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Electric cars and the city of Vancouver Collins, Paul 2012-12-31

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  Electric
Cars
and
The
City
of
Vancouver
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 Report
Prepared
at
the
request
of
the
City
of
Vancouver
Electric
Vehicle
Working
 Group,
in
partial
fulfillment
of
UBC
Geog
419:
Research
in
Environmental
 Geography,
for
Dr.
David
Brownstein
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Paul
Collins
 24270092
 April
3/12
 GEOG
419
 David
Brownstein
 
  1
  Table
Of
Contents
 
  
 Executive
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………...3
 
 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………4
 
 Method…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
 
 Electric
Vehicles………………………………………………………………………………………………5
 
 Electric
Vehicle
Benefits………………………………………………………………………………….6
 
 Electric
Vehicle
Costs……………………………………………………………………………………....7
 
 Electric
Vehicle
Alternatives……………………………………………………………………………9
 
 Electric
Vehicles
and
the
City
of
Vancouver……………………………………………………..9
 
 City
of
Vancouver
Electric
Vehicle
Survey
Results…………………………………………10
 
 Electric
Vehicle
Systems………………………………………………………………………………..13
 
 Recommendations
and
Conclusions………………………………………………………………14
 
 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………....16
 
 Appendix
A……………………………………………………………………………………………………18
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  2
  
  Executive
Summary
 
  Electric
vehicles
are
beneficial
from
an
ecological,
economic,
and
social
standpoint
 because
they
produce
no
greenhouse
gas
emissions
from
there
use,
the
reduce
noise
 pollution,
and
they
reduce
reliance
on
fossil
fuel
resources
which
are
becoming
 increasingly
expensive.

Through
research
of
scholarly
sources,
technical
reports,
 and
a
survey
of
electric
vehicle
users
in
Vancouver,
this
study
finds
that
existing
 battery
electric
vehicles
such
as
the
Nissan
Leaf
and
the
Mitsubishi
iMiEV
have
 ranges
that
exceed
the
majority
of
user
trips
with
little
to
no
adjustments
in
driving
 behavior.

These
vehicles
also
are
typically
parked
for
long
enough
periods
of
time
 that
would
allow
for,
at
least,
a
partial
recharge
thus
expanding
the
range
of
these
 vehicles.

The
City
of
Vancouver
should
continue
to
implement
charging
stations
but
 at
a
wider
variety
of
locations
to
allow
for
a
broader
charging
network.

The
City
of
 Vancouver
should
also
make
education
about
electric
vehicles
and
their
range
a
 priority
in
attempt
to
alleviate
the
stress
related
to
range
limitations
on
electric
 vehicles.

Further
partnerships
with
Metro
Vancouver
municipalities
will
also
 provide
a
broader
charging
network
and
thus
increased
range
and
mobility
for
 electric
vehicles
and
their
users.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  3
  Introduction
 
 A
looming
energy
crisis
based
on
increasing
demand
and
shrinking
supply
of
oil,
and
 a
global
push
to
combat
climate
change
through
the
reduction
of
greenhouse
gas
 (GHG)
emissions,
has
led
to
a
resurgence
of
the
idea
that
the
electric
car
is
a
viable
 option
for
the
future
of
personal
transportation.

With
many
car
companies
such
as
 Toyota,
Honda,
and
Ford
producing
hybrid
vehicles
and
others,
such
as
Nissan,
 Chevrolet,
and
Mitsubishi,
producing
fully
electric
or
plug‐in
hybrid
vehicles,
it
 appears
that
electric
vehicles
are
gaining
traction
not
only
within
the
car
industry,
 but
with
the
public
as
well.

The
City
of
Vancouver
is
interested
in
expanding
electric
 vehicle
charging
infrastructure
that
would
allow
for
a
more
widespread
adoption
of
 electric
vehicles
across
the
city.
Knowing
how
they
are
being
used
will
help
the
City
 of
Vancouver
achieve
its
Greenest
City
2020
initiative
of
developing
more
 environmentally
friendly
and
sustainable
transportation.

Although
the
idea
of
 electric
cars
appears
promising
from
the
perspective
of
reducing
vehicle‐produced
 GHGs,
there
are
other
issues
that
a
transition
to
an
alternative
fuel
source
would
 create.

This
paper
will
seek
to
discuss
the
benefits
and
costs
of
electric
vehicles
as
 an
alternative
to
conventional
vehicles
(internal
combustion
engine
vehicles)
as
well
 as
analyze
how
electric
vehicles
are
currently
being
used
within
the
City
of
 Vancouver.
This
paper
will
also
seek
to
make
recommendations
on
how
the
City
of
 Vancouver
will
be
able
to
shape
policy
and
implement
infrastructure
that
will
create
 sustainable
and
environmentally
friendly
transportation.
 
 
 
  4
  Method
 Through
the
use
of
scholarly
articles
the
benefits
and
costs
of
the
use
of
electric
 vehicles
will
be
compared
against
one
another.


This
comparison
will
take
into
 account
economical,
social,
and
environmental
considerations.

This
information
will
 then
be
compared
to
vehicle
usage
data
collected
through
an
online
survey
of
City
of
 Vancouver
employees
and
Modo:
The
Car
Co‐op
members
who
are
users
of
the
two
 electric
vehicles
operated
by
the
City
of
Vancouver
and
Modo.

This
vehicle
usage
 data
will
assess
to
driving
habits
and
behaviors
of
the
electric
vehicle
users
and
has
 been
reviewed
by
the
University
of
British
Columbia’s
ethics
review
board.

The
 online
survey
results
will
also
be
compared
to
the
United
States’
National
Household
 Travel
Survey
to
note
similarities
or
differences
in
results.

Through
an
analysis
of
 the
economical,
social,
and
environmental
benefits
and
costs
and
usage
statistics
a
 clearer
picture
should
emerge
about
the
importance
and
usefulness
of
electric
 vehicles
in
regards
to
help
achieve
Vancouver’s
goal
of
being
the
greenest
city
in
the
 world
by
2020.

This
data
will
provide
the
City
of
Vancouver
with
information
about
 how
people
use,
drive,
and
charge
their
vehicles.
 
 Electric
Vehicles
 Confusion
can
easily
occur
when
discussing
the
different
facets
of
electric
vehicles.

 Battery
electric
vehicles
(BEVs)
are
vehicles
that
operate
with
an
electric
motor
 exclusively.

BEVs
contain
batteries,
typically
lithium‐ion,
that
are
charged
through
 by
being
plugged
into
an
electric
source
such
as
a
power
outlet
or
vehicle‐specific
 charging
stations.

BEVs
are
also
capable
of
regenerative
charging
through
the
 
  5
  energy
produced
by
braking.

The
Nissan
Leaf
and
the
Mitsubishi
iMiEV
are
 examples
of
battery
electric
vehicles
and
are
capable
of
travelling
approximately
 100
km
or
more
on
a
single
charge.

Hybrid
vehicles
are
far
more
common
forms
of
 electric
vehicles.

The
Toyota
Prius
or
the
Ford
Escape
are
examples
of
hybrid
 electric
vehicles
(HEVs).

These
vehicles
possess
both
electric
motors
and
 conventional
internal
combustion
engines.

The
vehicles
are
capable
of
using
one
or
 the
other
or
both
engines
depending
on
what
is
most
efficient.

The
batteries
on
 HEVs
charge
through
regenerative
charging.

Hybrid
vehicles
provide
vehicles
with
 greater
fuel
economy
and
reduced
greenhouse
gas
emissions.

Plug‐in
hybrid
 electric
vehicles
(PHEVs),
such
as
the
Chevrolet
Volt,
begin
to
bridge
the
gap
 between
fully
electric
vehicles
and
hybrids.

PHEVs,
like
hybrids,
possess
both
a
 conventional
engine
and
an
electric
motor,
but
plug‐in
hybrids
have
batteries
that
 are
chargeable
like
that
of
a
battery
electric
vehicle.

These
vehicles
utilize
their
 electrical
charge
until
it
is
depleted
then
switch
to
a
conventional
internal
 combustion
engine
for
extended
range.

PHEVs
are
a
logical
first
step
towards
fully
 electric
vehicles
and
require
the
same
charging
infrastructure
as
BEVs.



 
 Electric
Vehicles
Benefits
 Electric
vehicles
represent
one
of
many
options
as
an
alternative
to
the
internal
 combustion
engine.

Battery
electric
vehicles
(BEVs)
do
not
use
fossil
fuels,
and
as
 such
have
limited
ecological
impacts
because
they
do
not
produce
any
greenhouse
  
  6
  gases.1

This
reduction
in
greenhouse
gases
in
their
operation
allows
for
an
 improvement
in
air
quality
and
a
reduction
in
one
of
the
leading
causes
of
climate
 change.

Zero
use
of
fossil
fuels
during
the
life
of
the
vehicle
will
obviously
reduce
 reliance
on
fossil
fuels
as
a
primary
fuel
source.

Increasingly
this
adoption
and
use
 of
electric
vehicles
will
require
more
overall
electrical
energy
production
with
more
 and
more
devices
drawing
from
the
electric
grid.

However,
increased
electrical
 production
can
be
diversified
into
many
more
sustainable,
resilient
forms
such
as
 wind,
solar,
tidal,
or
hydro.

Reducing
reliance
on
fossil
fuels
helps
to
save
money
on
 ever
increasing
oil
prices
and
can
help
to
create
and
stimulate
a
whole
new
sector
of
 economic
development
as
new
electrical
projects
are
created
and
maintained.

 Battery
electric
vehicles
are
not
only
more
environmentally
friendly,
but
they
are
 also
quieter,
reducing
noise
pollution.2

Improved
air
quality
coupled
with
a
reduced
 noise
pollution
will
improve
quality
of
life
for
urban
society
without
massively
 adjusting
urban
infrastructure,
or
driving
behaviors
and
habits.





 
 Electric
Vehicle
Costs
 The
production
of
electric
vehicles,
just
like
any
other
vehicle,
creates
greenhouse
 gas
emissions.

The
production
of
electricity
can
create
GHGs,
for
example
coal
  























































 1
Rienstra,
Sytze
A.
"The
Role
of
Electric
Cars
in
Amsterdam's
Transport
 System
in
the
Year
2015;
A
Scenario
Approach."
Transpn
Res­D
3.1
(1998):
29‐40.
 Elsevier.
Web.
24
Jan.
2012.

31.
 2
Rienstra,
31
  
  7
  generated
electricity.3

Even
though
British
Columbia
relies
heavily
on
hydroelectric
 power,
which
faces
its
own
controversies
from
an
environmental
perspective,
 energy
trading
and
purchases
of
Alberta’s
coal‐fired
electricity4
reduces
the
benefits
 of
electric
vehicles.


For
example,
the
additional
strain
on
the
electrical
system
 through
the
use
of
battery
electric
vehicles
and
plug‐in
hybrid
electric
vehicles
 would
require
California
to
increasingly
utilize
its
natural
gas
fired
combustion
 turbines5
to
supply
the
electrical
demand.

Also,
from
a
societal
and
economic
 perspective,
electric
vehicles
are
expensive
compared
to
conventional
vehicles.6

For
 example,
the
iMiEV
base
cost
is
approximately
$33,000.7

In
contrast
fuel‐efficient
 compact
and
subcompact
vehicles
with
greater
range
can
cost
$10,000
or
less.

For
 many,
a
negative
aspect
of
electric
vehicles
is
their
range.8

60%
of
Americans
want
 an
electric
vehicle
capable
of
travelling
200
miles
(321.9
km)
with
37%
claiming
 they
want
a
300‐mile
(482.8
km)
range.9
 























































 3
Van
Vliet,
Oscar,
Anne
S.
Brouwer,
Takeshi
Kuramochi,
Machteld
Van
Den
 Broek,
and
André
Faaij.
"Energy
Use,
Cost
and
CO2
Emissions
of
Electric
Cars."
 Journal
of
Power
Sources
196
(2011):
2298‐310.
ScienceDirect.
Web.
24
Jan.
2012.

 2308
 4
BC Hydro. Energy Trade. Issue brief. BC Hydro. Print.
 5
Thomas,
C.E.
Sandy.
"“How
Green
Are
Electric
Vehicles?”."
International
  Journal
of
Hydrogen
Energy
(2012):
1‐10.
ScienceDirect.
Web.
25
Jan.
2012.
6.
 6
Rienstra,
31.

 7
Mitsubishi
Canada.
Mitsubishi.
Web.
28
Mar.
2012.<http://www.mitsubishi‐  motors.ca/en/>.
 8
Rienstra,
31.
 9
Van
Haaren,
Rob.
"Assessment
of
Electric
Cars‟
Range
Requirements
and
  Usage
Patterns
Based
on
Driving
Behavior
Recorded
in
the
National
Household
 Travel
Survey
of
2009."
Solar
Journey
USA
(2011):
1‐56.
Google
Scholar.
Web.
20
 Mar.
2012.
6.
 
  8
  
 Alternatives
to
Electric
Vehicles
 Alternatives
to
BEVs
are
plug‐in
hybrid
electric
vehicles,
(such
as
the
Chevrolet
Volt)
 which
possess
both
a
conventional
internal
combustion
engine
and
an
electric
 motor.
These
vehicles
are
perceived
as
a
transition
towards
fully
electric
vehicles
 such
as
BEVs.

The
literature
also
points
to
the
future
significance
of
fuel
cell
electric
 vehicles
(FCEVs)
powered
by
hydrogen,
which
is
further
supported
by
many
who
 believe
the
future
is
based
around
a
“hydrogen
economy.”10

Unfortunately
for
those
 who
have
placed
faith
in
hydrogen
based
fuel
cells,
this
technology
may
still
be
 many
years
off.

There
are
also
arguments
against
the
electric
vehicle
in
places
like
 Sweden
where
the
use
of
biofuels
are
perceived
as
a
viable
alternative
fuel
source.11

 Despite
Sweden
having
many
renewable
energy
resources,
the
production
of
 biofuels
are
a
cost
effective
method12
available
in
the
reduction
of
GHGs.
 
 Electric
Vehicles
and
the
City
of
Vancouver
 The
City
of
Vancouver
operates
5
electric
vehicles
within
their
employee
fleet.

 There
are
two
vehicles
of
primary
interest
to
this
research;
the
Mitsubishi
iMiEV
and
 the
Nissan
Leaf.

Both
are
Battery
Electric
Vehicles
or
BEVs
that
are
operated
by
 























































 10
Van
Mierlo,
J.,
and
G.
Maggetto.
"Fuel
Cell
or
Battery:
Electric
Cars
Are
the
 Future."
Fuel
Cells
7.2
(2007):
165‐73.
Wily
InterScience.
Web.
23
Jan.
2012.
165.
 11
Johansson,
Bengt,
and
Anders
Mårtensson.
"Energy
and
Environmental
  Costs
for
Electric
Vehicles
Using
CO2‐neutral
Electricity
in
Sweden."
Energy
25
 (2000):
777‐92.
Elsavier.
Web.
21
Jan.
2012.
776.
 12
Johansson
and
Mårtensson,
778
  
  9
  Modo.

Modo
is
a
car
co‐operative
that
works
in
co‐operation
with
the
City
of
 Vancouver.

The
iMiEV
is
only
used
City
of
Vancouver
employees.
Both
city
staff
and
 the
public
drive
the
Nissan
Leaf.

A
brief
21‐question
survey
was
conducted
of
the
 users
of
these
vehicles
to
ascertain
how
and
where
the
vehicles
were
being
driven.

 This
survey
has
a
small
sample
size
of
only
22
respondents,
due
to
a
small
number
 of
users.

This
will
affect
the
generalizability
of
the
survey.

Fortunately,
results
in
 the
survey
fall
in
line
with
statistical
information
from
the
United
States’
National
 Household
Travel
Survey
of
2009.13
 
 City
of
Vancouver
Electric
Vehicle
Survey
Results
 With
the
electric
vehicle
range
being
on
the
forefront
of
consumer
concern,
the
 survey
results
illustrated
that
just
over
85%
of
the
trips
taken
by
the
electric
vehicle
 users
are,
on
average,
50
km
or
less,
with
47.6%
of
trips
being
20
km
or
less.
  























































 13
van
Haaran
 
  10
  
 Figure
1
  The
United
States’
National
Household
Travel
Survey
States
that
95%
of
trips
are
 shorter
than
30
miles
(48.3
km)
and
99%
of
trips
are
shorter
than
70
miles
(112.7
 km)(p25).

The
National
Household
Travel
Survey
also
states
the
average
trip
in
an
 urban
environment
is
8.5
miles
and
the
average
trip
in
a
rural
environment
is
12.1
 miles
with
the
weighted
average
being
9.4
miles
(approx
15.1
km)(p26).

Given
the
 range
of
the
Nissan
Leaf
and
the
Mitsubishi
iMiEV,
(rated
at
approximately
117
km
 and
100
km
respectively),
the
vast
majority
of
urban
trips
could
occur
in
an
electric
 vehicle.

The
survey
also
revealed
that
90.5%
of
respondents
had
their
electric
 vehicle
parked
for
over
30
minutes
of
their
booking.

If
plugged
in
while
parked,
 these
vehicles
could
achieve
an
80%
quick
charge
from
a
DC
outlet
within
30
 minutes.14

This
fact
helps
to
alleviate
consumer
worries
about
range
constraints.

 However,
since
these
vehicles
are
typically
parked
on
the
street,
or
in
business
 























































 14
van
Haaren,
6.
 
  11
  parking
lots,
this
illustrates
a
need
for
street
side
charging
options
as
well
as
options
 for
businesses
to
provide
charging
equipment
for
their
customers.
  
 Figure
2
  There
are
currently
several
parkade
locations
in
downtown
Vancouver
with
 charging
stations
for
electric
vehicles,
but
the
survey
indicates
only
22.7%
of
the
 vehicle
users
choosing
to
park
in
parkades.

There
needs
to
be
other
charging
 options
available
to
electric
vehicle
users
at
a
more
diverse
set
of
locations.

The
 Vancouver
Electric
Vehicle
survey
also
indicated
that
none
of
the
respondents
used
 these
vehicles
as
a
means
of
commuting
to
work.

This
is
likely
because
members
of
 a
car
co‐op
only
use
cars
when
necessary
and
city
workers
only
use
the
electric
 vehicle
once
they
are
already
at
work.

The
National
Household
Travel
survey
does
 indicate
that
95%
of
car
commuters
travel
less
than
40
miles
(64.4
km)
(p30),
which
 still
supports
the
idea
that
these
mainstream
electric
vehicles
can
be
used
for
 commuting.
  
  12
  

In
terms
of
how
these
vehicles
are
being
driven,
according
to
the
survey,
60%
of
 people
do
not
adjust
how
they
drive
when
using
an
electric
vehicle.

Users
only
 begin
to
adjust
their
driving
behavior
when
they
are
experiencing
a
low
charge.

 There
is
a
jump
from
40%
of
users
adjusting
their
speed,
distance,
routes,
and
 distances
to
73.7%
when
the
vehicle
has
a
low
charge.

Despite
this
lack
of
 adjustment
by
most
users,
only
two
respondents
ever
ran
out
of
battery
during
their
 use
of
the
electric
vehicles.

This
indicates
that
there
does
not
have
to
be
a
significant
 adjustment
in
how
people
drive
an
electric
vehicle.

There
may
be
benefits
in
 adjusting
driver
behavior,
especially
if
the
battery
charge
is
low,
but
drivers
of
 conventional
vehicles
are
not
anticipated
to
have
to
vary
driving
behavior
when
 adopting/transitioning
to
electric
vehicles.

 
 Electric
Vehicle
Systems
 The
main
question
that
is
often
visited
upon
when
discussing
electric
vehicles
is
the
 range
that
they
can
go
for
and
then
what
happens
if
one
needs
to
go
further.

 Currently
within
the
City
of
Vancouver,
there
are
a
small
number
of
charging
 stations
located
at
certain
Easy
Park
parkade
locations,
Sunset
Community
Center,
 Coal
Harbor
Community
Center,
and
Granville
Island
to
name
a
few.

The
existing
 charging
system
in
Vancouver
is
set
up
to
require
electric
vehicle
users
to
leave
 their
cars
at
specific
locations
for
a
period
of
time
so
that
the
electric
vehicles
are
 able
to
recharge.

This
is
how
Vancouver
intends
to
expand
its
electric
vehicle
 infrastructure
in
the
future.

This
system
is
not
impractical,
but
it
would
require
 driving
habits
to
be
adjusted.


 
  13
  Electric
vehicles
are
regarded
as
excellent
inner‐city
cars
due
to
the
lack
of
noise
 and
pollution15
but
there
needs
to
be
a
viable
option
for
utilizing
these
vehicles
 outside
of
inner‐city
use.

The
City
of
Vancouver
is
a
relatively
small
area.

For
 electric
vehicles
to
be
fully
embraced
they
must
be
capable
of
travelling
anywhere
a
 conventional
vehicle
may
travel.

Increasing
regional
and
provincial
use
of
electric
 vehicles
is
necessary
and
requires
infrastructure
development
outside
of
the
City
of
 Vancouver.

Improved
battery
and
charging
station
technology
will
also
allow
for
a
 wider
electric
vehicle
system
by
providing
a
longer
lasting
storage
option
combined
 with
faster,
more
efficient
charging.

Options
presented
by
companies
such
as
Better
 Place
provide
similar
service
a
gas
station
would
to
a
conventional
vehicle.

Better
 Place
performs
a
quick
replacement
of
an
electric
vehicles
depleted
battery
for
a
 fully
charged
one.16

This
would
increase
vehicle
range
due
to
the
ability
to
replace
 batteries
quickly
and
continue
a
trip
without
the
wait
time
of
a
minimum
of
30
 minutes17
that
a
charging
station
presents.
 
 Recommendations
and
Conclusion
 From
a
environmental
sustainability
perspective,
electric
vehicles
make
logical
 sense.

Electric
vehicles
in
Vancouver
will
cut
vehicle
and
noise
pollution,
helping
 























































 15
Wirasingha,
Sanjaka
J.,
Nigel
Schofield,
and
Ali
Emadi.
"Plug‐in
Hybrid
 Electric
Vehicle
Developments
in
the
US:
Trends,
Barriers,
and
Economic
 Feasibility."
Proc.
of
IEEE
Vehicle
Power
and
Propulsion
Conference,
China,
Harbin.
 Web.
22
Jan.
2012.
8.
 16
Better  Place | The Global Provider of EV Networks and Services. Better Place. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. <http://www.betterplace.com/>. 
 17
van
Haaren,
6.
  
  14
  the
City
of
Vancouver
achieve
its
environment
and
sustainability
goals
while
 improving
quality
of
life
for
Vancouver
residents.

For
electric
vehicles
to
be
widely
 used
in
Vancouver,
the
City
will
need
to
focus
on
educating
the
residents
about
the
 benefits
of
electric
vehicles
to
the
environment,
the
economy
and
to
society
as
a
 whole.

Once
people
begin
to
understand
and
think
critically
of
how
they
drive,
they
 hopefully
will
realize
that
moving
towards
electric
vehicles
is
not
only
a
reasonable
 decision
but
also
a
smart
one.

To
help
make
the
prospect
of
switching
to
electric
 vehicles
more
attractive,
the
City
of
Vancouver
should
attempt
partnerships,
 initially,
with
Metro
Vancouver
municipalities
in
an
attempt
to
create
an
expanded
 charging
grid,
thus
increasing
mobility
across
the
Lower
Mainland.

The
City
should
 also
create
further
incentives
to
purchase
electric
vehicles
as
well
to
create
 incentives,
such
as
tax
breaks,
for
the
implementation
of
charging
stations
at
private
 business
to
further
increase
the
electric
vehicle‐charging
grid.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  15
  Bibliography
 Andersen,
Poul
H.,
John
A.
Mathews,
and
Morten
Rask.
"Integrating
Private
 Transport
into
Renewable
Energy
Policy:
The
Strategy
of
Creating
Intelligent
 Recharging
Grids
for
Electric
Vehicles."
Energy
Policy
37
(2009):
2481‐486.
 ScienceDirect.
Web.
23
Jan.
2012.

 BC Hydro. Energy Trade. Issue brief. BC Hydro. Print.
 Better Place | The Global Provider of EV Networks and Services. Better Place. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. <http://www.betterplace.com/>. 
 Johansson,
Bengt,
and
Anders
Mårtensson.
"Energy
and
Environmental
Costs
for
 Electric
Vehicles
Using
CO2‐neutral
Electricity
in
Sweden."
Energy
25
(2000):
 777‐92.
Elsavier.
Web.
21
Jan.
2012.

 Mitsubishi
Canada.
Mitsubishi.
Web.
28
Mar.
2012.
<http://www.mitsubishi‐ motors.ca/en/>.
 Rienstra,
Sytze
A.
"The
Role
of
Electric
Cars
in
Amsterdam's
Transport
System
in
the
 Year
2015;
A
Scenario
Approach."
Transpn
Res­D
3.1
(1998):
29‐40.
Elsevier.
 Web.
24
Jan.
2012.

 Thomas,
C.E.
Sandy.
"“How
Green
Are
Electric
Vehicles?”."
International
Journal
of
 Hydrogen
Energy
(2012):
1‐10.
ScienceDirect.
Web.
25
Jan.
2012.
 Van
Haaren,
Rob.
"Assessment
of
Electric
Cars‟
Range
Requirements
and
Usage
 Patterns
Based
on
Driving
Behavior
Recorded
in
the
National
Household
  
  16
  Travel
Survey
of
2009."
Solar
Journey
USA
(2011):
1‐56.
Google
Scholar.
Web.
 20
Mar.
2012.

 Van
Mierlo,
J.,
and
G.
Maggetto.
"Fuel
Cell
or
Battery:
Electric
Cars
Are
the
Future."
 Fuel
Cells
7.2
(2007):
165‐73.
Wily
InterScience.
Web.
23
Jan.
2012.
 Van
Vliet,
Oscar,
Anne
S.
Brouwer,
Takeshi
Kuramochi,
Machteld
Van
Den
Broek,
and
 André
Faaij.
"Energy
Use,
Cost
and
CO2
Emissions
of
Electric
Cars."
Journal
of
 Power
Sources
196
(2011):
2298‐310.
ScienceDirect.
Web.
24
Jan.
2012.

 Wirasingha,
Sanjaka
J.,
Nigel
Schofield,
and
Ali
Emadi.
"Plug‐in
Hybrid
Electric
 Vehicle
Developments
in
the
US:
Trends,
Barriers,
and
Economic
Feasibility."
 Proc.
of
IEEE
Vehicle
Power
and
Propulsion
Conference,
China,
Harbin.
Web.
 22
Jan.
2012.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
  17
  Appendix A  
  Survey Results & Analysis for  City of Vancouver’s Electric Vehicle User Analysis  
  18
  Executive Summary This report contains a detailed statistical analysis of the results to the survey titled City of Vancouver’s Electric Vehicle User Analysis . The results analysis includes answers from all respondents who took the survey in the 5 day period from Thursday, March 08, 2012 to Monday, March 12, 2012. 22 completed responses were received to the survey during this time.  
  19
  Survey Results & Analysis Survey: City of Vancouver’s Electric Vehicle User Analysis Responses Received: 22  1) How old are you?  
  20
  2) On average, how many Modo trips do you make a week?  
  21
  3) Of those trips, how many are in an electric vehicle  
  22
  4) On average, what distance do you drive each trip in the electric vehicle? (KM)  
  23
  5) On average, how long is your booking in the electric vehicle? (minutes)  
  24
  6) What is your main use of the electric vehicle Response  Count Percent  Work (driving vehicle for work purposes)  7  33.3%  Recreation/Entertainment (community centers, move theatres, etc)  5  23.8%  Commuting (driving to and from workplace)  0  0.0%  Errands (grocery shopping, appointments, etc.)  6  28.6%  Other (please specify)  3  14.3%  Other Responses: Church & volunteer work drop family at work and school educational  
  25
  7) During your booking, how long does the electric vehicle usually sit parked? (minutes)  
  26
  8) Where do you usually park with the electric vehicle? select all that apply.  Other Responses: city offices/sites  
  27
  9) Do you park at locations with services (shops, community centers, etc) but not use the services?  
  28
  10) What kind of roads do you typically drive on?  Other Responses: Main thoroughfares like broadway both  
  29
  11) Do you find the range indication accurate in the electric vehicle?  
  30
  12) Do you trust the range indication in the electric vehicle?  
  31
  13) Do you experience anxiety over the range indicated?  
  32
  14) Does your trust or distrust of the indicated range affect your driving behavior? If yes, then how is your driving behavior affected?  Comment Responses:  More cautious a lot more cruising when I am running low a lot more cruising when I am running low  
  33
  15) Is your driving behavior (trip length, speed, distance traveled, routes, time spent parked, etc.) different when using an electric vehicle as opposed to a conventional vehicle? If yes, then how so?  Comment Responses: Slower acceleration If I had a long range trip, I wouldn't book the electric vehicle. I do not take long trips to Abbotsford on behalf of the church or volunteer work in the electric vehicle. All other factors same - I treat it like a regular car when I'm in the city. I skip long trips only  
  34
  Would likely not use for extended out-of-town trips trip length not exceed battery charge Shorter trips closer to home. after almost running out of power on a recreational trip to mt seymour, i will never use an electric car again for long distance after almost running out of power on a recreational trip to mt seymour, i will never use an electric car again for long distance I drove faster to test performance  
  35
  16) Do you adjust your driving behavior (trip length, speed, distance traveled, routes, time spent parked, etc.) when the electric vehicles has a low charge? If yes, then how so?  Comment Responses: Slower driving I have less of a 'lead foot' in an elec vehicle It hasn't happened, but I would accelerate more slowly to conserve the battery. Avoid hills where possible drive more effeciently, turn down heater  
  36
  Once had to abort a trip to richmond cause the range dropped to naught Not applicable never paid attention to charge distance reduced Shorter trips closer to home. I wouldnt accelerate of brake as hard. after almost running out of power on a recreational trip to mt seymour, i will never use an electric car again for long distance after almost running out of power on a recreational trip to mt seymour, i will never use an electric car again for long distance Not Applicable - Have not had this situation  
  37
  17) When driving an electric vehicle, have you ever run out of battery?  
  38
  18) What do you consider a "low charge" on the electric vehicle's battery? What do you consider a "low charge" on the electric vehicle's battery? 1/4 charge <25km I take short trips so I've never seen the charge under about 75%. Less than 25 km on the indicator. Don't know - can't understand the estimated mileage indicator. It swings all over the place. Once, when picking up the vehicle for a 20km round trip, I found the vehicle only half-charged with 89km range showing on the indicator - obviously previous driver hadn't figured out how to start the charge. After six blocks travelling on Cambie St, the range indicator was dowwn to 68 km. I am aware of "memory effect" and "voltage rebound" when a battery has rested for a time, but this was ridiculous. I asked advice from Modo, who could not advise whether they thought the remaining charge would be enough for my 20 km round trip, and made arrangements for me to return and take a gas-powered car. less than 30km Less than 20km Less than 30 kms remaining. 25% remaining 40% 10 KMs left never paid attention to charge less than 1/8 Less than 30 kms. When it says "Low"  
  39
  30kms less than 10km less than 10km When it says Low Charge or the dial is on "L" or 10% or so. 15 km 80% of nominal voltage  
  40
  19) Do you adjust your driving behavior when the electric vehicle has a low charge? If yes, then how so?  Comment Responses:  Slower driving/Less Heat or Air conditioning/Return home Drive more conservatively Same as above! What do you call a " low charge"? See 18 above. At all other times the range indicator has been nearly full or full when I picked the car up. 
  41
  indicator has been nearly full or full when I picked the car up. Not applicable. lightly tapping accelerator slow down Shorter trips closer to home. I wouldnt accelerate of brake as hard. Ive only used the ev once more cruising, less accelerationg more cruising, less accelerationg Is this not the same as Question #16 have not experienced this condition  
  42
  20) Why do you choose to use an electric vehicle as opposed to a conventional vehicle? Why do you choose to use an electric vehicle as opposed to a conventional vehicle? Less pollution, quiet ride, feels good Because I work with them Fun to drive It's quieter and has a smoother acceleration than any other car I've driven. Ummmm.... not for altruistic reasons. The Coop supported choice by purchasing the electric vehicle, and I support the Coop in as many of its decisions as I can. In generally, the car is available when I need it (eves/wknds), and apart from the information panel, it's a comfortable car to drive, unlike the Prius or the Mini. It's clean. Makes me feel good. Curiosity and environmental reasons. No preference. Sometimes electric cars are the only ones available. Test it out, it is new, once the newness is gone then I won't use it as it is not reliable couriousity environmental reasons Environmental (cleaner air), economical (no need to take 5-8 minutes out of booking to fill up), fun factor ( a cool car to drive). Quieter, environmentally better for air quality. Environment environmentally conscious  
  43
  environmentally conscious I like it and it's good for the environment. Less pollution, an unusual car, quieter. Oil companies are evil  
  44
  21) Please insert any further comments about electric vehicles, driving behavior, or this survey  Please insert any further comments about electric vehicles, driving behavior, or this survey The electric car is great! Perfect for city driving to complete daily errands etc. I am very satisfied with it's performance and range. The Modo car is always fully charged, so I've never had to deal with a low battery. My trips are short. For the one trip I sometimes make that's out of range, I can just take a different car. We need more! delayed throttle, to sluggish, not enough battery life. Q 11 - 14 ashould have option to say never paid attention to range readings I have only driven the Mitsubishi for business travel and like it very much The air in Vancouver is already very clean for a city of its size, a continued push for electric vehicles in the city could lead to even better overall air quality. I would like to use more ev's. disappointed that you had to pay to re-charge at public lots As a car-sharing member, I have used an electric vehicle once. Based on a very positive experience, I would use it again in the future. Some of the questions on this survey were not applicable to my experiences - I have tried to indicate this where possible. 
 
 Information panel (dashboard) is the biggest barrier to comfortability. I'm a technical engineer, so I'm comfortable with interpreting readings and making allowances for how technology behaves, but I find the Nissan EV's dashboard very confusing and not conducive to efficient driving nor trustworthy to the limits 
  45
  of the charge. I don't even know what advice to give. The indicator that shows what I think is power consumption on acceleration vs. regenerative braking capacity on coasting/braking doesn't indicate whether I'm regenerating, or merely just dissipating kinetic energy with the brakes. The range indicator varies way too much to be of much use - and 12 bars? Not 10? Seriously? A 3-blocklong hill from Alma up W. 10th Ave past Crown is long enough to take 25 km off the range, and if you watch it over the next several blocks, it slowly recovers about 20km of that. What good is that? The 3/4 clock thingy in the upper left corner? No idea what it is. Symbols indicating equipment warning don't indicate what's wrong - a persistent warning indicator had me checking the parking brake twice while driving, once to sound of screeching tires when it was electrically activated in full (damn drive-by-wire!). That time it turned out to be a box of goods I'd placed on the passenger seat beside me, but with only a symbol, how can you know what the car wants is for the box to be wearing a seat belt? Words have vanished from dashboards, and I don't know why. It's very difficult to understand what the car is trying to tell you without words. I think that for now, most people who buy electric cars have some technical knowledge and are comfortable with words to offer explanatory information. I'm sure one of the target markets is people who aren't technically comfortable but want to "support the green thing" - true, they may shy away from electric vehicles fearing information overload with a wordy dashboard, but based on my wife's reaction, I'm quite sure this dashboard isn't the answer. My driving behaviour hasn't changed from gas to electric. I've rarely accelerated more than four dot's on the accelerometer, (once five dots, now that I think of it) I still coast a lot, time traffic lights, and occasionally speed down a hill by coasting in order to conserve momentum when going back up the other side. The electric is comfortable doing that, and one time I'd like to try driving it til the charge runs out just to see if it makes the advertised 132km I usually see when picking it up. But I've many better things to do first.... 
 
 
  
  46
  

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