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Best practices for Zero Waste at UBC catered events Gallet, Camille 2014-05

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By#Camille#Gallet###################Report#prepared#at#the#request#of#UBC#SEEDS,#in#partial#fulfillment#of#UBC#Geography#419:#Research#in#Environmental#Geography#for#Professor#David#Brownstein#@UBC#Geography,#May#2014##! !Best#Practices#for#Zero#Waste#at#UBC#Catered#Events##2#Executive#Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………...3#Introduction.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4#Learning#from#others………………………………………………………………………………………………………6## Literature#Review………………………………………………………………………………………………...6## # Applicable#Lessons#……………………………………………………………………………………7## Case#Study.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8## # Applicable#Lessons…………………………………………………………………………………….8#Learning#from#UBC’s#current#practices#……………………………………………………………………………9## System#in#place:#Waste#disposal,#infrastructure#availability#and#orders#…………………9## Participant#and#Naturalistic#Observations..………………………………………………………….11## Lessons#Learned………………………………………………………………………………………………...13#Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14## Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14## Infrastructure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….17## Communication………………………………………………………………………………………………….17### Process………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18#Conclusion#and#Future#Research……………………………………………………………………………………19#Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………………………………………………...20##Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21#############################Table&of&Contents&&3##The#main#objective#of#this#report#is#to#assess#the#barriers#and#opportunities#in#UBC#current#catering#practices#directed#towards#recommendations#as#means#of#achieving#Zero#Waste#events.#The#proposed#recommendations#include:### • Products#:“Bring#your#own#Mug”#and#all#compost#event#solutions#should#be#developed#in#order#to#resolve#the#products#misplacement#and#contamination#of#recyclable#waste.#Economic#venue#for#UBC#Food#Services#is#associated#with#selling#proposed#products.##I#have#designed#a#list#of#only#compost#items#as#an#alternative#to#the#current#heterogeneous#ones#as#a#catering#event#solution,#where#homogenous#waste,#as#literature#review#states,#shows#best#results.#### • Infrastructure#:#Harmonization#and#nonapermanent#bins#should#be#introduced#after#assessing#the#current#waste#infrastructure#availability#at#UBC#catering#events.#While#harmonization#is#in#process,#nonapermanent#bins#should#be#an#option#in#every#single#building#to#resolve#the#placement#issue#of#appropriate#bins.#Furthermore#they#should#be#available#for#order#from#the#Wescadia#website,#during#the#order#process#for#the#ease#of#all#stakeholders,#if#not#already#obtainable#from#the#specific#building.## • Communication:2A#recurrent#barrier#to#the#implementation#of#more#sustainable#practices#at#catering#events#was#the#lack#of#education#coming#from#all#stakeholders#and#personnel#involved#in#the#process#(clients,#event#organizers,#direct#and#indirect#staff).#In#this#regard,#a#video#from#the#Sustainability#office#should#be#made#to#engage#all#parties#in#some#interactive#manner#and#rewards,#to#address#disposal#techniques#for#students,#organizers#and#all#parties#at#stakes.#Additionally#a#better#application#of#sustainability#attributes#down#through#the#chain#or#orders#to#assure#the#presence#of#the#“green#sheet,”#breakdown#of#waste#disposal,#as#well#as#its#update.#The#third#solution#to#increase#education,#incentive#and#aggregate#waste#involves#an#“interafaculty#sustainability#competition.”#This#would#generate#excitement#with#Zero#Waste#party,#dinner#reward#for#the#most#garbage#free#faculty,#according#to#building#garbage#weight#per#month.#2# • Process2:2The#process#of#waste#management#of#UBC#showed#deep#complexities,#which#impede#in#the#goal#for#waste#reduction#simplicity.#Here#two#main#solutions#would#come#in#handy:#a#full#website#redesign#including#all#other#related#recommendations#option#availability,#as#well#as#a#green#representative.#The#latter#would#be#a#designated#person#acting#as#a#consultant#helping#to#maintain#best#practices#while#educating#students,#event#organizer#and#staff#through#sessions#and#during#catering#events.#Moreover,#the#green#representative#would#act#as#a#mascot#for#each#faculty#if#linked#to#previous#recommendation.#2#All#recommendations#aim#at#an#easy#application#of#efficient#solutions#which#would#ultimately#raise#the#issue#at#hand’s#importance#and#thus#greater#involvement#and#incentives#from#all#parties.#Executive&summary&4###This#project#was#conducted#over#a#4amonth#course#at#UBC#labeled#Geography#419#Research#in#Environmental#Geography#in#partnership#with#the#UBC#SEEDS#program#(Social,#Ecological,#Economic,#Development#Studies).#The#ultimate#objective#of#this#study,#solicited#by#UBC#SEEDS#was#to#achieve##100%#composting#and#recycling#at#UBC#venues#by#grasping#the#barriers#and#opportunities#of#the#current#catering#practices.#The#results#of#the#research#undertaken,#done#through#participant#and#naturalistic#observation#and#interviews#permitted#constructive#recommendations#for#UBC#Food#Services.###In#this#respect,#a#preliminary#literature#review#was#undertaken#focusing#on#three#branches#of#the#topic#at#hand:#packaging,#behavioral#aspects#and#an#exploration#of#colloquially#“impermanent”#events#at#catering#events.#Following#this#a#more#practical#approach#allowed#for#an#onasite#observation#of#five#different#catering#events,#varying#in#size,#location#and#type#to#understand#the#barriers#that#UBC#faces#for#implementation#of#Zero#Waste.###The#results#of#this#study#demonstrate#areas#poorly#performing#towards#the#common#goal#whilst#underlying#reasons#for#those#persisting#inadequacies.#Recommendations#were#thus#broken#down#into#four#categories#deemed#unsuitable#and#needing#improvement:#Communication,#Products,#Process#and#Infrastructure.#Those#solutions#are#only#suggestions#of#recurring#obstacles#to#Zero#Waste#observed#and#are#not#intended#to#offend#any#stakeholder’s#practices,#but#rather#aiming#at#a#helpful#amelioration#of#current#ones.#Those#would#align#with#UBC’s#Zero#Waste#Action#Plan#and#support#SHHS#(Student#Housing#and#Hospitality#Services)#unitalevel#sustainability#framework,#through#enactments#from#UBC#SEEDS#in#union#with#UBC#Sustainability’s#office.####Background++#As#a#campus#aiming#for#Zero#Waste,#in#a#city#striving#for#“The#Greenest#City”#title#by#2020#furthered#by#a#more#pressing#banishment#of#all#organic#waste#from#its#landfill#by#2015,#UBC#presents#leadership#prospects#of#much#global#perspective.1#According#to#UBC#Waste#Audit#conducted#by#the#campus#sustainability#office,#the#campus#as#of#2010#diverted#44%#of#its#waste#from#the#landfill.2#While#having#been#involved#in#a#broad#range#of#successful#launched#programs#towards#sustainability,#such#as#“My#waste,#my#responsibility”#recycling#program,#the#largeascale#inavessel#composting#facility,#Reuse#it#UBC#pilot#program#and#mandating#all#institutional#buildings#to#divert#75%#of#its#construction#waste.#Those#applications#display#UBC’s#capacity#to#engage#in#more#sustainable#practices,#thus#inferring#the#possibility#of#strategies#towards#Zero#Waste#in#its#catering#department.#However,#the#campus#still#falls#behind#compared#to#neighboring#University#of#Victoria#which,#in#2011,#########################################################1#Metro#Vancouver#2014;#City#of#Vancouver#2013##2#UBC#Sustainability#2011##Introduction&5#diverted#64%#of#its#waste.3#In#fact,#UBC’s#audit#still#exhibits#that#the#predominant#materials#going#into#landfills#are#organics,#paper#and#plastic,#with#only#5%#non#recyclable#as#outlined#in#the#chart#of#the#composition#of#UBC’s#operational#waste#below#in#figure#1.4#The#lack#of#understanding#of#the#protocols#and#procedures#from#both#clients#and#UBC#Food#Services#requires#mitigation#in#catering#instances,#due#to#its#improper#practices#to#achieve#the#goal#at#hand.#Ultimately,#properly#disposing#of#our#waste#reduces#contamination,#which#decreases#garbage#in#landfills,#reducing#toxins#going#into#the#soil,#polluting#our#planet,#with#methane#emissions#and#our#essential#water#resource.5#It#is#for#those#reasons#that#understanding#barriers#to#waste#disposal#in#catered#events#would#ameliorate#the#overall#campus’s#sustainability#whilst#acting#as#a#pioneer#in#this#wished#Zero#Waste#department.####################################################################3#University#of#Victoria#2011#4#UBC#Sustainability#2011#5#UBC#Sustainability#2014##Figure&1:&Source&UBC&Sustainability,&2011&6##In#order#to#achieve#Zero#Waste#catering#event,#I#engaged#in#the#analysis#of#similar#attempts,#successful#or#not#that#if#contextually#applied,#could#bring#us#closer#to#this#goal.#Constant#obstacles#entailed#in#sustainable#behaviors#and#infrastructure#impedes#many,#however,#learning#from#barriers,#help#us#find#solutions.#To#do#so,#a#literature#review,#focusing#on#three#catered#events#related#aspects:#“impermanent#events,”#packaging#and#behaviors,#as#there#is#a#clear#lack#of#available#information#for#such#a#specific#subject.#A#case#study#will#then#be#analyzed.#####Literature&Review&&&“Impermanent”2events2#“Impermanent”#events#are#the#closest#equivalent#to#catering#events#as#it#involves,#in#most#cases,#a#waste#infrastructure#disposal#that#comes#and#goes.#As#such,#TennantaWood#compared#two#zero#waste#events#(The#major#Creek#Music#Festival#and#the#Cobargo#Folk#Festival)#to#a#“control”#event#(the#Braidwood#Agricultural#Show),#in#South#Wales.##In#this#instance,#measures#for#a#minimization#of#waste#management#operations#such#as#pre#communication/education,#infrastructure#design/development#and#transport#services#were#highlighted#for#correct#source#separation.#In#their#article#focusing#on#behavioral#and#attitudinal#required#changes,#rather#than#waste#reduction#at#its#source,#benefits#of#Zero#Waste#were#highlighted#as:#simplicity,#marketing,#immutability,#flexibility#and#synthesis.6#Referring#to#the#idea#that#programs#employed#are#inept#if#an#end#disposal#system#is#not#adequate.#A#second#example#was#analyzed#in#the#context#of#Kovalam,#India,#where#waste#was#becoming#an#important#environmental#hazard,#thus#solutions#had#to#quickly#emerge.#In#this#regard,#figure#2#displays#the#stages#that#Dileep#associated#to#Zero#Waste.7############################################################6#TennantaWood#2013:#46a55##7#Dileep#2007:#377a392##Learning&from&others&&Figure&2:&The&essential&stages&to&be&followed&for&Zero&Waste.&Source:&Dileep&2007&7#Packaging22#Literature#shows#great#concern#with#PET#bottle#containers#recycling#and#labeling#in#a#Brazilian#context#in#Coehlo#at#al.’s#study#as#they#show#to#be#extremely#detrimental#to#the#environment#if#not#disposed#of#properly.8#Their#best#results#for#appropriate#disposal#include#reducing#consumption,#education#and#engaging#industrial#sectors#and#governments.#A#life#cycle#assessment#of#compostable#cutlery#and#“homogenous”#waste#was#done#by#Razzah#et#al.#to#show#its#implementation’s#benefit#as#reducing#energy#resources,#greenhouse#gases,#waste#production,#eutrophication#and#acidification.9#Lastly,#an#article#by#Mojo#recites#the#advantages#and#importance#of#properly#designing#compostable#products.10###Behaviors2#Through#various#environments#of#hospitals#and#universities,#existing#literature#shows#that#bin#placement#and#labeling#differs#in#their#influence#of#behaviors#depending#on#context.#Moreover,#there#was#a#common#appeal#for#incentive#and#awareness#(such#as#information#on#where#the#waste#goes)#that#influences#attitudes,#further#shaped#through#social#norms.11####Applicable#Lessons#for#UBC#Catered#Events#Context#• Preacommunication#and#education##• Infrastructure#design,#labeling,#placement#and#development#• Transport#services:#who#is#responsible#for#disposal#• Product#labeling#(compostable,#bottle#containers#such#as#plastics#(#1a7))#• Biodegradable#and#Compostable#cutlery#benefits#in#terms#of#“homogenous”#waste######################################################################8#Coelho,#Castro,#Gobbo#2011:#291a299#9#Razza,#Fieshi,#Innocenti,#Bastioli#2009:#1424a1433#10#Mojo#2008:#289a294##11#Andrews,#Gregoire,#Rasmussen,#Witowich#2012:#530a535;#Kelly,#Mason,#Leiss,#Ganesh#2006:#42a55;#Ramayah,#Lee,#Lim#2012:#141a147#8#Case&Study&+An#interview#of#Natasha#Dickson#currently#Vice#President#of#Operations#for#Vancouver#Film#studios#was#conducted#in#terms#of#their#Zero#Waste#implementation#in#their#small#scale#office#and#for#tenants#on#bigger#scale#set.#While#the#smallascale#execution#of#100%#recycling#and#composting#in#their#office#was#successful,#the#larger#scale#dealing#with#over#200#people#at#once#was#trickier.#For#both#instances,#their#main#contributor#was#a#hired#consultant#from#the#Keep#It#Green#recycling#Company.#Natasha#further#gave#her#staff#a#surprise#aspect#in#which#she#removed#all#garbage#cans#from#offices#prompting#positive#results#still#to#date.#12#+Barriers2• Resources+• Education,#as#Dickson#mentions#“#ideally#there#should#be#someone#in#charge#of#[helping#proper#waste#disposal]#because#soon#they’re#not#going#to#have#a#choice.”13+• Incentive,#as#Dickson#states#that#there#is#“#a#need#to#understand#the#importance#and#it#needs#to#be#easy#and#efficient.”14+• Location#of#bin#placement#and#small#vs#large#context+2Benefits2• Repercussions#at#home#level#for#all#members#of#the#family,#especially#children,#which#indirectly#educates,#and#can#spur#passion#and#drive#incentive.#+• Saved#money#from#a#considerable#decrease#of#garbage#“tips.”+++Applicable#Lessons#for#UBC#Catered#Events#Context##• “Surprise”#effect#+• Consultant#++######################################################################12#Natasha#Dickson#Personal,#19th#February#2014,#Interview#13#Ibid#14#Ibid#9#&System&in&place:&Waste&disposal&process,&Infrastructure&Availability&and&Orders#&&Waste2Disposal2Process2#The#current#scheme#for#waste#management#at#UBC#involves#several#stakeholders#rendering#a#complex#process.#UBC#Building#Operations#regulates#UBC#Custodial#and#municipal#UBC#Waste#Management.#Depending#on#the#location#of#specific#catered#events#(rooms#versus#atriums)#either#event#organizers#or#UBC#Custodial#will#dispose#of#the#leftover#waste.#Ultimately#UBC#Custodial#brings#outside#the#building#the#waste#accumulated#inside.#UBC#Waste#Management#will#then#drive#compost#to#the#in#vessel#composting#facility#on#South#Campus,#recyclables#are#driven#to#specific#companies#around#the#mainland#and#garbage#and#nonarecyclables#are#sent#to#Vancouver#Transfer#Station.#15####Infrastructure2Availability2#The#waste#disposal#infrastructure#on#campus#highly#varies#across#buildings.#To#fix#the#very#heterogeneous#system#of#labeling/pictures/symbols/colors/shape,#which#is#a#source#of#confusion#for#students#eventually#rising#garbage#output#due#to#contamination,#a#4#bin#system#shown#in#figure#2#is#currently#being#implemented#all#around#campus,#as#stated#by#Bud#Fraser,#Water#and#Zero#Waste#engineer#within#UBC#Campus#Sustainability.16#However,#because#most#4#bin#systems#are#put#in#place#in#big#spaces#such#as#halls,#libraries#and#first#floor#of#most#buildings;#single#rooms,#potential#catering#locations#might#not#be#accommodated#with#proper#waste#disposal.#In#this#instance,#we#observe#two#outcomes:#• The#event#organizer#lacks#incentive/#time#to#find#alternate#options#thus#most#compostable#and#recyclable#waste#ends#in#garbage.##• A#form#can#be#filled#through#UBC#Plant#Operations,#Waste#Management#Division,#which#takes#a#week#to#process,#to#order#additional#bins#for#compost#or#recycling.17#22########################################################15#UBC#Building#Operations#2014;#Liska#Richer.#14th#February#2014.#Personal#Communication#16#Bud#Fraser.#21st#February#2014.#Personal#Communication##17#UBC#Plant#Operations,#Waste#Management#Division#2008#Learning&from&UBC’s&practices&#Figure&3:&UBC&Sort&it&Out&4&bins&system&10#Orders##To#further#comprehend#the#barriers#of#Zero#Waste,#an#assessment#of#catering#orders#through#the#Wescadia#Website#was#done.#Firstly,#the#website#lacks#any#appropriate#information#about#packaging#or#food#containers,#as#to#further#impede#pictures#are#rarely#available,#as#shown#in#figure#3.18#Additionally,#we#observe#a#lack#of#engaging#sustainable#options#for#users,#with#only#a#comment#box#for#special#requests.#Extra#bin#ordering,#as#mentioned#above,#is#done#through#a#different#website,#which#impedes#in#Zero#Waste#ease#as#most#organizers#tend#to#“just#order#online#as#fast#as#possible,”#rather#than#take#time#to#set#properly#in#advance#for#post#consumerism#waste.#19#####################################################################################18#Wescadia#Catering#Website#19#Anonymous#event#organizer#March#10th#2014.#Personal#Communication#Figure&4:&Wescadia&ordering&website&excerpt&(2&images&shown&out&of&7&meals&presented)&Source:&Wescadia&11#Participant&and&Naturalistic&Observation&#As#assigned#by#the#SEEDS’s#expectations#for#this#project#I#attended#4#different#catering#events,#varying#in#type,#size#and#location.#The#events#took#place#in#the#Hong#Kong#Lounge#of#the#Law#Building,#the#Atrium#of#the#Forestry#Building,#the#Group#Study#Room#in#Totem’s#Common#Block,#Totem’s#Common#Block#main#conference#room#and#the#Hugh#Dempster#Pavilion,#as#displayed#in#the#figure#5#below.####Event/&Proprieties& Number&of&people&& Room&vs.&Atrium& Bins&available& Are&the&bins&labeled?&& Recyclable&or&compostable&cups/cutlery/&plates&Green&Sheets&&Law& 250# Atrium# 4G,#2R,#2C# Yes,#but#3#bins#system#is#poor.#(G,#R,#C)#Yes# No#Forestry& 65# Atrium# 2G,#1C,#1R,#1P# Yes,#but#1G#is#not# Yes# Yes,#once#asked#Totem&Study&Room& 27# Room# 1G# No# Yes# No#Totem&Conference&room& 100# Room# 1G# No# Yes# No#Hugh&Dempster& 140# Room# 1G# No# Yes# No#Figure&5:&Events&attended&description&(G=&Garbage,&C=Compost,&R&=&Recycling)&As#mentioned#in#the#above#section#concerning#the#current#system,#the#infrastructure#is#not#always#adapted#to#the#catering#events.#In#fact,#as#seen#in#the#last#three#events#of#the#table,#all#only#had#a#garbage#bin#available,#those#happened#to#be#located#in#rooms.#In#all#three#cases,#none#of#the#clients#stepped#outside#of#the#room#to#dispose#of#their#recyclable/#compostable#cutlery,#plates#or#cups,#and#where#most#times#only#a#handful#of#items#were#nonarecyclable.#As#can#be#seen#from#the#figures#6,#7#and#8#of#all#three#events#below,#there#is#an#undeniable#inadequacy#from#both#sides#of#the#balance,#patrons#and#organizers.#Lacking#infrastructure#and#behaviors#influence#each#other#negatively#leading#to#a#garbage#output#that#could#be#avoided#were#these#variables#ameliorated.###On#the#other#hand,#the#two#top#rows#of#Figure#5#were#much#more#open#events,#in#which#a#vast#variety#of#bins#were#available.#The#presence#of#so#many#options#left,#in#the#case#of#the#Forestry#event,#people#to#automatically#dispose#of#their#waste#at#the#nearest#garbage#bin,#regardless#of#the#4#bins#system#a#few#meters#away.#However,#even#if#clients#would#direct#themselves#to#the#correct#bin,#heterogeneous#items:#plastic#cutlery,#paper#and#plastic#cups#and#paper#plates,#confused#their#understanding#of#where#goes#what.#In#the#case#of#the#Law#12#event,#not#only#was#the#bin#system#poorly#labeled#due#to#the#absence#of#example,#but#the#involvement#of#indirect#staff#during#the#event#led#to#improper#practices#towards#Zero#Waste.#In#fact,#the#Hong#Kong#Lounge#neighbors#a#small#café#inside#the#Law#Building,#which#during#the#event#shared#the#same#3abin#system.#I#myself#approached#the#bins#to#dispose#of#a#recyclable#cup#to#which#a#staff#member#employed#at#the#café#indicated#me#to#throw#in#compost#due#to#recycling#being#full.###Moreover,#as#can#be#seen#in#the#last#column#of#Figure#5,#there#is#a#clear#lack#of#implementation#of#the#Green#Sheet,#which#is#supposed#to#be#placed#at#each#event#in#hope#of#helping#consumers#to#properly#dispose#of#their#waste.#In#fact#this#sheet#provides#a#breakdown#of#the#elements#to#throw#in#recycling,#compost,#garbage#or#paper.#This#sheet#was#only#provided#to#me#once,#only#after#asking#for#it.##############Figure&7:&Totem&Park&Study&Room&Event&Figure&8:&Hugh&Dempster&Event&Figure&6:&Totem&Park&Conference&Room&13#At#this#point#of#the#study,#several#recurring#misplaced#and#poorly#used#products#were#identifiable.#Alternatives#to#those#items#will#be#listed#under#the#“Products”#recommendation:## • Milk#cartons:#According#to#Bud#Fraser,#milk#cartons#will#soon#be#recyclable,#however#as#of#now#UBC#Waste#Management#considers#it#garbage,#while#it#is#not#completely#banned#from#Vancouver,#making#its#disposal#complex#and#often#misplaced.#20## • Sandwich#toothpicks:#Due#to#health#hazards,#sandwich#toothpicks#are#required#to#have#a#visible#colored#tape#on#top;#this#addition#makes#the#product#garbage.#However,#interactions#with#patrons#led#me#to#believe#that#very#few#are#aware#of#this,#thus#often#misplacing#it#into#compost.21### • Chopsticks#and#stir#sticks:#If#left#treated,#they#are#compostable,#however,#few#can#make#the#difference,#due#to#lack#of#labeling,#resulting#in#wrongly#spread#assumption#that#these#items#are#compostable.#22## • Plastic#Tongs:#Being#found#in#all#attended#events,#and#mentioned#by#Hugh#Dempster#event#organizer,#plastic#tongs#are#not#often#reused#due#to#their#cleaning#time#constraints,#thus#creating#more#avoidable#garbage.#23## • Cardboard#Food#Tray:#Hugh#Dempster#event#organizer#also#mentioned#carboard#as#problematic,#due,#again#to#time#constraints#for#proper#disposal#if#cardboard#bin#is#located#to#far#from#the#event,#especially#in#room#events.####Lessons2learned2from2UBC2catered2events2waste2management2practices22• Lack#of#knowledge#from#clients/staff#(directly#or#not#involved)/organizers#• Lack#of#application#of#“Green#Sheet”##• Complexity#of#sustainability#practices#• Lack#of#incentive##• Lack#of#time#from#organizers#• Lack#of#adaptable#infrastructure##############################################################20#Bud#Fraser#March#14th#2014.#Personal#Communication;#MetroVancouver#2013#21#Liska#Richer#14th#February#2014.#Personal#Communication#22#MetroVancouver#closing#the#loop#23#Anonymous#March#13th#2014.#Personal#Communication#14##According#to#a#vast#range#of#literature#background#review,#the#Vancouver#film#studio#case#study,#the#evaluation#of#5#catering#events#by#means#of#participant#and#naturalistic#observations,#conversations#with#clients#and#interviews#with#organizers#led#to#the#following#recommendations#for#achieving#a#successful#Zero#Waste#implementation#for#all#UBC#catered#events:#Products,&Infrastructure,&Process,&Communication.####Products&&##BYOM:2“Bring#your#own#mug”#is#nothing#new,#however#this#is#often#not#an#offered#option#for#catered#events#at#UBC,#as#it#is#not#included#on#the#Wescadia#website#as#a#“reminder”#of#sustainable#availability#practices.#Moreover,#if#an#event#organizer#wishes,#this#could#be#a#marketing#venue#for#Wescadia#to#sell#their#own#cups/mugs,#in#cases#where#the#event#is#formal#and#all#patrons#wish#to#have#the#same#looking#products.#The#labeling#of#such#cups#could#provide#advertising#for#Wescadia’s#sustainable#events.#Inevitably,#through#marketing#or#deposits,#economic#profits#will#benefit#UBC#Food#Services.#2#Homogeneity2(Compost>Recycling):2According#to#all#the#lessons#observed#throughout#this#study,#as#stated#by#Razza#et#al.,#homogeneity#of#waste#renders#a#Zero#Waste#goal#more#accessible.24#For#patrons,#event#organizers#and#custodial#staff,#homogeneity#equals#simplicity#in#terms#of#efforts#for#bin#installation,#number#of#post#event#bins,#and#complexity#of#what#goes#where.#Homogeneity#would#furthermore#lead#to#an#absence#of#contamination,#which#is#most#commonly#found#in#recycling#bins,#due#to#liquids#and#food#waste.25#Alternative#suggestions#for#commonly#misplaced#and#all#nonacompostables#were#thus#inferred,#as#explained#below#and#pictured#in#figure#9.### • PET#Bottles#+#Juice/#pop#cans#+#Milk#cartons/#Milk#condiment#portion#cups:#Replaceable#with#bulk#of#juice/water/milk#would#decrease#the#avoidable#garbage#and#recyclable#waste.#BYOM#or#compostable#cups#would#suffice#for#combination#use##• Plastic#cutlery/plates/cups:#Compostable#material,#such#as#polylactic#acid#(plastic##7)#made#from#cornstarch#easily#available,#such#as#Spudware#items:#reusable,#washable#and#just#as#sturdy#as#plastic#utensils.26#Cheaper#option#is#untreated#wood,#which#is#compostable.#Appropriate#labeling#would#educate#patrons#about#compostable#“plastic#looking”#options,##7,#which#is#often#unknown.27##• Cardboard#Food#Trays/#Saran#wraps/#Tray#Wraps:#Replaceable#by#reausable#food#trays,#such#as#that#depicted#in#figure#9,#closing#with#magnets.#The#material#would#adhere#food#safety#criteria,#sustain#high#temperature#dishwater,#such#as#stainless#steel,#and#would#come#for#deposit#from#Wescadia.##########################################################24#Razza#et#al.#2009:#1424a1433#25#Clean#Water#Action#2011#26#Song,#Murphy,#Narayan,#Davies#2009;#Spudware#2011#27#Patrons#13th#March#2014#Personal#Communications#Recommendations&&#15#• Chopsticks:#Chopsticks#are#quite#a#complex#product#to#dispose#of#if#there#is#a#lack#of#knowledge/#labeling.#The#same#compostable#material#suggested#for#cutlery,#PLA,#as#well#as#bamboo#chopsticks,#although#more#costly,#would#in#the#long#run#benefit#UBC#Food#Services,#as#Zero#Waste#events#would#attract#much#publicity#and#thus#clients.##• Plastic#tongs:#Reasons#mentioned#earlier,#leaves#tongs#to#be#too#often#thrown#away.#I#therefore#recommend#the#use#of#reusable#ones,#which#Wescadia#would#gather#back,#with#deposit,#or#compostable#which#could#be#discarded#with#food#waste##• Cup#Lids:#Recyclable#lids#could#be#replaced#with#compostable#lids,#with#PLA#properties.#A#more#radical#idea#would#eradicate#this#item’s#availability,#which#would#make#sense,#in#catering#context,#as#no#transportation#is#required.##• Sandwich#toothpicks:#Although#a#complete#eradication,#as#lids,#would#solve#issues#mentioned#earlier,#this#is#not#a#feasible#option.#Therefore,#a#proposed#“cocktail”#toothpick#with#twisted#end#was#proposed#as#shown#in#figure#9,#additionally#the#end#could#be#dyed#as#to#perpetuate#the#presence#of#a#colorful#end#for#health#hazard#reasons.###!!!!!Current!Items!PET$Bottles/$juice&pop$cans/$Milk$Cartons$and$milk$condiments$$!!!!! !Plastic$cutlery/cups/plates$$ Cardboard$Boxes/$Saran$Wrap/Tray$Wraps$Chopsticks$$ Plastic$tongs$$ Cup$Lids$Sandwich$Toothpicks$Alternative!Item! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! ! !Figure'9:'Alternative'Items'for'Homogeneity'''Source:'Author! Source:'Author!Source:'Author!Source:'Author!Source:'Author! Source:'Author! Source:'Author!Source:'Author!Source:'Author!Source:'Author! Source:'Author!Source:'Author! Source:'Spudware,'2011!Source:'Starpakas,'2013!Source:'Karen'Shimizu,'2011!Source:'BioMass'Packaging,'2014!Source:'Greengate,'2010! Source:'Amazon!Source:'OfficeProducts!Source:'Thisnext,'2014!Source:'Mytelegraph,'2008!Infrastructure+!!Harmonization:!Although(previously(mentioned(that(all(bins(are(currently(in(the(process(of(harmonization(to(resemble(the(4(bins(system(of(figure(3,(this(does(not(solve(their(non;availability(in(small(spaces(and(rooms.(Furthermore,(as(we(have(seen(distance(plays(an(important(role(in(shaping(individual’s(behaviors(of(waste(disposal.(Thus(although(this(harmonization(of(bins(is(necessary(it(needs(to(be(followed(by,(as(mentioned(in(Natasha(Dickson’s(interview,(a(surprise(element,(as(such(all(other(garbage(bins(would(be(removed,(leaving(no(choice(for(consumers(but(to(properly(dispose,(leading(to(overall(garbage(reduction.(28((Non-Permanent!Bins:!Such(opportunities(would(be(created(in(instances(in(which(the(room(hosting(an(event(does(not(have(proper(infrastructure(available.(Non(permanent(bins(such(as(foldable(boxes(or(paper(bag(would(be(available(for(order,(through(the(catering(website(rather(than(current(practices,(which(showed(to(be(detrimental(to(achievement(of(Zero(Waste,(due(to(its(complexity(and(waiting(time.(Non;Permanent(bins(could(benefit(Food(Services(through(a(deposit(fee,(or(as(mentioned(in(“Products”(recommendation(in(BYOM,(could(be(sold(for(reuse.(Another(alternatives(would(be(to(equip(each(building(with(a(set(of(movable(bins,(as(currently(in(trial(at(the(Geography(building.(((Communication++!Video:(In(order(to(promote(knowledge(for(all(parties(involved(in(catering(events,(we(need(to(broaden(the(aspect(of(communication(through(a(viral(video(with(participating(students(and(a(catchy(element.(As(a(suggestion,(different(videos(could(be(made(in(which(a(hidden(letter(would(be(displayed,(the(collection(of(all(letters,(would(form(a(word(corresponding(to(a(code(for(obtaining(a(free(water(bottle.(Moreover,(on(the(Wescadia(order(website,(the(video(would(be(displayed(to(inform(event(organizers(of(their(responsibilities(and(conduct(for(Zero(Waste(achievement.(Ultimately(reminding(or(informing(everyone(of(Vancouver’s(forthcoming(banning(of(all(compost(from(landfill(by(2015,(would(raise(pressure,(and(thus(action.(29((“Green!Sheet”:(There(is(a(strong(lack(of(implementation(of(this(breakdown(sheet(of(waste(items,(although(associate(director(of(catering(and(restaurant(services(in(UBC(Food(Services(Kevin(Dueck(states(its(presence(as(required.30(Therefore(a(stronger(enactment,(through(the(cooperation(of(a(green(representative(recommended(in(“Process,”(together(with(an(update(of(the(sheet(is(recommended.(In(fact,(chopsticks(should(have(better(specifications,(sandwich(toothpicks(should(be(included,(and(plastic(1;7(labeling(should(be(described,(especially(#6(which(is(Styrofoam(and(thus(garbage(and(#7(which(is(compostable(plastic(PLA.(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((28(Natasha(Dickson(2014(29(Metro(Vancouver(2014(30(Kevin(Dueck.(March(14th(2014.(Personal(Communication((18(Inter-Faculty!Sustainability!Competition!App!#IFSC:(This(recommendation(aims(at(a(campus(wide(involvement,(where(repercussions(would(greatly(increase(Zero(Waste(knowledge(and(most(importantly(trigger(incentive.(UBC(Building(Operations(currently(manages(all(waste(on(campus;(however,(I(am(looking(at(a(proposition(for(each(faculty’s(involvement(in(their(respective(assigned(buildings.(The(application(would(involve(UBC(Custodial(to(record(daily(garbage(output,(for(everyone(to(keep(track(of(their(faculty(waste.(Each(month,(the(faculty(with(lowest(amount(of(garbage(would(get(entitled(“(Most(clean((bin)(faculty(of(the(month”(and(rewarded(with(a(zero(waste(party(or(dinner,(pleasing(all(faculty(staff.(Creating(excitement(for(waste(reduction(amongst(campus(would(align(us(closer(to(UBC’s(Zero(Waste(Action(Plan(and(SHHS(unit;level(sustainability,(while(ultimately,(profiting(UBC(Building(Operations(through(less(garbage(tips(and(more(compost(for(Plant(Operations.(((!Process++(Website!Redesign:(While(having(analyzed(the(weaknesses(of(Wescadia(ordering(and(having(been(informed(by(Kevin(Dueck(of(forthcoming(redesigning,(I(extracted(recommendations(for(best(practices(to(act(towards(sustainability(at(the(ordering(level(rather(than(post;consumerism(level.31(This(would(infer(updating(all(food(pictures(together(with(information(on(more(precise(information(about(containers(accompanying(meals(and(as(suggested(by(one(of(the(five(organizers(of(the(5(attended(catered(events,(a(logo,(such(as(gluten(free,(locally(grown,(vegetarian(for(faster(assessment.32(Moreover,(several(options(mentioned(in(other(recommendations(sections(would(be(included(in(the(redesigned(website(such(as(BYOM,(the(video(and(non;permanent(bin(ordering(which(would(be(offered(as(organizers(receive(their(invoice(of(confirmation(of(the(event.((((Green!Representative:(As(seen(through(the(Vancouver(Film(Studio(case(study,(a(consultant(helps(to(properly(educate,(inspire(and(regulate(operations.(To(help(in(catered(events(context,(a(consultant(would(educate(UBC(staff(through(hiring(mandatory(session,(especially(in(terms(of(differentiating(contaminated(bins(for(a(better(initial(disposal.(A(Green(Rep(would(educate(students(through(a(Zero(Waste(“Free(Food”(session(for(first(years.(Organizers(would(work(in(conjunction(with(the(consultant,(learning(best(practices,(as(some(still(lack(knowledge,(as(one(of(the(organizer(for(Totem(Study(Room(event(stated(that(they(were(in(a(“room(where(recycling(and(garbage(bins(were(available,”(however(figure(7(taken(from(that(same(event(display(a(single(garbage(can.33(In(all,(the(Green(Representative(could(act(as(a(simple(consultant(in(all(areas(mentioned,(but(if(linked(to(the(competition(idea(in(the(“Communication”(recommendation,(each(faculty(would(have(a(green(representative,(acting(as(a(Mascot,(rooting(for(them(through(communication(and(process(guidance(for(all(faculty(members((staff/event(organizers/students/UBC(Custodial).(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((31(Kevin(Dueck(2014(32(Anonymous(March(10th(2014(33(Ibid(19(((((This(project(was(inevitably(limited(by(the(significant(time(constraint(of(4(months,(encompassing(involvement(in(other(classes(and(activities.(Therefore(there(are(repercussions(seen(in(the(depth(of(the(research.(As(event(organizers(were(often(busy(and(lacking(time(for(a(thorough(interpretation(of(their(practices(and(lacking(resources(created(barriers(to(much(qualitative(analysis.(More(allocated(time(and(resources(could(have(bettered(numerous(areas(of(the(study.((((Another(noticeable(limitation(was(the(amount(of(bias(that(was(present(in(the(study.(Through(participant(observation,(event(organizers(and(sometimes(patrons(were(aware(of(the(ongoing(research,(thus(watching(their(behaviors(accordingly(influenced(by(social(norms.(Nonetheless,(the(data(analyzed(still(resulted(in(high(lack(of(knowledge(present.(((Through(the(analysis(of(literature(review,(case(study(and(current(barriers(of(UBC(practices(for(achieving(Zero(Waste,(recommendations(were(accordingly(shaped,(however(future(research(would(deem(beneficial.(As(such(and(out(of(scope(relative(manners(for(decreasing(consumptions(should(be(envisioned,(from(both(the(consumer(and(the(producer(side.(Moreover,(as(there(is(a(disconnect(between(senior(management(policies(directed(by(Food(Services(and(front(house(operations,(an(incline(towards(better(regulations(along(the(chain(of(command(is(required(from(within.((((((((((((((((((((((Conclusions+and+Future+Research++(20(((((I(would(like(to(thank(my(professor,(David(Brownstein(for(providing(great(insights(and(guidance(throughout(the(term.(Additionally(recognizing(my(community(partner’s(constant(involvement(and(eager(to(render(the(project(to(life.(And(finally(I(would(like(to(acknowledge(all(interviewees(and(participants(approached(during(this(research.((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((Acknowledgments+(21(((((Anonymous(event(organizer(March(10th(2014.(Personal(Communication(((Amazon.(Bamboo(Knot(Cocktail(&(Hors(D’oeuvre(picks.(Retrieved(from(http://www.((((((((((((((((((((amazon.com/Bamboo;Knot;Cocktail;Doeuvre;Picks/dp/B001G0HW4K((((Andrews,(A.,(Gregoire,(M.,(Rasmussen,(H.,(Witowich,(G.((2012).(Comparison(of(recycling((((outcomes(in(three(types(of(recycling(collection(units.(Waste!Managment!33,(530;((((535.(Doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2012.08.018((BioMass(Packaging.((2014).(8oz.(Ingeo(compostable(Hot(cup(Lid.(Retrieved(from(((((((((((((((((((http://biomasspackagingstore.com/8;oz;pla;hot;cup;dome;lid.aspx((Bud(Fraser.(21st(February(2014.(Personal(Communication(((Clean(water(Action.((2011).(Concerns(with(Single(Stream(Recycling(Collection.(Retrieved(((((((((((((((((((from(http://www.container;recycling.org/assets/pdfs/Concerns_with_single_(((((((((((((((((((stream_recycling_collection_Final.pdf(((City(of(Vancouver.((2013).(Greenest!City!2020!Action!Plan.(Retrieved(from(https://(((((((((((((((((((vancouver.ca/green;vancouver/greenest;city;2020;action;plan.aspx((Coelho,(T.(M.,(Castro,(R.,(Gobbo(Jr.(J.A.((2011).(PET(containers(in(Brazil:(Opportunities(and(((((((((((((((((((challenges(of(a(logistics(model(for(post;consumer(waste(recycling.(Resources,!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Conservation!and!Recycling!55,(291;299.(Doi:(10.106/j.resconrec.2010.10.010((DEL.((2014).(Milk(and(Milk(Portions.(Retrieved(from(http://www.deltrade.co.za/product;(((((((((((((((((((range/milk/((Dileep,(M.R.((2007).(Tourism(and(Waste(Management:(A(review(of(implementation(of(“Zero(((((((((((((((((((Waste”(at(Kovalam.(Asia!Pacific!Journal!of!Tourism!Research!12:4,(377;392.(Doi:((((((((((((((((((10.1080/10941660701823314((GreenGate.((2010)(Wooden(Cutlery(retrieved(from(http://www.biogreengate.com/cutlery;(((((((((((((((((((((accessories/wooden;cutlery/wooden;chopsticks/((Karen(Shimizu.((2011).(The(sandwich(Issue(#137.(Saveur.(Retrieved(from(http://www.((Bibliography+(22(((((((((((((((((((saveur.com/article/Kitchen/Sandwich;Toothpick;History((Kelly,(T.C.,(Mason,(I.G.,(Leiss,(M.W.,(Ganesh,S.((2006).(University(community(responses(to((((((((((((((((((((on;campus(resource(recycling.(Resource,(Conservation!and!Recycling!47,(42;55.(((((((((((((((((((Doi:(10.1016/j.resconrec.2005.10.002((Kevin(Dueck.(14th(March(2014.(Personal(Communication((Liska(Richer.(14th(February(2014.(Personal(Communication((Metro(Vancouver(closing(the(Loop(Organic(Recycling.(Retrieved(from(http://www.metro((((((((((((((((((((vancouver.org/services/solidwaste/businesses/OrganicsBan/Documents/(((((((((((((((((((((((ClosingtheLoop.pdf(((MetroVancouver(2013.(Banned(from(landfills(retrieved(from(http://www.metro((((((((((((((((((((vancouver.org/services/solidwaste/disposal/Pages/bannedmaterials.aspx((Metro(Vancouver.((2014).(“Ban(on(disposing(food(and(compostable(organics.”(Retrieved(((((((((((((((((((from(http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/solidwaste/businesses/(((((((((((((((((((organicsban/Pages/default.aspx(((Mojo,(S.((2008).(Compostable(products:(Designing(for(disposal.(Journal!of!Polymers!and!the!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Environment!15,(289;294.(Doi:(10.1007/s10924;007;0073;4((Natasha(Dickson.((19th(February.(Interview.(((OfficeProducts.(Mall(Dart(lift(n;Lock(Coffee(Cuo(Lid(Round;Plastic(.(Retrieved(from((((((((((((((((((http://www.officeproductsmall.com/Products/Dart;Lift;n;Lock;Coffee;Cup;(((((((((((((((((((((Lid__DRC12FTL.aspx((Ramayah,(T.,(Lee,(J.Y.C.,(Lim,(S.((2012).(Sustaining(the(Environment(through(Recycling:(An((((((((((((((((((empirical(study.(Journal!of!Environmental!Management!102,(141;147.(Doi:((((((((((((((((((10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.02.025(((Razza,(F.,(Fieshi,(M.,(Innocenti,(F.D.,(Bastioli,(C.((2009).(Compostable(cutlery(and(Waste((Management.(Waste!Management!29:4,(1424;1433.(Doi:(10.1016/j.was(man.2008.08.021((Song(J.H.,(Murphy(R.J.,(Narayan(R.,(Davies(G.B.H.((2009).(Biodegradable(and(compostable((alternatives(to(conventional(plastics.(Philosophical!transactions!of!the!Royal!Society!!Biological!Science!364(1526):((2127;2139.((Doi:(10.1098/rstb.2008.0289((Spudware.((2011).(Retrieved(from(http://www.biomasspackaging.com/brands/255570;((((((((((((((((((spudware(23((Starpakas.((2013).(Disposable(tableware.(Retrieved(from(http://www.starpakas.com/((((((((((((((((((Disposable;tableware.html(((Tennant;Wood,(R.((2013).(Going(for(Zero:(A(Comparative(Critical(Analysis(of(Zero(Waste((( Events(in(Southern(New(South(Wales.(Australasian!Journal!of!Environmental!!! Management!10:1,!46-55.(Doi:(10.1080/14486563.2003.10648572(((((Thisnext.((2014).(Biodegradable(Plates(and(Cutlery.(Retrieved(from(http://www.((((((((((((((((((thisnext.com/item/99D692BA/Biodegradable;Plates;Cutlery((UBC(Building(Operations((2014).(Waste(Pick(Up((http://www.buildingoperations.(((((((((((((((((((((ubc.ca/municipal/waste;management/waste;pick;up/(((UBC(Plant(Operations,(Waste(Management(Division((2008).(Request(for(Event((((((((((((((((Composting/Recycing(Service(Form.(http://www.buildingoperations.ubc.ca/wp;(((((((((((((((content/uploads/2010/09/EventWMRequestForm.pdf((UBC(Sustainability.((2011).(Waste(Action(Plan(Discussion(Paper.(Retrieved(from(((((((((((((((http://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/uploads/CampusSustainability/(((((((((((((((CS_PDFs/RecyclingWaste/WasteActionPlan_DiscussionPaper.pdf((UBC(Sustainability.((2014).(“Sort(it(Out.”(Retrieved(from(http://sustain.ubc.ca/campus;((((((((((((((((((((initiatives/recycling;waste/sort;it;out(((University(of(Victoria.((2011).(“Progress(Report(on(the(Sustainability(Action(Plan:(Campus(((((((((((((((Operations,(2009;2014.”(Retrieved(from(http://www.uvic.ca/sustainability/assets/(((((((((((((((((((docs/BUDG_02652_SustainabilityHighlightsBooklet_OUT_web.pdf((((((((Wescadia(catering(website.(Retrieved(from(https://www.wescadiacatering.ca/(((((((((

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