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Cartography : moving into the digital future Warkentin, Jayson 2013

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          Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future   By Jayson Warkentin Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 2  Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore the way in which cartography has developed and influenced how the physical world is understood. Through its long history the influence of maps has been instrumental in improving human understanding of spatial relationships. The rise of thematic mapping and orthorectified photos  is creating the opportunity for a wide range of users to spatially analyze and display collected information on the surrounding landscape and make decisions that better suit their objectives. Digital mapping and technology has developed rapidly and is becoming more pervasive and user friendly. Cognitive mapping of the physical world is improving due to the easy access and increased use of digital two- and three-dimensional models of landscapes.  Key Words: Cartography, cognitive mapping, colours, GIS, Google Earth, maps, spatial knowledge, three-dimensional landscape modelingJayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         3 Table of Contents  Title Page??????????????????????????????...1  Abstract???????????????????????????????...2  Introduction?????????????..???????????????......4  Background??????????????????????????????6  Identity?????????????????????????????.6  Others?????????????????????????????..7  Maintaining the Status Quo????????????????????..7  Cartography - Art or Science?.......................................................................8  Mapping Standards???????????????...??????..?.10  The power of the map?????????????????????......13  Maps as communication devices????????????????..?15  Spatial Knowledge???????????????????????...19  Details, Details?????????????????????????..19  Thematic Maps????????????????????????......20  Reference Maps?????????????????????????21  Colour?????????????????????????????..???21  Lightness, Saturation and Hue??????????????????....21  Sequential, Diverging, and Qualitative Colour Choices???????......23  The Changing nature of maps?????????????????..????...29  Maps moving Forward?????????????????????.?.30  Better Images, Better Access???????????????????..31  Digital Data??????????????????????????.....33 Three Dimensional Maps????????????????????.....35  Conclusion????????????????????????????.?.....41 References????????????????????????????.........42  List of Figures Figure 1??????????????????????????????.?..12 Figure 2???????????????????????????????...14 Figure 3????????????????????????????.???..14 Figure 4?????????????????????????????.??..19 Figure 5?????????????????????????????.??..23 Figure 6??????????????????????????????.?..27 Figure 7??????????????????????????????.?..28 Figure 8??????????????????????????????.?..29 Figure 9??????????????????????????????...?34 Figure 10?????????????????????????????.??38 Figure 11?????????????????????????????.??39 Figure 12????????????????????????????.???40 Figure 13????????????????????????????.???41 Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 4 Introduction  While the term map may still conjure the image of a stylized world or country, or perhaps a paper road map, static and unchanging, solid, practical, permanent and simple, a digital GPS display may also come to mind, or a development model displayed graphically in time lapse, or even a Google Earth digital fly around in 3D. Maps have changed, and the tasks they are capable of performing is truly mesmerizing to anyone who once leaned over a map table with a ruler and a protractor.   Despite the prominence, long history, and traditions of cartography around the globe, there is still some debate as to where it fits as a discipline. Is it science, art, history, technology, or a communication model (Ortag, n.p.)?  In reality, it is all of the above precisely because it has been with us for so long and has played such a central role in the shaping of human history. Similar to and connected with the creation of the written word, humans have always aspired to hold on to information and share it with or hide it from others.   This influential role that cartography has played throughout human history shows no sign of changing. General technological advancements of recent years have dramatically influenced the nature and quantity of information storage and sharing, and this has greatly shaped modern cartography. Imagine the historical development of cartography as a pyramid building up over time, with each layer adding more detail and more precision until the apex, the orthorectified photo (aerial photography manipulated to fit the curvature of the earth and maintain true distances between objects or points), Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         5 offering a true likeness of the physical world. In this analogy, the modern world of geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), light detection and ranging (LiDAR), and digital computing represent a helicopter circling the structure with the ability to examine the broadest and finest details at the push of a button. Users can manage more data sets, combine them together, access them faster, and share them more easily.  The intent of this paper is to explore the ways in which our understanding of the physical world has been shaped by maps and cartography, and how recent technological advances might influence cognitive understanding of the land and the resources humans depend upon. A central question motivating the creation of this paper is: will the improved ability to examine the spatial connections of the world with modern map technology improve our management decisions on the landscape?    I begin by examining how maps have documented and reinforced social hierarchies and emphasized the concept of the ?other? as separate from the self or group to maintain the status quo. This is followed by an investigation of cartographic theory in which I discuss the nature of maps, mapping standards, the power of the map, spatial knowledge, types of maps and the use of colour. The last section of the paper addresses the changing world of maps, visual representations and the influence on cognitive mapping with the introduction of better imagery, and digital three-dimensional displays. Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 6 Background Identity Through much of the world, people?s very identity is deeply influenced by their understanding and experience with maps; from the shapes of rivers, lakes, and coastlines, to the shapes of the borders around states and their neighboring political territories, people identify themselves as a part of one shape and make associations, assumptions and connections based upon their perceived association with that shape and those connected to it. This over simplification of the landscape is efficient and convenient, and sits well with the human desire for bounds and divisions on spaces too large to easily comprehend. The truly continuous nature of the world may overwhelm compartmentalizing minds that want to segment it into manageable units to summarize, generalize, and create ?[o]rder upon the Land? (Harley, 2001).   Placing one?s own territory at the centre of a map, known as the ?rule of ethnocentricity? is familiar to any map enthusiast (Harley, 2001). The psychological importance of the centre finds its way onto maps produced for a particular country, region or continent and is a common occurrence around the globe. The functional component of this centricity hinges on personal interest in the areas immediately adjacent to one?s own, with decreasing interest in places farther afield. The modern GPS also places oneself at the centre of the map, further reinforcing our centrist affiliations.  Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         7 Others The concept of ?others,? whether defined through race, religion, sex, class, age or species, is nearly universal. Through history and to this very day, the ?other? side of the mapped line has repeatedly been used as a tool to galvanize the concept of ?us? and ?them.? Territories all over the world make loud pronouncements at border crossings; many state borders have guards, fences and processes that reinforce the significance of the change from one state to the next. Regional boundaries often have welcome signs and ?thank you for visiting? signs, but the intent is clear: to delineate this place from the other. The attraction of milestones and segmentation gives mapmakers and users boundaries within which to work and examine. Depending on the intended audience and message to be conveyed, these divisions can be manipulated to promote intended messages that support the motive of the map?s creation (Monmonier, 1996).  There is no question that maps have historically been used for the purposes of warfare, to define private property, and to outline the division of resources.  However, it is also important to examine the social context in which they are created.   Maintaining the Status Quo Traditionally, map production required time, money, the sophisticated technology of the day, and skills. The motivations for producing maps were often straightforward and directed, such as defining property bounds, but often the final product also included other messaging. In his essay Deconstructing the Map, J.B. Harley discusses the use of Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 8 cartouches, the prominent display of castles, churches, and other powerful symbols on the landscape ?[u]sing all the tricks of the cartographic trade - size of symbol, thickness of line, height of lettering, hatching and shading, [and] the addition of color? to reinforce the social structures and order of society (p. 158). Today, capitals are marked with stars and large cities with prominent symbols to reinforce the idea of these places as cultural and commercial centres. Harley goes on to say, ?Much of the power of the map, as a representation of social geography, is that it operates behind a mask of seemingly neutral science? (Harley 2001), essentially arguing that the purpose of producing the map was at least as much a function of maintaining the social status quo as is was to create a graphic representation of the world. The ability to display power and territorial ownership depended deeply on the production of maps to define one?s territorial boundaries and simultaneously reaffirm that right to possession with a document of ?irrefutable? proof. The poor and powerless had few means to contend with such formidable power as that held by inked parchment. Clearly, the attraction to order, symbols and social hierarchy has always been strongly influenced by maps, which brings the discussion to the question of whether cartography is more art or science.  Cartography - Art or Science? While the common belief, even among map makers, is that map making is a science through and through, maps are often generated for specific uses such as for military, political, or advertising purposes,  and are manipulated in a way that is more akin to art than science (Monmonier, 1996). The perception of maps as ?a mirror of Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         9 nature?accepted too uncritically by a wider public? (Harley, 2001, 154) results in users taking the information for granted and allowing the omissions and static nature of the product to freeze the dynamic world in time. There are many topographic, soil and other maps with generally scientific motivations; however, the bulk of commonly encountered maps have other motivations guided by those funding production. The credibility afforded a high production-quality map may be misplaced once the motivation for its production is taken into account. And yet, if one is sold on the product, it will hold its credibility, as it is an efficient way for minds to operate, ?[b]ecause it takes less brain power to believe than to doubt? (Heffernan, 2012). This is not to say there is no value in a map produced for purposes other than modeling the world; one just needs to be aware of it (Monmonier, 1996). Printed or electronic, maps have become enormous tools for the advertising community; nearly every business website links a map of some description, the backs of business cards often have large scale maps covering a few blocks, often with instructions of where to park; for example, state and provincial road maps are bordered with advertisements and symbols designed to encourage visits. Harley discusses the ?intertextual dimension? of maps and the other agendas evident in the production of maps (2001), essentially a set of instructions to be followed by visitors, including popular sites, hotels, restaurants, activities and historical narratives. As more entities pay for representation, more features are added to the map, and it strays further from the scientific base on which it was predicated.   On many contemporary maps, the spaces between the features are represented by bland colours of ?nothingness? (Monmonier, 1996). This is not a new phenomenon, but Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 10 heavy ?intertextual messaging? in the form of instructions and suggestions are intended to coax and convince the user to focus on the highlighted features. This simplification of the physical landscape can detract from the general understanding provided by a more complex and representative reference map, showing features with less bias. While the scientific element is purported to be the basis of map development (Harley, 2001), the influence held by those financing the production of the map is the real key to its purpose and success as a deliverable product (Monmonier, 1996).   Unsurprisingly, users still find value in the mapped elements as the basic model does supply enough information to be helpful. In spite of efforts to coerce, a simple map can be extraordinarily useful to an outsider arriving on its edge. It is now common to see backgrounds of orthorectified photos or topographic relief images instead of the greyed out bland colours used in the past. These backgrounds not only improve the scientific underpinning of the map but also its value to the general user as a reference document. With the advent of digital information and sharing, the cost of producing detailed maps is no longer prohibitive. Orthophotos are increasingly being used as background spatial information. While scientific in nature, orthophotos are also aesthetically pleasing and contain substantially more information than could be included intentionally by a cartographer. Cartography can be art, science or both depending on the intended audience and/or purpose.  Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         11 Mapping Standards Organizations such as the National Map Accuracy Standards (US) and the International Cartographic Association among others have traditionally carried the authority to verify the accurate production of maps for their respective areas and to ensure standards are met. With the recent proliferation of not only mapping software, but digital imaging software accessible to anyone with a mid-range computer and basic computing skills, the production quality (as opposed to map quality), and quantity of cartographic representation has grown exponentially. For better or worse, the high production value on glossy paper with familiar symbols can easily mislead the average recipient. Similarly, flashy three-dimensional graphic representations can be easily produced and edited or themed to support a particular idea or view. A good example of this is an Enbridge promotional video with a graphic representation of the Douglas channel (figure 1) in which producers omitted many of the small islands that make up the majority of the surface area of the channel creating the impression that oil tanker traffic would be able to maneuver easily through the channel. In a fruitless attempt to mitigate potential negative responses to their misrepresentation, the producers added a disclaimer at the end of the clip claiming that it was for illustrative purposes only (Lavoie, 2012). The visual representation produced in the video resulted in far greater impact than the vague disclaimer at the end. The production of this digital representation is quite simple and requires only a graphic artist and some basic software. Although this representation is not considered a ?map,? and therefore should not be expected to conform to cartographic standards, it is nonetheless a graphic representation sold as a model of the physical world similar to a map. While mapping standards organizations still play a Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 12 role, it is clear that they will be significantly less involved with the graphic representations encountered by the general public and professional cartographers alike. As figure 1 indicates, there are many more users who can verify and correct erroneous information by easily creating their own representations or altering the original to counter the perceived misrepresentation. In the Enbridge example Lori Waters countered with a more accurate depiction of the channel and CTV published the comparison. This type of ?crowd sourcing? may prove more effective at maintaining terrain and other digital representations than traditional cartographic standards associations.     Figure 1. A gross misrepresentation of the Douglas Channel, used in an attempt to shift public perception about tanker traffic safety issues along the coast of British Columbia (Lavoie, 2012)   Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         13 The power of the map Despite the potential for misuse, miscommunication and omission, maps are very powerful and useful tools, and are held in high regard for their functionality, aesthetic properties and their information density. Harley argues that the simplification of the landscape through the process of mapping makes it easier to make decisions that affect the landscape without consideration for finer variables across the landscape or the consequences which might arise, such as bisecting important wildlife travel corridors, planning extractive industries in important cultural areas, or damming a valley in which people live. From a large-scale planning perspective, this is efficient and simple and satisfies the objectives of resource management planners, colonial conquerors, and military strategists alike. Long-term objectives are not always in sync with the needs and desires of local populations, human or otherwise. Countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan have endured considerable internal pervasive animosity persisting in part, because each border encompasses one country and yet the people within are clearly not one nation (figure 2). This also follows for North American countries with respect to indigenous populations (figure 3).  Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 14        Mapped areas form the basis of modern conservation strategies. Setting aside a chosen portion of the landscape for wilderness protection is held by many to be the most effective way to preserve the intrinsic values existing there. This strategy has been employed in many locations throughout the world and is strongly dependent on the concept of a bounded physical area that is illustrated with maps.  This strategy can be effective if local populations accept the preservation designation and are willing to defend it. For concerned parties not physically connected to the terrain in question, the concept of a bounded preservation area is often viewed as a job completed successfully. In the short term, this is likely true. Harris & Hazen (2009) discuss the satisfying psychological impact that maps can have in this regard and suggest that a Figure 2. Sectarian divisions within Iraq, one country but not one nation. (CIA Atlas of the middle east. University of Texas, 2003).          Figure 3. Indigenous nations of North America- Unverified (Hockeygods.com) Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         15 more dynamic and flexible approach to conservation mapping may be more effective over the long term in maintaining the desired intrinsic values that exist in our dynamic world. A mixed-use approach over a much larger area may be more appropriate for maintaining ecological integrity. A more flexible approach to conservation mapping that includes some specified uses by local people may be a more effective conservation strategy if the human pressure on the landscape is not too great. Human influence may not be viewed favourably by concerned individuals due to the potential difficulty of limiting the human influence. A bounded region of almost no human influence can be easily mapped, displayed and promoted as a conservation success. This more common ?fixed area model? of conservation approaches is much simpler to administer. ?Pristine? reserve areas may offer more in the way of advertising and political opportunities as well; however, many species roam over wide territorial ranges or undertake significant migrations requiring dispersed habitat areas.  Decisions made in the 1950?s to divide up the forests of British Columbia into various types of licenses to cut and ?normalize? them so as to establish allowable annual cuts were based on essentially harvesting nearly every achievable stick of merchantable timber and turning the landscape into tree farms. Harley is correct in asserting that it is much easier to make landscape-level divisions with a large-scale map and a pencil, far removed from the physically and socially varied attributes on the ground (2001). As time progressed, however, the public began to see other values in the forests and some people started fighting for them, which has resulted in the introduction of significant conservation and management strategies in some resource extraction areas.  Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 16 Mapping is used to communicate and define different areas with various features, such as parks, wilderness areas, wildlife habitat areas, ungulate winter ranges, visual retention objectives, riparian reserves etc. Lessons can be learned from Enbridge?s failed communication attempt and the negative public reaction to the misrepresentation, but good representative information can also be communicated with maps.  Maps As Communication Devices Maps are a common way of communicating information; from crude napkin maps, to Z folded road maps, to topographic relief maps, their primary role is the display and communication of information. As a communication device the map has four components recognized by Freundschuh (2009): the source (physical reality), the interpreter (cartographer), the map (product), and the recipient (user). As information moves along the chain developing the communication, there is the potential for errors, omissions and misrepresentations to occur that affect the product significantly enough to create miscommunication. While omissions, small errors and misrepresentations exist on all maps due to the very nature of displaying information at large map scales, the skill is in doing so in a way that doesn?t detract from the essential elements for which the map was designed. As stated by Monmonier (2006):  A good map tells a multitude of little white lies; it suppresses truth to help the  user see what needs to be seen. Reality is three dimensional, rich in detail, and  far too factual to allow a complete yet uncluttered two dimensional graphic scale  model. Indeed, a map that did not generalize would be useless. But the value of  a map depends on how well its generalized geometry and generalized content  reflect a chosen aspect of reality (p. 25). Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         17 That is to say, many physical features may be irrelevant to particular users, and maps are often produced for very particular users or industries.  Primary resource industries are significant consumers of maps and mapping products as many of the sought commodities exist in remote locations along lonely unmarked roads. In forestry for example, appraisal maps are used to communicate the developments within a geographic area, site plan maps are used to communicate the specific management attributes of a cut block (figure 4), cruise plan maps are used to instruct cruisers on where to locate their plots for mensuration, and logging plan maps are used instruct the loggers in the physical harvest of the block. While each of these phases has written document components, the maps make up a large portion of the information and have the highest information density of all the documents. When discussions about forest development begin, one of the first comments is always ?we need a map!? The visual impact of a good graphic is unmatched in its ability to create a long lasting, detailed memory of a discussion and its associated threads. The visual representation reduces the brain power required to mentally place oneself in a landscape one may not be that familiar with.   Indeed, map messaging is an important consideration in the production of a map and often drives its production. Miscommunications and unintended responses must be considered for these productions, but what of the production of a map for the sake of itself? It could be argued that even a model of the physical world is sending ?messages? about the landscape. A truly scientific approach should ultimately produce a product as Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 18 true to itself as possible given the functional reality of a scaled landscape. Map users don?t always have an intent or goal in mind when looking at maps and may just be doing so for the pleasure of it.  Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         19    Figure 4. A logging plan map with several specific instructions. Consider the verbiage that would be required to explain this with only text. (Interfor logging plan map, 2012 produced by Jayson Warkentin ? Interfor database layers) Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 20 Spatial Knowledge Spatial knowledge refers to the understanding of physical relationships in terms of distance, orientation, and connectivity, and is the groundwork for cognitive mapping employed by the hippocampus to reduce cognitive load, enhance recall, and learn information (O?keef & Nadel, 1978). According to Freundschuh (2009), spatial knowledge can be broken into 3 components: landmark knowledge, procedural knowledge and configurational knowledge. Landmark knowledge concerns locations or nodes in the environment (e.g. capitals, road junctions, mountain peaks, etc.); whereas procedural knowledge involves the routes and understanding of how to get there (akin to a set of instructions with landmark reference). Configurational knowledge involves the specific information such as distance and direction. Configurational knowledge is where maps come in, providing the ability to store graphically the most detailed information, eliminating the need to remember the specifics and providing a medium to share the information with others. Maps also provide the critical information required to conjure the landmark and procedural memories over time, providing memory cues and spatial information on which to make assumptions about routes and travel times.  Details, Details People tend to focus on map locations with more detail, the change from one landform to another (contrast), and for areas with higher information content (Freundschuh, 2009). Better symbology and detail may improve users? recall of map information (Pegg, 2009). In the process of building a mental map, more complete landmark and Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         21 procedural knowledge may contribute to a better visualization and therefore more confidence in the mental model.  The idea of having information at our fingertips is powerful and universal; maps provide one of the easiest to comprehend displays of detailed information that can be examined broadly (in terms of general orientation, distance, and connectivity), or in detail (looking at contours, watershed boundaries/height of land, trail, and road locations) as the need arises. If a picture says a thousand words, a map could say millions. People also look at maps for pure pleasure, dreaming about places they could go. As more detailed products become available such as Google Earth, it is evident from new users? reactions that people are fascinated by the detail, realism, perspective, and interactivity.  Thematic Maps Thematic maps are used to display spatial information such as population trends, statistical relationships, and other differences across a geographic area. Thematic maps are not new, but their presence has increased recently due to the proliferation of GIS software that makes the production of these information maps simple, yet capable of displaying complex spatial patterns and information graphically. Generally, thematic maps show fewer landmarks or other physical elements and focus on displaying a few pieces of information to illustrate a point or trend within a geographic area. As with statistics though, there is plenty of opportunity to mislead, perhaps more so than with reference maps (Monmonier, 1996).    Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 22 Reference Maps Reference maps (including charts) are designed (theoretically) to be representational models of the world and can include landmark information such as roads, lakes, rivers, mountain peaks, contours, points of interest, and other relevant spatial data. These are the traditional navigation and route finding maps such as topographic and road maps. While the intent is to be true to the world, it would be counterproductive to include so much information that the map becomes cluttered and unreadable. As was discussed previously, maps can be easily manipulated by adding or omitting certain features to sell intended products or services, or simplified for ease of use.   Colour  Colour is one of the most important considerations for map production, and yet as a physical phenomenon, and the mechanism by which our eyes perceive colour, it is poorly understood. Plenty of work has been done on the use of colour in mapping and how it affects the perception of the map by the user, but with the proliferation of mapping software and map producers, there is plenty of opportunity to get it wrong.   Lightness, Saturation, and Hue Lightness of colour refers to the quantity or reflectance of light perceived. Saturation refers to the purity of the colour--a wider band of wavelengths involving more neighboring colours will have less saturation; conversely, a narrower wavelength band Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         23 will have greater saturation. Hue refers to the different colours (wavelengths) along the visible spectrum (Griffin, 2009) (figure 5).    Not all eyes are created equally and the issue of colour blindness can be a problem when producing thematic maps to illustrate spatial changes or differences. Up to 4% of people in general and 8% of North American and European men experience some level of colour blindness. Colours that appear differently to the cartographer and much of the general public may appear to blend seamlessly for someone with vision impairment. Confusion between reds and greens is most common, but other colour pairs can also be a problem. The addition of texture or lightness levels can easily solve this problem (Griffin, 2009).  Colour can evoke emotional associations that the cartographer may or may not intend. Reds and yellows are associated with warmth, sun, light, and cheerfulness whereas cyan and violet are associated with darkness, gloominess and cold. Goethe Figure 5. Differences in colour hue (red, green and blue peaks), colour lightness (light and dark green peaks, and colour saturation pure blue and grayish blue peaks). 1997-2008 Pennsylvania State University. (Griffin, 2009) Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 24 hypothesized that reds and yellows are light being darkened and blues and violet are darkness being lightened. He also hypothesized that green, as a combination of yellow and blue, suspends the polarity of the two colours and is associated with balance, calm and harmony. Similarly, Magenta, as a combination of red and violet, suspends the respective polarities and is associated with sublime peace and sunsets. Consider the common phrases; feeling blue, the golden years, sunny or gloomy disposition, look on the bright side, or a shadowy character. The association of colour and light with mood is quite strong, and its influence can be found everywhere from the colours we paint walls to the clothes we wear (Lense-Moller, 1993).  Brewer (2009) developed a website to assist GIS users in selecting the best colour schemes for displaying data on thematic maps (colorbrewer2.org). This simple website can be quite useful for the novice and professional cartographers with options for colour-blind safe options and other useful features.  Sequential, Diverging, and Qualitative Colour Choices Before colour technology was prevalent, grey tone scales were used to distinguish incremental change and other differences represented on thematic maps. The benefit of grey tone scales is that they are generally immune to issues of colour blindness, screen display differences, and printing tone issues.  The use of colour in thematic mapping offers significantly more options for the display of information and an increased ability to emphasize certain key aspects by using differences in lightness, saturation or hue. Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         25 However, black-and-white printing of colour- produced maps can be problematic in that the grey tone representations of colour may not accurately represent the information or intended message as it can be difficult to tell the differences between themed types. With the increasing availability of colour printers and higher resolution displays this is becoming less of a problem.  When it comes to choosing colours for reference and thematic maps it is important to ensure the colours are used effectively to strengthen the intended message and consider the emotional messages that can be sent, whether deliberate of not. The potential for misrepresentation, especially with respect to ground cover, is significant. Green is generally associated with vegetation and the darker it is, the thicker the vegetation. Blue is the common colour for water; darker blue indicates deeper water. White is generally used for snow or tundra, with brown for rocks and desert. The use of colour in mapping has become standard practice with the predominance of colour monitors and printers, but there are no established standards to be followed for thematic or reference maps designed to illustrate a change or difference, which, at a casual glance, can easily mislead a user.   Griffin (2009) divides colour schemes into three categories: Sequential schemes use different lightness levels of the same colour or hue to display incremental changes across the landscape such as travel distances, elevation or vegetation density. Diverging schemes use the lightest ends of sequential schemes as the midpoint (average or normal condition) and diverge away with two sequential Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 26 schemes to display information further and further from the average as darker and darker, such as rate of traffic incidents by location, or population density. Qualitative schemes are used to differentiate areas of different types of unrelated data with little or no relationship to one another and generally use different hues or colours to represent the differences, such as political association or land-use types. (2009).  For a full picture of how these different schemes can be integrated, consider a forestry example with several different cut permits on a landscape-level map. Qualitative colours can be used to differentiate the different leading tree species (figure 6). The intent here is to show that there is a somewhat unrelated difference between the units. Sequential schemes can be used to show the age of stands across the landscape, with light colours indicating younger stands, and darker colours for older stands (figure 7). Divergent schemes might be used to display the blocks according to logging cost, with the divergent point being the break-even point, as the blocks appear redder the viability decreases and as they get greener the viability increases (figure 8).   The visual representations created by a good thematic map make diverse information simpler to access in a way that otherwise might not be possible for the user to see all at once. Provided the information is sound and well represented, these sorts of displays can greatly assist managers in the decision making process.  Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         27  Figure 6. A qualitative display of leading tree species can be used to quickly reference the dominant timber types across a given landscape. In this example Douglas-Fir and Lodgepole Pine stands make up a significant portion of the displayed timber types. (Produced by J. Warkentin with Interfor database layers). Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 28   Figure 7. A display of forest age class sequentially from youngest (lighter) to oldest (darker) provides quick access to information about the forest age distribution in a given area. (Produced by J. Warkentin with Interfor Database Layers). Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         29     Figure 8. A diverging colour scheme displaying the logging cost by block for a given area. In this example the $20-$22 cost represents average logging costs (for illustrative purposes only). (Produced by J. Warkentin with Interfor database layers). Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 30 The Changing Nature of Maps  Change The world of mapping and cartography has changed. While the technology has been developing for several years, the rate of adaptation for everyday use is exploding. This cognitive development based on imagery for communication is in its early stages, focused primarily in right-brain thinking (Schlain, 1998). It remains to be seen what effect the prevalence of graphically improved two- and three-dimensional models will have on our thinking processes, but evidence suggests that there is some change in cognitive function with the increase in the use of 3D cartographic imagery (Bandrova, 2005, Ohmi, 1999, , Schobesbergers & Patterson, 2008).  In the information age, information filtering will likely be annoying and/or frustrating, and misrepresentations will be created. Over the long term cartographers and users will get better at deciphering and determining the good from the bad. This will hold especially true for mapping. The nature of cartography is shifting should be viewed as a process rather than a representation (Kitchin & Dodge 2007). As we understand and accept the representations of the world as imperfect, we are simultaneously gaining access to the best model representations in our history. In the information age, metacognitive skills and critical analysis need to be central components of both graphic and general education practice (Hegarty, 2013).  Advances and access to visual displays, computers, projectors, TV?s, video cameras and phones with GPS are resulting in an increased use of visual imagery for displaying, Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         31 explaining, sharing, and understanding information. High definition touch screen technologies are visually appealing and increasingly more realistic in their digital presentations of the world.    Maps Moving Forward From dirt scratching?s to the first GIS systems developed by the Canadian government and IBM in the 60?s, from the Canadian Geographic Information Systems (CGIS) (Goodchild, 1998) to modern commercial GIS and free applications such as Google Earth, the nature and capabilities of maps has changed drastically.  A key consideration in the creation of a map is determining how much information to display, generally less is better provided the key elements are present (Hegarty, 2013).  While this statement may have been true for a final product paper production map, the layer-able, adjustable scale, adaptable, continuous digital display of maps may soon make this statement obsolete. Digital thematic maps can display trends, associations, political affiliations, resources, and countless other themes, limited only by the vastly increasing, storable and shareable information that can be overlaid onto detailed reference maps with the ability to turn these information types (layers) on and off. Accessibility, functionality, detail, quality, and quantity have all evolved into the modern matrix of digital mapping. The ability to store and share vast quantities of data digitally no longer hinders the accessibility of source information. While maps are simplified for print and electronic end user purposes, there is no need for the source data to be lost to the general user should they so desire it. Users now have a variety of map sources at Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 32 their finger tips with smart phones and tablets on which to build their spatial knowledge. The very nature of digital maps suggests a real-time fluidity; the modern digital world exists with an expectation of ?real time? information. While the technology may not be there yet, the trend is shifting towards such possibilities. As the collective digital information supply from historical sources to LiDAR builds, and the ability to share, overlay, compare and analyze improves, the quality of cartographic models can improve. The phrase ?can improve? is used here because the sheer volume of information no doubt contains considerable quantities of erroneous data; it falls upon the cartographer, novice or professional, to discern the quality of information used in the production of maps.  Better Images, Better Access In Alphabet vs the Goddess, Schlain (1998)  proposes that humans have been left-brain dominated for two thousand years as a result of the advent of sequential, logical, linear writing, but with the rise of visual display, thought processes will shift preferentially to more big-picture, all-at-once, conceptual right-brain processes. It is a persuasive argument, and if it proves correct, digital cartography may be a significant component of this shift.  The information density combined with digital accessibility and aesthetic value of orthorectified imagery is greatly increasing the use of aerial and satellite photography, where in the past the landscape had to be simplified substantially for efficiency and due Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         33 to lack of information (figure 9). Views traditionally only available from expensive aircraft are now accessible to a large percentage of the population from nearly anywhere. Harley (2001) discusses the effect that normalized and simplified maps, with bland interiors and grey tones depicting nothingness between the nodes (cities, attractions, etc.), have on one?s perception of the world. He uses the example of road maps in which he describes areas of little interest to the user as ?zones to get through? with little to interest the travelling public. The introduction of colour screen, dash-mounted GPS units available cheaply as aftermarket add-ons, and increasingly as options straight off the factory floor displaying Bing and Google Maps using orthorectified aerial photos, as well as 3-D mapping applications such as Google Earth, may make this ?blanding? of terrain detail no longer an issue as the infinite complexity of the world is now revealed with reasonable enough resolution to be interesting and useful to the average traveller. The theoretical scientific intent of maps has always been to create an accurate, functional model of the world from which to operate, but in the process of simplifying and melding the various landscape types into basic colours, some understanding of the landscape is lost. From the tar sands, to clearcuts, to pyramids, to canals, the ability of large portions of the world?s population to look at real images of the planetary surface and our impact on it is providing insight into the human ability to affect the physical landscape in dramatic ways. Modern maps with orthorectified imagery, which are more accurately representative of the physical landscape, can influence how humans perceive their ability to manipulate their surroundings (Schlain, 1998). Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 34  Figure 9. Easily accessible Google Earth imagery showing multiple clearcuts of various ages and an old mine site, and the limited areas of existing mature forest (Google Earth, 2013).  Digital Data The digital availability of data has improved the access to information that forest resource managers use to base their decisions. As more planning constraints intermingle through a combination of decreasing fibre availability, increasing use by other stakeholders and the public, and greater industrial impact upon the landscape, there are innumerable benefits to centrally locating the spatial information of multiple reports, studies, and legal requirements. Consider a watershed with multiple harvest incursions. The first pass occurred with few restrictions, laws or regulations placed upon the harvest. The second pass occurred just prior to the enactment of the Forest Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         35 Practices Code and the Land and Resource Management Plans. The third pass occurred ten years later, taking into account the restrictions of the new legally binding regulations. There may be plenty of fibre left in this watershed, and based on the Annual Allowable Cut there should be x m3 available for harvest, but overlapping planning constraints can significantly limit harvest opportunities. Planning constraints are often represented spatially with GIS layers, and the multiple overlapping planning constraints developed separately over time, such as watershed equivalent clearcut limits (ECA?s), wildlife planning units, archaeology assessments, visual quality objectives, cut block adjacency, distance between mature timber patches, connectivity, recreational uses, and other constraints, have resulted in a thick web of layers for planners to navigate. As more information is included and understanding develops, the web thickens.   Judgements on whether GIS technology will make for better or worse management remains to be seen, and will primarily be a function of personal and societal values. On the one hand, this technology makes it possible for the manager to analyze these overlapping constraints and compare opportunities and establish the plans with the greatest returns. Furthermore, long-term planning involving multiple disciplines and interest groups can result in greater understanding between parties and better stewardship of the land to benefit more diverse interests. Spatially defining the needs of each group and having these spatial layers accessible on the Internet to all interested parties may help social, environmental and industrial interests to understand how they can work together with a common understanding and address overlapping interests where necessary.  Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 36 A better spatial knowledge of the landscape and the associated connections and interactions can improve the understanding of interactions between competing and collaborating landscape users. Three-dimensional representations are beginning to play a larger role in this understanding.  Three-Dimensional Maps The long history of cartographic development, including Jacques Bertin?s work on symbols, Harley?s mapping theory, and the work of many other cartographic philosophers and technicians, found its way into the computer age with a solid set of guidelines, symbols and procedures to follow in the production of maps. The early computer-generated maps successfully fit into this process, but as the capabilities developed, digital production quickly outgrew the confining abilities of the two dimensional map. Although the technology is in its infancy, dynamic three dimensional maps have arrived.   Applications such as Google Earth and ARC Scene are greatly affecting our spatial knowledge by allowing us to view landscapes in three dimensions with an overlay representation of the physical makeup of the ground cover, be it forest, grasslands, water, cities, etc. Inputs from LiDAR technology have greatly improved the level of detail and the potential products/images available to cartographers and their clients. Maps have always played a strong role in configurational knowledge, and the addition of three dimensional representations may assist cognitive function in this regard (figures 10 and 11). The traditional contour map still holds value, but the 3D image provided by Google Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         37 Earth provides a much better representation of the macro landscape structure. Furthermore, virtual 3D tours can improve procedural knowledge with oblique angle views and the opportunity to virtually move through the landscape. Users navigating in virtual three-dimensional environments can build and recall a better cognitive understanding of the environment faster if distinct landmarks and heading (bearing) information are included in the model. Landmarks are a key component of developing the procedural knowledge as they define the relationships between the sections (Ohmi, 1999).  Landmark knowledge may improve with the use of features such as, Google Street View and orthophotos (Figure 12). Three-dimensional modeling and photographic imagery are improving the users? understanding of the physical world and are gaining a better understanding of their surroundings based on digital three-dimensional realism (Bandrova, 2005). Schobesbergers & Patterson (2008) suggest that distances, topography, environmental understanding, and position in the landscape are all improved with the use of 3D maps. They discuss the need for standardizing landmark symbols in three-dimensional maps to improve the landmark knowledge component of spatial cognition. Haeberling (2008) has proposed set of design principles for three dimensional maps to improve consistency.  However, with modern technological advances, there may be no need for standard symbolic representation in the display of landmarks, as the representation could be based on the imagery of the physical object: instead of a green triangle to represent a particular tree, the application shows a 3-D rendering of the tree, with its unique features based on imagery such as that viewed in figure 13. LiDAR imagery (figure 11) may be combined in the future with photos such as Google Street View to build three-dimensional models. Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 38    Figure 10. South end of Adams Lake as viewed with Goolge Earth in 3D. (Google Earth, 2013)  Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         39   Figure 11.  South end of Adams Lake as viewed with a basic contour map. (Produced by J. Warkentin with Interfor database layers) Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 40   Figure 12. Google Street View providing spatial landmark knowledge, (bridge, river, trees etc.) that can be accessed easily on most computers with an internet connection and free software (Google Earth, 2013). Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         41   Given the current rate of technological development, it is difficult to project to the future what may or may not be needed in terms of graphic display. An interesting development in three-dimensional photo rendering can be seen on the web site Photo Weekly Online. In a video, the creators describe the use of an application with a simple process of quickly making two-dimensional photographs interact with inserted objects in a three-Figure 13. LiDAR imagery depicting three dimensional vegetation structure, including individual trees. Image courtesy of Silvatech, used with permission. Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 42 dimensional manner, complete with shadowing and reflections (Karsch, 2013). As the technological sophistication improves and the seamless integration of multiple sources of information such as photos, LiDAR and three-dimensional imagery becomes possible, the physical landscape modeling available to cartographers and the general public will improve our understanding of the physical world.  Conclusion  Maps have empowered people and held power over them in the form of mental and physical maps for as long as humans have moved through the world. The development of cartography started slow and developed over a long time period but has proved valuable from its inception. Beyond the usefulness of maps, humans are fascinated by the information density provided by them. The imaging now available to users is helping provide a better understanding of the impact humanity is having on the world by providing access to a steadily increasing portion of the world?s population. The ability to analyze and interpret the physical world and the environmental, social and economic implications of activities has improved substantially with the advent of modern GIS. As humans increasingly view the world as a changing and dynamic place, our perceptions of it are also changing through our interactions with maps and cartography. Being able to render three-dimensional images is improving our cognitive map building of the physical structure of the world, its finite resources and the interconnectivity. Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         43 References Bandrova, T. (2005). Innovative technology for the creation of 3D maps. Data Science  Journal,  4, 53-58. Retrieved from https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/dsj/ 4/0/4_0_53/_pdf  Brewer, C. A. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.colorbrewer2.org  CIA Atlas of the middle east. University of Texas. (2003). Retrieved from    http:// www.theglobaleducationproject.org/mideastinfo/maps/ iraq_ethnic_religious_map.html  Freundschuh, S.M. (2009). Map perception and cognition. International Encyclopedia  of Human Geography, 334-338. Retrieved from  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104000444  Goodchild, M.F. (1998). Modeling the earth: A short history. National Center for  Geographic Information and Analysis, and Department of Geography, University  of California, Santa Barbara, CA Retrieved from   http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~good/papers/473.pdf  Google Maps. (2013). [South End of Adams Lake, British Columbia] [Google Earth].  Retrieved from Google Earth application.  Griffin, A.L. (2009). Color, mapping. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography,  195-201. Retrieved from   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104000158  Haeberling, C., Bar, H.,  & Hurni, L. (2008). Proposed cartographic design principles for  3D maps: A contribution to an extended cartographic theory. Cartographica, 43,  3, 175-188. doi:10.3138/carto.43.3.175  Harley, J.B. (2001). The new nature of maps. Baltimore, Maryland: The John  Hopkins University Press.  Harris, L., & Hazen, H. (2009). Nature?society, mapping and conservation territories, In  M. Dodge, R. Kitchen & C. Perkins (Eds.), Rethinking Maps. (pp. 50-67). New  York, NY: Taylor & Francis e-Library.  Heffernan, M. (2012). Willful blindness. Canada: Anchor Canada.  Hegarty, M. (2013). Cognition, metacognition, and the design of maps.  Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 3-9. doi:10.1177/0963721412469395 Cartography: Moving into the Digital Future                                                              FRST 497 Grad Essay                 44 Hockey Gods.com. (n. date). First nations map of north america. Retrieved from  http:// hockeygods.com/images/9049-  Karsch, K. (2013). Photo Weekly Online. [Video file]. Retrieved from   http://www.photoweeklyonline.com/rendering-3d-objects-into-photographs/  Kitchin, R., & Dodge, M. (2007). Rethinking maps. Progress in Human Geography, 31(3), 331-344. doi: 10.1177/0309132507077082  Lavoie, J. (2012, August 15). Enbridge depiction of clear tanker route sparks outrage. CTV news British Columbia. retrieved from  http://bc.ctvnews.ca/enbridge-depiction-of-clear-tanker-route-sparks-outrage-1.916234  Lense-Moller, L. (Producer). (1993). Light darkness and colours. [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiCI1HVLgBI  Monmonier, M. (1996). How to lie with maps. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.  O'Keefe, J., & Nadel, L. (1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford  University Press. Retrieved from http://www.cognitivemap.net  Ohmi, M. (1999). Roles of additional information for wayfinding in virtual environment.  Retrieved from  http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228701048_Roles_of_additional_information_for_wayfinding_in_virtual_environment  Ortag, F.  Cartographic Theory. International Cartographic Association. Retrieved from    http://icaci.org/research-agenda/cartographic-theory/  Pegg, D. (2009). Design issues with 3D maps and the need for 3D cartographic design principles: Conference paper. retrieved from http://lazarus.elte.hu/cet/academic/pegg.pdf  Schlain, L. (1998). The alphabet versus the goddess. Toronto: Penguin Compass.  Jayson Warkentin                                                                                                           April 4th, 2013         45 Schobesberger D., Patterson T. (2008). Evaluating the effectiveness of 2D vs. 3D  trailhead maps: Mountain mapping and visualization 6th ICA  mountain  cartography workshop. Retrieved from  http://www.mountaincartography.org/publications/papers/papers_lenk_08/ schobesberger.pdf 


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