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Diverting landfill waste : understanding the barriers to using recycled concrete aggregate in Metro Vancouver Ammerlaan, Jason Apr 27, 2013

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    Diverting	
  Landfill	
  Waste:	
   Understanding	
  the	
  Barriers	
  to	
  using	
   Recycled	
  Concrete	
  Aggregate	
  in	
  Metro	
   Vancouver	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    Report	
  prepared	
  at	
  the	
  request	
  of	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  in	
  partial	
   fulfillment	
  of	
  UBC	
  Geog	
  419:	
  Research	
  in	
  Environmental	
   Geography,	
  for	
  Dr.	
  David	
  Brownstien	
   	
    By	
  Jason	
  Ammerlaan	
   April	
  27,	
  2013	
    Table	
  of	
  Contents	
   	
   Diverting	
  Landfill	
  Waste: ..........................................................................................................................1	
   Understanding	
  the	
  Barriers	
  to	
  using	
  Recycled	
  Concrete	
  Aggregate	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver .......................1	
   Report	
  prepared	
  at	
  the	
  request	
  of	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  in	
  partial	
  fulfillment	
  of	
  UBC	
  Geog	
  419:	
  Research	
   in	
  Environmental	
  Geography,	
  for	
  Dr.	
  David	
  Brownstien ..........................................................................1	
   Executive	
  Summary ..............................................................................................................................3	
   1.	
  Background	
  and	
  Benefits	
  to	
  using	
  RCA.............................................................................................4	
   2.	
  Methods ...........................................................................................................................................5	
   3.	
  Barriers	
  for	
  increasing	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  RCA ..............................................................................................5	
   3.1.	
  Regulatory .................................................................................................................................5	
   3.2.	
  Perception .................................................................................................................................6	
   3.3.	
  Market .......................................................................................................................................7	
   3.4.	
  Technical....................................................................................................................................7	
   4.	
  Recommendations	
  ...........................................................................................................................9	
   4.1.	
  Recommendations	
  for	
  Immediate	
  Action	
  .................................................................................9	
   4.2.	
  Recommendations	
  for	
  Medium-­‐Term	
  Action	
  .........................................................................10	
   4.3.	
  Final	
  Recommendations ..........................................................................................................11	
   5.	
  References ......................................................................................................................................12	
   6.	
  Appendix.........................................................................................................................................14	
   Interview	
  questions ........................................................................................................................14 	
   	
   	
   	
    	
    	
    Executive	
  Summary	
   Due	
  to	
  the	
  slowing	
  end-­‐use	
  market	
  for	
  recycled	
  concrete	
  aggregate	
  (RCA)	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
   concrete	
  recycling	
  facilities	
  are	
  at	
  limited	
  capacity	
  to	
  accept	
  concrete	
  waste.	
  As	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  this,	
   concrete	
  waste	
  is	
  not	
  being	
  recycled	
  and	
  re-­‐uesd.	
  Instead,	
  it	
  is	
  being	
  stockpiled	
  at	
  recycling	
  facilities,	
   and	
  may	
  be	
  ending	
  up	
  in	
  landfills	
  outside	
  the	
  region.	
  With	
  concrete	
  waste	
  making	
  up	
  about	
  one-­‐third	
   of	
  Vancouver's	
  total	
  waste,	
  this	
  is	
  an	
  issue	
  that	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  addressed.	
   	
   This	
  report	
  first	
  identifies	
  what	
  the	
  main	
  barriers	
  are	
  to	
  increasing	
  the	
  market	
  demand	
  of	
  RCA	
  in	
   Metro	
  Vancouver,	
  and	
  second	
  recommends	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  actions	
  that	
  will	
  help	
  alleviate	
  the	
  identified	
   barriers.	
  This	
  information	
  is	
  intended	
  to	
  help	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  develop	
  policy	
  which	
  will	
  increase	
  the	
   use	
  of	
  RCA,	
  and	
  ultimately	
  eliminate	
  any	
  concrete	
  from	
  entering	
  landfills.	
   	
   Barrier	
   Description	
   Recommendation	
   Regulations	
   The	
  regulatory	
  climate	
  in	
  BC	
  restricts	
  the	
  use	
  of	
   Change	
  provincial	
  construction	
   RCA	
  within	
  many	
  aggregate	
  applications.	
  In	
   specifications	
  to	
  reflect	
  the	
  end	
   particular,	
  the	
  provincial	
  and	
  municipal	
   product	
  strengths,	
  rather	
  than	
   specifications	
  for	
  concrete	
  construction	
  exclude	
   specifying	
  what	
  material	
  and	
   the	
  use	
  of	
  RCA	
  for	
  any	
  high-­‐level	
  applications.	
   techniques	
  are	
  appropriate	
  for	
   use.	
   Perception	
   The	
  perception	
  of	
  RCA's	
  fitness	
  in	
  construction	
   A	
  government-­‐led	
  pilot	
  project	
   applications	
  varies	
  greatly	
  from	
  group	
  to	
  group.	
   that	
  showcases	
  the	
  fitness	
  of	
   Some,	
  see	
  it	
  as	
  a	
  great	
  product,	
  while	
  others	
  do	
   RCA	
  as	
  a	
  suitable	
  construction	
   not	
  feel	
  that	
  it	
  meets	
  the	
  requirements	
  for	
   material.	
  An	
  excellent	
  example	
   construction.	
   would	
  be	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  RCA	
  in	
  the	
   new	
  proposed	
  Evergreen	
   transit	
  line.	
   Market	
   The	
  vast	
  abundance	
  of	
  virgin	
  aggregates	
  in	
  BC	
   Increase	
  the	
  tipping	
  fees	
  for	
   keeps	
  the	
  cost	
  of	
  aggregates	
  in	
  the	
  Province	
  low,	
   C&D	
  waste.	
  	
   thus	
  making	
  the	
  difference	
  in	
  price	
  between	
  RCA	
   and	
  virgin	
  aggregates	
  small.	
  	
   Technical	
   There	
  are	
  limitations	
  to	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  RCA	
  that	
   Introduce	
  industry	
  standards	
   can	
  be	
  used.	
  This	
  is	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  mortar	
  content	
  of	
   for	
  crushing,	
  sorting,	
  and	
   the	
  RCA.	
  	
  	
   cleaning	
  recycled	
  concrete.	
  	
   The	
  extent	
  of	
  this	
  study	
  has	
  been	
  limited	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  fact	
  that	
  there	
  were	
  no	
  interviews	
  conducted	
   with	
  municipal	
  or	
  provincial	
  government	
  representatives.	
  However,	
  this	
  further	
  highlights	
  a	
  common	
   complaint	
  from	
  industry	
  representatives:	
  that	
  communication	
  with	
  these	
  levels	
  of	
  government,	
  on	
   this	
  issue,	
  is	
  difficult	
  to	
  establish.	
  Future	
  research	
  into	
  how	
  these	
  communication	
  networks	
  can	
  be	
   strengthened	
  would	
  serve	
  both	
  the	
  industry	
  and	
  different	
  levels	
  of	
  government	
  well.	
   	
   	
   	
    1.	
    Background	
  and	
  Benefits	
  to	
  using	
  RCA	
    In	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  it	
  is	
  estimated	
  that	
  1.3	
  million	
  tonnes	
  of	
  construction	
  and	
  demolition	
  (C&D)	
   waste	
  is	
  generated	
  annually	
  (Kane	
  Consulting	
  et.	
  al.	
  2012).	
  Mineral	
  aggregates	
  constitute	
  34%	
  of	
  that	
   total	
  waste,	
  with	
  concrete	
  making	
  up	
  the	
  bulk	
  of	
  this	
  material	
  (Ibid.).	
  A	
  large	
  part	
  of	
  this	
  concrete	
   waste	
  is	
  diverted	
  away	
  from	
  the	
  landfill	
  for	
  recycled	
  use.	
  RCA	
  has	
  many	
  different	
  end-­‐use	
   applications,	
  and	
  can	
  be	
  a	
  lower	
  cost	
  alternative	
  to	
  using	
  virgin	
  aggregates	
  (VA)	
  in	
  concrete	
   construction	
  (US	
  DOT	
  2004).	
  	
   	
   Overall	
  project	
  costs	
  can	
  be	
  reduced	
  as	
  less	
  landfill	
  fees	
  are	
  paid	
  on	
  C&D	
  waste	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  recovered	
   material.	
  Project	
  costs	
  can	
  also	
  be	
  reduced	
  through	
  less	
  transportation	
  of	
  virgin	
  materials.	
  Since	
  C&D	
   waste	
  is	
  usually	
  found	
  near	
  urban	
  areas,	
  and	
  also	
  in	
  close	
  proximity	
  to	
  new	
  development	
  projects,	
  the	
   distance	
  that	
  the	
  aggregates	
  need	
  to	
  travel	
  is	
  reduced.	
  As	
  well,	
  once	
  infrastructure	
  is	
  established,	
   then	
  mobile	
  sorting	
  units	
  and	
  dedicated	
  recycling	
  facilities	
  can	
  provide	
  good	
  returns	
  (WBCSD	
  2012).	
   Figure	
  1	
  below	
  illustrates	
  the	
  decreased	
  bottom-­‐line	
  price	
  of	
  RCA	
  in	
  four	
  European	
  markets.	
   	
    FIGURE	
  1:	
  Each	
  case	
  above	
  has	
  a	
  limiting	
  factor	
  which	
  is	
  increasing	
  the	
  price	
  of	
  VA.	
  Paris,	
  for	
  example,	
   has	
  little	
  access	
  to	
  natural	
  aggregates.	
  Note	
  that	
  the	
  tipping	
  fees	
  vary	
  greatly,	
  and	
  locations	
  where	
   tipping	
  fees	
  are	
  the	
  largest	
  also	
  hold	
  the	
  greatest	
  amount	
  of	
  profit	
  for	
  using	
  RCA.	
  (WBCSD	
  2012).	
   	
   However,	
  end-­‐use	
  markets	
  for	
  RCA	
  are	
  currently	
  slow	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver.	
  The	
  five	
  concrete	
  recycling	
   facilities	
  in	
  the	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  region	
  are	
  currently	
  processing	
  as	
  much	
  RCA	
  as	
  those	
  end-­‐use	
   markets	
  for	
  RCA	
  can	
  absorb	
  (Tawfik	
  and	
  Shishido	
  2012).	
  United	
  Lock-­‐Block	
  alone	
  can	
  process	
  300	
   tonnes	
  per	
  hour	
  of	
  used	
  concrete,	
  with	
  an	
  annual	
  capacity	
  of	
  over	
  600,000	
  tonnes,	
  which	
  is	
  46%	
  more	
   than	
  the	
  total	
  annual	
  C&D	
  concrete	
  waste	
  from	
  all	
  of	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  (Kane	
  Consulting	
  et.	
  al.	
  2012).	
  	
    Like	
  most	
  other	
  demolition,	
  land-­‐clearing	
  and	
  construction	
  (DLC)	
  recycling	
  facilities,	
  it	
  is	
  the	
  end-­‐ market	
  demand,	
  and	
  not	
  the	
  physical	
  capacity,	
  which	
  is	
  constraining	
  their	
  ability	
  to	
  accept	
  more	
   material	
  (Tawfik	
  and	
  Shishido	
  2012).	
  As	
  a	
  consequence	
  the	
  recycling	
  facilities	
  are	
  sometimes	
  unable	
   to	
  accept	
  all	
  the	
  concrete	
  waste	
  available	
  which	
  results	
  in	
  concrete	
  being	
  taken	
  to	
  the	
  landfill	
  (Kane	
   Consulting	
  et.	
  al.	
  2012).	
  Specifically,	
  it	
  is	
  the	
  lack	
  of	
  demand	
  for	
  road	
  base	
  that	
  causes	
  the	
  facilities	
  to	
   shut	
  down	
  during	
  busy	
  periods.	
  Concrete	
  recyclers	
  assert	
  that	
  the	
  British	
  Columbia	
  Ministry	
  of	
   Transportation	
  has	
  refused	
  to	
  purchase	
  any	
  of	
  their	
  road	
  base,	
  and	
  instead	
  uses	
  only	
  VA	
  (Kane	
   Consulting	
  et.	
  al.	
  2012).	
  	
   	
  	
   2.	
   Methods	
   This	
  study	
  is	
  informed	
  through	
  two	
  methods	
  of	
  analysis.	
  First,	
  a	
  literature	
  review	
  was	
  conducted	
  to	
   develop	
  an	
  initial	
  list	
  of	
  barriers	
  and	
  benefits	
  of	
  using	
  RCA	
  as	
  a	
  construction	
  material.	
  Second,	
  I	
   conducted	
  a	
  series	
  of	
  semi-­‐structured	
  interviews	
  with	
  stakeholders	
  associated	
  with	
  the	
  concrete	
   construction	
  and	
  demolition	
  industry	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver.	
  	
   	
   Beginning	
  with	
  the	
  technical	
  issues	
  I	
  consulted	
  engineering	
  journals	
  to	
  understand	
  the	
  fitness	
  and	
   feasibility	
  of	
  RCA	
  as	
  a	
  building	
  material.	
  The	
  regulatory	
  barriers	
  were	
  informed	
  through	
  a	
  review	
  of	
   building	
  specifications	
  for	
  road	
  and	
  highway	
  development	
  within	
  British	
  Columbia,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  through	
   the	
  United	
  States.	
  Market	
  Barriers	
  were	
  identified	
  within	
  two	
  key	
  documents:	
  the	
  first	
  is	
  Kane	
   Consulting’s	
  (2012)	
  study	
  which	
  aimed	
  to	
  understand	
  the	
  supply	
  chain	
  of	
  used	
  building	
  materials	
  in	
   Metro	
  Vancouver;	
  the	
  second	
  is	
  G.E.	
  Bridges	
  &	
  Associates	
  Inc.	
  Consulting	
  Economists	
  (2004)	
  paper	
   which	
  provides	
  an	
  overview	
  of	
  the	
  Western	
  North	
  American	
  market	
  for	
  BC	
  construction	
  aggregates.	
   Finally,	
  the	
  perception	
  barrier	
  was	
  informed	
  through	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  lateral	
  documents	
  that	
  aim	
  to	
   understand	
  sustainable	
  procurement	
  strategies	
  and	
  behaviour,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  popular	
  media	
  sources	
  that	
   have	
  written	
  articles	
  on	
  sustainable	
  construction	
  and	
  the	
  sustainability	
  of	
  concrete	
  (McKenzie-­‐Mohr	
   2011;	
  Pruess	
  and	
  Walker	
  2011;	
  Sourani	
  and	
  Sohail	
  2011).	
  With	
  this	
  literature	
  review	
  I	
  was	
  able	
  to	
   create	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  compelling	
  questions	
  that	
  would	
  fill	
  in	
  the	
  unknown	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
  barriers.	
  These	
   questions	
  were	
  then	
  used	
  to	
  conduct	
  semi-­‐structured	
  interviews.	
  	
   	
   The	
  semi-­‐structured	
  interviews	
  are	
  the	
  only	
  primary	
  research	
  that	
  was	
  conducted	
  through	
  this	
  study.	
   A	
  snowball	
  sampling	
  method	
  was	
  seen	
  as	
  the	
  most	
  effective	
  way	
  to	
  gain	
  the	
  research	
  participants.	
  In	
   total	
  fifteen	
  informants	
  were	
  contacted.	
  Of	
  those	
  fifteen,	
  seven	
  responded	
  with	
  interest	
  in	
   participating	
  in	
  the	
  study.	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  seven	
  declined	
  on	
  participating	
  in	
  an	
  interview;	
  however,	
  they	
   were	
  able	
  to	
  share	
  information	
  through	
  email	
  conversations.	
  In	
  total,	
  six	
  interviews	
  were	
  conducted.	
   Each	
  interview	
  varied	
  in	
  time	
  from	
  thirty	
  minutes	
  at	
  the	
  shortest,	
  to	
  over	
  two	
  and	
  a	
  half	
  hours	
  at	
  the	
   longest.	
  The	
  appendix	
  contains	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  interview	
  questions.	
   3.	
   Barriers	
  for	
  increasing	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  RCA	
   Below	
  I	
  have	
  listed	
  the	
  four	
  groupings	
  of	
  barriers	
  which	
  have	
  been	
  identified	
  in	
  this	
  study.	
  They	
  are	
   presented	
  in	
  the	
  order	
  that	
  the	
  interviewees	
  ranked	
  from	
  most	
  important	
  to	
  least:	
  Regulatory,	
   Perception,	
  Market,	
  and	
  Technical	
  (Drew	
  2013;	
  Anonymous	
  informant	
  1;	
  Anonymous	
  informant	
  2;	
   Anonymous	
  informant	
  3).	
  	
    3.1.	
   Regulatory	
   Regulations	
  have	
  dramatic	
  affects	
  on	
  the	
  use	
  and	
  production	
  of	
  materials	
  in	
  the	
  construction	
  industry.	
   Currently	
  in	
  BC	
  the	
  regulatory	
  climate	
  for	
  using	
  RCA	
  is	
  very	
  restrictive.	
  BC	
  highways	
  do	
  not	
  allow	
  RCA	
   to	
  be	
  used	
  in	
  new	
  road	
  and	
  highway	
  construction	
  (British	
  Columbia	
  2012).	
  This	
  is	
  also	
  reflected	
  in	
   municipal	
  construction.	
  The	
  MMCD	
  (Master	
  Municipal	
  Construction	
  Documents)	
  specifications	
  state	
   what	
  materials	
  and	
  techniques	
  are	
  appropriate	
  for	
  concrete	
  construction.	
  Through	
  every	
  interview	
   that	
  was	
  conducted,	
  this	
  is	
  the	
  number	
  one	
  barrier	
  which	
  is	
  seen	
  to	
  be	
  limiting	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  RCA	
  in	
   Metro	
  Vancouver	
  (Alam	
  2013;	
  Drew	
  2013;	
  Anonymous	
  informant	
  1;	
  Anonymous	
  informant	
  2;	
   Anonymous	
  informant	
  3).	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   One	
  example	
  of	
  how	
  regulations	
  can	
  change	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  a	
  RCA	
  can	
  be	
  seen	
  recently	
  in	
  Abu	
  Dhabi.	
   Regulations	
  were	
  passed	
  that	
  require	
  40%	
  of	
  the	
  aggregates	
  used	
  in	
  road	
  construction	
  to	
  be	
  RCA	
   (Overdahl	
  2013).	
  The	
  writing	
  of	
  these	
  new	
  specifications	
  created	
  a	
  sudden	
  demand	
  for	
  RCA	
  which	
   brought	
  a	
  concrete	
  recycling	
  plant	
  back	
  to	
  life.	
  Previously,	
  this	
  recycling	
  plant	
  had	
  over	
  1.6	
  million	
   tonnes	
  of	
  material	
  waiting	
  to	
  be	
  crushed	
  when	
  it	
  shut	
  down	
  due	
  to	
  a	
  complete	
  lack	
  of	
  market	
  demand	
   for	
  RCA,	
  and	
  now,	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  new	
  specifications,	
  they	
  are	
  facing	
  orders	
  of	
  over	
  2	
  million	
  tonnes	
  of	
   RCA	
  (ibid).	
  	
   	
   This	
  strongly	
  reflects	
  the	
  situation	
  here	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver.	
  At	
  the	
  moment	
  most	
  of	
  Vancouver's	
   facilities	
  are	
  unwilling	
  to	
  take	
  more	
  material	
  to	
  recycle.	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  largest	
  concrete	
  recycling	
  facilities,	
   for	
  example,	
  is	
  	
  stockpiling	
  over	
  250,000	
  tonnes	
  of	
  concrete	
  waste	
  in	
  its	
  yards	
  (Anonymous	
  interview	
   informant	
  2013).	
  This	
  shows	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
  increasing	
  market	
  value	
  for	
  RCA	
  through	
  specifications	
   in	
  road	
  and	
  building	
  construction.	
   	
   Moreover,	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  oversupply	
  of	
  concrete	
  waste,	
  and	
  under-­‐demand	
  for	
  RCA,	
  recycling	
  facilities	
   restrict	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  waste	
  that	
  they	
  can	
  accept.	
  This	
  creates	
  further	
  regulatory	
  issues	
  that	
  must	
  be	
   addressed.	
  The	
  Agricultural	
  Land	
  Reserves	
  throughout	
  Delta	
  are	
  becoming	
  a	
  frequented	
  site	
  for	
   contractors	
  to	
  dispose	
  of	
  their	
  C&D	
  waste.	
  This	
  is	
  done	
  through	
  agreements	
  with	
  farmers	
  on	
  their	
   plots	
  of	
  land,	
  whereby	
  the	
  waste	
  is	
  used	
  on	
  the	
  farm	
  as	
  'fill'	
  (Loo	
  2013).	
  Farmers	
  see	
  it	
  as	
  an	
  easy	
  way	
   to	
  make	
  some	
  money,	
  or	
  perhaps	
  some	
  free	
  material	
  for	
  construction,	
  on	
  their	
  land.	
  Currently	
  the	
   regulation	
  enforcing	
  what	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  as	
  fill	
  for	
  road	
  base	
  on	
  these	
  farms	
  allows	
  C&D	
  waste	
  up	
  to	
  18''	
   in	
  size,	
  rather	
  than	
  the	
  ¾''	
  that	
  is	
  often	
  the	
  end	
  processing	
  goal	
  of	
  RCA.	
  Most	
  notably	
  is	
  the	
  use	
  of	
   these	
  C&D	
  wastes	
  for	
  cranberry	
  farmers	
  who	
  have	
  the	
  need	
  to	
  create	
  large	
  dykes	
  around	
  their	
  crops	
   (ibid).	
  The	
  poorly	
  regulated	
  nature	
  of	
  this	
  use	
  of	
  C&D	
  waste	
  does	
  not	
  account	
  for	
  contaminants	
  within	
   the	
  C&D	
  waste,	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  leaching	
  of	
  petrochemicals	
  from	
  recycled	
  asphalt	
  onto	
  what	
  has	
  been	
  set	
   aside	
  as	
  agricultural	
  land.	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   3.2.	
   Perception	
   Although	
  RCA	
  has	
  proven	
  its	
  fitness	
  technically	
  through	
  engineering	
  studies	
  and	
  practical	
  use	
   elsewhere	
  in	
  the	
  world,	
  many	
  people	
  still	
  see	
  it	
  as	
  an	
  inferior	
  product,	
  and	
  are	
  unwilling	
  to	
  use	
  it	
  in	
   construction.	
  This	
  kind	
  of	
  resistance	
  is	
  often	
  met	
  when	
  more	
  sustainable	
  practices	
  require	
  a	
  change	
  in	
   behaviour.	
  “sustainability	
  requires	
  new	
  ways	
  of	
  thinking,	
  methods,	
  practices	
  and	
  attitude.	
  Hence,	
  it	
   requires	
  change.	
  But	
  as	
  normally	
  happens	
  when	
  implementing	
  a	
  new	
  initiative;	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  resistance	
  to	
   change.	
  This	
  problem	
  may	
  exist	
  at	
  all	
  levels	
  […]	
  Unfortunately,	
  the	
  voluntary	
  nature	
  of	
  the	
  codes	
  of	
    practice	
  can	
  be	
  seen	
  by	
  the	
  different	
  parties	
  as	
  an	
  excuse	
  for	
  not	
  initiating	
  change	
  in	
  a	
  sustainable	
   direction.”	
  (Sourani	
  and	
  Sohail	
  2011,	
  234-­‐5).	
  	
   	
   This	
  poses	
  a	
  much	
  larger	
  barrier	
  than	
  technical	
  issues,	
  or	
  even	
  market	
  issues.	
  If	
  people	
  truly	
  believe	
   that	
  RCA	
  is	
  an	
  inferior	
  product	
  to	
  VA,	
  then	
  there	
  will	
  be	
  no	
  willingness	
  to	
  change	
  behavior.	
  The	
   negative	
  perception	
  of	
  RCA	
  is	
  seen	
  to	
  be	
  largest	
  from	
  government	
  engineers	
  (Drew	
  2013;	
  Anonymous	
  	
   informant	
  1	
  2013;	
  Anonymous	
  	
  informant	
  2	
  2013).	
  This	
  is	
  a	
  major	
  challenge,	
  as	
  these	
  are	
  the	
  users	
   who	
  are	
  creating	
  the	
  specifications	
  for	
  concrete	
  construction,	
  and	
  without	
  their	
  full	
  support	
  RCA	
  will	
   not	
  see	
  its	
  full	
  potential	
  reached	
  on	
  the	
  market.	
  However,	
  not	
  all	
  municipalities	
  are	
  resistant	
  to	
  using	
   RCA	
  for	
  construction	
  and	
  road	
  building	
  (Anonymous	
  informant	
  1).	
  Some	
  are	
  already	
  using	
  it,	
  and	
  are	
   progressive	
  about	
  adding	
  other	
  recycled	
  materials	
  to	
  their	
  paving	
  mixes	
  (ibid).	
  	
   	
   Technologies	
  are	
  constantly	
  changing	
  and	
  improving	
  the	
  efficiency	
  and	
  efficacy	
  of	
  construction,	
   however,	
  these	
  technologies	
  are	
  felt	
  first	
  through	
  industry,	
  where	
  they	
  are	
  developed,	
  and	
  then	
   slowly	
  trickle	
  into	
  the	
  methods	
  that	
  the	
  government	
  supports	
  (Anonymous	
  informant	
  1	
  2013).	
  A	
   major	
  concern	
  from	
  one	
  interviewee	
  was	
  his	
  belief	
  that	
  these	
  specifications	
  will	
  not	
  change	
  until	
   there	
  is	
  a	
  “changing	
  of	
  the	
  guard”	
  (ibid).	
  What	
  he	
  means	
  is	
  that	
  because	
  certain	
  engineers	
  have	
   experimented	
  with	
  trials	
  using	
  RCA	
  ten	
  or	
  twenty	
  years	
  ago	
  and	
  found	
  that	
  it	
  was	
  not	
  technically	
   feasible,	
  they	
  are	
  now	
  set	
  in	
  their	
  view	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  not	
  a	
  good	
  product	
  for	
  construction	
  (ibid).	
  	
   3.3.	
   Market	
   The	
  long-­‐term	
  trend	
  in	
  Western	
  North	
  America	
  is	
  that	
  virgin	
  aggregate	
  prices	
  are	
  steadily	
  increasing	
   (G.E.	
  Bridges	
  &	
  Associates	
  Inc.	
  2004).	
  This	
  is	
  due	
  to	
  a	
  reflection	
  of	
  land	
  ownership	
  restrictions,	
  high	
   costs	
  in	
  mining	
  and	
  transportation,	
  and	
  difficulties	
  in	
  obtaining	
  regulatory	
  approvals	
  (Ibid).	
  These	
  are	
   factors	
  that	
  increase	
  transportation	
  distances,	
  which	
  in	
  turn	
  drive	
  up	
  the	
  costs	
  of	
  delivered	
  aggregate.	
   Not	
  to	
  mention,	
  VA	
  are	
  a	
  finite	
  resource,	
  and	
  there	
  are	
  only	
  so	
  many	
  locations	
  left	
  that	
  are	
  suitable	
   aggregate	
  mines.	
  All	
  of	
  these	
  reasons	
  suggest	
  that	
  RCA	
  is	
  becoming	
  a	
  much	
  more	
  attractive	
   alternative	
  to	
  VA.	
  However,	
  the	
  situation	
  in	
  BC	
  is	
  somewhat	
  unique,	
  in	
  that	
  there	
  currently	
  are	
  vast	
   supplies	
  of	
  relatively	
  cheap	
  virgin	
  aggregate	
  on	
  the	
  market	
  (Kane	
  Consulting	
  2012).	
  	
   The	
  market	
  for	
  RCA	
  is	
  currently	
  low,	
  and	
  this	
  is	
  reflected	
  through	
  the	
  concrete	
  recycling	
  facilities	
  in	
   Metro	
  Vancouver	
  who	
  are	
  currently	
  at	
  full	
  capacity	
  and	
  unable	
  to	
  move	
  their	
  supplies	
  of	
  RCA	
  out	
  of	
   their	
  storage	
  yards	
  (Ibid).	
  Although	
  the	
  price	
  of	
  RCA	
  is	
  lower	
  than	
  VA	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  ($7-­‐ $14/tonne	
  for	
  RCA,	
  while	
  VA	
  cost	
  from	
  $15-­‐$24/tonne),	
  the	
  relatively	
  low	
  cost	
  of	
  VA	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  the	
   total	
  construction	
  costs	
  is	
  quite	
  low	
  (Anonymous	
  interview	
  informant	
  2013).	
  	
   3.4.	
   Technical	
   The	
  technical	
  barriers	
  for	
  using	
  RCA	
  are	
  divided	
  into	
  two	
  categories:	
  structural	
  fitness	
  and	
  the	
  source	
   of	
  the	
  recycled	
  material.	
   	
   	
   3.4.1.	
   Structural	
  fitness	
   There	
  is	
  a	
  strong	
  consensus	
  among	
  engineering	
  literature	
  that	
  RCA	
  can	
  meet	
  structural	
  fitness	
  for	
  a	
   number	
  of	
  concrete	
  applications	
  (Zhang	
  and	
  Ingham	
  2010;	
  Iqbal	
  and	
  Quiasrawi	
  2012;	
  Limbachiya	
  et.	
   al.	
  2000;	
  Kumutha	
  and	
  Vijai	
  2008).	
  This	
  fitness	
  is	
  dependent	
  upon	
  a	
  mix	
  of	
  up	
  to	
  a	
  maximum	
  of	
  25%	
    RCA	
  to	
  VA.	
  The	
  use	
  of	
  RCA	
  does	
  not	
  have	
  a	
  diminishing	
  effect	
  on	
  compressive	
  strength1	
  (see	
  figure	
  2),	
   although,	
  the	
  flexural	
  strength2	
  decreases	
  with	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  RCA	
  used.	
  So	
  applications	
  such	
  as	
  roads	
   and	
  highways,	
  concrete	
  blocks,	
  and	
  curbs	
  would	
  be	
  appropriate	
  for	
  even	
  large	
  amounts	
  of	
  RCA	
  (De	
   Juan	
  and	
  Gutiérrez	
  2007;	
  Kumutha	
  and	
  Vijai	
  2008;	
  Limbachiya,	
  et.	
  al.	
  2000).	
  	
   FIGURE	
  2:	
  As	
  VA	
  is	
  replaced	
  by	
  RCA	
  there	
  is	
  little	
  to	
  no	
  decrease	
  in	
  compressive	
  strength	
  of	
  the	
   concrete.	
  (Yong	
  and	
  Teo	
  2009).	
    	
   	
   3.4.2.	
   Source	
  of	
  the	
  Recycled	
  Material	
   The	
  major	
  difference	
  between	
  RCA	
  and	
  natural	
  aggregates	
  is	
  in	
  its	
  composition:	
  it	
  is	
  comprised	
  of	
   both	
  natural	
  aggregates,	
  and	
  cement	
  mortar	
  (Iqbal	
  and	
  Quiasrawi	
  2012).	
  Only	
  RCA	
  with	
  a	
  mortar	
   content	
  under	
  44%	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  for	
  structural	
  concrete,	
  as	
  the	
  mortar	
  affects	
  the	
  bond	
  of	
  the	
  new	
   concrete	
  (	
  Juan	
  and	
  Gutiérrez	
  2007).	
  As	
  well,	
  the	
  source	
  of	
  the	
  concrete	
  is	
  sometimes	
  unknown,	
  and	
   only	
  RCA	
  sourced	
  from	
  high-­‐strength	
  concrete	
  is	
  suitable	
  for	
  creating	
  new	
  high-­‐strength	
  concrete	
   construction	
  (Limbachiya	
  et.	
  al.	
  2000).	
  Using	
  aggregates	
  from	
  selected	
  materials	
  and	
  industrial	
  by-­‐ products	
  greatly	
  increases	
  the	
  potential	
  for	
  use	
  in	
  concrete	
  and/or	
  as	
  road	
  construction	
  materials	
   (Cement	
  Concrete	
  &	
  Aggregates	
  Australia	
  2008).	
  On	
  site	
  crushing	
  would	
  be	
  one	
  possible	
  solution	
  for	
   dealing	
  with	
  source	
  issues.	
  However,	
  one	
  study	
  pointed	
  out	
  that	
  appropriate	
  technology	
  for	
  on-­‐site	
   crushing	
  is	
  currently	
  not	
  available	
  (Marinković	
  et.	
  al.	
  2010).	
  This	
  is	
  in	
  part	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  inability	
  to	
   wash/clean	
  the	
  aggregates.	
  As	
  well,	
  space	
  is	
  an	
  issue	
  when	
  considering	
  on-­‐site	
  crushing.	
  If	
  you	
  are	
   dealing	
  with	
  anything	
  in	
  the	
  city	
  then	
  it	
  is	
  likely	
  not	
  going	
  to	
  be	
  enough	
  room	
  to	
  crush	
  and	
  stockpile	
   the	
  material	
  until	
  it	
  is	
  needed	
  for	
  the	
  appropriate	
  phase	
  of	
  building	
  (Anonymous	
  interview	
  informant	
   2013).	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
    1	
   Compressive	
  strength:	
  compressive strength is the capacity of concrete to withstand loads tending to reduce size. It can be measured by plotting applied force against deformation in a testing machine. Compressive strength test results are used to determine if the concrete mixture meets the requirements of the specified strength. Requirements can vary from 17MPa for residential concrete, to 28MPa and higher in commercial structures (NRMCA 2003). 	
  	
   2	
   Flexural	
  strength:	
  Flexural	
  strength	
  is	
  a	
  measure	
  of	
  concrete's	
  resistance	
  to	
  failure	
  in	
  bending.	
  	
    	
   	
   4.	
   Recommendations	
  	
   Below	
  is	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  recommendations	
  for	
  Metro	
  Vancouver	
  to	
  pursue	
  when	
  considering	
  how	
  to	
  increase	
   the	
  market	
  demand	
  for	
  RCA.	
  The	
  table	
  below	
  may	
  be	
  used	
  as	
  a	
  quick	
  reference	
  of	
  the	
  barriers	
  and	
   recommendations	
  associated	
  with	
  each	
  barrier.	
  Further	
  discussion	
  about	
  the	
  details	
  of	
  each	
   recommendation	
  follows.	
   	
   Barrier	
   Regulations	
  (section	
   3.1)	
    Perception	
  (section	
   3.2)	
    Market	
  (section	
  3.3)	
    Technical	
  (section	
   3.4)	
    Description	
   − MMCD	
  Specs.	
   − MoT's	
  Road	
  building	
   Specs.	
   − Disposal	
  of	
  concrete	
  waste	
   in	
  ALR	
   − Lack	
  of	
  confidence	
  in	
  using	
   RCA	
  as	
  a	
  construction	
   material	
   − Insufficient	
  link	
  up	
   between	
  technologies	
  and	
   specifications	
   − Relatively	
  low	
  cost	
  of	
  VA	
  in	
   terms	
  of	
  overall	
   construction	
  costs	
   	
   − Limitations	
  to	
  the	
  amount	
   of	
  RCA	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  in	
   a	
  mix	
   − Uncertain	
  mortar	
  content	
   in	
  RCA.	
  	
  	
    Recommendation	
   Target	
  changing	
   specifications	
  for	
   construction/road	
  building	
  as	
   immediate	
  priority.	
   	
   A	
  government-­‐led	
  pilot	
   project	
  that	
  showcases	
  the	
   fitness	
  of	
  RCA	
  as	
  a	
  suitable	
   construction	
  material.	
  	
   	
   Increase	
  the	
  tipping	
  fees	
  for	
   C&D	
  waste.	
  	
   Introduce	
  industry	
  standards	
   for	
  crushing,	
  sorting,	
  and	
   cleaning	
  recycled	
  concrete.	
  	
    	
   4.1.	
   Recommendations	
  for	
  Immediate	
  Action	
  	
   	
   The	
  most	
  pressing	
  and	
  immediate	
  concern	
  should	
  be	
  on	
  getting	
  the	
  MMCD	
  and	
  MoT	
  specifications	
  for	
   road	
  and	
  building	
  construction	
  to	
  reflect	
  the	
  available	
  technologies	
  and	
  techniques	
  to	
  the	
  concrete	
   industry.	
  However,	
  there	
  are	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  smaller	
  actions	
  that	
  must	
  take	
  place	
  for	
  this	
  change	
  to	
   happen.	
  These	
  are	
  listed	
  below	
  as	
  needing	
  immediate	
  action:	
   	
   4.1.1. Support	
  the	
  existing	
  market	
  for	
  RCA	
  through	
  education.	
   There	
  already	
  exist	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  avenues	
  for	
  RCA	
  outside	
  of	
  concrete	
  construction.	
  These	
  include,	
  but	
   are	
  not	
  limited	
  to:	
  	
   − Non-­‐specification	
  block	
  concrete:	
  United	
  Lock-­‐Block	
  is	
  one	
  example	
  of	
  a	
  business	
  that	
  has	
   created	
  a	
  high-­‐quality	
  product	
  from	
  recycled	
  concrete	
    − Landscaping:	
  there	
  are	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  uses	
  for	
  landscaping	
  including	
  fill,	
  drainage,	
  and	
   decorative	
  material	
  (Anonymous	
  informant	
  1	
  2013).	
   − Septic	
  sand:	
  RCA	
  sand	
  creates	
  good	
  quality	
  C-­‐33	
  septic	
  sand.	
  The	
  lime	
  contained	
  in	
  the	
  mortar	
   is	
  a	
  good	
  agent	
  for	
  increasing	
  the	
  speed	
  at	
  which	
  the	
  waste	
  is	
  broken	
  down	
  (Drew	
  2013).	
   Supporting	
  these	
  options	
  through	
  education	
  and	
  outreach	
  would	
  help	
  to	
  bring	
  awareness	
  to	
  the	
   possibilities	
  for	
  recycling	
  concrete	
  (Alam	
  2013).	
  	
   	
   4.1.2. Government-­‐led	
  flagship	
  project	
  which	
  champions	
  the	
  fitness	
  of	
  RCA	
   There	
  are	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  options	
  that	
  exist	
  for	
  a	
  large	
  construction	
  project	
  which	
  will	
  showcase	
  the	
   fitness	
  for	
  RCA.	
  Currently	
  UBC-­‐O's	
  Dr.	
  Shahria	
  Alam	
  is	
  building	
  partnerships	
  with	
  government	
  to	
   implement	
  a	
  large	
  scale	
  RCA	
  project	
  (Alam	
  2013).	
  It	
  is	
  important	
  that	
  this	
  project	
  is	
  high-­‐profile	
  and	
   reaches	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  media	
  sources	
  to	
  build	
  public	
  understanding	
  and	
  support	
  for	
  using	
  RCA	
  in	
   buildings.	
  Some	
  examples	
  of	
  potential	
  projects	
  include	
  the	
  newly	
  proposed	
  Evergreen	
  sky	
  train	
  line,	
   and	
  an	
  excellent	
  source	
  for	
  the	
  material	
  for	
  the	
  project	
  could	
  be	
  attained	
  from	
  the	
  old	
  Port-­‐Mann	
   Bridge	
  (Drew	
  2013).	
   	
   4.1.3. Create	
  stricter	
  regulations	
  for	
  C&D	
  waste	
  being	
  used	
  for	
  roads	
  and	
  fill	
  in	
  Delta's	
   A.L.R.	
   Thomas	
  Loo,	
  the	
  compliance	
  officer	
  for	
  the	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Land	
  and	
  Agriculture,	
  would	
  be	
  a	
  good	
  contact	
   to	
  start	
  negotiations	
  and	
  understand	
  the	
  finer	
  details	
  surrounding	
  this	
  issue.	
  The	
  roads	
  and	
  fill	
  used	
   should	
  be	
  purchased	
  from	
  a	
  processing	
  plant,	
  and	
  of	
  a	
  particular	
  gradation	
  (Loo	
  2013).	
  The	
  dumping	
   of	
  C&D	
  waste	
  on	
  ALR	
  property	
  should	
  be	
  prohibited.	
  This	
  will	
  encourage	
  more	
  of	
  a	
  market	
  for	
  the	
   recycled	
  concrete	
  processing	
  facilities,	
  and	
  reduce	
  the	
  likelihood	
  of	
  contaminated	
  waste	
  leaching	
  onto	
   farmland.	
   4.2.	
   Recommendations	
  for	
  Medium-­Term	
  Action	
  	
   	
   The	
  following	
  recommendations	
  are	
  for	
  medium-­‐Term	
  considerations	
  (1-­‐3	
  years).	
  	
   	
   4.2.1. Change	
  MMCD	
  and	
  MoT	
  Specifications	
  for	
  RCA	
  use	
  in	
  construction	
  and	
  road	
   building	
   Specifications	
  are	
  currently	
  limiting	
  the	
  type	
  of	
  material	
  that	
  may	
  be	
  used,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  the	
  techniques	
   to	
  use.	
  In	
  the	
  future,	
  specifications	
  should	
  reflect	
  the	
  end	
  product	
  goals	
  –	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  strength	
  and	
   longevity	
  of	
  the	
  structure.	
  This	
  should	
  also	
  be	
  reflected	
  in	
  the	
  RFT	
  (request	
  for	
  tender)	
  agreements	
   that	
  are	
  offered	
  to	
  commercial	
  operators	
  (Anonymous	
  informant	
  1	
  2013).	
  	
   	
   4.2.2. Increase	
  tipping	
  fees	
  for	
  C&D	
  waste	
   Increased	
  tipping	
  fees	
  will	
  act	
  as	
  a	
  strong	
  disincentive,	
  and	
  may	
  convince	
  demolition	
  companies	
  to	
   consider	
  recycling	
  as	
  a	
  better	
  option.	
  As	
  well,	
  according	
  to	
  Figure	
  1	
  of	
  this	
  report,	
  it	
  increases	
  the	
   profit	
  attainable	
  through	
  using	
  RCA	
  as	
  opposed	
  to	
  VA	
  (WBCSD	
  2009).	
   	
   4.2.3. Introduce	
  standards	
  for	
  concrete	
  recycling	
  and	
  processing	
   Currently	
  the	
  main	
  technical	
  issue	
  with	
  using	
  RCA	
  as	
  a	
  building	
  material	
  is	
  the	
  mortar,	
  and	
  its	
   associated	
  'dust'.	
  However,	
  with	
  more	
  rigorous	
  processing	
  much	
  of	
  the	
  mortar	
  dust	
  can	
  be	
  removed	
   and	
  RCA	
  can	
  be	
  as	
  good,	
  or	
  better	
  a	
  product	
  than	
  VA.	
  United	
  Lock-­‐Block,	
  a	
  richmond-­‐based	
  company,	
    is	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  best	
  practice	
  in	
  this	
  field.	
  The	
  principal	
  has	
  invested	
  in	
  upgrading	
  their	
  technologies	
   to	
  incorporate	
  crushing,	
  sorting,	
  and	
  most	
  importantly	
  cleaning	
  into	
  the	
  processing	
  steps	
  for	
  RCA.	
  A	
   standard	
  procedure	
  for	
  processing	
  RCA	
  would	
  allow	
  for	
  a	
  standardized	
  product	
  (Drew	
  2013).	
  	
   	
   4.3.	
   Final	
  Recommendations	
   This	
  research	
  will	
  act	
  as	
  an	
  appropriate	
  starting	
  point	
  to	
  addressing	
  the	
  issue	
  of	
  RCA's	
  market	
   demand.	
  However,	
  RCA	
  is	
  only	
  one	
  by-­‐product	
  of	
  concrete	
  waste,	
  and	
  there	
  exists	
  two	
  other	
  avenues	
   which	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  explored:	
  Recycled	
  Asphalt	
  Pavement	
  (RAP),	
  and	
  Recycled	
  Asphalt	
  Concrete	
  (RAP-­‐ CON).	
  RAP	
  has	
  already	
  been	
  targeted	
  by	
  MoT's	
  2012	
  specifications,	
  and	
  is	
  slowly	
  being	
  introduced.	
   However,	
  RAP-­‐CON	
  poses	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  greater	
  challenges,	
  and	
  is	
  far	
  more	
  difficult	
  to	
  deal	
  with	
  as	
  far	
   as	
  recycling	
  than	
  either	
  just	
  concrete	
  (such	
  as	
  RCA)	
  or	
  just	
  asphalt	
  (RAP)	
  (Anonymous	
  informant	
  2	
   2013).	
  Further	
  research	
  into	
  dealing	
  with	
  this	
  issue	
  is	
  required.	
  	
   	
   As	
  well,	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  strong	
  feeling	
  of	
  hypocrisy	
  towards	
  some	
  municipal	
  governments	
  from	
  industry	
   regarding	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  RCA	
  in	
  construction.	
  Although	
  this	
  is	
  not	
  felt	
  towards	
  all	
  municipalities,	
  as	
  some	
   are	
  much	
  more	
  progressive	
  in	
  their	
  use	
  of	
  recycled	
  materials	
  than	
  others,	
  it	
  is	
  an	
  issue	
  that	
  requires	
   attention.	
  It	
  is	
  the	
  sentiment	
  of	
  industry	
  that	
  some	
  municipalities	
  are	
  using	
  products	
  such	
  as	
  RCA,	
  and	
   even	
  RAP-­‐CON,	
  in	
  their	
  projects,	
  and	
  meanwhile,	
  they	
  are	
  prohibiting	
  industry	
  from	
  using	
  it	
  as	
  a	
   building	
  material	
  even	
  in	
  municipal	
  contracts	
  (Anonymous	
  Informant	
  1	
  2013;	
  Anonymous	
  informant	
  2	
   2013).	
  However,	
  a	
  strong	
  bias	
  exists	
  in	
  this	
  research,	
  as	
  there	
  were	
  no	
  interviews	
  conducted	
  with	
   municipalities	
  throughout	
  Metro	
  Vancouver.	
  There	
  exists	
  a	
  difficult	
  balance	
  between	
  liability,	
  cost,	
   and	
  safe	
  durable	
  infrastructure	
  which	
  government	
  engineers	
  must	
  take	
  into	
  account	
  when	
  deciding	
   on	
  which	
  materials	
  are	
  appropriate	
  for	
  specification.	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    5.	
   References	
   Alam,	
  Shahria.	
  Personal	
  interview.	
  Feb.	
  2013.	
  	
   Anonymous	
  informant	
  1.	
  Personal	
  interview.	
  2013.	
   Anonymous	
  informant	
  2.	
  Personal	
  interview.	
  2013.	
   Anonymous	
  informant	
  3.	
  Personal	
  interview.	
  2013.	
   Blengini,	
  G.A.,	
  and	
  E.	
  Garbarino.	
  “Resources	
  and	
  Waste	
  Management	
  in	
  Turin	
  (Italy):	
  the	
  Role	
  of	
   	
   Recycled	
  Aggregates	
  in	
  the	
  Sustainable	
  Supply	
  Mix.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  Cleaner	
  Production	
  18.1	
   	
   (2010)	
  1021-­‐30.	
  Print.	
   British	
  Columbia.	
  2012	
  Standard	
  specifications	
  for	
  Highway	
  Construction.”	
  Ministry	
  of	
   	
   Transportation	
  vol.	
  1	
  of	
  2	
  (2011).	
  Web.	
   British	
  Columbia.	
  2012	
  Standard	
  specifications	
  for	
  Highway	
  Construction.”	
  Ministry	
  of	
   	
   Transportation	
  vol.	
  2	
  of	
  2	
  (2011).	
  Web.	
   Cement	
  Concrete	
  &	
  Aggregates	
  Australia.	
  “Use	
  of	
  Recycled	
  Aggregates	
  in	
  Construction.”	
  	
  2008.	
  	
   Web.	
   Jan	
  2013.	
  	
   De	
  Juan,	
  M.S.,	
  and	
  P.A.	
  Gutiérrez.	
  “Recycled	
  Aggregate	
  Concrete	
  as	
  Structural	
  Material.”	
   	
   Materials	
  and	
  Structures	
  40.5	
  (2007)	
  529-­‐41.	
  Print.	
   Drew,	
  Jay.	
  Personal	
  interview.	
  Feb.	
  2013.	
   G.E.	
  Bridges	
  &	
  Associates	
  Inc.	
  Consulting	
  Economists.	
  “Market	
  Analysis	
  Coastal	
  Aggregate	
   	
   Development	
  Opportunities.”	
  Prepared	
  for	
  BC	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Energy	
  and	
  Mines,	
  Ministry	
  of	
   	
   Sustainable	
  Resource	
  Management,	
  and	
  Ministry	
  of	
  Transportation	
  (2004).	
  Web.	
   Iqbal	
  Marie,	
  and	
  Hisham	
  Quiasrawi.	
  “Closed-­‐loop	
  recycling	
  of	
  recycled	
  concrete	
  aggregates.”	
   	
   Journal	
  of	
  Cleaner	
  Production	
  37	
  (2012)	
  243-­‐248.	
  Print.	
   Kane	
  Consulting;	
  LOCO	
  BC;	
  Restraint	
  Consulting;	
  and	
  Urban	
  Fabric.	
  Market	
  Analysis	
  of	
  Used	
   	
   Building	
  Materials	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver.	
  Prepared	
  for	
  Metro	
  Vancouver.	
  February	
  2012.	
  	
   Web.	
   Kumutha,	
  R.,	
  and	
  K.	
  Vijai.	
  “Effect	
  of	
  Recycled	
  Coarse	
  Aggregates	
  in	
  Properties	
  of	
  Concrete.”	
   	
   Journal	
  of	
  Green	
  Building	
  3.4	
  (2008)	
  130-­‐7.	
  Print.	
  	
   Limbachiya,	
  M.	
  C.,	
  T.	
  Leelawat,	
  and	
  R.	
  K.	
  Dhir.	
  “Use	
  of	
  Recycled	
  Concrete	
  Aggregate	
  in	
  High-­‐ 	
   Strength	
  Concrete.”	
  Materials	
  and	
  Structures	
  33.1	
  (2000)	
  574-­‐80.	
  Print.	
   Loo,	
  Thomas.	
  Personal	
  Interview.	
  Feb.	
  2013.	
   Marinković,	
  S.,	
  V.	
  Radonjanin,	
  M.	
  Malešev,	
  and	
  I.	
  Ignjatović.	
  “Comparative	
  environmental	
   	
   assessment	
  of	
  natural	
  and	
  recycled	
  aggregate	
  concrete.”	
  Waste	
  Managment	
  30.1	
  (2010)	
   	
   2255-­‐64.	
  Print.	
   McKenzie-­‐Mohr,	
  Doug.	
  Fostering	
  Sustainable	
  Behavior:	
  An	
  Introduction	
  to	
  Community-­‐Based	
  	
   Social	
   Marketing.	
  New	
  Society	
  Publishers,	
  2011.	
  Print.	
  	
   National	
  Ready	
  Mixed	
  Concrete	
  Association	
  (NRMCA).	
  “CIP	
  35	
  –	
  Testing	
  Compressive	
  Strength	
  of	
   Concrete.	
  Concrete	
  in	
  Practice	
  –	
  NRMCA.	
  2003.	
   Overdahl,	
  Stian.	
  “Recycled	
  Aggregate	
  use	
  Set	
  to	
  Grow.”	
  Construction	
  Week	
  Online	
  21	
  Jan.	
  2013.	
  	
  Web.	
   Jan.	
  2013.	
   Pruess,	
  Lutz,	
  and	
  Helen	
  Walker.	
  “Psychological	
  Barriers	
  in	
  the	
  Road	
  to	
  Sustainable	
  Development:	
   	
   Evidence	
  from	
  Public	
  Sector	
  Procurement.”	
  Public	
  Administration	
  89.2	
  (2011)	
  493-­‐521.	
  	
   Print.	
   Poon,	
  Chi	
  S..	
  “Management	
  and	
  Recycling	
  of	
  Demolition	
  Waste	
  in	
  Hong	
  Kong.	
  Waste	
  	
   Management	
   &	
  Research	
  15.1	
  (1997)	
  561-­‐72.	
  Print.	
  	
   Demolition	
  Waste	
  in	
  Concrete.”	
  Resources,	
  Conservation,	
  and	
  Recycling	
  50.1	
  (2007)	
  71-­‐81.	
  Print.	
    Sourani,	
  Amr,	
  and	
  Muhammad	
  Sohail.	
  “Barriers	
  to	
  Addressing	
  Sustainable	
  Construction	
  in	
  Public	
   	
   Procurement	
  Strategies.”	
  Proceedings	
  of	
  the	
  ICE	
  –	
  Engineering	
  Sustainability	
  164.4	
   	
   (2011)	
  229-­‐237.	
  Print.	
   Tawfik,	
  Nermine,	
  and	
  Craig	
  Shishido.	
  “Regional	
  DLC	
  Waste	
  Recycling,	
  Processing	
  and	
  Disposal	
   Capacity.”	
  Zero	
  Waste	
  Committee:	
  Metro	
  Vancouver.	
  15	
  November	
  2012.	
  Web.	
  Jan.	
  2013.	
   US	
  Department	
  of	
  Transportation.	
  “Transportation	
  Applications	
  of	
  Recycled	
  Concrete	
  Aggregate.	
   	
   FHWA	
  State	
  of	
  the	
  Practice	
  National	
  Review,	
  (2004).	
  Print.	
   World	
  Business	
  Council	
  for	
  Sustainable	
  Development	
  (WBCSD).	
  “The	
  Cement	
  Sustainability	
   	
   Initiative	
  –	
  Recycling	
  Concrete	
  –	
  Full	
  Report.”	
  2009.	
  Web.	
  Jan.	
  2013.	
   Zhang,	
  Wentao,	
  and	
  Jason	
  M.	
  Ingham.	
  “Using	
  Recycled	
  Concrete	
  Aggregates	
  in	
  New	
  Zealand	
   	
   Ready-­‐Mix	
  Concrete	
  Production.”	
  Journal	
  of	
  Materials	
  in	
  Civil	
  Engineering	
  22.5	
  (2010):	
  	
   440-­‐ 50.	
  Print.	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    6.	
    Appendix	
    Interview	
  questions	
   Sample	
  questions	
  for	
  semi-­‐structured	
  interviews	
   	
  Technical	
  Barriers	
   What	
  is	
  the	
  purpose	
  of	
  RCA	
  in	
  construction?	
   What	
  has	
  been	
  your	
  experience	
  in	
  working	
  with	
  RCA?	
   Is	
  RCA	
  a	
  suitable	
  alternative	
  to	
  using	
  VA	
  for	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  higher-­‐level	
  construction	
  purposes?	
   Where	
  is	
  the	
  recycled	
  concrete	
  sourced	
  from	
  that	
  is	
  used	
  for	
  RCA?	
   Is	
  this	
  a	
  concern,	
  and	
  what	
  are	
  some	
  ways	
  of	
  dealing	
  with	
  this	
  that	
  would	
  ensure	
  you	
  knew	
  where	
  the	
   RCA	
  is	
  sourced	
  from?	
   Are	
  there	
  appropriate	
  technologies	
  for	
  crushing,	
  sorting,	
  and	
  cleaning	
  on	
  site	
  to	
  create	
  a	
  high	
  quality	
   RCA?	
  	
   Is	
  it	
  common	
  that	
  construction	
  companies	
  see	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  RCA	
  as	
  inferior	
  to	
  virgin	
  aggregate?	
   Regulatory	
  Barriers:	
   What	
  is	
  unique	
  about	
  the	
  specifications	
  for	
  RCA	
  within	
  British	
  Columbia?	
  Metro	
  Vancouver?	
   What	
  are	
  the	
  regulatory	
  barriers	
  that	
  you	
  see	
  limiting	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  RCA	
  in	
  Metro	
  Vancouver?	
   Is	
  the	
  regulatory	
  climate	
  in	
  BC	
  likely	
  to	
  change	
  in	
  response	
  to	
  the	
  changing	
  specifications	
  in	
  other	
   countries?	
  And	
  if	
  so,	
  then	
  why?	
   Do	
  you	
  think	
  that	
  regulations	
  are	
  lagging	
  behind	
  in	
  BC	
  due	
  to	
  a	
  perceived	
  notion	
  that	
  RCA	
  is	
  inferior	
  to	
   virgin	
  aggregate	
  for	
  concrete	
  construction?	
  	
   Market	
  Barriers:	
   How	
  does	
  the	
  price	
  of	
  virgin	
  aggregate	
  compare	
  to	
  that	
  of	
  RCA?	
   What	
  are	
  the	
  factors	
  which	
  are	
  causing	
  the	
  fluctuations,	
  or	
  the	
  dampening,	
  in	
  the	
  RCA	
  market?	
   What	
  has	
  the	
  market	
  for	
  RCA	
  been	
  like	
  in	
  the	
  past?	
  And	
  where	
  do	
  you	
  see	
  it	
  going	
  in	
  the	
  future?	
   What	
  can	
  be	
  done	
  to	
  strengthen	
  the	
  market	
  for	
  RCA?	
   If	
  RCA	
  was	
  overall	
  a	
  cheaper	
  alternative	
  to	
  using	
  virgin	
  aggregate,	
  would	
  that	
  change	
  buyer's	
   procurement	
  strategies,	
  and	
  allow	
  them	
  to	
  adopt	
  a	
  stronger	
  appreciation	
  for	
  RCA	
  as	
  a	
  suitable	
   material	
  for	
  concrete	
  construction?	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
    

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