Open Collections

UBC Undergraduate Research

Investigating the potential mitigating effects of ecotourism to reduce the impact of local conflicts,… Jun, Xuan Apr 30, 2014

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52966-Xuan Jun_frst 497_Grad Essay_2014.pdf [ 642.75kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52966-1.0075584.json
JSON-LD: 52966-1.0075584-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52966-1.0075584-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52966-1.0075584-rdf.json
Turtle: 52966-1.0075584-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52966-1.0075584-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52966-1.0075584-source.json
Full Text
52966-1.0075584-fulltext.txt
Citation
52966-1.0075584.ris

Full Text

  INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL MITIGATING EFFECTS OF ECOTOURISM TO REDUCE THE IMPACT OF LOCAL CONFLICTS, ILLEGAL LOGGING, AND BIODIVERSITY LOSS IN DEVELOPING TROPICAL COUNTRIES  by  Xuan Jun  B.S.F., The University of British Columbia, 2014  A GRADUATING ESSAY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  BACHELOR OF SCIENCE  In Forest Resources Management  The Faculty of Forestry  FRST 497  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  Vancouver  April 2014  I ABSTRACT In recent decades, large expanses of rainforest in tropical countries have been deforested and degraded because of inappropriate forestry practices and conversion to other uses, such as agriculture and grazing. The governments that preside over these forestlands are eager to adopt land use strategies aimed at conserving forest resources and maintaining biodiversity. However, they face stiff resistance in the form of illegal logging, livelihood conflicts, and biodiversity loss that caused by inappropriate forest practices. The economic returns of reforestation are generally lower than timber harvesting. Moreover, for private companies, the incentives to engage in illegal logging activities are considerable. In addition, the lack of security regarding land tenure creates conflict between biodiversity is also a problem, one that is attributable to a lack of knowledge of conservation among local people. Introducing an ecotourism system represents one approach to protecting rainforests from illegal logging operations, reducing biodiversity loss and resource conflicts, and improving the quality of life for local residents. This essay will discuss possibilities of introducing ecotourism for most developing tropical countries.   KEYWORDS: tropical country, ecotourism, policy, illegal logging, livelihood, biodiversity loss     II ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Mike Meitner for his valuable and constructive advices and effective guidance during the planning and completion of this report. My heartfelt thanks also go to Dr. Peter L Marshall for his suggestions of proposal writing and encouragements. I would also like to extend my thanks to all the stuff members of the Forestry Faculty and my fellow friends for their help with encouraging me to engage in my university life.      III TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................ II TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ III LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................... IV 1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 1 Deforestation and degradation .............................................................................................................. 1 2. OBJECTIVE AND GUIDELINES .......................................................................................... 2 3. BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................... 2 Illegal logging .......................................................................................................................................... 2 Conflicts at local level ............................................................................................................................. 3 Loss of biodiversity ................................................................................................................................. 4 4. DESCRIPTION OF ECOTOURISM ...................................................................................... 5 Definition of Ecotourism ........................................................................................................................ 5 The Development of Ecotourism ........................................................................................................... 6 General values of Ecotourism ................................................................................................................ 6 5. DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................................ 7 Economic sustainability ......................................................................................................................... 7 Social sustainability ................................................................................................................................ 8 Environmental sustainability ................................................................................................................. 9 Corruption in ecotourism industries ..................................................................................................... 9 6. SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................. 10 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 12       IV LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Ratio of different reasons that cause degradation and deforestation in tropical countries (Hosonuma et al. 2012)........................................................................................................... 1  Figure 2. The benefits and frame of ecotourism: successful ecotourism has interactive contributions with each criteria (Ross. & Wall. 1999). .......................................................... 7     1 1. INTRODUCTION  Deforestation and degradation  By the early 1990s, due mainly to illegal logging, over grazing and land conversion to agriculture use, the total area of deforested and degraded lands in the tropics exceeded that of  mature tropical forests (Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. 2014). The trends has persisted, causing increasing concern in recent years (Lindsey. 2007). According to The 2003 World Development Report, one fifth of tropical forests have disappeared in the last 50 years (Arcand et al. 2008). Research studies show that almost half the tropical forests of Asian, where the highest rates of forest loss have occurred, have been depleted by more than 70% (Laurance. 2007). For example, by 2005 Bangladesh had lost 89.9% of its original forest cover (Laurance. 2007). In some “forest-rich” countries, such as Malaysia and Indonesia where over 50% of the land mass is forested, forests are being cleared at some of the highest rates among tropical countries (Laurance. 2007).   Deforestation and degradation of tropical rainforests (see Figure 1.) is exacerbating climate Figure 1. Ratio of different reasons that cause degradation and deforestation in tropical countries (Hosonuma et al. 2012).    2 change, biodiversity loss and the destruction of ecosystems. In response to these threats, governments in most tropical countries, especially in Kenya, Brazil and Peru (Weaver. 1998, ITTO. 2011, Stronza & Pêgas. 2008), have adopted strategies for reducing tropical forest loss. One such strategy involves developing an ecotourism industry, the aim of which is to bring into balance the economic needs of local communities and protection of the natural environment.  2. OBJECTIVE AND GUIDELINES  This report intends to examine the role ecotourism can play, in the context of developing countries, in reducing illegal logging, loss of biodiversity and addressing resource conflicts at the local level.   Each of these problems will be discussed in detail. In addition, ways and means related to ecotourism will be proposed for reducing their impacts.   3. BACKGROUND Illegal logging The scale of illegal logging in tropical countries is enormous. In a 2009 report entitled Global demand for wood products the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2009) estimates that, for the period 1965 – 1990, the gap between the supply and demand for roundwood amounted to 18.4 million m3, a shortfall made good by illegal logging. During the period 1990 – 2005, this figure increased to 30 million m3, almost twice that of the earlier period (FAO. 2009). In Indonesia, in 1990s, royalties amounting to approximately $660 million (US) were lost due to illegal logging, a figure that has risen annually (Palmer. 2001). At the root of the problems lies a huge and growing demand for forest products. Currently, tropical countries annually export primary and secondary wood products valued at over $20 billion (US) (FAO. 2009). Because the demand exceeds the sustainable yield, prices continue to rise (FAO. 2009), increasing illegal logging. According to the International Tropical Timber Organization (2011), illegal logging operations generate two-to-five times the revenue of their legitimate counterparts owing to their ability to provide a reliable supply of mahogany and other hardwoods. Moreover, illegal   3 harvesters neither follow environmental regulations nor invest in sustaining the forests they exploit.   Conflicts at local level  It is often the case in tropical countries that local communities go to great lengths to preserve and even strengthen their rights and to attract investment in public infrastructure (Hall. 2011). It is common practice for private companies to exploit forests without first obtaining legal permission (Hall. 2011). To avoid prosecution, they harvest the trees as quickly as possible in what might be best described as ‘hit and run’ operations. In the case of Indonesia, after the fall of the Sheoharto regime in 1990s, a radically new approach was proposed to address deforestation, one that would prove difficult to implement (Lennart. 1999). This strategy required that the responsibilities of the central and local governments be clearly defined and the rights of local communities enforced (Lennart. 1999). Although special reservations were established both to safeguard the local inhabitants and their heritage and to promote the development of a sustainable ecotourism industry, conflicts between private companies and local communities over “benefit sharing, access to resources and property rights” soon arose and persist to this day (Kaimowitz et al., 1998, Barr et al., 2006, Komarudin et al., 2007). In the sight of the law, the Amerindian peoples have permanent title to, and the right of use of, the soil, rivers and lakes that comprise their lands and all the resources pertaining to them; the problem lies in the failure of multi-level government to establish clear boundaries between state and communal forests (Yasmi et al. 2009). The governments have also failed to address resource conflicts in a timely fashion, resulting in accelerated deforestation and increasing social conflict that have intensified over time (Yasmi et al. 2009). In addition, national laws sometimes conflict with regulations put in place by local government bodies (Yasmi et al. 2009). In these circumstances, traditional or customary laws are often ignored. Local governments often fail to guarantee forest companies long-term access to privately owned forests. In the absence of secure land tenure forestry management becomes impossible (Yasmi et al. 2009).     In many developing tropical countries, there exists legislation designed to distinguish land use   4 and protected areas (ITTO. 2006). This legislation also specifies ways and means to manage forest lands. Governments also subsidize companies and communities employing desirable forest practices while penalizing those employing harmful practices (ITTO. 2006). It is often the case, however, that whether desirable or harmful, these policies impede the development of ecotourism (ITTO. 2006). Pricing policies often fail to meet their objectives or lack strict enforcement (FAO. 2009). Underpricing—prices for standing roundwood, for example, can be far lower than those to be had in competitive markets—and inadequate government funding can discourage the implementation of forest management plans (FAO. 2009), while high profit margins can encourage illegal logging and inappropriate forest practices.  Loss of biodiversity The loss of biodiversity in tropical forests has accelerated over the last decade (Kramer, 1997). At the same time, state governments have cut funding to forestry departments and environmental agencies, in addition to reducing their personnel levels (Kramer, 1997). Millions of hectares of remote forestlands await the arrival of managers capable of administering them (Kramer, 1997). The failure of conservation programs has resulted in resource depletion, environmental degradation, a decline in biodiversity and impairment of hydrological systems, all of which pose a threat to traditional societies (Kramer, 1997).  The present forest biodiversity study of tropical forests located in Nepal indicates that the management approach taken by Community Forest Users’ Groups (CFUGs) has impeded efforts aimed at conserving biodiversity  (Acharya, 2004). Forest structure and composition are undergoing three types of change (Acharya, 2004). First, the forests are slowly reverting to monocultures (Acharya, 2004). Second, shrub and tree diversity is gradually in decline. Lastly, the most critical threat is to shrub lands and shrub species (Acharya, 2004).  There exists increasing evidence of threats to biodiversity outside protected areas, and especially to the maintenance of shrub and tree species (Acharya, 2004). Areas once dominated by shrub species are gradually reverting to forests (Acharya, 2004). This may lead to the local elimination of shrubs and low quality timber species from community-managed mid-hill forests and to an overall change in forest types (Acharya, 2004). The mechanisms and processes responsible for   5 the gradual conversion of shrub lands to high forest lands are not part of any natural ecological process. This situation will lead to the creation of modified forest types and ecosystems in the mid-hills of Nepal, ultimately affecting ecological functions and the services provided by forests (Acharya, 2004). The current wood-product-oriented management regime in place has persistently ignored other forestry values, such as conservation (Acharya, 2004). It also ignores the fact that the production of a broad range of forest products requires maintaining diverse habitats, including closed-canopy forests and open lands (Acharya, 2004). There exists a general failure to recognize that the cost of maintaining biodiversity can be offset economic benefits realized over the long-term (Acharya, 2004).   4. DESCRIPTION OF ECOTOURISM  Ecotourism offers a practical approach to reducing the environmental impact of illegal logging, along with the local conflicts this occasions. Promoting sustainable development by establishing an ecotourism system, which provides local people with both economy development and entertainment, allows ecotourism with a long-term development (Sproule. 1996). According to Ngece et al. (2002), most local inhabitants in tropical countries prefer to get resources directly under their own title, instead of improving the environment and waiting for the subsidy from government. In order to balance the livelihood economy and the sustainable forest management development, ecotourism industries could be considered as priority. In most developing tropical countries, rural people may consider of job positions and instant benefits more, so that they might ignore the impact of degradation and deforestation (Sproule. 1996). Due to the different goal among government and rural people, it could be more efficient for governments to express the number of job positions that ecotourism will bring (Sproule. 1996). Introducing ecotourism industry could be an efficient way to reduce the impact of livelihood conflicts that caused by deforestation and degradation. Definition of Ecotourism The development of global tourism has brought a new awareness of the negative impacts resulting from deforestation, along with a new sense of urgency regarding the need to protect the natural environment. At the same time, it is recognized that tourism can have a significant impact on local environments in the form of over consumption of natural resources and the waste   6 tourists generate. To reduce these impacts and place tourism on a sustainable footing, the concept of ecotourism has been developed. The Ecotourism Society defines ecotourism as “purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and the natural history of the environment; taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem; producing economic opportunities that make the conservation of the natural resources beneficial to the local people” (Lindberg et al. 2010). According to this definition, ecotourism represents an innovative way to balance economic and conservation values, while preserving local cultures and ways of life.    The main goal of ecotourism is to protect environment and develop the economy and society at the same time. When protecting natural areas, three considerations are paramount: economic investment, environmental education, and local involvement (Ross. & Wall. 1999). Each has a conservation component, i.e., the protection of biological diversity and preservation of natural resources and an economic component, i.e., economic growth and the provision of infrastructure (Ross. & Wall. 1999). By integrating these elements, the goals of developing the economy and protecting the environment may be attained more easily (Ross. & Wall. 1999).  The Development of Ecotourism In 1999, more than 63 million tourists visited foreign countries (The International Ecotourism Society. 2000). International travellers spent in excess of $453 billion on transportation, hotels, entertainment, and food (The International Ecotourism Society. 2000). Ecotourism and other nature-related travel accounted for 20% of this figure and has increased at a rate of 10% to 25% annually (The International Ecotourism Society. 2000). To meet this demand, Brazil has established more than 150 conservation areas in 40 National Parks that received 3.5 million visitors in 1998 alone; that same year 47% of foreign tourists travelling to Peru visited natural areas. In 1998 Australia’s national parks accommodated nearly 1.7 million visitors, 29.4 percent more than in 1993 (The International Ecotourism Society. 2000). The Asia-Pacific Region has experienced an annual growth in ecotourism of between 10% and 25% (Lindberg et al. 2010).  General values of Ecotourism As Figure 2. Shows, the benefits that ecotourism may bring to specific areas include the conservation of natural areas, economic development and participation by local residents (Ross.   7 & Wall. 1999). Ecotourism provides employment for local people (Ross. & Wall. 1999) and promotes the growth of transportation and communications infrastructure and of businesses providing goods and services to tourists (Ross. & Wall. 1999). Most tourism revenues contribute to maintaining, protecting, and managing ecotourism sites and improving the quality of life for local residents (Ross. & Wall. 1999). Regarding local participation, tourists and local communities may develop intercultural relationships, which provide both with global cultural experiences, along with increased awareness of conservation. To increase consciousness on the part of local residents of the need for environmental conservation, some form of formal education is required. By conserving natural areas, ecotourism may reduce the impact of tropical deforestation by reducing timber harvesting. It may also contribute to increasing biodiversity by providing the local people with alternatives to harvesting forests.   5. DISCUSSION Ecotourism brings several benefits, including providing employment opportunities and income for local communities, increasing environmental awareness in the case of both international tourists and local people, and minimizing negative impacts on the natural environment (Sproule. 1996). Consequently, ecotourism has the potential to reduce the incidence of illegal logging as well as conflict over resources and biodiversity loss (Hall. 2011). Economic sustainability Economic sustainability means to get better development of society and to present the potential Figure 2. The benefits and frame of ecotourism: successful ecotourism has interactive contributions with each criteria (Ross. & Wall. 1999).   8 abilities of even all economic activities (Hall. 2011). In particular, economic sustainability is about the feasibility of industry and company activities and the ability of sustainable development (Hall. 2011).   Economic sustainability of ecotourism could help with reducing the impact that illegal logging brings. Illegal logging does not need to pay the taxes and fees that are required by the government, which means exploiters may suffer the high risk of being punished to get higher profit. It is difficult to keep companies managing the forest sustainably and local people exploiting and utilizing the forest rationally.   When the principles of economic sustainability are applied to any resource-based business, short-term profits decline and long-term profits either increase or are maintained indefinitely. In most developing tropical countries, logging companies are confronted with two choices: to harvest as soon as possible and invest the profits outside the forest industry or wait until the maximum forest values can be realized (ITTO 2005). If companies choose the first option, they can earn quick profits and reinvest them to obtain the maximum economic return (ITTO 2005). If the second is selected, the companies earn smaller profits (ITTO 2005) and take greater risks, e.g., the risk of forests being destroyed by natural disasters (ITTO 2005). Either choice has implications for sustainable development. However, involvement in the ecotourism industry presents a third choice. Thus, for example, logging companies could offer ecotourists accommodation and/or wilderness experiences (The International Ecotourism Society. 2000). Since ecotourism sites are usually located in protected forests, companies would have every incentive to halt illegal logging operations and focus on sustainable development (Ross. & Wall. 1999).  Social sustainability  Social sustainability means providing equal opportunities to, and respecting the rights of, both local communities and international tourists (Hall. 2011). This kind of sustainability focuses mainly on alleviating poverty through the equitable sharing of benefits. Cultural interaction and education opportunities for local communities are among these benefits (Hall. 2011).     9 Ecotourism can help maintain a balance between natural resource conservation and the economic development of local communities (Ngece et al. 2002). Both indigenous cultures and local communities may benefit from ecotourism (Ngece et al. 2002), thus reducing the likelihood of conflict between the two parties.  Although formulating forest management policies and enforcing them more rigorously is necessary, it also essential to get local people involved in the ecotourism industry (Ontario Nature. 2005). A careful assessment of the level of community interest in ecotourism may be required at the very beginning of the planning stage. This would be an appropriate role for local government authorities (Ontario Nature. 2005).  Environmental sustainability The term ‘environmental sustainability’ refers to sustainable resources conservation and management plan (Hall. 2011). Crucially, the focus here is on resources that are renewable and/or essential for the preservation of wildlife (Hall. 2011). Typical actions taken to enhance environmental sustainability include minimizing air and water pollution, reducing soil erosion, and preserving biodiversity (Hall. 2011). Ecotourism can help in all these respects by providing local communities with an alternative to industrial logging. This in turn would contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity and the recovery of forests. Local residents would be provided with employment that has a small environmental footprint (Ngece. 2002).  Corruption in ecotourism industries Challenges invariably arise when ecotourism is introduced in a developing country. Corruption is a controversial topic in most developing countries located in the tropics. Some people argue that developed countries have poured investment into these nations to promote ecotourism, protect tropical forests and provide employment opportunities for the poor. However, financial aid from developed countries often ends up in private hands owing to the endemic corruption among government officials. Corruption is an ingrained problem, the cause of which is poverty and economic backwardness (Wallace & Pierce, 1996).     10 To be of real benefit to communities over the long term, ecotourism must be carefully planned and managed in innovative ways (Wallace & Pierce, 1996). In particular, long-term planning is essential. According to Wallace and Pierce (1996), most tourists visiting the Amazon rain forest stay at non-ecotourism sites, e.g., commercial jungle lodges, which are far removed from legally designated ecotourism sites. In addition, owing to their lack of education, it is difficult to employ local people who, for the most part, follow a hunter-gather lifestyle, in the ecotourism industry (Wallace & Pierce, 1996).   Widespread corruption in tropical countries is a principal obstacle to the development of ecotourism. The latter can be viewed as a rent-seeking enterprise (Palmer, 2001). In this scheme of things, government politicians are rent seekers, who formulate policies that favour the business interests that support them financially. Thus, for example, logging companies routinely bribe politicians and other government officials to obtain forest concessions (Palmer, 2001). This kind of lobbying helps explain why ecotourism has made so little headway. Corruption also undermines the justice system, and particularly law enforcement. Business elites benefit the most from this culture of corruption as they possess more wealth with which to bribe government officials (Kaimowitz et al. 1998; Barr et al. 2006; Komarudin et al. 2007), which only exacerbates conflicts over resources and property rights. In addition, powerful companies can simply disregard government policies that constrain their activities, again because they possess the wherewithal to obtain whatever they wish from corrupt officials. Well aware that penalties and responsibilities can be evaded by means of bribery, logging companies are more likely to overexploit forests lands.   6. SUMMARY  The three problems that have been discussed here, i.e., illegal logging, resource conflicts, and loss of biodiversity, are both complex and interrelated. Thus, one problem can be triggered or exacerbated by another. Sometimes the impacts created by these problems are cumulative. Developing an ecotourism industry is one approach to reducing the impacts and mitigating the problems. However, there exist formidable challenges to be overcome if developing countries in the tropics wish to develop a vibrant ecotourism sector.    11  In order to create a thriving ecotourism sector, stakeholders must promote sustainable development by establishing an economic base capable of employing local inhabitants (Sproule. 1996). In addition, the social dimensions of environmental conservation and development must be taken into account. In most developing tropical countries, ecotourism has the potential to slow the rate of environmental degradation, thus conserving biodiversity, and empower local residents, which are the key goals of sustainable development.        12 REFERENCES  Acharya, K. P. (2004). Does Community Forests Management Supports Biodiversity Conservation? Evidences from Two Community Forests from the Mid Hills of Nepal. Journal of Forest and Livelihood (July, 2004). 4(1).   Agramont, A.R.E., Maass, S.F., Bernal, G.N., Hernández, J.I.V., & Fredericksen, T.S. (2011). Effect of human disturbance on the structure and regeneration of forests in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Journal of Forestry Research (2012). 23(1): 39-44. DOI: 10.1007/s11676-012-0226-8 Allen, L.R., Long, P.T., Perdue, R.R., & Kieselbach, S. (2011). The Impact of Tourism Development On Residents’ Perceptions of Community Life. Journal of Travel Research. 50: 627-640.  Arcand, J.L., Guillaumont, P. & Jeanneney, S.G. (2008). Deforestation and the real exchange rate. Journal of Development Economics 86(2): 242-262. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.02.004.  Blaser, J. (2010). Forest law compliance and governance in tropical countries. A region-by-region assessment of the status of forest law compliance and governance in the tropics, and recommendations for improvement. FA0 & ITTO.  Blaser, J., Sarre, A., Poore, D. & Johnson, S.. (2011). Status of Tropical Forest Management 2011. International Tropical Timber Organization  C. Michael Hall. (2011). Policy learning and policy failure in sustainable tourism governance: from first- and second-order to third-order change?. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 19: 4-5, 649-671. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2011.555555.  Denman, R. (2001). Guidelines for Community Based Ecotourism Development. WWF International.  Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science 162(1968):1243-1248.  Hosonuma, N., Herold, M., Veronique De Sy., Ruth S De Fries., Brockhaus, M., Verchot, L., Angelsen, A., & Romijn, E. (2012). An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries. Environmental Research Letters. 7 044009. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044009  International Tropical Timber Organization. (2011). Brazil – Status of Tropical Forest Management 2011.  International Tropical Timber Organization. (June. 2011). Survey of World’s Embattled Tropical Forests Reports 50% Increase in Areas under Sustainable Management since 2005.     13 Kramer, R.A. (1997). Last stand: protected areas and the defense of tropical biodiversity. Last stand: protected areas and the defense of tropical biodiversity. Oxford University Press. 256. 0-19-509554-5, 978-0-19-509554-8.  Laurance, W., Koh, L.P., Butler, R., Sodhi, N.S., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Neidel, J.D., Consunji, H., & Vega, J.M. (2010). Improving the Performance of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil for Nature Conservation. Conservation Biology 24(2): 377-381. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01448.x.  Laurance, W.F. (2007). Forest destruction in tropical Asia. Current Science 93(11): 1544-1550.  Laurance, W.F., (1999). Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis. Biological Conservation 91(1999): 109-117.  Laurance, W.F., (2004). The perils of payoff: corruption as a threat to global biodiversity. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 19(8): 399-401. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.06.001.  Laurance,W.F., (1998). A crisis in the making: responses of Amazonian forests to land use and climate change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 411-415.  Laurancea, W. F., Alonsob, A., Leeb, M., & Campbellb, P. (2005). Challenges for forest conservation in Gabon, Central Africa. Futures 38 (2006): 454-470.  Lennart, C., Ljungman, S., R Michael Martin, & Whiteman, A. (1999). Beyond sustainable forest management: opportunities and challenges for improving forest management in the next millennium – summary report. FAO Corporate Document Repository.  Lindberg, K., Furze, B., Staff, M., & Black, R. (2010). Ecotourism and Other Services Derived From Forests in the Asia-Pacific Region: Outlook to 2010. Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/24.  Lindsey, R. (2007). Tropical Deforestation.  NASA Earth Obseravatory. Retrieved from: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Deforestation/  Menkhaus, S., & Lober, D. J. (1995). International Ecotourism and the Valuation of Tropical Rainforests in Costa Rica. Journal of Encironmental Management. 1994. 47: 1-10.  Ngece, K., East African Ecotourism Development and Conservation Consultants. (2002). Community Based Ecotourism: What can the people of East Africa learn from success stories elsewhere?.  Ontario Nature. (2005). Recommendations for Developing Ecotourism in the Northern Boreal. North Caribou Lake Bird Survey.   Palmer, C. (2001). The extent and causes of illegal logging: an analysis of a major cause of tropical deforestation in Indonesia. Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global   14 Environment. Retrieved from : http://eprints.ucl.ac.uk/17588/  Ross, S., & Wall, G. (1999). Ecotourism: towards congruence between theory and practice. Tourism Management 1999. 20: 123-132.  Sproule, K. (1996). Community Based Ecotourism Development: Identifying Partners in the Process. The Ecotourism Equation: Measuring the Impacts. Bulletin Series Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.  Stronza, A., & Pêgas, F. (2008). Ecotourism and Conservation: Two Cases from Brazil and Peru. Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal. 13(4). DOI: 10.1080/10871200802187097  The International Ecotourism Society. (2000). Ecotourism Statistical Fact Sheet. General Tourism Statistics.  Untamed Path. (2014). Benefits of Ecotourism. Active Adventures in South America. Retrieved from: http://untamedpath.com/eco-tours/benefits-of-ecotourism.shtml  Wallace, G.N., & Pierce, S.M. (1996). An evaluation of ecotourism in Amazonas, Brazil. Annals of Tourism Research. 23(4): 843-873.  Weaver, D. (1998). Ecotourism in Kenya. Ecoutourism in the less developed world. pp. 109-134. ISBN: 0-85199-233-4, 978-0-85199-223-5.  WWF. (2014). Tropical Forests Magical Rainforests. Retrieved from: http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/ecoregions/about/habitat_types/habitats/tropical_forests/  Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. (2014). Tropical Forestry. Retrieved from: http://environment.yale.edu/gisf/programs/tropical-forestry/  Yu, D.W., Hendrickson, T., & Castillo, A. (1997). Ecotourism and conservation in Amazonian Perú: short-term and long- term challenges. Environmental Conservation 24 (2): 130-138. Foundation for Environmental Conservation.   

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52966.1-0075584/manifest

Comment

Related Items