the!barriers!of!organisation!and!perception,!the!future!potential!barrier!of!market!will!become!more!relevant.!!Recommendation:! The! attractiveness! of! depositing! shingles! at! Gemaco’s! facility! rather! than! at! landfill!sites! should! be! increased;! Gemaco! could! consider! offering! pickSup! services,! bins! to! dump! shingles! at!landfill! sites! and! develop! relations! with! certain! bin! companies.! The! City! of! Vancouver! should! offer!incentives!to!recycle!shingles,!and!should!increase!available!information!as!to!how!to!go!about!recycling!shingles.!!!This! report! draws! the! conclusion! that! the! increased! diversion! of! asphalt! shingles! from! landfills! to!recycling!programs!is!both!important!and!beneficial,!and!can!be!realized!by!the!implementation!of!these!suggested!recommendations.!! 2!Background)Information)and)Benefits))!The! asphalt! shingles! that! are! suitable! for! recycling,! primarily! originate! from! residential!roofs!that!are!often!found!on!singleSfamily!dwellings!and!row!house!units,!of!which!there!is!a!combined!total!of!487,535!within!Metro!Vancouver!(KC,!2012).!The!majority!of!largerSscale!residential!dwellings,!such!as!apartment!blocks,!or!commercial!developments,!such!as! office! towers! and! warehouses,! do! not! utilize! asphalt! shingles.! Of! these! 487,535!suitable!residential!roofs,!it!is!estimated!that!67%!are!composed!of!asphalt!shingles,!with!around!7%!of!the!roofs!being!replaced!every!year!(KC,!2012).!This!estimation!provides!a!number! of! 22,865! roofs! replaced! every! year,! with! these! roof! replacements! generating!around!35,000! tonnes!of!waste!asphalt! shingles! (KC,!2012).!The!primary!application! for!recycled!asphalt!shingles!(RAS)!is!as!a!binding!agent!within!hot!mix!asphalt!(HMA)!that!is!utilized!within!highway!paving!construction!projects!(ISUIT,!2013).!!!Environmental!benefits! include!the!reduced!consumption!of! landfill!space! in!addition!to!the!reduced!overall!energy!consumption,!when!comparing!the!utilization!of!RAS!to!virgin!materials.! The! reduced! consumption! of! landfill! space! is! an! important! benefit,! as! it!will!contribute!to!the!City!of!Vancouver’s!“Greenest!City:!2020!Action!Plan”,!which!mandates!a!reduction!of!solid!waste!going!to!landfills!and!incinerators!by!50%,!between!2008!and!2020!(CV,!2011).!Within!an!urban!environment!such!as!the!City!of!Vancouver,!there!is!a!limited!amount!of!space!that!can!be!devoted!to! landfill!sites,!and!by!utilizing! increasing!amounts!of! recyclable!materials,!will! help! to!minimize! the!area!occupied!by! these! land!uses.! Keeping! asphalt! shingles! from!becoming!waste!materials! and! reducing! the!use!of!virgin!materials,!contributes!to!a!reduction!in!overall!energy!consumption!in!the!asphalt!shingle!manufacturing!process.!Every!ton!of!utilized!RAS,!results!in!the!saving!of!2!barrels!of!bitumen!and!60!tonnes!of!carbon!dioxide,!that!would!have!otherwise!been!consumed!and!produced!respectively,!within!the!manufacturing!process!(Gemaco,!2014).!!!Economic!benefits!are!focused!on!the!cost!savings!that!will!result!from!the!increased!use!of! RAS,! which! only! requires! processing! in! order! to! be! utilized,! as! opposed! to! virgin!materials,! which! require! the! full! manufacturing! process.! The! rising! cost! of! petroleum,!which! is! an! essential! ingredient! within! the! shingle! manufacturing! process,! results! in!increasing! economic! savings! to! utilizing! RAS.! A! statistic! that! illustrates! these! potential!savings!is!that!by!using!5%!RAS!byproduct!in!HMA,!savings!ranging!between!$1!and!$2.80!per!ton!are!realised!(Gemaco,!2014).!HMA!is!primarily!used!in!highway!construction,!and!as!these!projects!are!often!large!in!scale,!these!savings!can!be!significant,!and!beneficial!to! any! company! that! decides! to!bid! for! the!project! in! question! and! include!RAS!within!their!HMA.!!! !! 3!Method)!This! investigation! has! been! informed! through! two! research!methods.! First,! a! thorough!and!comprehensive!literature!review!was!undertaken,!in!order!to!gain!an!understanding!of! the! issue! of! asphalt! shingle! recycling! and! to! identify! some! preliminary! barriers! that!exist.!Second,!the!conducting!of!4!interviews!with!key!people!and!organisations!that!are!integral!to!the!asphalt!shingle!recycling!industry!within!the!City!of!Vancouver.!!!As! the! recycling! of! asphalt! shingles! is! not! incredibly! widespread,! literature! pertaining!specifically! to! this! form! of! recycling! was! not! readily! available.! However,! there! was!relevant! literature! that! provided! useful! information! to! two! of! the! barriers! to! asphalt!shingle! recycling.! The! first! issue! that! was! explored! within! Elseifi! et! al.’s! report,! “New!Approach!to!Recycling!Asphalt!Shingles!in!HotSMix!Asphalt”,!was!the!technical!barrier!to!the!utilization!of!RAS!within!realSworld!applications.!The!second!issue!that!was!identified!within! Kane! Consulting’s! “Market! Analysis! of! Used! Building! Materials! in! Metro!Vancouver”!was!how!the!presence!or!absence!of!end!markets!acted!as!a!barrier! to! the!RAS!process.!!!The! interviews! proved! to! be! an! extremely! useful! form! of! research! and! provided! the!majority!of!information!that!will!inform!the!final!recommendations!of!this!report.!This!is!a!summarization!of!the!4!interviews!that!were!conducted:!! 1. Anonymous!Informant.!This!interview!was!conducted!with!an!industry!profession!who!wishes!to!remain!anonymous.!2. City! of! Vancouver! Environmental! Services! Division.! This! phone! interview! was!conducted!with!Rosalie!Budau!and!Nicole!Montgomery,!who!are!part!of!the!City!of!Vancouver! ESD.! This! division! is! responsible! for! the! hazardous! materials! testing!process! that! is! required! by! the! City! of! Vancouver,! prior! to! issuing! a! demolition!permit.!!3. City!of!Vancouver!Kent!Operations.!This!phone!interview!was!conducted!with!Jeff!Markovic,!who!is!the!key!contact!at!the!City!of!Vancouver!Kent!Operations,!where!the!City!of!Vancouver’s!asphalt!plant!is!located.!!4. Gemaco!Sales!Ltd..!This!interview!and!site!visit!was!conducted!with!Terry!Charles!and!Hilary!Hannah!at!Gemaco!Sales!Ltd.,! the!sole!asphalt! shingle! recycler!within!the! Metro! Vancouver! region.! Their! operation! is! responsible! for! the! physical!processing! that! converts! consolidated! asphalt! roofing! shingles! into! ground!asphalt.!))))! 4!Barriers!!The!barriers!that!have!been!identified!through!both!the!literature!review!and!the!various!interviews!have!been!separated!and!are!listed!individually!below.!!!Organisation!and!Regulatory:!The!principal!barrier,!identified!in!all!4!interviews,!was!that!of!organisation,!and!the!fact!that!there!are!many!different!groups!of!people!within!the!RAS!industry!in!Vancouver,!with!very! little! organisation! and! communication! between! them.! In! addition! to! the! 4! groups!interviewed,!there!are!many!others!associated!with!the!RAS!industry,!ranging!from!small,!independent! roofers! to! much! larger! companies.! Various! governmental! organisations!provide! recommendations! and! guidelines! on! issues! including! hazardous!waste! disposal!(provided!by!Worksafe!BC)!and!generic!construction!and!demolition!permits!(provided!by!Worksafe!BC!and! the!City!of!Vancouver).!However,! there! is!no!document!or!accredited!procedure! that! relates! to! asphalt! shingle! recycling! specifically,! and! the! absence! of! this!document!is!the!center!of!the!organisational!barrier!that!exists.!It!is!extremely!difficult!to!coordinate! such! a! large! group! of! stakeholders,! especially! as! there! are! many! different!priorities!and!agendas!that!exist.!!Government! agencies! such! as! Worksafe! BC! and! the! City! of! Vancouver! Environmental!Services! Division! are! responsible! for! providing! guidelines! for! how! to! deal! with! specific!issues! of! construction! projects,! such! as! hazardous!waste! disposal! and! permit! approval.!However,!as!stated!earlier,!there!is!no!process!in!place!that!deals!with!the!RAS!industry!as!a! whole,! and! unifies! all! government! agencies,! private! companies! and! homeowners.!Within! the!RAS! industry! in!Vancouver! there!are!5!main!groups!of! interest:! government!agencies!(Worksafe!BC!and!City!of!Vancouver),!the!asphalt!shingle!recycler!(Gemaco!Sales!Ltd.),! roofing,! construction! and! demolition! companies! that! remove! the! shingles! from!roofs,! bin! companies! that! transport! the! shingles! to! the! recycler,! and! companies! that!utilize!the!recycled!shingle!product.!!!There!is!a!significant!amount!of!separation!between!the!groups!of!interest,!which!results!in!confusion!as!to!the!expectations!and!requirements!of!certain!organisations!(Gemaco,!2014).!It!is!the!asphalt!shingle!recycler,!Gemaco!Sales!Ltd.,!that!is!primarily!responsible!for!the!creation!of!a!process!flow!system,!but!they!are!reliant!on!regulatory!bodies!to!provide!sufficient! information! for! them! to! do! so.! However,! there! appears! to! be! direct! conflict!between!Worksafe!BC!and!the!City!of!Vancouver!guidelines!dealing!with!the!testing! for!hazardous!materials!(specifically!asbestos).!According!to!Gemaco!Sales!Ltd.,!Worksafe!BC!stated!that!they!require!testing!for!every!100!tonnes!inbound!to!the!recycling!facility,!in!addition! to!singular! instances!of!airborne! testing;! the!City!of!Vancouver!has!stated! that!they!require!airborne!testing!to!be!conducted!for!30!consecutive!days.!Although!the!City!! 5!of! Vancouver! would! ideally! like! this! level! of! testing! to! be! conducted,! Worksafe! BC! is!responsible! for! the! testing! itself,! and! informed!Gemaco! that! after!one!day,! they!would!not!be!returning!to!conduct!more!tests!–!they!were!satisfied!that!the!asbestos!hazard!was!not!present!(Gemaco,!2014).!In!addition!to!this!lack!of!communication!between!Worksafe!BC,!the!City!of!Vancouver!and!Gemaco,!the!testing!for!one!day!at!Gemaco’s!facility!was!reported! as! having! cost! $6,000;! if! the! testing! was! required! to! be! conducted! for! 30!consecutive!days,!the!cost!would!escalate!to!$180,000!–!a!prohibitive!cost!for!a!relatively!smallSscale!private!operation!(Gemaco,!2014).!!!This! lack! of! organisation! and! communication!within! the!RAS! industry! in! Vancouver! has!resulted!in!the!allowed!existence!of!another!extremely!important!barrier!–!the!potential!presence!of!asbestos!within!RAS.!Asbestos!is!an!extremely!hazardous!material,!with!fine!fibres!that!can!remain!suspended!in!the!air!for!a!long!period!of!time;!workers!exposed!to!asbestosScontaminated!air!can!inhale!the!fibres,!which!can!cause!serious!health!problems!and!even!death!(WBC,!2012).!Asbestos!was!included!within!some!shingles!in!the!1960’s,!1970’s!and!1980’s,!due!to!its!resistance!to!heat!and!fire,!but!due!to!its!health!hazards,!it!was!banned!in!the!1980’s!(Gemaco,!2014).!Although!it!was!only!used!for!a!relatively!short!period!of!time,!it!is!now!a!potentially!large!problem,!due!to!the!uncertainty!with!how!to!deal!with!it,!in!the!context!of!asphalt!shingles.!There!are!currently!regulations!as!to!how!it!must!be!dealt!with!within!the!construction!and!demolition!industry,!but!these!regulations!do!not!always!translate!seamlessly!between!industries!(CVKO,!2014).!!!Insufficient!organisation!and!communication!between!the!various!groups!within!the!RAS!industry!have!allowed!the!existence!of!this!barrier,!as!has!the!issue!of!bin!companies.!Bin!companies!are!often!responsible!for!transporting!waste!between!construction/demolition!sites!and!the!appropriate!facility.!Without!an!appropriate!system!or!regulations!to!track!the! loads! that! these! companies! carry,! it! is! impossible! to! guarantee! exactly!what! a! bin!brought!to!Gemaco’s!facility!may!contain!(Gemaco,!2014).!Without!an!appropriate!system!recognized!by!all!parties!to!ensure!that!all!asbestosScontaminated!material!is!disposed!of!correctly!and!separated!from!asbestosSfree!material,!it!is!difficult!to!mitigate!against!this!barrier!(CVESD,!2014;!CVKO,!2014;!AI,!2014).!There!are!two!distinct!groups!of!companies!within! the! ‘upstream’! portion! of! the! recycling! process! –! that! are! responsible! for! the!removal!of!shingles!from!roofs!and!subsequent!transportation!to!Gemaco’s!facility:!1. Small! companies.! These! are! usually! roofing! or! construction! and! demolition!companies!that!are!often!comprised!of!only!a!few!employees!and!are!not!always!the!most!reliable!when!it!comes!to!adhering!to!regulations!(Gemaco,!2014;!CVKO,!2014).!These!companies!are!motivated!solely! through!profit!and! try! to!minimize!operating! costs! as! much! as! possible.! As! many! of! these! small! companies! are!operating! as! ‘cash! in! hand’! businesses! and! are! not! always! correctly! licensed! or!particularly! trustworthy,! it! is! hard! to! gauge! the! exact! size! of! this! part! of! the!! 6!industry! within! Vancouver.! Regardless,! their! lack! of! accountability! presents! a!significant! barrier! to! the! organisation,! communication! and! implementation! of!regulations.!!2. Large! companies.! These! are! usually! more! general! construction! companies! that!have! a! greater! number! of! employees! and! are! far! more! reliable! in! terms! of!adhering! to! regulations! (Gemaco,! 2014;! CVESD,! 2014;! CVKO,! 2014).! These!companies!are!motivated!through!maintaining!their!reputation!and!providing!high!quality! services.! They! are! far! more! likely! to! follow! guidelines! put! in! place! by!organisations! such! as! Worksafe! BC! and! to! obtain! proper! permits! before!undertaking!any!work,!as!they!are!better!known!and!therefore!more!accountable!to!both!the!City!of!Vancouver!and!homeowners.!!!Perception:!According!to!Metro!Vancouver’s!Solid!Waste!Division,!asphalt!shingles!that!are!removed!from!roofs!within! the!Metro!Vancouver!area,!which! includes!the!City!of!Vancouver,!are!labeled!a!‘waste’!product!(MV,!2012).!There!is!therefore!a!negative!perception!of!the!use!of! RAS,! as! municipal! governments! and! their! engineers! do! not! want! to! use! ‘waste’!products!in!the!construction!of!roads!(Gemaco,!2014).!Although!RAS!has!been!proven!to!be! a! technically! equivalent! substitute,! the! perception! that! it! is! a!waste! product!means!that!many!people!see!it!to!be!inferior,!and!are!subsequently!unwilling!to!utilize!it.!!!!With!asphalt! shingles!perceived! to!be!a! ‘waste’!product,! in!addition! to! the! fact! that!no!universally! accredited! documentation! process! exists,! that! explicitly! specifies! how! to!recycle! asphalt! shingles! within! the! context! of! the! City! of! Vancouver,! this! issue! of!perception!will!be!hard!to!directly!address.!The!negative!perception!of!RAS!seems!to!stem!chiefly!from!engineers!who!are!responsible!for!incorporating!the!recycled!product!within!their!mix! designs! for! HMA! (Gemaco,! 2014).! This! is! a! significant! barrier,! as!without! the!support!of! these!engineers! for! the! increased!use!of!RAS!within! road!construction,!both!municipal!and!private!contractors!will!be!unwilling!to!utilize!RAS!in!projects!in!which!they!are!involved.!!!This!issue!of!perception!is!magnified!by!the!lack!of!available!resources!that!document!the!utilization!of!RAS!within!highway!paving!projects! (Gemaco,! 2014).!While!RAS! is! utilized!within! various!US! states,! including!Missouri,! California,!Colorado,! Illinois,! Indiana,! Iowa,!Minnesota,! Washington! and! Wisconsin,! there! is! variation! within! each! of! the! usage!contexts.! For! example,! a! different! recipe! for! HMA! required! for! highway! paving!construction! projects,! may! be! present! in! different! states,! meaning! that! it! is! hard! to!quantifiably! compare! the! performance! of! RAS! in! these! different! projects! (ISUIT,! 2013).!While!the!majority!of!the!transport!agencies!for!these!different!states!have!commissioned!a! section! of! highway! to! be! constructed! utilizing! RAS! for! testing! purposes,! it! is! hard! to!! 7!compare!the!performance!of!one!state’s!projects!to!another,!as!there!are!many!variables!to! be! considered! (ISUIT,! 2013).! These! variables! include! the! percentage! of! RAS! to! be!included! within! the! HMA! itself,! the! recipe! for! the! HMA! (which! is! usually! different! for!different!companies!and!municipalities)!and!the!climate!of! the!state! in!question,!as! the!ingredients!of!HMA!often!vary!depending!on! the! climatic!area! that! the!highway!paving!will!be!located!within!(ISUIT,!2013).!!Market:!This! is! a! relatively! small! barrier! when! compared! to! those! above,! but! is! important!nonetheless.! Currently,!Gemaco! is! the! only! shingle! recycler!within! the! lower!mainland,!with! no! recyclers! existing! within! the! City! of! Vancouver! itself.! As! such,! a! much! larger!potential!market!exists! for! them,! than! the!one! they!are! currently! serving.!As!Gemaco’s!facility! is! located! in! Delta,! which! is! not! central! to! the! City! of! Vancouver,! it! is! not! a!particularly!attractive!proposition!for!roofers!and!construction!and!demolition!companies!to!make!the!journey!to!Delta.!Its!location,!in!addition!to!the!lack!of!significant!incentives!to!encourage!the!deposition!of!shingles!at!the!facility!rather!at!the!landfill,!and!the!lack!of!knowledge! of! the! facility’s! existence,! certainly! limit! the! potential! market.! Currently,!Gemaco!charges!tipping!fees!of!$45/tonne,!whereas!at!the!City!of!Vancouver!landfills,!the!fees!are!$108/tonne!(Gemaco,!2014).!Although!this!is!a!relatively!large!price!difference,!it!is! clearly! not! enough! to! attract! companies! and! homeowners! that! are! located! closer! to!landfill!sites.!While!at!present,!the!challenge!Gemaco!is!facing!is!lack!of!distribution!due!to!the! organisation! and! perception! barriers! that! exist,! once! these! barriers! are! overcome,!they!will!be!able!to!serve!a!larger!market!and!accept!and!process!more!product!than!they!are!currently!attracting.!!!!!!! !! 8!Recommendations))!These!recommendations!are!designed!to!inform!the!City!of!Vancouver!as!to!how!best!to!increase!the!diversion!of!asphalt!shingles!from!landfills!to!recycling!programs.!The!three!recommendations!are!designed!to!address!the!barriers!identified!above:!organisation!and!regulatory,!perception!and!market.!!Organisation!and!Regulatory:!To! address! the! organisation! and! regulatory! issues,! an! allSencompassing! process! flow!procedure! should! be! developed.! While! the! responsibility! of! this! process! development!currently!lies!with!Gemaco,!this!recommendation!suggests!that!it!is!developed!with!input!from!all! involved!groups,!ensuring!that! it! is!both!acceptable!and!feasible.!To!create!this!process!flow!procedure,!more!roundtable!meetings!should!occur,!similar!to!the!meeting!that!occurred!in!the!first!week!of!March!2014,!that!facilitated!discussions!between!paving!companies,!the!City!of!Vancouver,!Metro!Vancouver,!Gemaco!and!a!representative!from!King!County,!Washington’s!Solid!Waste!Division.!These!additional!meetings!should!include!a! representative! from! a! small! number! of! roofing! and! construction! and! demolition!companies,!in!order!to!integrate!that!particular!part!of!the!process!with!all!others.!These!roundtable!meetings!should!be!held!with!three!clear!goals:!1. The!creation!of!a!process!flow!procedure!–!who!will!be!responsible!2. The!critiquing,!verification!and!acceptance!of!this!procedure!3. Ensuring! that! the! final! procedure! is! acceptable! to! and! feasible! for! all! involved!groups!!As! the! roundtable! discussion! held! in!March! 2014! included! a! representative! from! King!County,! Washington’s! Solid! Waste! Division,! it! would! be! possible! to! use! an! accredited!procedure! from! the! US,! to! inform! this! one! as! a! starting! point.! However,! it! must! be!adapted!to!ensure!it!is!appropriate!for!the!local!context!of!the!City!of!Vancouver.!Within!the! process! of! designing! the! procedure,! clear! communication! must! be! established!between! all! involved! groups,! ensuring! that! individual! responsibilities! are! understood.!Existing! guidelines! must! also! be! clarified;! for! example,! Worksafe! BC’s! definition! of! a!‘qualified! person’! is! not! stringent! enough! for! the! City! of! Vancouver’s! Environmental!Services!Division,!which!often!finds!problems!with!reports!carried!out!by!people!that!are!less!qualified!than!they!would!like.!!!Below! is! a! recommended! process! flow! procedure! that! provides! suggestions! for! all!required!steps,!from!what!is!required!before!work!can!start,!to!what!is!required!in!order!for! Gemaco! to! accept! shingles! to! their! recycling! facility.! ! This! process! incorporates!Worksafe! BC’s! existing! asbestos! abatement! process! as! well! of! City! of! Vancouver!guidelines!into!a!more!allSencompassing!procedure.!!! 9!• A!house/building!is!to!have!a!new!roof!• An!accredited!roofing!company!is!contacted!to!come!and!survey!the!roof!• If!the!roof!is!older!than!1990,!it!must!be!sampled!!• The! building! owner! or! the! employer! retains! a! qualified! person! (usually! a!consultant)! to!perform!a!risk!assessment!and!asbestos!survey!before!conducting!work!where!asbestos!may!be!disturbed!!• The! qualified! person! inspects! the! house/building,! collects! representative! bulk!samples,! and! has! the! samples! analyzed! by! a! qualified! laboratory! –! according! to!Worksafe!BC!OHS!Guidelines,!for!a!roofing!surface!of!around!1000!ft2!at!least!one!sample!for!each!layer!of!material!must!be!taken!!o Copies!of! the!results!should!be!kept!on!file!by!the! lab,!and!given!to!both!the!testing!company!and!the!home!owner!o If! the! test! samples! reveal! asbestos! is! present,! the! testing! company!must!submit!a!report!to!Worksafe!BC!and!notify!the!home!owner!• The! qualified! person! prepares! a! report! that! identifies! all! inspection! results!(including!drawings,!plans!or! specifications),! risk! assessment,! and! scope!of!work!for!the!abatement!of!the!asbestos!o The! report! containing! the! inspection! results! is! provided! to! the!owner/employer!–!the!inspection!results!must!be!available!at!the!worksite!whenever!workers!are!on!site!o The!owner!or!employer!retains!trained!asbestos!abatement!workers!o A! notice! of! project! (NOP)! with! written! work! procedures! is! submitted! to!Worksafe!BC!before!commencement!of!asbestos!removal!work!o Safe!removal!and!disposal!of!identified!asbestos!occurs!o After! the! asbestos! removal! the! owner! or! employer! receives! written!confirmation!that!the!asbestos!specified!for!removal!on!the!NOP!has!been!removed!–!a!copy!of!the!inspection!results!is!on!site!o The!owner!authorizes!demolition!of!the!house/building!or!removal!of!the!roof!to!proceed!o The!demolition!employer!proceeds! to!demolish! the!house!or! remove!the!roof! using! safe! work! procedures! (copy! of! inspection! results! and! postSabatement!reports!are!on!site)!o If!any!asbestos!is!found!during!demolition,!all!work!is!to!cease!until!a!new!risk! assessment! in! performed,! and! the! asbestos! is! safely! contained! or!removed!• If!the!samples!reveal!no!asbestos,!it!should!be!recycled!!o Taken!to!Gemaco’s!facility!!o Picked!up!by!a!Gemaco!pickSup!service!o Taken!to!the!landfill!and!deposited!in!a!recycling!specific!bin!! 10!• In! order! to! be! recycled,! Gemaco! should! require! a! lab! test! report,! proving! and!ensuring!that!no!asbestos!is!present!in!the!shingles!and!none!enters!their!facility!o Asbestos! testing! should! be! done! before! shingles! arrive! at! facility! –! test!reports!must!be!submitted!before!shingles!can!be!accepted!!o Asphalt! shingle! recycling! facilities! should! be! required! to! document! the!source!of!the!postSconsumer!shingles!accepted!at!their!facilities!o Recycling! facilities! should! screen! inScoming! loads! to!ensure!no!hazardous!materials!are!accepted!and! loads!do!not!exceed!ten!percent!by!weight!of!nonSshingle!material!(ensuring!consistent!quality)!o Documentation!of!the!source!and!tonnages!should!be!required!to!be!kept!on!file!and!available!for!review!!o Recyclers! should! monitor! their! intake,! as! newer! postSconsumer! shingles!may!contain!lower!asphalt!contents!and!lower!binder!viscosities,!compared!to!older!postSconsumer!shingles!which!may!have!binder!that!is!stiffer!due!to!more!aging!and!higher!asphalt!contents!!• Regular!air!testing!for!airborne!asbestos!should!occur!at!Gemaco’s!facility,!in!order!to!satisfy!Worksafe!BC!guidelines!!• Regular! testing! of! ground! shingle! piles! at! Gemaco! –!more! than! once! every! 100!tonnes! to! prove! that! no! asbestos! is! present,! possibly! once! every! 25/50! tonnes!(whichever!is!more!acceptable)!• As! asbestos! is! now! extremely! unlikely! to! be! accepted! at! Gemaco’s! facility,! and!therefore! even! more! unlikely! to! be! included! in! their! product,! downstream!customers!should!be!confident! in!the!asbestosSfree!and!consistent!nature!of!the!product!!Perception:!!In! order! to! address! the! barrier! of! the! perception! of! asphalt! shingles,! two!recommendations!are!listed!below.!They!are!designed!to!work!together!and!inform!one!another,!but!they!are!distinctly!different.!!1. The! City! of! Vancouver! (as! well! as! Metro! Vancouver! and! its! constituent!municipalities)! should! reclassify! asphalt! shingles! that! have! been! removed! from!roofs,!from!‘waste’!products,!to!‘recyclable!materials’.!This!would!help!change!the!perception,! as! the! shingles! will! no! longer! have! the! connotation! of! waste!associated! with! them,! and! will! instead! be! associated! with! other! legitimate!recyclable!materials!2. To! showcase! the! performance! and! durability! of! RAS! within! highway! paving!construction!projects,! test!data! from!US!municipalities! that!have!had!experience!with! RAS,! should! be! used.! The! way! in! which! these! municipalities! have!incorporated!RAS!into!their!highway!paving!should!be!examined,!and!used!to!help!inform!highway!paving!construction!within!the!context!of!Vancouver.! In!addition!! 11!to! the! utilization! of! test! data,! a! section! of! highway,! residential! roadway! and!parking! lot,! using! different! amounts! of! RAS! incorporated! within! it! should! be!constructed,!in!order!to!both!showcase!its!performance!and!durability,!as!well!as!to!test!these!two!variables!and!their!suitability!within!the!climate!of!Vancouver.!!!There! is! an!opportunity! to!examine! the! types!of! road! standards!within! areas!of! similar!climatic! conditions! that! accept! RAS,! in! order! to! ascertain! if! equivalent! road! standards!exist.!For!example,!would!the!road!standards!of!a!primary!road!with!a!50mph!speed!limit!in!one!of!the!US!states!that!already!uses!RAS!within!road!construction,!be!equivalent!to!a!primary!road!with!an!80kph!speed!limit!in!the!Metro!Vancouver!region.!The!comparison!of!road!standards!could!potentially!provide!some!interesting!information.!!!Market:!!To!address! the!barrier!of! limited!markets! interested! in!depositing! shingles!at!Gemaco’s!facility,!a!number!of!recommendations!are!listed!below.!These!recommendations!all!aim!to!increase!the!attractiveness!of!depositing!shingles!at!Gemaco’s!facility,!over!deposition!at!landfill!sites.!!1. Gemaco!should!offer!pickSup!services.!These!should!be!offered!for!a!fee!and!only!to! projects! that! are! large! enough! to! economically! justify! the! service.! Gemaco!should!require!copies!of!relevant!documents!such!as!lab!reports,!before!pickSup!of!the!shingles,!so!there!is!no!wasted!time!or!money!by!either!party.!2. Gemaco!should!offer!bins!to!dump!shingles!at!Vancouver!landfill!sites.!These!bins!should!be!offered!at!a!cost!that!is!lower!than!the!generic!tipping!fee,!but!accounts!for!the!fact!that!Gemaco!will!have!to!collect!these!shingles!at!some!point.!3. The!City! of! Vancouver! should! offer! incentives! to! people/companies! that! recycle!shingles.! These! incentives! could! include! credit! towards! new! shingles! at! certain!home!improvement!stores!for!homeowners,!and!certain!tax!breaks!for!companies!that!deposit!shingles!at!recycling!facilities!rather!than!landfills.!4. Gemaco!should!develop!relations!with!certain!bin!companies.!This!would!ensure!that!the!companies!are!legitimate!and!follow!proper!protocols.!Partnerships!could!be! formed,!where!perhaps!Gemaco!would!give!more!business! to!bin! companies!that! only! work! with! roofing! and! construction! and! demolition! companies! that!provide!proper!documentation.!5. The!City! of!Vancouver! should!provide! a! list! of! locations! that! accept! shingles! for!recycling.! This! list! should! include! information! on! how! to! go! about! recycling!shingles,!and!should!be!available!on!the!City!of!Vancouver!website.!!! !! 12!Conclusions))This! report! draws! the! conclusion! that! the! increased! diversion! of! asphalt! shingles! from!landfills!to!recycling!programs!is!both!important!and!beneficial,!and!can!be!realized!by!the!implementation!of!the!suggested!recommendations.!The!report!and!supporting!research!is!not!designed!to!explore!barriers!and!suggest!recommendations!in!a!generic!sense,!but!rather!within!the!specific!context!of!the!City!of!Vancouver.!The!research!presented!here!is!designed! to! act! as! a! starting! point! for! the! City! of! Vancouver,! if! further! research! is!conducted!on!this!matter.!!!Suggestions! for! further! research! are! twofold.! Firstly,! the! conducting! of! two! interviews!with!highway!paving!companies!–!one!that!either!uses!or!has!used!RAS!within!their!HMA!in!the!past,!and!one!that!has!not.!These!interviews!would!provide!useful!information!and!would! help! to! inform! the! process! flow! procedure! more! completely.! Secondly,! the!quantitative!analysis!of!the!performance!of!RAS!within!HMA!in!all!available!US!states!–!a!good!starting!point!for!this!analysis!could!be!the!report!produced!by!ISUIT!in!2013,!as!well!as!using! information!from!additional!municipalities!such!as!King!County,! in!Washington.!This! analysis! would! be! extremely! useful! for! engineers,! as! it! may! help! them! better!understand!how!to!effectively!incorporate!RAS!into!their!HMA!designs.!!) )! 13!Works)Cited))AI! (Anonymous! Informant),! 2014.! Information! from! interview! conducted! with! an!anonymous!informant.!!CV! (City! of! Vancouver),! 2011.! “Greenest! City:! 2020! Action! Plan.”! City% of% Vancouver.!(2011).!)CVESD! (City! of! Vancouver! Environmental! Services! Division),! 2014.! Information! from!interview!conducted!with!Rosalie!Budau!and!Nicole!Montgomery! from!the!City!of!Vancouver’s!Environmental!Services!Division.!!!CVKO!(City!of!Vancouver!Kent!Operations),!2014.! Information!from!interview!conducted!with!Jeff!Markovic!from!the!Kent!Operations!asphalt!plant.!!Elseifi!et!al.,!2012.!Elseifi,!Mostafa,!et!al.!“New!Approach!to!Recycling!Asphalt!Shingles!in!HotSMix!Asphalt.”!J.%Mater.%Civ.%Eng.!(2012),!24:11,!1403S1411.!)Gemaco,! 2014.! Information! from! interview! conducted! with! Terry! Charles! and! Hilary!Hanna!from!Gemaco!Sales!Ltd..!)ISUIT!(Iowa!State!University!Institute!for!Transportation),!2013.!“Performance!of!Recycled!Asphalt! Shingles! in! Hot! Mix! Asphalt:! Final! Report,! August! 2013.”! Iowa% State%University%Institute%for%Transportation.!(2013).!!!KC! (Kane! Consulting),! 2012.! “Market! Analysis! of! Used! Building! Materials! in! Metro!Vancouver.”!Kane%Consulting!(2012).!!!MV! (Metro! Vancouver),! 2012.! “Metro! Vancouver! Recycling! and! Solid! Waste!Management:!2012!Report.”!Metro%Vancouver!(2012).!!!WBC! (Worksafe! BC),! 2012.! “Safe!Work! Practices! for! Handling! Asbestos.”!Worksafe% BC.!(2012).!!!)))))))! 14!Works)Consulted))!AET! (AET! Consultants),! 2011.! “2011!Demolition,! LandSclearing,! and! Construction!Waste!Composition!Monitoring.”!AET%Consultants!(2011).!!CCG! (Cascadia! Consulting! Group),! 2012.! “Metro! Vancouver:! Recycling! Market! Study.”!Cascadia%Consulting%Group;%EBA!(2012).!!!Chun!et!al.,!1997.!ChunSLi!Peng! ,!Domenic!E.!Scorpio!&!Charles! J.!Kibert.!“Strategies! for!successful! construction! and! demolition! waste! recycling! operations.”! Construction%Management%and%Economics!(1997),!15:1,!49S58.!!CMRA! (Construction!Materials!Recycling!Association),! 2007.! “Recycling! TearSOff!Asphalt!Shingles:!Best!Practices!Guide.”!Construction%Materials%Recycling%Association!(2007).!!Cochran,!2006.!Cochran,!Kimberly!Marie.!“Construction!and!demolition!debris!recycling:!methods,! markets,! and! policy.”! (PhD! Dissertation).! Retrieved% from% ProQuest%Dissertations%and%Theses!(Accession!Order!No.!3347116).!(2006).!!Cochran! et! al.,! 2006.! Cochran,! Kimberly,! et! al.! “Estimation! of! regional! buildingSrelated!C&D!debris!generation!and!composition:!Case!study!for!Florida,!US.”!Department%of%Environmental,%Engineering%Sciences,%University%of%Florida!(2006).!!MV! (Metro! Vancouver),! 2010.! “Integrated! Solid! Waste! and! Resource! Management:! A!Solid! Waste! Management! Plan! for! the! Greater! Vancouver! Regional! District! and!Member!Municipalities.”!Metro%Vancouver.!(2010).!!!Plescia! et! al.,! 2003.! Plescia,! Paolo,! et! al.! “Mechanochemical! treatment! to! recycling!asbestosScontaining!waste.”!Waste%Management!(2003),!23,!209S218.!!!SERA! (Skumatz! Economic! Research! Associates),! 2007.! “2007! North! American! Waste!Management!Systems!Comparison!Study:!Outstanding!Communities!and!Programs!in!North!America!and!Beyond.”!Skumatz%Economic%Research%Associates,%Inc.!(2007).!!!Townsend! et! al.,! 2007.! Townsend,! Timothy,! Jon! Powell,! and! Chad! Xu.! "Environmental!Issues! Associated! With! Asphalt! Shingle! Recycling."! Department% of% Civil% and%Environmental%Engineering,%Northeastern%University!(2007).!!TRI! (TRI! Environmental! Consulting! Inc.),! 2012.! “Metro! Vancouver! 2011! Solid! Waste!Composition!Monitoring.”!TRI%Environmental%Consulting%Inc.!(2012).!! 15!!Vachon,! 2008.! Vachon,! Andria.! “Economic! and! environmental! considerations! for!construction! and! demolition! debris:! management! and! policy.”! (Masters!Dissertation).!Retrieved% from% ProQuest% Dissertations% and% Theses! (Accession! Order!No.!1459520).!(2008).!!Wang! et! al.,! 2004.! Wang,! James,! et! al.! "A! systems! analysis! tool! for! construction! and!demolition! wastes! management."! Massachusetts% Department% of% Environmental%Protection!(2004).!! !! 16!Appendix)!Images! taken! from! a! site! visit! to! Gemaco! in! February! 2014,! showcasing! the! different!stages!in!asphalt!shingle!recycling.!!!!!! 17!!!!! 18!!!! !! 19!Unedited!interview!conducted!with!Anonymous!Informant,!2014.!!!1. Does!all!roofing!have!to!be!checked!for!asbestos,!or!just!roofing!that!is!suspected!of!being!older!than!1983?!A!date!was!set!for!around!1990!–!all!roofs!constructed!earlier!than!this!time!have!to!be!tested.!There!is!a!Worksafe!BC!guideline!that!talks!about!asbestos!in!general!–!complete!survey!o!be!conducted!for!buildings!older!than!1990.!1990!date!makes!sense!–!residential!roofs!rarely!last!that!long.!Mid!80’s!phasing!out!asbestos.!More!than!one!layer:!when!you!do!a!survey,!you! look!at!how!many! layers.!Older! layers!–!you!sample.!Roofers!refuse!to!shingle!on!top!of!old!roofs!–!warranty.!!!2. How!significant!of!a!problem!do!you!see!asbestos!in!asphalt!shingles!to!be?!Not!much.!!!3. How!many!companies!follow!correct!testing!protocols?!WBC!regulations!exist!preventing!lying:!20.112.!Any!building!to!be!tested!must!be!looked!at! for! asbestos.! There! has! been! difficulty! dealing! with! surveyors! and! demolition!contractors!–!not!following!testing!protocols.!!!4. How!much!would!it!cost!to!test!roofing?!How!many!samples!are!necessary?!On!www.worksafebc.com!–!G20.112!OHS! guideline.! Table! tells! you! how!many! samples!you!need!to!take.!Roofing!materials,!one!samples!for!a!roof!of!less!than!1000!ft2.!!!5. Are! there! regulatory! barriers! in! place! that! limit! the! use! of! recycled! asphalt! in!Metro! Vancouver! due! to! potential! asbestos! contamination?! How! significant! do! you!believe! the! health! and! safety! issue! is,! for! either! workers! recycling! asphalt! shingles! or!working!with!materials!that!contain!recycled!asphalt!shingles?!Don’t!know!–! it!would!be!a!bylaw!or!environmental!regulation.!Considered!a!hazardous!material/waste.! Depends! –! the! shingles! are! nonSfryable.! Have! to! be! ground! up! before!asbestos!could!get!out.!Air!samples!done!to!test!asbestos!–!has!been!done/can!be!done.!Suspicion! that! stuff! going! in! –! very! unlikely.! Still! have! obligation! to! test! if! there! is! any!doubt.!!!6. How!long!does!the!laboratory!analysis!process!to!determine!the!presence!of!asbestos!take!and!is!there!any!way!to!speed!it!up?!How!much!does!it!cost?!Are!mobile!test!units!a!viable!option?!Half!an!hour!at!the!most.!Dissolve!the!asphalt!with!solution!and!look!for!asbestos.!Reason!that!there!is!a!turnover!–!busy!lab!or!not.!Sending!samples!down!to!the!USA!–!cheaper.!Depends! on! how! fast! the! surveyor!works.! Cost! –! depends! on! location.! $8! per! piece! in!USA.! $25/30! in! Canada.! As! high! as! $50.! Volume! and! care! dependent! –! lab! dependent.!! 20!Cheaper!labs!run!samples!quickly.!Lots!of!labs!that!do!sampling!in!town.!Not!necessary!–!can!get!samples!rushed.!Can!get!them!set!up!–!has!been!done!–!ventilation,!microscope!set! up.! Mobile! labs! set! up! at! facility! (eg.! Chevron! and! Burnaby)! to! get! the! samples!analysed!immediately.!!!7. Is! there! any! kind! of!mandatory! testing! or! education! that! all! roofers!must! complete!before!they!are!allowed!to!work!in!environments!where!asbestos!may!be!present?!!In!guidelines.!Before!any!work!is!done,!asbestos!has!to!be!tested!for.!Homeowners!who!are!going!to!do!work,!if!house!is!older!than!1990.!Survey!to!be!done.!!!8. From! talking! to! another! group! associated! with! this! problem,! the! issue! of! bin!companies!has!been! raised!–!when!a!bin! company! removes!waste! from!a! construction!site! it!mixes!a! lot!of!different!kinds!of!waste!together!–! roofing!waste!with!nonSroofing!waste,!as!well!as!waste!from!different!sites.!Is!there!any!way!that!regulations!could!be!put!in!place! that!make!bin! companies! track! their!waste!more!carefully,! and! therefore!keep!asbestos! contaminated! waste! away! from! waste! that! has! not! been! contaminated! by!asbestos.!!According! to! Worksafe! BC,! asbestos! material! has! to! be! contained! in! double! bags.!Shouldn’t!be!any!asbestos!there!in!the!first!place.!!!9. Is!a!chain!of!custody!type!process!a!viable!option!for!keeping!track!of!asbestos!within!shingles!in!Metro!Vancouver?!What!barriers!would!such!a!process!face?!Honest!people!will!fill!them!out!properly.!Lying!people!won’t!tell!the!truth.!Won’t!be!any!left!in!20!years!in!shingles.!!!10. At!present!there!seems!to!be!a!disconnect!between!shingle!recycling!companies!and!Worksafe!BC.!Is!there!any!possibility!of!Worksafe!BC!being!able!to!work!more!closely!with!these!companies!to!implement!a!policy/set!of!regulations!that!clearly!lay!out!what!must!be!done!by!a!shingle!recycling!company!in!order!to!ensure!potential!customers!that!they!are! following! a! set! form! of! guidelines/procedures! and! therefore! instill! a! sense! of!confidence! in! the! customers!of! these! recyclers! that! they! are!purchasing! a! high!quality,!regulationSapproved!product?!Honesty.! Look! at! drywall! –! same! problems.! Honesty,! honesty,! honesty.! Don’t! take!precautions.!Dump!stuff!to!save!money.!Recycling!is!a!great!idea,!have!to!deal!with!stuff.!Can’t! just! dump! stuff.! Trying!with! shingles! and!drywall.! Depends! on! honesty! of! people!doing!work.!People!don’t!care.!Doesn’t!always!work!in!the!real!world.!Payment!break/tax!break!–!anything!better!than!nothing?!Right!now!–!no!incentive!to!do!it!right!and!lots!of!incentive!to!do!it!wrong.!Benefit!–!health!to!do!it!right.!Con!–!putting!people’s!health!at!risk.!Drywall!recyclers!ask!to!see!proof!in!form!of!lab!result.!Make!lab!results!mandatory?!Maybe!if!you!send!stuff!to!recyclers,!you!get!a!disposal!ticket!to!drop!off!other!stuff!free!! 21!of!charge.!Main!obstacle:!people.!Not! in!the!commercial!building!area!–!they!are!bigger!employers!–!they!have!lots!of!people!to!deal!with!asbestos!properly!–!long!track!record.!Unregistered!companies!are!the!worst!kind.!Enough!law!–!not!perception!problem.!!!!Unedited! interview!conducted!with!Rosalie!Budau!and!Nicole!Montgomery! from!City!of!Vancouver!Environmental!Services!Division,!2014.!!!1. Describe! your! role! with! the! City! of! Vancouver! and! how! it! relates! to! hazardous!materials!testing!and!worker!protection.!We! do! a! review! of! the! demolition! permit! application.! Those! applications! have! a!declaration!of! inventory!of!HM!of!building!to!be!demolished.!Also! intake!the!hazardous!materials!survey!required!by!WBC!–!intake!report!and!review!prior!to!review!of!permit.!!!2. How!significant!of!a!problem!do!you!see!asbestos!in!asphalt!shingles!to!be?!Have!seen!asphalt!shingles!come!back!twice!in!all!reports!reviewed!(1000s).!!!3. Could!you!explain!the!hazardous!materials!testing!process!that!the!City!of!Vancouver!requires!prior!to!issuing!a!demolition!permit?!!WBC!has!guidelines!–!guideline!indicates!that!all!possible!asbestos!containing!materials!in!a!building!have!to!be!tested.!1S3!samples!depending!on!size!of!building.!Analyzed!at! lab!and! compiled! into! report.! City! doesn’t! have! specific! requirements! of! its! own.! WBC!requires! a! report! –! hazardous! materials.! City! requires! that! WBC! compliant! report! be!submitted!to!city.!Construction!guideline!20.!!!4. Do!you!see!any!shortcomings!with!the!current!hazardous!materials!testing!process?!Biggest!problem!–!WBC!has!–!definition!of!a!qualified!person.!Assessments/sampling!of!materials! have! to!be!done!by! ‘qualified’! person.!WBC!defines! ‘qualified’! as! very!broad.!Challenging!to!eliminate!people!that!are!not!properly!qualified.!Dishonesty! in! industry.! Fraudulent! work! done! –! report! written,! but! forged! lab! results.!That’s!why!City!started!taking!reports!–!to!review!them.!Vancouver!does!more!reviewing!than!anywhere!else!in!BC.!!!5. Would!you!say!that!the!majority!of!individuals!and!companies!within!construction!and!demolition!industry!in!Vancouver!follow!correct!testing!protocols,!as!outlined!by!the!City!of!Vancouver?!Review! done! to! stop! any! glaring! errors/suspicious! reports/new! consultant! –! reports!referred!off!to!WBC!for!investigation!and!compliance!sampling.!Hopefully!bad!reports!get!stopped! before! there! is! a! further! issue.! Deconstruction! is! a! special! case! –! number! of!! 22!contractors!is!fairly!limited.!Not!necessarily!a!cost!effective!approach.!Work!that!is!done!properly!–!more!so!than!traditional!demolition.!!!6. Is!there!a!specific!reason!that!the!City!of!Vancouver!does!not!require!a!permit!for!reSroofing,! especially! considering! the! issues! of! asbestos! contained! within! asphalt! roofing!shingles?!City! of! Vancouver! doesn’t! require! a! permit! for! removal.! City! side! –! in! order! require! a!permit,! there! has! to! be! something! in! a! bylaw! (doesn’t! have! a! bylaw).! Recladding/reSroofing! –! cosmetic! as! opposed! to! structural! –! don’t! require! a! City! permit.! Roofing!company! should!have! suspect!material! tested,!and! if! it!does!contain!asbestos,! it!would!have!to!be!removed!following!proper!procedures.!Any!asbestos!abatement!projectS!WBC!requires!a!notice!of!project!to!be!filed!a!minimum!of!24!hours!before!work!commences.!!City!doesn’t!deal!with!roofing!in!isolation!–!doesn’t!know!how!often!that!happens.!!!7. Are!there!barriers!that!the!City!of!Vancouver!faces!when!implementing!regulations!for!the!construction!and!demolition!industry?!!New! or! existing! –! difference.! Hazardous! materials! report! –! requirement! to! provide!surveys.!City!policy!–! invoked!as!City’s!regulatory!responsibilities.!Require!submission!of!surveys.!Can!invoke!clauses!of!building!code.!Building!code!is!more!general/not!specific!to!what! materials! are! beyond! main! definition! of! hazardous.! To! add! a! specific! piece! of!regulation!–!more!challenging.!To!change!a!regulation/add!something!to!bylaw!–!has!to!be!written,!brought!to!council.!Building!bylaws!only!change!every!2S4!years.!Not!a!piece!of!the!City’s!bylaws!that! is!updated!regularly!–!try!and!do!large!scale!(packaged)!reviews!–!not!on!a!regular!basis.!Because!it!does!have!to!get!council!approval!–!adds!a!challenge!to!getting!changes!in.!!!8. What! are! the! general! attitudes! relating! to! regulations! within! the! construction! and!demolition!industry?!Starts!to!be!segment!specific!–!larger/commercial!projects!are!far!more!on!board!with!any!sorts!of!programs.!Challenges!often!lie!with!single!family!speculation!builders!(eg.!to!flip!house)! –! resistant! to! anything! that! increases! construction! cost! –! impacts! bottom! line.!Nature! of! the! spec.! building! industry! –! competitive! and! narrow!margins.! Everything! is!time!press!to!them!–!to!have!to!do!a!large!scale!abatement!can!slow!down!timeline!–!add!costs.!Every!time!you!add!a!layer!of!regulation!–!adds!cost.!Reputable!people!will!increase!cost!to!consumer!of!job.!NonSreputable!people!won’t!increase!costs!–!try!to!cut!costs!and!quality.!Reputable!people!lose!jobs!because!of!low!costs!of!for!nonSreputable!people.!!!9. What! barriers! are! currently! in! place! that! limit! the! use! of! recycled! construction! or!demolition!materials! in!Metro! Vancouver?! Do! you! believe! there! is! a! health! and! safety!issue,!for!workers!working!with!recycled!construction!materials?!! 23!Depends!if!you’re!talking!actual!recycling!and!remanufacturing!or!upScycling.!Don’t!know!that!there!is!anything!specific.!Specifically!roofing!materials!–!imagine!that!any!facility!to!take! in!shingles!could!use!same!protocol! that!gypsum!uses.!Requiring! testing!materials.!NotSfryable!–!monitoring!material!coming! in.!Asbestos!hasn’t!been!used! in!roofing!for!a!long!time!–!number!of!homes!that!have!it!would!be!smaller.!!!10. How! is! the!use!of! recycled!material! viewed!within! the!construction!and!demolition!industry?!Not!that!she’s!aware!of.!Deal!with!demolition!end!–!less!stuff!on!other!end.!Depending!on!homes,! there! is!a!market! segment! that! is! interested! in!green!construction.!Projects!are!marketed!on!that!aspect!–!could!be!segment!interested!in!that!kind!of!thing.!Larger!scale!project!–!LEED!certification.!!11. What!would!be!required!to!address!these!issues/concern/barriers?!A! lot!of! single! family!constructions!–!spec.!building!or!people!building!custom!for! them!selves.! Custom! segment!–!difficult! to! know! individuals! requests.! Spec.! segment! looking!for!cost!benefits.!!!Unedited! interview! conducted! with! Jeff! Markovic! from! City! of! Vancouver! Kent!Operations,!2014.!!!1. How!significant!of!a!problem!do!you!see!asbestos!in!asphalt!shingles!to!be?!Very!significant.!Without!a!system!to!deal!with!it,!it!is!a!liability.!All!about!elimination!of!the! liability.! Regardless! of! the! requirement! (0.5%)! by! WBC,! even! below! that,! the!perception!that!any!type!exists,!is!viewed!negatively.!Probably!biggest!factor!in!being!able!to!use!product.!Environmental!and!health!and!safety! issues.!Even!half!a!percent! that! is!allowed,!mixed!into!more!asphalt,!diluted,!but!still!a!problem!perception.!!!2. Does!the!asphalt!shingle!recycler!operating!in!the!Metro!region!follow!correct!testing!protocols?!Not! sure.! Asked! them! if! they! are! following! same! procedures! as! asphalt! producers! as!America!–!laid!out!by!organisation.!Various!US!based!ones!that!have!similar!steps!that!you!need!to!take,!but!in!saying!that,!correct!criteria!for!local!market!I!shard!to!establish.!Part!of!the!construction!materials!recycling!association!–!their!criteria!acceptable!within!lower!mainland.!Who!is!putting!down!regulations.!!!3. What!barriers!are!currently! in!place! that! limit! the!use!of! recycled!asphalt! shingles! in!asphalt!production!in!Metro!Vancouver?!Do!you!believe!there!is!a!health!and!safety!issue,!! 24!for! either! workers! at! asphalt! plants! or! working! with! materials! that! contain! recycled!asphalt!shingles!such!as!paving?!Health! and! safety! issue! –! yes! there! is.!When! dealing!with! post! consumer! shingles! and!range!being!shingles!from!last!100!years!theoretically,!do!you!have!a!set!procedure!that!protect! the! employees! when! sorting! out! materials! that! could! potentially! contain!asbestos.!Trained!and!equipped!for!asbestos!materials?! Identifying!asbestos!how?!Once!he! receives! shingles,! he! expects! that! he! should! have! no! concerns! about!materials! like!asbestos.! At! this! point,! he! can’t! say! yes! –! no! planned! out! system/process! to! capture!asbestos!100%!of!the!time.!We!could!test!for!airborne!asbestos!for!a!day!–!is!that!ticked!off!by!hygienist.!He!hasn’t!seen!anything!conducted!at!that! level,!to!satisfy!his!concerns!about!worker!safety.!Needs!to!be!a!recognized!process,!that!product!is!at!a!stage!that!is!able! to! be! used! company! –! doesn’t! exist! yet.! If! there! is! any! kind! of! material! that! is!new/recycled!–!who! is! signing!off! on!process!–!Worksafe!BC?! Lots!of!will! to! go! in! that!direction,! but! when! it! comes! to! process! flow,! there! is! currently! no! recognized! body.!Quality! control! –! no! real! set! limit! or! recognition! in! any! governing! municipal!documentation.!No!one!agency!that!is!saying!there!is!a!certain!amount!of!RAS!in!mixes.!There!are!some!barriers!to!producers!–!they!are!taking!on!a!lot!of!liability!without!having!any! real! quantifiable! benefit! to! it.! No! governing! bodies/customer! doesn’t! have! any!requirement!to!use! it!–!not!mandatory!to!use.!Producers!are!bidding!on! job!–!end!spec!work!–!where!the!owner!may!ask! for!a!12.5mm!surface!–!why!would!producer! take!on!risk!for!new!material!that!is!not!proven?!No!one!else!sharing!risk!with!them.!!Quality!side!–!no!‘you!will!use!this’!–!shall!or!may.!!!4. What! are! the! major! barriers! that! the! City! of! Vancouver! sees! in! utilizing! recycled!asphalt!shingles?!Would!the!asphalt!plant!prefer!to!use!virgin!asphalt!or!recycled!asphalt?!If!asbestos!issues!could!be!addressed!and!dealt!with,!which!would!the!City!prefer!to!use?!!Not! an! established! system! that! brings! on! those! barriers.! City! has! tried! some! practical!applications! and!due!diligence.!Overall,! quality!of!RAS! is! risky!–! Jeff! isn’t! sure! if! he!has!maximized!use!of!RAP!–!if!RAP!is!fairly!clean!material!(only!oil!and!aggregate)!and!ability!to!reuse!material!without!issues!(no!polymers/other!additives)!–!considered!an!asset!and!not! a! reliability.! RAP! –! asset! to! be! recycled! and! reused,! with! simple! manipulation! of!materials.! RAS! –! post! consumer! is! liability! issue.! Not! all! wood/metal! out! of! RAS.!Consistency!of!RAS!needs!to!be!fairly!consistent!(2S3%!RAS!use)!–!not!a!huge!amount!to!impact! mix! designs.! Discussion! –! use! of! RAS! –! local! governments/municipalities! have!different!requirements!–!haven’t!maximized!reuse!of!RAP.!Without!maximizing!RAP,!how!are!you!going!to!use!RAS?!RAP!that! is! fairly!pavement!(asphalt!and!aggregate)! is!simple!and!basic,!but!you!know!you!can!recycle!and!reuse!it.!Minimize!risk!by!using!any!kind!of!impurities.!RAS!not!considered!an!asset.!!!5. What!would!be!required!to!address!these!issues/concern/barriers?!! 25!More! standardized/recognized! process.! Use! of! cutoffs! –! 10x! lower! risks! –! clean! new!material!that!hasn’t!been!put!on!roof.!Without!wood/nails!–!not!a!quality!control!issue!or!environmental! or! health/safety.! Post! consumer! (50! year! window)! of! various! types! of!shingles! –! consistency! issue/type! of! RAS.! If! there! are! controls! to! deal! with!wood/nails/asbestos/identification! of! other! types! of! materials! –! ok.! Without! a! proper!process,!it!can’t!be!used.!!!6. Does! the! City! of! Vancouver! have! any! contact! with! other! municipalities! in! either!Canada!or! the!USA!that!have!utilized!asphalt!with!recycled!asphalt!content?! If! so,!what!has! their! experience! been,!working!with! this! product?!Would! the! City! be! interested! in!establishing!contact!with!municipalities!that!have!utilized!recycled!asphalt!successfully!in!projects?!!Primary! contact! has! been! through!Metro! Vancouver! –! MV! is! looking! at! an! avenue! of!limiting! reusable! materials! going! to! landfills.! Discussing! other! local! (eg.! Alberta! and!Washington)!–!look!at!trials!and!to!see!where!they!are!at!with!products.!Unless!Burnaby!was!using!a!huge!amount!of!RAS!for!example!–!see!how!process!is!working!and!direction!its!going.!Municipal!not! really!–! just!MV.!30,000! tonnes!of! shingles! that!are!brought! to!landfills! per! year.! A! lot! of! municipalities! could! increase! RAP! use! before! they! start! to!consider!RAS!use!unless! they!have!done!review!on!their!own.!City!of!Vancouver!has! its!own!asphalt!plant!–!own!streets!and!generate!product!and!are!willing!to!go!further!with!trials.! Increased! use! of! RAP.!Municipalities!without! facility! have! to! go! to! contractors! –!based! on! best! price.! If! RAS! gave! competitive! advantages! (such! as! recycling! oil)! then! it!would! be!beneficial.! Producer! and!municipality! realizing! a! price! advantage,! considering!risk?!!!7. How!is!the!use!of!recycled!asphalt!and!asphalt!with!recycled!shingle!content!viewed!within!the!construction!industry?!!Quality!control!issue.!Producers!will!use!product!if!they!realize!a!return!benefit.!If!RAP!or!RAS!results! in!efficiency,!with!a!good!price!point,! they!will!be!used.!Quality!control!and!engineers!who!are!responsible,!how!much!risk!are!they!willing!to!take?!Producer!might!want! to! use! 20%! RAP! and! 3%! RAS,! but! engineer! might! not! want! to! use! a! trustable!product.!Not!enough!history!with!product.! If! there!was!a!10!year!study!showing!a!good!road! with! a! certain!mix! giving! a! certain! performance! –!more! likely! to! be! accepted! by!engineers.! Who! is! willing! to! take! the! first! risk?! Municipalities! aren’t! willing! to! take! a!calculated! risk!with! shrinking!budgets!–!mitigate! risk!by! limiting!untested!materials.!Go!with!what!they!know!first.!!!8. Is! the!quality!of! recycled!asphalt!comparable!with! the!quality!of!virgin!asphalt?!For!example,!has!there!been!testing!of!its!performance!when!compared!with!virgin!asphalt?!! 26!It! can! be,! but! back! to! quality! control! issue.! City! of! Vancouver! –! quality! control! is! the!mantra.!Checks!after! implementation!are! conducted,!but! testing!while!product! is!being!designed! is! more! important.! Continual! testing! within! Vancouver! –! sampling! of! lots! of!different!uses!of!RAS.!Recycled!products!need!to!meet!design!specifications.!Roadway! !residential! roads!!! collector! roads!!! highways.! Can’t! perform! at! the! same! quality! as!virgin! materials.! Some! kind! of! oil! rejuvenation! to! give! it! extended! life! –! maybe! can.!Quality!checks!needed!to!ensure!that.!Volumes!of!quality!control!data.!Not!every!single!roadway! is! going! to! have! ability! to! do! these! checks.! Not! going! to! be! focused! on! one!project! long! enough! to! put! process! in! place.!What! are! you!willing! to! spend! on! quality!control!and!quality!assurance.!Virgin!materials!are!always!better!–!oil!will!be!oxidized! if!ground! up/used/UV! light/wear! and! tear.! Unless! you! can! rejuvenate! oil,! it! won’t! be! at!highest!standard.!Maybe!use!RAS!for!residential!roads!rather!than!highways.!!!9. Are!the!any!processes!in!addition!to!existing!regulations!that!are!a!potentially!viable!option!for!keeping!track!of!asbestos!within!shingles! in!Metro!Vancouver?!What!barriers!would!such!a!process!face?!!No! –! back! to! process! that! has! been! accepted! somewhere! else! as! a! high! standard! for!recycling! shingles.!Process! flow!needs! to!be! the!best!–!government!agencies!and!other!people!need!to!ok!a!certain!process.!Governing!agencies!want!a!process!to!be!in!place!–!relying!on!private!sector! to!put! it! in!place.!City!of!Vancouver! is! interested!and!can!give!some!guidance,!but!not!telling!exactly!what!to!do.!Have!to!prove!to!MV,!WBC!and!City!of!Vancouver!that!such!a!process! is!good.!Chicken!and!egg!phenomenon.!Private!sector! in!charge.!!!10. At!present!there!seems!to!be!a!disconnect!between!shingle!recycling!companies!and!the! rest! of! the! industry.! Is! there! any! possibility! of! the! City! of! Vancouver! being! able! to!work!more!closely!with!these!companies!and!regulatory!bodies!such!as!Worksafe!BC!to!implement!a!policy/set!of!regulations!that!clearly!lay!out!what!must!be!done!by!a!shingle!recycling! company! in!order! to!ensure!potential! customers! that! they!are! following!a! set!form! of! guidelines/procedures! and! therefore! instill! a! sense! of! confidence! in! the!customers!of!these!recyclers!that!they!are!purchasing!a!high!quality,!regulationSapproved!product?!Would!standardized!regulations!increase!the!likelihood!of!the!City!of!Vancouver!using!recycled!asphalt?!!Definitely!would!be!ok!–!everyone!being!comfortable!with!whole!process! flow!analysis.!Accept?! Grade?! Sort?! Staff! training?! Find?!Quality! control?! How! often! quality! control?!Consistency?!Training?!Environmental! review?!Worksafe!BC?!Complete!process! in!place!that! can! be! studied,! reviewed! and! okSed.! Fractionalized.! MV! is! currently! trying! to!facilitate!that!direction,!but!one!thing! is! facilitation,!discussions,!but!to!make! it!happen.!Can’t! make! a! company! go! a! certain! direction.! What! process! is! acceptable?! Had! a!roundtable! last! week.! Come! up! with! positives! and! negatives! before! full! scale! use! of!! 27!product.! If!you’re!not!going!to!maximize!on!asset!(RAP)!back! into!making!asphalt!again,!how!are!you!going! to! stipulate! that! you!need! to!use!RAS.!One!process! flow! that! is!not!maximized,! how! are! you! going! to!maximize! another! one?! Kick! start! needed.! Different!municipalities! have! different! criteria/mix! designs.! Not! even! unified! in! quality!control/mixes/criteria.!Asphalt!production!in!region:!1.2M!tonnes.!If!you!were!to!put!RAS!into! every! ton! of! asphalt! –! equivalent! to! 36,000! tonnes.! Between! 2S3%! of! RAS! put! in!roadway!–!this!would!nullify!all!shingles!put!into!landfill.!Whole!region!would!have!make!it! work! to! get! region! to! minimize! shingles! into! landfill.! Can’t! work! if! everyone! has!different!opinions!on!quality!control!etc.!!!11. What!sort!of! relationship!does! the!City!of!Vancouver’s!asphalt!plant!currently!have!with!the!following!groups!of!people?!a. Worksafe!BC!Non!existent!when! it!comes!to!RAS!–!new!process.!No!working!group!set!up!to!process!review.!MV!has!some,!but!he!doesn’t! think!so.!Gemaco!has!had!some!relationship!with!WBC! to! review.!Gemaco!has!asked!WBC! to! look!at!process!and!evaluate! it,! but! for! full!process! flow! review,! not! enough! data! to! sample.!Not! inSdepth! of! a! study.! Spot! checks!have!been!done,!but!there!is!not!enough!data!–!or!hygienist/data.!!WBC!would!have!an! interest! if! they!decided! to!use! it! –! concern!about! asbestos! if! they!started!to!use!it.!!b. Asphalt!recycling!companies?!Trying! to! build! up! relationship!with! all! parties! –! trying! to! facilitate! through!MV!and!by!themselves,!relationships!with!paving!companies.!!c. Asphalt! paving! companies,! and! other! potential! downstream!markets! for! recycled!asphalt!shingles?!Speak!routinely!with!other!producers.!MV!and!Gemaco!met!with!City!of!Vancouver! last!week! –! most! asphalt! producers! were! there! for! discussion! on! where! things! are! at.!Vancouver!–!industry!needs!to!be!competitive!when!it!comes!to!price,!but!there!is!also!a!responsibility! to!meet! government! expectations! for! increased! use! of! recycled! products!/diversion! from! landfill,! fulfill! public! interest,! etc.! More! simple! the! better.! Sometimes!there! are! private! entities! that! can! supply! recycled!materials.! Process! to! come! up!with!recycled!materials!is!sometimes!more!complicated!–!more!engineering!needed.!Polymer:!polymer!can!work!but!base!material!could!be!a!suspected!carcinogen.!Can’t!use!material!if! rejuvenator! for!product! is!bad.!Time!of!production! issues,!and!they!recycling!recycled!product!–!want!material! to!be!benign.!Roadways!that!were!paved!30!years!ago!with!an!asbestos!element!–!now!have!to!grind!and!now!there’s!a!problem.!Additives!are!often!the!problem.! Now! they!might! be! great,! but! in! the! future! the! specifications! for! health! and!safety!and!environment!might!change.!How!many!times!can!you!use!reusable!materials.!!!!! 28!Unedited! interview! conducted!with!Hilary!Hanna!and!Terry!Charles! from!Gemaco!Sales!Ltd.,!2014.!!!1. What! is! the!business!case! for! shingle! recycling!–!how!good! is! the!market?! Is! there!a!range,! either!monetary! or! a! percentage,! that! you!would! be! comfortable! to! share,! that!represents!Gemaco’s!profits?!Market!could!be!bigger!–!more!profit!accepted!by!road!owners!–!no!reason!not!to!accept!–! biggest! hurdle.! Municipalities! and! mix! design.! 1.3S1.5! million! tonnes! of! shingles!produced! per! year! –! 30,000! tonnes! accepted! (3%).! Last! year! 7000! tonnes! went! from!Gemaco!to!Metro!Vancouver.!2S3!years!before!they!take!any!more.!MMCD:!people!that!write!specs!for!roads.!Job!thinking!–!longevity!in!jobs! !engineers!don’t!want!to!go!with!a!new!product.!Lots!of!roads!already!constructed!with!recycled!asphalt.!Lefarge!and!other!construction!companies!are!happy,!City!of!Vancouver! isn’t!happy.!Worker! safety!–! zero!tolerance! to! be! exposed! to! asbestos:! WBC.! Asbestos! issue! becoming! less! important!though!–!problem!for!City!of!Vancouver!–!target!for!being!sued.!Once!its!been!ground!as!a!binder! it! is! fryable.!More! asbestos! on! corner! of! a! road! than! in! product.! Cold! patch! at!Gemaco.!Hot!mix!gets! them!more!money! for!other!companies!–!can’t!be!used! for!spec!roads.!12,000! tonnes! into! to!Gemaco,!2000! tonnes!out.!Market! in!Vancouver! is!around!30,000!tonnes.!!!2. In!your!experience,!how!is!the!issue!of!recycling!viewed!by!the!majority!of!individuals!and!companies!within!the!construction!and!roofing!industry?!Recycling!is!a!popular!idea,!but!people!wouldn’t!be!willing!to!spend!more!money!–!most!important! thing.! Some! companies!want! to,! but! only! if! it! becomes! cheaper.! Few! home!owners!would!drive!further!to!recycle.!Component!of!roofing!removal!so!small!–!not!a!big!deal.! Government! properties! have! to! have! shingles! recycled.! Roofing! side! –! all! about!money.! HMA! companies! –! doesn’t! matter! if! its! recycled! or! not:! savings! for! them! but!challenges!as!well,!comfortable!with!it!but!can’t!get!owners!to!want!to!use!it,!no!issue!for!HMA! companies! using! a! recycled! product.! In! order! to! use! recycled! material! properly,!patch!plants!need!to!be!changed!a!bit.!!!3. How! long!has!Gemaco!operated! as! the! largest! asphalt! shingle! recycler! in! the!Metro!Vancouver!area?!February!2010!–!started!–!quick!start!up!time,!Metro!Vancouver!supportive.!Only!recycler!in!Metro!Vancouver.!!i. How!much!material!does!Gemaco!process?!Takes! grinding! equipment! to! other! locations! (eg.! Alberta)!where! they! collect! but! don’t!process!the!shingles.!RGI,!screener,!loader,!support!unit.!ii. Who!deposits!material!there!–!mostly!roofers!or!demolition!contractors?!! 29!Bin!companiesS!dirtiest!because!of!homeowners!using!bin!for!entire!house!cleaning.!Some!roofers! independent! to!bin!companies.!Few!private!residents.!Gemaco!recycled!97/98%!of!incoming!material.!iii. Does!the!material!come!from!both!commercial!and!residential!jobs?!Commercial!recycling!has!to!be!tested!–!but!not!a!lot!comes!in!by!volume.!!!4. What! are! the! largest! current! ‘downstream’!markets! for! recycled! shingles?!Are! there!any!potential!future!markets!that!are!as!yet!unexplored?!Who!does!Gemaco!sell!to?!HMA/WMA!–!largest.!Some!places!use!it!for!dust!suppression!on!dirt!roads,!but!nowhere!in!Vancouver!does!this.!Companies/producers!–!small!number.!Larger!paving!companies!have!their!own!HMA!plants.!City!of!Vancouver!has!its!own!asphalt!plant!–!problem!selling!to!them!in!the!past.!Gemaco!identified!a!protocol!(King!County,!WA)!to!satisfy!the!city.!!!5. Are!there!any!economic!barriers!to!the!recycling!of!asphalt!shingles?!Acceptance! of! RAS! into! roads! by! owners! (eg.! in!municipalities).! Everything! else!makes!sense.!People!who!lay!the!roads!are!responsible!for!the!quality!more!than!Gemaco.!Roads!exist!that!have!recycled!asphalt!–!around!20!years!old.!Quality!not!an!issue.!Getting!into!business!is!expensive!–!initial!investment.!!!6. Is! the! asphalt! recycling! market! particularly! competitive! within! Metro!Vancouver/BC/Western! Canada?! If! so,! does!Gemaco! have! any! contact!with! other! such!facilities!either!in!Canada!or!the!US?!!Only! recycling! company! in! Metro! Vancouver.! Western! Canada! –! Okanagan,! Alberta! –!people! contact! them! to!go!and!grind! their! recycled!product! (not!a! competitor).!Almost!every! recycler!has!same!problem!as!Gemaco!–!acceptance,!both! in! the!Canada!and!the!US.!11!million!tonnes!in!north!America!is!collected,!but!very!small!amounts!are!recycled.!Some!places!shingles!wear!out!faster!–!have!to!be!replaced!quicker.!!7. Are!there!any!regulatory!barriers!to!the!recycling!of!asphalt!shingles?!!Metro! Vancouver! solid! waste! –! licensing! of! facility,! costs,! increasing! yearly,! report! to!Metro!Vancouver!quarterly.!Road!owners!main!barrier.!Procedures!to!follow!from!Metro!Vancouver.!Cycle!–!busiest!in!summer,!least!busy!in!winter.!!8. What!sort!of!relationship!does!Gemaco!have!with!the!following!groups!of!people:!i. City!of!Vancouver!and!Metro!Vancouver!solid!waste!management!staff?!Metro!Vancouver!–!best.!Supportive,!based!on!recycling!initiative.!4S5%!of!waste!is!from!shingles.! City! of! Vancouver! –! keen! to! recycle,! not! quite! as! cost! conscious.! Issue! of!asbestos,!not!laying!in!January.!!ii. Provincial! regulators! responsible! for! establishing! standards! for! recycled! asphalt! or!those!responsible!for!Worksafe!legislation!and!Hazmat!protocols?!! 30!Wet!method! is! good.! Busy!ministry! of! transportation! doing! other! things.! Local!market!(100km)!can’t!take!it!a!long!ways.!!iii. Asphalt!paving!companies,!and!other!‘downstream’!markets?!Barrier!of!owners!removed!–!wouldn’t!be!an!issue.!Owners!are!the!barrier.!Change!takes!time.!!9. What!are!the!range!of!technical!barriers!that!exist!to!the!recycling!of!asphalt!shingles?!Is!there!a!ranking!within!them!–!which!is!the!most!significant?!Clumping! –! occurs! if! the! shingles! have! been! ground! and! sitting! for! a! long! time.! Take!product! right! after! grinding! sorts! out! this! issue.! Screen! it! 1S2! days! before.! Products!available! to! declump,! but! there! is! added! cost.! PEF! –! calibration! has! to! be! precise.!Inclusion!of!RAS!into!mix!design.!Asbestos!–!concern!but!not!a!major!one.!Look!of!roads!0!visual!concerns!–!colour.!!10. What! are! the! largest! barriers! both! upstream! and! downstream! in! the! recycling!process!that!Gemaco!faces?!Recycled!asphalt!better!for!roads!–!less!cracking!and!rutting! !need!education.!!11. Is!it!easy!to!identify!the!presence!of!asbestos!within!the!shingles?!Homeowners! !! roofers.! Need! to! disclose! date:! early! 1980s! after! 1983.! Recycling!initiative! –! eliminate! problems.! Bin! companies! –! won’t! know! date.! Edmonton! –! more!private!companies,!less!bins.!Have!to!examine!shingles!individually.!!!12. Is!a!chain!of!custody!type!process!a!viable!option!for!keeping!track!of!asbestos!within!shingles!in!Metro!Vancouver?!What!barriers!would!such!a!process!face?!!Long!process!–!can’t!enforce!type!of!information.!Bin!companies!don’t!know!date!of!roof.!Until! there’s!mandatory! recycling!–!not! a!process! able! to!be!enforced.!Have! to!pay! for!inspection! if! before! 1983! –! bin! companies! can! lie! to! get! around! having! to! conform.!Dealing!with!asbestos!has! to!be!done!properly! S!double!bagged.!Honest!answers!would!help!out!–!reduce!tests! !cost.!!

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