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Geochemical and hydrogeological characterization of the Norman Point/Ford Cove groundwater regime on… Dyck, Michaela Nicole Mar 31, 2013

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 GEOCHEMICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NORMAN POINT/FORD COVE GROUNDWATER REGIME ON HORNBY ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA    by  MICHAELA NICOLE DYCK       A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS)  in   THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE  (Geological Sciences)     This thesis conforms to the required standard  ……………………………………… Supervisor  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  (Vancouver)  MARCH 2013    © Michaela Nicole Dyck, 2013   ii ABSTRACT    The Heron Rocks Camping Co-operative on Hornby Island, British Columbia is experiencing groundwater quality issues related to salinity.  Water samples, down-well logs, and water level data were collected to characterize the groundwater regime in the area.  Groundwater sampled from HRCC has elevated conductivity values, high sodium concentrations, and a basic pH as a result of the naturally occurring cation exchange reactions in the bedrock.  Groundwater geochemical compositions are tied closely with the geology of the bedrock, in that mudstones facilitate cation exchange and sandstones do not.  Options for rehabilitation are evaluated as well as seeking alternative water sources.  It is suggested that increasing water storage for a pre-existing well as well as rainwater collection be considered as alternative water sources for this property.   iii TABLE OF CONTENTS   Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Figures v List of Tables vi Acknowledgements vii 1 Introduction 1        1.1 Introduction 1        1.2 Site Location 2        1.3 Site Background 3        1.4 Objectives 3 2 Geology of Hornby Island 4 3 Hydrogeology of Hornby Island 8        3.1 Physical Hydrogeology 8        3.2 Geochemical Hydrogeology 10               3.2.1 Immature Groundwater via Mineral Dissolution 11               3.2.2 Evolved Groundwater via Cation Exchange 11               3.2.3 Mature Groundwater Impacted by Mixing with Seawater Intrusion 12 4 Methodology 14        4.1 Water Sampling 14        4.2 Down-well Conductivity Measurements 16        4.3 Water Levels 16        4.4 Geologic Cross-Sections 17        4.5 Data Provided by Heron Rocks Camping Co-operative 17 5 Results 17        5.1 Water Geochemistry 18        5.2 Down-well Conductivity and Temperature Logging 20  iv        5.3 Water Levels 22        5.4 Geologic Cross-sections 24 6 Discussion of Results 27        6.1 Groundwater Geochemistry 27        6.2 Down-well Conductivity and Temperature Logging 28        6.3 Water Levels 29        6.4 Conceptual Model 30 7 Evaluation of Well Rehabilitation and Alternative Water Sources 31        7.1 Hydrofracking 31        7.2 Rigorous Pumping 32        7.3 Drilling Another Well 32        7.4 Pond 33        7.5 Rainwater Collection 33        7.6 Increasing Water Storage for the Old Well 34 8 Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Work 34 References Cited 36 Appendix I Well Logs used for Geologic Cross-Section Construction 38 Appendix II Data Productivity by Heron Rocks Camping Co-operative 66 Appendix III Geochemistry Results 84 Appendix IV Previous Study Geochemical Results 85 Appendix V Catchment Area Calculations 87     v LIST OF FIGURES   Figure 1 - Location map of the Gulf Islands and Hornby Island, British Columbia 1 Figure 2 - Location map of study area on Hornby Island 2 Figure 3 - Map showing the distribution of the Nanaimo Group 5 Figure 4 - Map showing the geologic distribution of the five formations that outcrop on Hornby Island 6 Figure 5 - Corresponding cross-section for figure 4a 6 Figure 6 - Map showing groundwater divides on Hornby Island 9 Figure 7 - Piper plot displaying the geochemical trends of the groundwater on Hornby Island 10 Figure 8 - Map showing the locations of the groundwater and surface water samples that were collected 15 Figure 9 - Piper plot summarizing the geochemical data collected at and around HRCC 19 Figure 10 – Plot of depth below top of well casing versus temperature 21 Figure 11 – Plot of depth below top of well casing versus conductivity 21 Figure 12  - A plot of water level versus time for the new well at HRCC 22 Figure 13 - A plot of water level versus time for the MOE’s observation well 23 Figure 14 - Precipitation data collected by Environment Canada at Qualicum Beach and Courtenay 24 Figure 15 - Reference map for geologic cross section locations 25 Figure 16 - Cross sections created from available well drilling data 26    vi LIST OF TABLES   Table 1 - Description of Cretaceous Nanaimo Group formations that crop out on Hornby Island, BC 7 Table 2 - Summary of water sample collection dates and sampling method 15 Table 3 - Summary of the field and lab pH and field conductivity data 18 Table 4 - Summary of well locations, depths, and ground surface elevations 38 Table 5 - Geochemistry results and field data 84 Table 6 - Geochemistry data used from Allen and Matsuo’s 2002 study 85 Table 7 - Catchment area needed for rainwater collection at HRCC 87    vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS    I would like to thank my supervisors Dr. Roger Beckie and Dr. Diana Allen. Your guidance and expertise were not taken for granted.  Thank you to the Heron Rocks Camping Co-operative for providing me with this challenging yet rewarding project. Thank you to Rob Dal Santo and Darryl Bohn for providing me with any site background information you had.  Thank you to Kun Jia and Maureen Soon for helping me prepare and analyze my samples.  Thank you to Jody Vaillancourt for assisting me in interpreting my initial dataset.  I would like to thank Red Williams Drilling and the neighbours of HRCC for sharing your experiences.  Thank you to Sylvia Barroso at the British Columbia Ministry of Environment for your advice.  Thank you to Dr. Mary Lou Bevier and the Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences for directing the thesis seminar and your general support.  Last, but definitely not least, thank you to my parents for your endless love and encouragement.    ! 1 1.  INTRODUCTION    1.1 Introduction  Groundwater is the primary source for potable water for residents and visitors alike on the Gulf Islands of southwestern British Columbia (Figure 1).  Over recent years, the Gulf Islands have become an increasingly popular vacation and living destination, which places a great stress on the groundwater resource.  Conducting groundwater studies on the islands has become increasingly crucial in order to understand the groundwater system and how human activities are impacting the groundwater resource.    Figure 1.  Location map of the Gulf Islands (yellow) including Hornby Island (red) in British Columbia.  Modified from iMapBC (2013). ! 2 1.2 Site Location  This paper focuses on the groundwater of Hornby Island, BC.  Hornby Island is one of the two northernmost Gulf Islands (Figure 1).  It lies approximately 100 km west of Vancouver, BC and 70 km north of Nanaimo, BC.  The particular area of interest on Hornby Island is the Heron Rocks Camping Co-operative (HRCC) (Figure 2).  HRCC is located on a 0.072 km2 (18 acres) property at the southernmost point of Hornby Island, east of Ford Cove and south of Mount Geoffrey.     Figure 2.  Location map of study area on Hornby Island.  Modified from iMapBC (2013).       ! 3 1.3 Site Background  HRCC is a camping co-operative that has been in operation since the 1960s.  In past years, the water supply for the campgrounds was a single well hereafter referred to as the “old well” (Figure 2).  However, due to increasing popularity of the campsite, water demands in recent years have not been met by the old well.  HRCC strives to be a self-sustaining operation; as a result, a new well was installed in April of 2011 (hereafter referred to as the “new well”) (Figure 2).  Unfortunately, there have been multiple problems with the new well since its installation.  Initially, the well was dry and declared unusable, only to later discover that groundwater had slowly made its way into the well. The well was put into use during the 2011 summer camping season for a short period of time.  However, the well provided a poor yield of 4 litres per minute (~1 US gallon per minute) during its use.  On August 19, 2011, HRCC was ordered to stop using the new well due to salinity issues by the Vancouver Island Health Authority.  The new well was intermittently pumped during the fall for testing purposes until being shut off completely in the late spring of 2012.   1.4 Objective  The aim of this paper is to characterize the groundwater regime at and around HRCC.  Water samples, down-well logs, and water level data were collected to gain a better understanding of the geochemical and physical factors affecting the groundwater at HRCC.  Data and research from previous studies were also evaluated and synthesized with the data collected in this study to create a conceptual hydrogeological model of the area.  Based on the conceptual model, recommendations are made to HRCC to address their water supply issues.     ! 4 2.  GEOLOGY OF HORNBY ISLAND    Hornby Island is positioned within the Georgia Basin, an elongate northwest- trending depression that began to form in the Late Cretaceous due to the westerly Late Cretaceous aged thrust-fold system off the coast of what is now British Columbia (Mustard, 1994).  The regional geology of the Georgia Basin is predominately composed of the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group as seen in Figure 3.  The 4 km thick Nanaimo Group unconformably overlies the Paleozoic to early Mesozoic aged Wrangellia Terrane on the west side of the basin and the Mesozoic to early Cenozoic aged Coast Belt on the east side (Katnick and Mustard, 2003).  Wrangellia Terrane consists of sedimentary rocks of Devonian to Jurassic age with some intrusions that are early to mid Jurassic in age (Mustard, 1994).  In contrast, the Coast Belt is comprised mostly of granitoids of mid Jurassic to Eocene age (Mustard, 1994).  On Hornby Island, Nanaimo Group strata dip approximately 5 – 15!degrees with a mean strike of 296 degrees (Mustard, 1994; Katnick, 2001).  Submarine abyssal fans caused by turbidity currents formed the Nanaimo Group sequence (Katnick and Mustard, 2003).  The most widely accepted model of deposition for the Nanaimo Group is a single foreland basin setting known as the Nanaimo Sedimentary Basin (Mustard et al., 1995; Katnick, 2001; Enkin et al., 2001). Sedimentary formations within the Nanaimo Group are primarily calcite cemented sandstone and conglomerate successions interbedded with mudstones (Mustard, 1994).  Units within the Group thicken or thin laterally due to its submarine fan mode of deposition (Mustard, 1994).  There are eleven formations within the Nanaimo Group, all of which have conformable gradational contacts (Mustard, 1994). Five of eleven formations within the Nanaimo Group crop out on Hornby Island (Katnick and Mustard, 2003) (Table 1).  Dense vegetation covers much of the bedrock, but the bedrock is exposed along the shorelines (Figure 4). ! 5 !  Figure 3.  Map showing the distribution of the Nanaimo Group and location of Hornby Island (red box) (Mustard, 1994).                    ! 6    Figure 4.  Map showing the geologic distribution of the five formations that outcrop on Hornby Island (Katnick, 2001).    Figure 5.  Corresponding cross-section for Figure 4 (Katnick, 2001).        ! 7  Table 1.  Description of Cretaceous Nanaimo Group formations that crop out on Hornby Island, BC.  Summarized from Katnick (2001), Enkin et al. (2001), and Katnick and Mustard (2002).  Formation Name Description Gabriola Fm. ~ 67 Ma 325 m thick • inverse graded with minor normal graded, poorly sorted sand matrix clast supported conglomerate • moderate to poorly sorted, fine to coarse grained ungraded massive sandstones • massive non-graded moderately sorted clast supported conglomerate • generally thickens upward from massive sandstones to conglomerates Spray Fm. ~69 Ma 375 m thick • thin to thick (<10cm – 30 cm) bedded sandstone- mudstone interbeds • moderate to poorly sorted, fine to coarse grained ungraded massive sandstones locally • minor massive poorly sorted ungraded sandstones Geoffrey Fm. ~71 Ma 400 m thick • moderate to poorly sorted fine to coarse grained ungraded calcite cemented massive sandstones • inverse graded with minor normal grading clast supported conglomerate • non-graded clast supported conglomerate Northumberland Fm. ~73 Ma 275 m thick • primarily massive mudstones • minor thin (<10 cm) parallel laminations of mudstones and siltstones De Courcy Fm. ~75 Ma 350 m thick  • moderate to poorly sorted fine to coarse grained ungraded calcite cemented massive sandstones • medium to thin (20 cm - <10 cm) bedded sandstone- mudstone interbeds • mottled siltstones and mudstones with bioturbation • parallel laminations of siltstones and mudstones    Approximately 30,000 years ago, the Cordilleran ice sheet covered British Columbia, the southern Yukon Territory, and parts of Alaska during the Fraser Glaciation (Clague and James, 2002).  The ice sheet reached its maximum extent about 14,000 years ago (Porter and Swanson, 1998).  During this period, Hornby Island was completely submerged in the ocean due to isostatic depression.  It is estimated that the coastal areas of British Columbia experienced 300 m of vertical depression due to this glacial loading yo un ge r ! 8 (Clague and James, 2002).  Deglaciation occurred rapidly over a period of ~4,000 years immediately following the period of maximum extent of the Cordilleran ice sheet (Clague and James, 2002).  A majority of the isostatic rebound occurred during the period of deglaciation; however, rebound is still occurring at present (Clague and James, 2002). By about 12,000 years ago sea level at Parksville, BC and Courtenay, BC (Figure 1) had fallen from 108 m to 52 m and 150 m to 21 m above present mean sea level, respectively (Clague and James, 2002).  Given its proximity to Parksville and Courtenay, it can be inferred that Hornby Island experienced a similar sea level history.    3.  HYDROGEOLOGY OF HORNBY ISLAND    3.1  Physical Hydrogeology   Groundwater on Hornby Island is primarily derived from the sedimentary bedrock.  Past folding and thrusting events as well as glacial unloading led to extensive fracturing of the bedrock (Journeay and Morrison, 1999). This fracturing occurs as discrete fractures, fracture zones and faults, which act as focused groundwater flowpaths at a large scale (Allen and Matsuo, 2002). In addition, contacts between sandstone- dominated and mudstone-dominated units are thought to serve as discreet flowpaths for groundwater (Allen et al., 2003 and S. Barroso, personal communication, 2013). Generally, mudstone-dominated formations have a higher fracture density than the sandstone-dominated formations, particularly where there is interbedding; however, fracture density is generally low in the massive forms of both of these formations  (Allen et al., 2003 and D. Allen, personal communication, 2013).  Heterogeneity of fracturing is observed at different scales. At a regional scale, large scale structures, such as faults and fracture zones, become important pathways for groundwater. At the site scale, fracturing is generally sufficiently uniform, although heterogeneous, to allow for an equivalent porous medium conceptual model to be used. However, at the well scale, a single fracture ! 9 can strongly influence the productivity of a well (D. Allen, personal communication, 2013).  Hornby Island receives approximately 1370 mm of precipitation annually, 20% of which is estimated to enter the ground as groundwater recharge (Pitt and Bryden, 1994; Allen and Matsuo, 2002).  Recharge occurs over most of the land surface (Allen and Matsuo, 2002), but is likely focused in areas that have higher fracture density, and where the bedrock is covered by soil or where topography is not steep (which would promote greater runoff). Groundwater discharges in areas of low topography, via springs and seeps, and along the coast (Allen and Matsuo, 2002). The groundwater flow regime on Hornby Island has been divided into seven groundwater drainage systems based on surface drainage characteristics (Chwojka, 1984; Figure 6).  Although this approach for delineating the groundwater drainage system does not fully consider the nature of the dipping and fractured bedrock, it is a reasonable first approximation.  Figure 6.  Map showing groundwater divides on Hornby Island, based on Chwojka (1984).  The study area is located near the Norman Point, Ford Cove divide (red box) (Allen and Matsuo, 2002). ! 10  3.2 Geochemical Hydrogeology   In 2001, Allen and Matsuo (2002) conducted an extensive water sampling program on Hornby Island in order to catalog and interpret the geochemical characteristics of the groundwater.  Their findings indicated that groundwater geochemistry on Hornby Island can be divided into three categories: immature groundwater via mineral dissolution; evolved groundwater via cation exchange (with intermediate degrees of cation exchange); and mature or highly evolved groundwater impacted by varying degrees of mixing with seawater (Figure 7).  Characteristics of these geochemical phenomena are described below.   Figure 7.  Piper plot displaying the geochemical trends of the groundwater on Hornby Island (Allen and Matsuo, 2002).  ! 11 3.2.1 Immature Groundwater via Mineral Dissolution   Mineral dissolution reactions generate immature groundwater on Hornby Island. Hornby Island’s immature groundwater plots in the middle of the Piper plot (Figure 7). pH ranges between 6.7 and 7.6, electrical conductivity (EC) ranges between 236 μS/cm and 106 μS/cm, and alkalinity ranges between 48 mg/L and 120 mg/L (Allen and Matsuo, 2002).  These values are similar to those of surface water and rainwater samples collected by Allen and Matsuo (2002). Dissolved ion species such as Na+, Ca2+, and SO42- derive from chemical weathering.  The availability of carbon dioxide (CO2) governs the chemical dissolution of minerals in Hornby Island’s groundwater.  The following equilibrium equation illustrates the interaction between the various carbonate species: dissolved CO2 gas, carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and carbonate (CO32-):  CO2 (g) + H2O (l) ⇔ H2CO3 (aq) ⇔ HCO3- (aq) + H+ (aq) ⇔ CO32- (aq) + H+ (aq)  In an open system, such as near the ground surface or in a highly fractured rock, there is generally an unlimited source of CO2 (g).  As a result, this tips the equilibrium equation to the right, forming carbonate species and thus increasing the pH of the water (H+). The acidity of the water dissolves the surrounding calcite cemented rocks thereby introducing Ca2+ and HCO3- among other ions or compounds into the groundwater. In a closed system (i.e., a depth in the bedrock), there is often a limited quantity of CO2, which eventually becomes depleted.  In this case, the equilibrium shifts to the left thereby decreasing the pH of the groundwater.  3.2.2 Evolved Groundwater via Cation Exchange  The process of cation exchange facilitates the generation of intermediate and evolved groundwater compositions on Hornby Island.  The evolved groundwater plots on the lower right edge of the Piper plot diamond (Figure 7).  pH ranges between 7.3 and 9.1 and EC ranges between 198 µS/cm and 1568 µS/cm with an average value of 527.5 µS/cm (Allen and Matsuo, 2002).  Intermediate groundwater compositions reflect varying ! 12 degrees of cation exchange, and intuitively have compositions between these values and the values stated in section 3.2.1. Cation exchange is the process of sodium (Na+) enrichment by calcium (Ca2+) depletion.  This reaction is governed by the presence of clay minerals most commonly found in mudstones as they provide a negative surface for the exchange of the two cations.  There are three major factors that contribute to the rate of cation exchange: pH, surface area of mudstones, and residence time.  Surface area and residence time both positively correlate with cation exchange.  With a greater amount of surface area exposed, there is a larger negative surface available on which cation exchange can occur. Intuitively, if the groundwater has a long residence time in the mudstone it will be more enriched in Na+ and depleted Ca2+ (assuming an unlimited supply of Na+).  A longer residence time generally correlates with well depth.  Wells more than 30 m deep in mudstone lithologies generally yield water with evolved compositions (Allen and Matsuo, 2002).  The following calcite dissolution equation explains how pH influences the process of cation exchange:  CaCO3 (s) + H+ (aq) ⇔ Ca2+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq)  In low pH conditions, this equation rebalances to the right thereby increasing the concentration of Ca2+ in the groundwater.  With sufficient Ca2+ concentrations, Na+ can freely exchange with Ca2+ consequently completing the process of cation exchange. Additionally, evolved groundwater often exhibits a “rotten egg” smell, thereby indicating the presence of dihydrogen sulphide (H2S).  It is believed that the H2S is sourced from minor gypsum or anhydrite, which are common in submarine sedimentary rocks (Dakin et al., 1983).  H2S is present in minor amounts in the groundwater on Hornby Island; however, its foul odor can be off-putting to those who consume the water.  3.2.3 Mature Groundwater Impacted by Mixing with Seawater Intrusion   In coastal aquifers, there is a high potential for fresh groundwater to mix with seawater due to the proximity of the ocean and the presence of a freshwater-saltwater ! 13 interface at depth. The depth of the interface is dependent on the balance between the hydraulic gradient of freshwater flowing into the ocean against the gradient of ocean water pushing its way into land.  In many cases, the freshwater gradient is greater than the ocean gradient.  Saltwater intrusion occurs most commonly due to anthropogenic pumping of the groundwater.  The drawdown caused by the pumping disturbs the freshwater gradient and allows ocean water into come in to rebalance the system. However, groundwater also mixes with seawater naturally within the zone of diffusion surrounding the interface. In this case, deep wells that extend below the interface may have high salinity.  Groundwater that has mixed with saltwater plots along the bottom right edge of the Piper plot, with the samples with highest relative amounts of chloride plotting at the right corner of the Piper plot diamond (Figure 7).  Strong indicators of mixing with seawater are elevated concentrations of bromide (Br-) and Cl- and elevated EC.  EC values in these highly evolved groundwaters on Hornby Island range from 1382 µS/cm to 10450 µS/cm (Allen and Matsuo, 2002).  Groundwaters that have mixed with seawater have Br- values of 3.9 ppm to 12.4 ppm and Cl- values of 380 ppm to 6600 ppm (Allen and Matsuo, 2002).  Br- is an excellent indicator of seawater mixing due to the fact that it is not commonly found in freshwater aquifers, but present in ocean water.  On Hornby Island, Allen and Matsuo (2002) found that saltwater intrusion has likely only occurred in wells with evolved groundwater compositions.  Saltwater intrusion has been found in some wells along the northern shore of Hornby Island.  This is also the most densely populated area of the island so it can be inferred that anthropogenic stress from deep well pumping has led to the occurrence of saltwater intrusion.           ! 14 4.  METHODOLOGY     Two site visits were conducted to collect water samples, log down-well conductivity, and measure water levels.  The first site visit was on October 5, 2012 and the second was on November 24, 2012   4.1 Water Sampling   Groundwater and surface water samples were collected in compliance with standard sampling techniques (United States Geological Survey, 2006).  Six samples were collected in 250 mL high-density polyethylene bottles (Figure 8 and Table 2). Groundwater samples were collected from private residential wells with permission of the owner.  Groundwater samples were collected from taps before the well water had passed through any filtration system.  In the case where a pumping system was not installed or had been decommissioned, a bailer was used to collect water samples. Surface water samples were collected using the grab method.  All samples were filtered using a 0.45 μm filter then stored at approximately 4!°C in a cooler for transport to the hydrogeology lab at the University of British Columbia. Field measurements of pH and temperature were made using an Oakton RS pH 11 probe, and for conductivity using an Oakton Con 6 probe. Measurements were made during sample collection to provide in-situ data of the field conditions. Both probes were rinsed with deionized water between measurements. At the hydrogeology lab, samples were prepared for chemical analysis. Approximately 20 mL was taken from the samples to perform alkalinity titrations and the remaining volume was preserved using 0.1015 N nitric acid (HNO3).  Preserved samples were sent to the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at UBC for Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis of Ca2+, total P, K+, S2-, Al3+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Si4+, and Na+.  Cl- concentrations were determined from mass balance calculations.  Titrations were performed on known ! 15 volumes of unpreserved water samples using 0.1756 N sulphuric acid (H2SO4) as the titrant to determine the alkalinity.  An end point pH of ~3 was used in the titrations.   Figure 8.  Map showing the locations of the groundwater and surface water samples that were collected.  Basemap from iMapBC (2013).   Table 2. Summary of water sample collection dates and sampling method. Sample Location 1 2 3 4 5 Location Description New well Old well Stagnant pond Neighbour’s well Spring BC Well Tag # 104900 73735 -- 74346 -- Collection Date October 5, 2012 (2x) November 24, 2012 October 5, 2012 November 24, 2012 October 5, 2012 Method Bailer Well pump Grab Well pump Water tap   ! 16 4.2 Down-well Conductivity Measurements   Down-well conductivity measurements were taken in the field from the well thought to be affected by saltwater intrusion.  Conductivity and temperature measurements were taken in 1 m intervals using a 30 m Solinist model 107 TLC Meter. When the length of the measuring tape was surpassed a weighted bailer was used to collect a sample from the bottom of the well.  The samples were measured for field conductivity and temperatures using an Oakton Con 6 probe.   4.3 Water Levels   Two Solinst Levelogger 5 m model 3001 pressure transducers were installed in the tested well for the duration of the study.  One transducer was installed above the water level to measure barometric pressure and the other was installed below the water level to measure water column pressure.  Each transducer was set to record pressure in 30 minute intervals.  Data were downloaded from the transducers using Solinst Levelogger Gold software version 3.1.1. The Levelogger data were exported into a format compatible with Microsoft Excel for further analysis.  Groundwater level data collected by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment’s (MOE) Groundwater Observation Well Network program at observation well 288 (OBS288) (Figure 8) were downloaded to enable comparison with the water level data collected in this study.   Observation well 288 is situated in a different groundwater drainage than the study area (Figure 6); however, previous studies have confirmed that these aquifers likely behave in a similar manner (D. Allen, personal communication, 2013).  Precipitation data collected by Environment Canada at Courtenay, BC and Qualicum Beach, BC (Figure 1) were also downloaded to compare against the water level and geochemistry data.    ! 17 4.4 Geologic Cross-Section   Geologic cross-sections for the study area were created to determine if there is correlation between geologic formations and groundwater geochemistry.  Well drilling records were used as the primary resource for deriving the cross-sections.   The drilling records (Appendix I) were obtained from the online database, British Columbia Water Resource Atlas.  Latitude/longitude coordinates and ground surface elevations for each well were taken from iMapBC (2013) (Appendix I).  Strike and dip bedding measurements from Katnick’s (2001) geologic map were used to ensure the cross- sections’ trajectory was perpendicular to strike.  It should be noted that there was some inconsistency in the quality of the well drilling records especially with regard to casing stick up and geologic unit identification.  In those instances, reasonable assumptions were made to ensure the cross-section was representative.  Well depths were also examined to compare with water geochemistry results.   4.5 Data Provided by Heron Rocks Camping Co-operative   HRCC had collected data itself prior to the commencement of this study.  Results from two rounds of water sampling, water usage data, and the well drilling log were provided by HRCC for this study (Appendix II).    5.  RESULTS     Two site visits to HRCC were conducted on October 5, 2012 and November 24, 2012.  The data from both of those site visits are integrated with data from other sources and the results are summarized below.   ! 18 5.1 Water Geochemistry   Geochemistry results from the water samples collected in this study are represented on a Piper plot (Figure 9).  Rainwater and ocean water data collected by Allen and Matsuo (2002) were added to the Piper plot to represent the two end members for water geochemistry on Hornby Island.  Data points were grouped according to sample/well depth. Surface locations include springs, ponds, ocean water, and rainwater. Intermediate wells have depths between 1 and 35 m.  Deep wells have depths greater than 35 m. pH data collected in the field and lab, and conductivity data are reported in Table 3.  Surface water samples, except for saltwater, generally exhibit a neutral pH and low conductivity.  Sample 2 has an acidic pH and a moderate conductivity.  Samples 1 and 4 have basic pHs and high conductivities.  Table 3. Summary of the field and lab pH and field conductivity data. Sample Location 1 (Apr/12) 1 (Oct/12) 2 3 4 5 Rainwater Saltwater pH (field) 8.4 9.18 6.30 7.96 9.03 -- 5.8 8.3 pH (lab) -- 8.65 6.70 7.15 8.76 6.99 5.6 8.2 Conductivity (µS/cm) 1260 1020 508 130 973 -- 13 34300 !  ! 19  Figure 9.  Piper plot summarizing the geochemical data collected at and around HRCC. See Appendices II and III for concentrations.  Rainwater and saltwater points are from Allen and Matsuo (2002) (Appendix IV).  Sample numbers correspond with those listed in Table 2.   Sample locations 3 and 5 and the rainwater sample from Allen and Matsuo (2002) generally plot in the upper left corner of the diamond.  Sample locations 1 and 4 both plot along the bottom right edge of the diamond.  Note that location 1 was sampled twice, in April and October of 2012.  Location 2 plots between the surface and deep well samples in the middle of the Piper diamond.  Saltwater is located on the right corner of the Piper diamond. ! ! 20 5.2 Down-well Conductivity and Temperature Logging   Temperature and conductivity measurements were taken from the new well in 1 m increments on October 5 and November 24 of 2012 (Figures 10 and 11).  In October, the temperature of the groundwater is 10.1 °C near surface and then drops to 9.9 °C between ~8 m and ~17 m below the top of the well casing.  Temperature increases slowly with depth back to 10.1 °C at around 20 m below the top of casing.  In November, the temperature of the groundwater roughly followed the same trend as the October data.  For both sets of conductivity data the shallowest depths (< 7 m) have conductivities of ~500 µS/cm.  The deeper measurements taken during both collection dates have much higher values.  October conductivity data remain reasonably constant with depth at ~900 µS/cm.  Similarly, the November conductivity data are also relatively constant with depth at ~1000 µS/cm.  There is a 100 µS/cm increase in conductivity between the October and November data collections. ! 21 !!!!!!!!! ! Figure 10 (left) and Figure 11 (right).  Temperature and conductivity, respectively versus depth below top of casing (BTOC) for the new well. ! 22 5.3 Water Level   Water level and barometric pressure data were collected between the two site visits in the new well at HRCC.  Unfortunately, the pressure transducer recording the barometric pressure did not function for the duration of the data collection period.  Also, the cord from which the water level transducer was suspended stretched approximately 0.2 m during the data collection period.  However, the data that were retrieved are considered useful and are displayed in Figure 12.  Data collected by the Ministry of Environment’s Groundwater Observation Well Network program at well OBS288 are also represented below (Figure 13).  ! Figure 12.  Water level versus time for the new well at HRCC.  AMSL – Above Mean Sea Level.  Note these data have not been compensated for barometric pressure change and the final water level is 0.2 m higher than it actually is.  ! 23  Figure 13.  Water level versus time for the MOE’s observation well 288. AMSL – Above Mean Sea Level.  Between the two site visits, the water level in the new well increased by approximately 1.5 m.  Throughout the data collection period, there are noticeable drops in the water level followed by recovery periods.  At OBS288, the water level rose by ~4.2 m between the two site visit dates.  At both wells, it appears that the water levels are increasing at an increasing rate starting around mid-October and begin to level off by late-November. Precipitation data from April 12, 2012 to November 25, 2012 collected at Qualicum Beach and Courtenay are presented in Figure 14.  Moderate precipitation (< ~20 mm/day) occurred in the spring months and continued until the end of June.  The remainder of the summer was dry with minimal precipitation.  Low to zero rainfall conditions continued into early October. The rainy season commenced in mid-October as evidenced by high (> ~30 mm/day) precipitation events. ! 24 ! Figure 14.  Precipitation data collected by Environment Canada at Qualicum Beach and Courtenay.  5.4 Geologic Cross-Sections   A reference map for the geologic cross-sections and the three cross-sections constructed through the study area are shown in Figures 15 and 16, respectively. ! 25 !  Figure 15.  Reference map for geologic cross-section locations (yellow lines) and the wells used to construct them.  Modified from iMapBC (2013).  ! 26  Figure 16.  Geologic cross-sections created from available well drilling data.  All cross-sections have 4.5x vertical exaggeration and 4x horizontal exaggeration. Azimuth indicated by arrow above each cross-section. ! 27 Overburden consisting of unconsolidated materials covers much of the study area aside from the shoreline areas.  Massive sandstone units dominate along the shoreline and the southern portion of the study area.  Beneath the massive sandstone, some sandstone with minor mudstone interbeds is present.  Further inland, the massive sandstone grades out into sandstone and mudstone interbeds.  Some lenses of massive sandstone or sandstone with minor mudstone interbeds are also present.  The most important points of interest are the locations of the new well and old well.  The new well and old well are completed in the mudstone units, but the old well also taps into massive sandstones at depth.    6.  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS    6.1 Groundwater Geochemistry   Results from geochemistry analysis are consistent with the groundwater composition categories established in Allen and Matsuo’s (2002) study.  Samples 3 and 5 have immature compositions, sample 2 has an intermediate composition, and samples 1 and 4 have evolved to mature compositions. Samples 3 and 5 both show elevated Ca2+ concentrations, conductivities less than 150 µS/cm, and a neutral pH, all of which are characteristic of the immature groundwater found on Hornby Island.  They are both from surface water bodies so their immature groundwater compositions are expected.  The neutral pH found in these samples is also consistent with a shallow soil environment where carbonic acid is being formed, but little to no mineral dissolution is occurring.  The minimal time the water has been in contact with materials that may change its initial composition may explain its low EC.  Elevated Ca2+ concentrations in surface samples can be attributed to chemical weathering – a process that dominates in near surface water systems. Samples 1 and 4 have high Na+ concentrations, conductivities around 1000 µS/cm, and basic pHs.  These samples were both taken from wells that are drilled in ! 28 mudstone units.  Negatively charged surfaces that are found on the clay minerals of mudstones provide exchange sites for cations. These exchange sites are dominantly occupied by Na+. When a groundwater rich in Ca2+ comes into contact with these exchange sites, the Na+ is released and the Ca2+ becomes attached, thus yielding a high Na+ concentration.  The high pH is the result of two processes: calcite dissolution and mixing with a chloride rich water.  When H2CO3 dissociates to dissolve CaCO3, HCO3- is formed.  Newly formed HCO3- explains the basic pH and the Ca2+ goes on to fuel cation exchange. The relative concentration of chloride is similar to HCO3- suggesting that there is some mixing with chloride in these samples. Thus, the higher conductivity is the result of more ions in solution due to both processes of dissolution and mixing.  Sample 2 has an intermediate composition between samples 3 and 5, and samples 1 and 4 suggesting some evolution through cation exchange.  Sample 2 has an acidic pH, a moderate conductivity of ~500 µS/cm, and moderate concentrations of both Ca2+ and Na+.  The acidic pH found in sample 2 is a result of mineral dissolution in the shallow subsurface.  Sample 2 is taken from an area with limited a CO2 supply; as a result the equilibrium between carbonate species shifts and produces H2CO3.  CaCO3 is dissolved from bedrock due to the acidity of the groundwater, which accounts for the moderate Ca2+ concentration.  The well sample 2 was taken from is drilled in mudstone as well as sandstone, therefore Na+ is likely introduced into the water via cation exchange from the mudstone.  The contact between the sandstone and the mudstone serves as a major flowpath that groundwater can easily flush through; subsequently, the short residence time limits the degree of cation exchange that can occur.   6.2 Down-well Conductivity and Temperature Logging   Temperature and conductivity vary over time.  Groundwater temperatures fluctuate minimally throughout the year, and as a result it is not surprising that minimal change occurred in the groundwater temperature.  The October dataset shows 0.2 °C drop between 10 m and 12 m compared to the November dataset.  However, the limited nature of this dataset makes it difficult to determine if this anomaly is real or whether there was ! 29 instrument error.  For the purpose of this study, these minor temperature fluctuations are considered to be instrumental inconsistencies due to the low precision of the probe. Conductivities taken as the probe first entered the water are around 550 µS/cm for both datasets.  Rainwater is likely to be the source of the fresher water found at the top of the new well’s water column.  The remaining measurements are in the 900 µS/cm to 1000 µS/cm range and change minimally with depth.  Between the two data collection dates there was a ~100 µS/cm increase in conductivity, which is counterintuitive to what is expected.  One would expect a decrease in conductivity between October 5 and November 24 due to the heavy rainfall in the area.  Once again, this may be explained by instrument error.  If this is the case, it can only be assumed that there was no major change in conductivity despite the period of heavy precipitation. The uniform results found in both the temperature and conductivity down-well datasets suggests that the water entering the new well derives from the same source.  That is, it does not appear that multiple water compositions are entering the well and mixing.   6.3 Water Levels   Water levels in both the new well and the MOE’s observation well rose once the rainy season began.  At OBS288, a response to the onset of higher precipitation in the fall can be clearly seen from the increase of ~24.5 m AMSL to ~29 m AMSL.   It does not appear that this well is being affected by any nearby pumping activities. The new well also displays a similar rapid increase in the water level; however, the increasing trend is interrupted by what appear to be the effects of nearby pumping. The water level in the well repeatedly drops and recovers despite the fact that the pump inside the new well has been disabled.  Upon investigation of the surrounding wells on neighbouring properties, it seems reasonable to conclude that the neighbouring properties may be pumping and causing this minor alteration of water levels in this well; water levels vary by only about 25 cm.   ! 30 6.4 Conceptual Model   A conceptual model of the study area can be formed from the interpretation of results described above in addition to research conducted in other studies.  It is as follows.  Each year, some percentage of precipitation enters the ground as recharge (Pitt and Bryden, 1994), although the amount is uncertain.  Recharge can occur everywhere, but the degree of recharge is dependent on topography, soil type, vegetation cover, and substrate geology (D. Allen, personal communication, 2013).  Groundwater makes its way slowly toward the ocean via discreet flowpaths in the bedrock such as fractures or geologic contacts.  Lithologies with copious interbedding are thought to be good groundwater conductors; alternatively, massive lithologies are thought of as poor conductors (Allen et al., 2003).  Surface expressions of groundwater such as ponds are pools of water perched upon massive units.  Springs occur where groundwater flow is diverted to surface, likely due to the presence of a lower permeable unit. In this particular study, the ponds and springs were both found to have immature geochemical compositions with elevated Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations.  At depth, two groundwater geochemical compositions exist: an intermediate composition dominated by cation exchange and a more evolved composition characterized by mixing with a more saline end member.  The groundwater composition is controlled largely by lithology the water flows through. At this study site, sandstone is found at the southern portion and mudstones underlie the northern area.  Groundwater of intermediate composition is found in areas that allow sufficient groundwater flushing such as where discrete fractures are present or along the contacts between mudstone and sandstone.  The rapid transit time may result in short the residence times, and therefore less time in contact with the clay exchange sites. Or, alternatively, there may be little mudstone present to provide clay exchange sites. Evolved groundwater is found in mudstones, where Na+ is being released in to the groundwater at exchange sites. These mudstones may also have some chloride in areas that are poorly flushed.  Mudstone at the study site tends to be massive, which forces a long residence time on the groundwater.  Thus, cation exchange and mixing are likely to occur for an extended period of time. ! 31 7. EVALUATION OF WELL REHABILITATION AND ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCES     This chapter summarizes the options available to HRCC for either rehabilitating the new well or developing alternative sources of water.  Two methods of rehabilitation and four water sources are considered.  Recommendations are made for the best options.   7.1 Hydrofracking   Hydrofracking is the process of injecting a large volume of water under immense pressure into a well in a short period of time.  The injected water stimulates the aquifer by increasing the fracture’s and flow path’s widths thus allowing more water to flow. Hydrofracking may help HRCC’s issue with poor well yield, but there are consequences and issues to consider before attempting to hydrofrack.  The proximity of the old well and the neighbouring wells is concern specific to HRCC (R. Williams, personal communication, 2013).  Hydrofracking the new well is likely to negatively impact the surrounding wells.  This is supported by the water level data that revealed neighbouring pumping operations; if the neighbours’ pumping affects the new well, then hydrofracking the new well will affect neighbouring wells.  Furthermore, because the new well is completed in a mudstone unit, it is likely that the groundwater will have the same chemical composition – that is, the more evolved composition that is not suitable as a drinking water source. Lastly, an issue that commonly arises from hydrofracking is an increase in turbidity, thus increasing the need for water filtering prior to drinking (R. Williams, personal communication, 2013).  All these factors considered, hydrofracking is not recommended for HRCC.      ! 32 7.2 Rigorous Pumping   Rigorous pumping is the second option HRCC has to try to rehabilitate the new well.  It has been suggested that the water proximal to the new well is merely a lens of evolved groundwater and with enough pumping fresher, cleaner water will enter the new well (R. Williams, personal communication, 2013).  There are many flaws with this suggestion.  First, as mentioned above, there is no evidence for an alternative source of fresher groundwater.  The new well is surrounded by massive mudstones in all directions for at least 50 m, and these mudstones are where cation exchange reactions take place and where higher salinity from poorly flushed units is common.  Second, from examining Katnick’s (2001) geologic cross-section it is clear that the beds and contacts are dripping from the ocean to the shore.  Given the new well’s completion depth and proximity to the ocean it is possible that aggressive pumping could draw in ocean water.  Finally, the groundwater extracted cannot simply be discharged into the ocean; it must be disposed of in compliance with the MOE’s wastewater regulations.  In some cases, wastewater must be sent for treatment before being reincorporated back into the water cycle, which can be costly.  Furthermore, if a lens truly did exist, pumping would have to occur on a months to years scale, which would result in excessive operations and water disposal costs. Pumping to clear out the evolved groundwater is not recommended.   7.3 Drilling Another Well   If rehabilitation is deemed infeasible, drilling another well is an option to consider as an alternative water source.  HRCC would abandon the new well, remove the pump, and install it in a new well.  Unfortunately, there does not appear to be a viable target for another well to be drilled.  Drilling a well anywhere around the northern end of the property is not recommended because it is mudstone dominated.  A well completed in that area would only yield evolved groundwater similar to the water in the new well.  On the other hand, attempting to install a well around the southern end of the property is also not recommended.  Although there is a good chance of encountering the same geologic ! 33 contact that the old well draws its water from, there is also the possibility of drilling too close to the shore and drawing in saltwater from Lambert Channel.  Drilling another well is not recommended for HRCC.   7.4 Pond   On the HRCC property there is a pond that could potentially be developed into a drinking water source.  It is the same pond that was sampled at location 3.  Before utilizing this resource it is advisable to assess the following concerns and additional costs. Geochemical results (Appendix III) indicated that iron concentrations are above the aesthetic objective specified by Health Canada (2012).  Iron can be removed either by filtering with a Pitcher-type carbon filtration unit, or by!adding chlorine to allow the iron to precipitate out of solution (MOE, 2007).   Copious turbidity is also present in the pond; therefore, a sufficient filtration system will be needed before drinking the water.  An important issue to be considered is the fact that HRCC is bounded by farms on the east and west sides of the property.  If the pond is developed as a water source, the threat of escherichia coli (e. coli) contamination from livestock manure must be taken seriously.  It is recommended that HRCC conduct testing to ensure no e. coli contamination has reached the pond.  If the pond passes e. coli analysis it is recommended to consider the pond as a potential drinking water source.  Regular testing is recommended.   7.5 Rainwater Collection   Rainwater collection is the second most viable option for HRCC.  Rainwater collection is recommended when available well water is of poor quality or limited in quantity (Regional District of Nanaimo (RDN), 2012).  Rainwater is typically collected off of roofs, therefore the roof, gutters, and downspouts cannot be made of materials that my leach toxins into the water (RDN, 2012).  Furthermore, potable rainwater must have the appropriate filters, disinfection equipment, and use potable water rated piping and ! 34 tanks (RDN, 2012).  According to HRCC’s water usage data from summer of 2012 (Appendix II), approximately 7500 litres (2000 US gallons) of water were delivered to HRCC to meet their needs.  Using the calculations specified by the RDN for capture area, if Hornby Island continues to receive 1370 mm of precipitation annually, HRCC will need a 7.2 m2 capture area to collect enough rainwater for the summer camping season (Appendix V).  Rainwater could serve as an alternative water source, but another water treatment system needs to be installed at HRCC first.   7.6 Increasing Water Storage for the Old Well   At this time, HRCC does not have enough water storing capacity to meet its water demands in the summer months; however the old well is rarely used in the fall/winter months.  HRCC’s water demands could be met by simply adding another water storage tank to its facilities.  The new tank can be filled in the off-season, thus supplying HRCC with the water it needs to be self-sustaining during the summer camping season.  The costs associated with the additional storage capacity are not only the tank itself and the appropriate piping, but also the storehouse for the tank.  There is not enough room in HRCC’s current water storehouse for another water tank.  Therefore, a second shed must be constructed to house the new water storage tank.  The costly initial investment of this option may be discouraging, however there are minimal subsequent costs associated with this option.  It is recommended for HRCC to consider increasing its current storage for water from the old well, as this is the most viable option.    8.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECCOMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK     Groundwater flowing from the new well at HRCC undoubtedly has an evolved geochemistry composition as defined by Allen and Matsuo (2002).  Geochemical characteristics of the evolved groundwater are related strongly to the natural process of ! 35 cation exchange, which dominates in mudstone lithologies.  Chloride rich water has also mixed with the evolved groundwater, but its nature was not determined in this study. Little can be done to remediate the water in the new well.  Both hydrofracking and rigorous pumping are not viable options for rehabilitation since the hydrogeological conditions in which the new well is installed will not improve through these techniques. It is recommended that HRCC look into increasing its current storage for water from the old well.  If this is not desirable, rainwater collection is recommended as a second option and harvesting pond water as a third option.   Although there are no viable options to remediate the water entering the new well, there is still some work that can to done to better understand the hydrogeological setting of the site.  A single well pumping test can be conducted at the new well to determine how the evolved groundwater behaves as it flows through the mudstones in the area. Isotope analysis as well as analysis for Br- may help to determine the origin of the chloride rich water mixing with the evolved groundwater as observed in the new well. This research may allow workers to create a more accurate conceptual model of this study area.     ! ! ! 36 REFERENCES CITED   Allen, D. M., 2003, Sources of ground water salinity on islands using 18O, 2H and 34S. Ground Water, v. 42, p. 17-31. Allen, D. M., Liteanu, E., Mackie, D. C., 2003, Geologic controls on the occurrence of saltwater intrusion in heterogeneous and fractured island aquifers, Southwestern British Columbia, Canada. p. 1-12. Allen, D. M., and Matsuo, G. P., 2002, Results of the groundwater geochemistry study on Hornby Island, British Columbia. p. 1-126. Allen, D. M., Matsuo, G., Suchy, M., Abbey, D. G., 2001, A multidisciplinary approach to studying the nature and occurrence of saline Groundwater in the Gulf Islands, British Columbia, Canada. p. 1-13. Clague, J. J., and James, T. S., 2002, History and isostatic effects of the last ice sheet in southern British Columbia. Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 21, p. 71-87. Chwojka, F., 1984, A preliminary review of the groundwater conditions on Hornby Island, British Columbia. p. 1-21. Dakin, R. A., Farvolden, R. N., Cherry, J. A., and Fritz, P., 1983, Origin of dissolved solids in groundwaters of Mayne Island, British Columbia, Canada.  Journal of Hydrology, v. 63, p. 233-270. Enkin, R. J., Baker, J., and Mustard, P. S., 2001, Paleomagmatism of Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group southwestern Canadian Cordillera. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 38, p. 1403-1022. Health Canada, 2012, Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality – Summary table, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/2012-sum_guide- res_recom/index-eng.php (March 1, 2013) Katnick, D. C., 2001, Sedimentology, stratigraphy and provenance of the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, Denman and Hornby Islands, British Columbia. p. 1- 285. Katnick, D. C. and Mustard P. S., 2001, Geology of Denman and Hornby Islands, British Columbia.  Vancouver, Simon Fraser University and British Columbia Geological Survey, scale 1:50,000. ! 37 Katnick, D. C. and Mustard P. S., 2003, Geology of Denman and Hornby Islands, British Columbia: Implications for Nanaimo Basin evolution and formal definition of the Geoffrey and Spray formations, Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group.  Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 40, p. 375-393. Ministry of Environment – The Government of British Columbia, 2007.  Iron and manganese in groundwater. Mustard, P. S. 1994. The Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, Georgia Basin.  Geology and Geological Hazards of the Vancouver Region, Southwestern British Columbia, v. 481, p. 27-67. Mustard, P. S., Parrish, R. R., and McNicoll, V., 1995, Provenance of the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group of British Columbia evidence from U-Pb analyses of detrital zircons.  Society for Sedimentary Geology, v. 52, p. 112-127. Porter, S. C., and Swanson, T. W., 1998, Radiocarbon age constraints on rates of advance and retreat of the Puget Lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the last glaciation. Quaternary Research, v. 50, p. 205-213. U.S. Geological Survey, 2006, Collection of water samples (ver. 2.0): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 9, Chapter A4, http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A4/ (4 October 2012) ! ! 38 APPENDICIES   APPENDIX I: Well Logs used for geologic cross-section construction   Table 4.  Summary of well locations, depths, and ground surface elevations of wells used for geologic cross-section construction. Well Tag # Latitude Longitude Depth Below Ground Surface Ground Surface Elevation     m m AMSL    38078 49 29 48.7 124 39 49.9 33.53 38 55268 49 29 53 124 40 27 39.01 3 73735 49 29 39 124 40 0 22.86 19 74337 49 29 51 124 40 27 11.58 4 74346 49 29 49.5 124 39 45.5 51.82 41 75428 49 29 39.5 124 39 45.9 30.48 20 90641 49 29 36.4 124 39 47.2 54.86 10 103621 49 29 28.8 124 39 48 34.75 20 104900 49 29 36 124 39 56 50.29 27   ! 39 Well Tag Number: 38078  Owner: JOE KNIEFEL  Address:  Area:  WELL LOCATION: NANAIMO Land District District Lot:  Plan:  Lot: Township:  Section:  Range: Indian Reserve:  Meridian: Block: Quarter: Island: HORNBY BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well: 10  Class of Well: Subclass of Well: Orientation of Well: Status of Well: New Well Use: Unknown Well Use Observation Well Number: Observation Well Status:  Construction Date: 1977-09-01 00:00:00.0  Driller: Gulf Island Well Drillers Well Identification Plate Number: Plate Attached By: Where Plate Attached:  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:     1 (Driller's Estimate) Gallons per Minute (U.S./Imperial) Development Method: Pump Test Info Flag: Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level: 40 feet  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: Odour: Well Disinfected: N EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: Field Chemistry Info Flag: ! 40 Construction Method: Drilled Diameter: 6.0 inches Casing drive shoe: Well Depth: 110 feet Elevation:    0  feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up:  inches Well Cap Type: Bedrock Depth: 45 feet Lithology Info Flag: File Info Flag: Sieve Info Flag: Screen Info Flag:  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details: Site Info (SEAM):  Water Utility: Water Supply System Name: Water Supply System Well Name:  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: Material: Method: Depth (ft): Thickness (in):  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: Method of Closure: Closure Sealant Material: Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: Screen from to feet Type Slot Size  Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe       GENERAL REMARKS:   LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: From     0 to     5 Ft.   gravel (rotten conglomerate) From     5 to     8 Ft.   sandy brown clayish sand ! 41 From     8 to    12 Ft.   bluish clay From    12 to    17 Ft.   bluish green clay From    17 to    26 Ft.   clay and gravel From    26 to    29 Ft.   gravel From    29 to    35 Ft.   fine sand and gravel From    35 to    41 Ft.   gravel and clay From    41 to    45 Ft.   sand and gravel From    45 to    85 Ft.   shale and sandstone From    85 to   110 Ft.   sandstone and intermitten shale From     0 to     0 Ft. From     0 to     0 Ft.   45' 6" pipe From     0 to     0 Ft.   water @ 82' From     0 to     0 Ft.   surface seal to 8' From     0 to     0 Ft.   material used:  rock cuttings   ! 42 Well Tag Number: 55268  Owner: RON DALZIEL  Address:  Area:  WELL LOCATION: NANAIMO Land District District Lot:  Plan: 16485 Lot: A Township:  Section: 2 Range: Indian Reserve:  Meridian: Block: Quarter: Island: HORNBY BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well: 17  Class of Well: Subclass of Well: Orientation of Well: Status of Well: New Well Use: Private Domestic Observation Well Number: Observation Well Status: Construction Date: 1985-09-06 00:00:00.0  Driller: Gulf Island Well Drillers Well Identification Plate Number: Plate Attached By: Where Plate Attached:  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:     1 (Driller's Estimate) U.S. Gallons per Minute Development Method: Pump Test Info Flag: Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level: 45 feet  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: Odour: Well Disinfected: N EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: Field Chemistry Info Flag: Site Info (SEAM): ! 43 Construction Method: Drilled Diameter: 6.0 inches Casing drive shoe: Well Depth: 128 feet Elevation:    0  feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up:  inches Well Cap Type: Bedrock Depth: 40 feet Lithology Info Flag: File Info Flag: Sieve Info Flag: Screen Info Flag:  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details:  Water Utility: Water Supply System Name: Water Supply System Well Name:  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: Material: Method: Depth (ft): Thickness (in):  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: Method of Closure: Closure Sealant Material: Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: Screen from to feet Type Slot Size  Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe       GENERAL REMARKS:   LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: From     0 to     4 Ft.   sand From     4 to     9 Ft.   brown clay From     9 to    23 Ft.   clay, gravel and sand ! 44 From    23 to    29 Ft.   clay and sand From    29 to    36 Ft. From    36 to    40 Ft.   clay From    40 to   128 Ft.   sandstone and shale From     0 to     0 Ft. From     0 to   127 Ft.   1 GPM at time of drilling   ! 45 Well Tag Number: 73735  Owner: HERON ROCK CAMPING CO- OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION  Address: 10084 CENTRAL ROAD  Area: HORNBY ISLAND  WELL LOCATION: NANAIMO Land District District Lot:  Plan: VIP8602 Lot: B Township:  Section: 18 Range: Indian Reserve:  Meridian: Block: Quarter: SW Island: HORNBY BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well: 21  Class of Well: Subclass of Well: Orientation of Well: Vertical Status of Well: New Well Use: Water Supply System Observation Well Number: Construction Date: 1984-04-27 00:00:00.0  Driller: Gulf Island Well Drillers Well Identification Plate Number: 13953 Plate Attached By: Where Plate Attached: WELL HEAD  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:     3 (Driller's Estimate) U.S. Gallons per Minute Development Method: Pump Test Info Flag: N Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level: 60 feet  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: Odour: Well Disinfected: N EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: N Field Chemistry Info Flag: Site Info (SEAM): N ! 46 Observation Well Status: Construction Method: Drilled Diameter: 6 inches Casing drive shoe: Well Depth: 75 feet Elevation:  134  feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up:  inches Well Cap Type: Bedrock Depth: 16 feet Lithology Info Flag: Y File Info Flag: N Sieve Info Flag: N Screen Info Flag: N  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details:  Water Utility: N Water Supply System Name: HERON ROCKS CAMPING CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION Water Supply System Well Name: WELL 1  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: N Material: Method: Depth (ft): 0 feet Thickness (in): Liner from       To:       feet  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: Method of Closure: Closure Sealant Material: Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: Screen from to feet Type Slot Size 0 0  0   0 0  0   0 0  0   0 0  0 Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe 0 0 0 null null       GENERAL REMARKS:  STEEL CASING,1.0 TO 19.0,188 LBS,  ! 47 LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: From     0 to    16 Ft.   CLAY From    16 to    28 Ft.   SOFT BRONW SHALE From    28 to    56 Ft.   BLACK SHALE From    56 to    75 Ft.   SANDSTONE From       to    60 Ft.   WATER AT 60'.    0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered From       to       Ft.   COMMENTS: WELL IN WOODEN BOX WITH CORRUGATED METAL ROOF.    0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered From       to       Ft.   WATER PUMPED FROM WELL TO TREATMENT SHED 50 M UPSLOPE FROM PRIMARY RESIDENCE.    0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered From       to       Ft.   WELL PROVIDES WATER FOR 22 CAMP SITES, 2 WOODEN STRUCTURES, 1 RESIDENCE ON SITE.    0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered From       to       Ft.   MAXIMUM POPULATION APPROX 100 PEOPLE    0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered 0 nothing entered   ! 48  Well Tag Number: 74337  Owner: DARSONS MR  Address: FORD COVE  Area: HORNBY ISLAND  WELL LOCATION: NANAIMO Land District District Lot:  Plan:  Lot: Township:  Section:  Range: Indian Reserve:  Meridian: Block: Quarter: Island: HORNBY ISLAND BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well: 23  Class of Well: Water supply Subclass of Well: Domestic Orientation of Well: Status of Well: New Well Use: Private Domestic Observation Well Number: Observation Well Status: Construction Date: 1987-09-30 00:00:00.0  Driller: Gulf Island Well Drillers Well Identification Plate Number: Plate Attached By: Where Plate Attached:  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:     0 (Driller's Estimate) Development Method: Pump Test Info Flag: N Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level: 12 feet  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: Odour: Well Disinfected: N EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: N Field Chemistry Info Flag: Site Info (SEAM):  ! 49 Construction Method: Drilled Diameter: 6.0 inches Casing drive shoe: Well Depth: 38 feet Elevation:    0  feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up:  inches Well Cap Type: Bedrock Depth:  feet Lithology Info Flag: N File Info Flag: N Sieve Info Flag: N Screen Info Flag: N  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details: Water Utility: Water Supply System Name: Water Supply System Well Name:  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: N Material: Method: Depth (ft): Thickness (in):  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: Method of Closure: Closure Sealant Material: Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: Screen from to feet Type Slot Size  Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe       GENERAL REMARKS:  STEEL CASING,1.5 TO 23.5,188 LBS,  LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: From    23 to    38 Ft.   SHALE From     0 to     0 Ft.   AT TIME OF DRILLING From     0 to  23.5 Ft.   3-4 GPM From    20 to    23 Ft.   FINE GRAVEL ! 50 From     3 to     9 Ft.   BROWN CLAY From     9 to    20 Ft.   CLAY SAND GRAVEL From     0 to     3 Ft.   TILL   ! 51 Well Tag Number: 74346  Owner: POPE KENYAN  Address: KNIEFER SUBDIVISION CENTRAL RD  Area: HORNBY ISLAND  WELL LOCATION: NANAIMO Land District District Lot:  Plan: 31622 Lot: B Township:  Section: 2 Range: Indian Reserve:  Meridian: Block: Quarter: Island: HORNBY BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well: 18  Class of Well: Subclass of Well: Orientation of Well: Status of Well: New Well Use: Private Domestic Observation Well Number: Construction Date: 1986-10-14 00:00:00.0  Driller: Gulf Island Well Drillers Well Identification Plate Number: Plate Attached By: Where Plate Attached:  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:    10 (Driller's Estimate) Gallons per Hour (U.S./Imperial) Development Method: Pump Test Info Flag: N Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level: 24 feet  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: Odour: Well Disinfected: N EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: N Field Chemistry Info Flag: Site Info (SEAM): ! 52 Observation Well Status: Construction Method: Drilled Diameter: 6.0 inches Casing drive shoe: Well Depth: 170 feet Elevation:    0  feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up:  inches Well Cap Type: Bedrock Depth:  feet Lithology Info Flag: File Info Flag: Sieve Info Flag: N Screen Info Flag:  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details:  Water Utility: Water Supply System Name: Water Supply System Well Name:  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: Material: Method: Depth (ft): Thickness (in):  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: Method of Closure: Closure Sealant Material: Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: Screen from to feet Type Slot Size  Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe       GENERAL REMARKS:  STEEL CASING,3.0 TO 27.0,188 LBS, LEGAL MAP INCLUDED  LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: From     0 to     6 Ft.   SAND GRAVEL ROCKS From     6 to    11 Ft.   BROWN SHALE WITH CLAY From    11 to    17 Ft.   CLAY & SHALE ! 53 From    17 to    26 Ft.   GRAY CLAY & SHALE From    26 to    38 Ft.   SHALE From    38 to   170 Ft.   LAYERS SANDSTONE & SHALE     ! 54 Well Tag Number: 75428  Owner: AIO HOLDINGS LTD.  Address: 9925 CENTRAL ROAD  Area: HORNBY ISLAND  WELL LOCATION: NANAIMO Land District District Lot:  Plan:  Lot: Township:  Section: 18 Range: Indian Reserve:  Meridian: Block: Quarter: NE Island: HORNBY BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well: 20  Class of Well: Subclass of Well: Orientation of Well: Status of Well: New Well Use: Private Domestic Observation Well Number: Observation Well Status: Construction Date: 1992-04-01 00:00:00.0  Driller: Gulf Island Well Drillers Well Identification Plate Number: Plate Attached By: Where Plate Attached:  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:     2 (Driller's Estimate) Gallons per Minute (U.S./Imperial) Development Method: Pump Test Info Flag: Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level: 8 feet  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: Odour: Well Disinfected: N EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: Field Chemistry Info Flag: Site Info (SEAM): ! 55 Construction Method: Drilled Diameter: 6.0 inches Casing drive shoe: Well Depth: 100 feet Elevation:    0  feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up:  inches Well Cap Type: Bedrock Depth: 20 feet Lithology Info Flag: File Info Flag: Sieve Info Flag: Screen Info Flag: N  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details:  Water Utility: Water Supply System Name: Water Supply System Well Name:  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: Material: Method: Depth (ft): 0 feet Thickness (in): Liner from       To:       feet  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: Method of Closure: Closure Sealant Material: Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: Screen from to feet Type Slot Size 0 0  0   0 0  0   0 0  0   0 0  0 Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe 0 0 0 null null       GENERAL REMARKS:  WATER AT 27' AND 45' LOCATION OF WELL WITHIN LOT UNKNOWN   ! 56 LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: From     0 to     3 Ft.   till From     3 to    11 Ft.   brown clay From    11 to    20 Ft.   grey clay and gravel From    20 to    74 Ft.   sandstone and shale From    74 to   100 Ft.   sandstone   ! 57 Well Tag Number: 90641  Owner: A I O HOLDINGS LTD  Address: 9925 CENTRAL ROAD  Area: HORNBY ISLAND  WELL LOCATION:  Land District District Lot:  Plan: Lot: Township:  Section: Range: Indian Reserve: Meridian:  Block: Quarter: Island: HORNBY ISLAND BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well: 22  Class of Well: Water supply Subclass of Well: Orientation of Well: Vertical Status of Well: Closure Construction Date: 2008-05-14 00:00:00.0  Driller: Wisharts Water Well Well Identification Plate Number: 23476 Plate Attached By: PAUL A NEGGERS Where Plate Attached: TOP OF CASING  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:       (Driller's Estimate) Development Method: Pump Test Info Flag: N Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level:  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: Odour: Well Disinfected: N EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: N Field Chemistry Info Flag: Site Info (SEAM):  ! 58 Well Use: Observation Well Number: Observation Well Status: Construction Method: Diameter:  inches Casing drive shoe:  N Well Depth: 180 feet Elevation:   62  feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up: inches Well Cap Type: SIMPLE Bedrock Depth: 10 feet Lithology Info Flag: Y File Info Flag: N Sieve Info Flag: N Screen Info Flag: N  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details: Water Utility: Water Supply System Name: Water Supply System Well Name:  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: N Material: Bentonite clay Method: Poured Depth (ft): Thickness (in): Liner from       To:       feet  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: SALT Method of Closure: Poured Closure Sealant Material: GROUT/BENTONITE Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: SURFACE BENTONITE PACKED AROUND TOP OF CASING BEFORE FILL IN LEVEL WITH SURFACE. TOP OF CASING CUT OFF 1 FOOT BELOW GROUND SURFACE. Screen from to feet Type Slot Size  Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe 0 19 6 Steel N       GENERAL REMARKS:  ESTIMATED WELL YIELD: TRACE. WELL ORIGINALLY DRILLED 2007-10-08 BY RED WILLIAMS.  LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: ! 59 From     0 to     3 Ft.   SOIL   GRAVELLY brown From     3 to    10 Ft.      CRUMBLEY brown  sandstone From    10 to   160 Ft.       grey  sandstone From   160 to   180 Ft.      SHALEY   sandstone From     0 to    16 Ft.      BENTONITE. CAP WELDED ON. CASING                              1 FOOT BELOW GROUND SURFACE. From   158 to   159 Ft.      BENTONITE From   159 to   162 Ft.      GROUT From   162 to   180 Ft.      PEA GRAVEL     ! 60 Well Tag Number: 103621  Owner: OLSEN  Address:  Area:  WELL LOCATION:  Land District District Lot:  Plan:  Lot: Township:  Section:  Range: Indian Reserve:  Meridian: Block: Quarter: Island: BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well:  Class of Well: Water supply Subclass of Well: Domestic Orientation of Well: Vertical Status of Well: New Well Use: Private Domestic Observation Well Number: Observation Well Status: Construction Date: 2007-10-10 00:00:00.0  Driller: Wisharts Water Well Well Identification Plate Number: 18379 Plate Attached By: DAVID WISHART Where Plate Attached: ON STICKUP  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:     4 (Driller's Estimate) U.S. Gallons per Minute Development Method: Bailing Pump Test Info Flag: N Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level: 44 feet  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: Odour: SWEET Well Disinfected: N EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: N Field Chemistry Info Flag: Site Info (SEAM): ! 61 Construction Method: Diameter:  inches Casing drive shoe:  Y Well Depth: 114 feet Elevation:   36  feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up: 18 inches Well Cap Type: ALUMINUM Bedrock Depth: 1 feet Lithology Info Flag: N File Info Flag: N Sieve Info Flag: N Screen Info Flag: N  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details:  Water Utility: Water Supply System Name: Water Supply System Well Name:  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: N Material: Bentonite clay Method: Poured Depth (ft): 5 feet Thickness (in): 1 inches Liner from       To:       feet  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: Method of Closure: Closure Sealant Material: Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: Screen from to feet Type Slot Size  Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe 0 5 6 Steel Y       GENERAL REMARKS:   LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: From     0 to     1 Ft.  Soft     black  soil ! 62 From     1 to     3 Ft.  Hard     tan  conglomerate From     3 to     8 Ft.  Hard     tan  sandstone From     8 to   114 Ft.  Medium SHALE SANDSTONE    black   ! 63 Well Tag Number: 104900  Owner: BAMS  Address: 10085 CENTRAL  Area: HORNBY ISLAND  WELL LOCATION:  Land District District Lot:  Plan:  Lot: Township:  Section:  Range: Indian Reserve:  Meridian: Block: Quarter: Island: BCGS Number (NAD 27): 092F047434 Well:  Class of Well: Water supply Subclass of Well: Domestic Orientation of Well: Vertical Status of Well: New Well Use: Private Domestic Observation Well Number: Observation Well Status: Construction Date: 2011-04-20 00:00:00.0  Driller: Red William's Drilling Well Identification Plate Number: 34975 Plate Attached By: ROBERT PARKER Where Plate Attached:  PRODUCTION DATA AT TIME OF DRILLING: Well Yield:       (Driller's Estimate) Development Method: Air lifting Pump Test Info Flag: N Artesian Flow: Artesian Pressure (ft): Static Level:  WATER QUALITY: Character: Colour: SULPHUR Odour: Well Disinfected: Y EMS ID: Water Chemistry Info Flag: N Field Chemistry Info Flag: Site Info (SEAM):  ! 64 Construction Method: Diameter:  inches Casing drive shoe:  N Well Depth: 165 feet Elevation:       feet (ASL) Final Casing Stick Up: 30 inches Well Cap Type: SIMPLE Bedrock Depth: 15 feet Lithology Info Flag: N File Info Flag: N Sieve Info Flag: N Screen Info Flag: N  Site Info Details: Other Info Flag: Other Info Details: Water Utility: Water Supply System Name: Water Supply System Well Name:  SURFACE SEAL: Flag: N Material: Bentonite clay and cement mixture Method: Poured Depth (ft): 17.5 feet Thickness (in): 1 inches Liner from       To:       feet  WELL CLOSURE INFORMATION: Reason For Closure: Method of Closure: Closure Sealant Material: Closure Backfill Material: Details of Closure: Screen from to feet Type Slot Size  Casing from to feet Diameter Material Drive Shoe 0 17.58 6 Steel N       GENERAL REMARKS:   LITHOLOGY INFORMATION: From     0 to     6 Ft.   SILTS    brown From     6 to    15 Ft.       grey  clay ! 65 From    15 to    47 Ft.   SILTSTONE BEDROCK    grey From    47 to    56 Ft.      SHALEY   conglomerate From    56 to    85 Ft.       grey  siltstone From    85 to    93 Ft.         shale From    93 to   165 Ft.       grey  siltstone   ! 66 APPENDIX II  Data Provided by Heron Rocks Camping Co-operative  Water Usage 2011 and 2012 Drilling Log Water Sampling 2011 and 2012 Heron Rocks Camping Co-op Water Usage 2011 Raw Meter Data Existing well is thought to be 78 feet deep, with pump about 10 feet from bottom. Well drilled in 2011 is thought to be 178 feet deep. Both wells are 6 inch bore, so 10" is about one imperial gallon. Reading Date From Well Into Tank (gallons) Used From Tank (gallons) Total People Notes/comments 21-May-11 10 10 30 Meters installed, with initial reading of '10' imperial gallons on each. Number of people is a pure guestimate. Both tanks at/near full at start of day. Readings have been taken in the morning, so far. 22-May-11 16 840 35 Fire barrels filled during work party. 23-May-11 78 1058 25 24-May-11 301 1170 5 Uncertain about number of people, so just assume at least 5, until better numbers available. Cycle interval on the well pump is around 1.5 to 1.75 hours. 25-May-11 540 1233 5 26-May-11 806 1303 5 27-May-11 3 28-May-11 1071 3 29-May-11 1501 1507 3 30-May-11 1766 1621 3 31-May-11 1980 3 Storage now topped after work party barrel filling 1-Jun-11 2231 1743 3 2-Jun-11 2477 1847 3 3-Jun-11 2615 1880 7 4 campers + est 3 in mgrs 4-Jun-11 2615 1921 7 5-Jun-11 2649 2025 7 6-Jun-11 2779 2086 7 7-Jun-11 2809 2125 7 8-Jun-11 2809 2235 7 power out in pump house - not sure if we by-passed meter during gravity fed 9-Jun-11 2867 2424 6 3 campers in/4 campers out 10-Jun-11 3021 2461 6 11-Jun-11 3264 2544 6 12-Jun-11 3561 2675 7 13-Jun-11 3759 2851 7 14-Jun-11 3876 2963 7 New well brought 'on-line' - not 15-Jun-11 4004 3058 11 Power tripped in pump house, so no drawing from well for a couple of days 16-Jun-11 4004 3215 11 17-Jun-11 4004 3222 18 18-Jun-11 4268 3303 21 19-Jun-11 4491 3424 31 20-Jun-11 4731 3509 36 21-Jun-11 4966 3635 42 22-Jun-11 5183 3802 46 23-Jun-11 5501 4069 46 24-Jun-11 25-Jun-11 26-Jun-11 27-Jun-11 6170 4503 40 28-Jun-11 6510 4702 40 29-Jun-11 6739 4929 36 30-Jun-11 6981 5116 39 1-Jul-11 7150 5314 58 Confirmed new well not on-line 2-Jul-11 7400 5565 65 3-Jul-11 7500 5632 65 4-Jul-11 7717 5857 61 5-Jul-11 7876 6001 64 6-Jul-11 8026 6180 63 7-Jul-11 8173 6346 62 8-Jul-11 8341 6504 66 9-Jul-11 8568 6763 72 10-Jul-11 8622 6787 72 11-Jul-11 8786 6987 75 12-Jul-11 8948 7114 75 13-Jul-11 9153 7376 66 14-Jul-11 9285 7986 61 Power out at 10am as Ron wires new well 15-Jul-11 9309 8132 54 Power back at 4pm 16-Jul-11 9343 8216 59 Reading Date From Well Into Tank (gallons) Used From Tank (gallons) Total People Notes/comments 17-Jul-11 9453 8361 66 Power was out July16-7pm to 9am July17th 18-Jul-11 9650 8401 71 Going to old well at 10:45am - manually switching between wells for a couple of days 19-Jul-11 9848 8601 69 20-Jul-11 9965 8700 70 21-Jul-11 10206 8838 70 New well only producing about 5gal/hour - pulled pump from new well 22-Jul-11 10372 8974 66 Posted conservation challenge 23-Jul-11 10595 9143 70 24-Jul-11 10721 9237 78 25-Jul-11 10977 9441 95 26-Jul-11 11184 9507 91 Experiment - moved 'camp' meter to old well head, readings at start 9500 & 11230, evening 9606 & 11342 27-Jul-11 11462 n/a 80 230 out of well, 232 into tank - am reading 9730 & 11462, pm reading 9828 & 11533 28-Jul-11 11620 n/a 84 am lost 65 gal - 455/390 well/tank (9955 & 11620) - pm lost 89 gal 559/470 (10059 & 11700) 29-Jul-11 11831 10225 90 am - 669 out of well, 544 into tank lost 125 gal - Meter returned at 3:40pm, reading now 11831/10225 - last well- head reading in am 10169 & 11774 - new well after 3 days rest gave ~82 gal (11913-11831) - bought water, 2 at 500 gallons each 30-Jul-11 12051 10353 87 Resumed water building measurements from 3:40pm on July 29th 31-Jul-11 12241 10504 83 1-Aug-11 12473 10706 88 Darryl reports new well gave ~40 gallons today 2-Aug-11 12647 10880 83 3-Aug-11 12827 11075 83 Ron installed the timer to run both wells 4-Aug-11 12926 11184 86 Betty reports a site or two with lots of visitors, like 10 all day. 5-Aug-11 13124 11360 83 Bought more water, 2 or 3 loads (i.e 1000 or 1500 gallons) 6-Aug-11 13345 11561 81 New line from old well installed 7-Aug-11 13555 11701 80 8-Aug-11 13605 11856 85 Pumps off for 14h … oops ! 9-Aug-11 13665 12046 86 Old switch on manual. 10-Aug-11 13934 12163 86 Darryl called in numbers. Have bought 6 or 7 loads of water. New well running 12-to-44 gal/day, perhaps. 11-Aug-11 14410 12400 88 12-Aug-11 13-Aug-11 14664 12689 84 14-Aug-11 14905 12821 90 15-Aug-11 15121 12954 109 16-Aug-11 15326 13124 107 17-Aug-11 15563 13354 99 18-Aug-11 15789 13555 103 19-Aug-11 16006 13705 99 Van Is. Health says stop new well 20-Aug-11 16215 13903 102 21-Aug-11 16412 14105 109 22-Aug-11 75 Power out, so no test 23-Aug-11 16723 14380 85 24-Aug-11 16912 14545 95 25-Aug-11 17116 14748 85 26-Aug-11 17334 15000 84 27-Aug-11 17483 15084 71 28-Aug-11 17671 15235 71 29-Aug-11 17864 15422 85 30-Aug-11 18061 15579 86 31-Aug-11 18246 15712 86 Bought two loads of water 1-Sep-11 18505 15938 74 Reading is from the evening, not the morning. Bought a load of water 2-Sep-11 18782 16147 89 3-Sep-11 18977 16240 84 4-Sep-11 19206 16407 80 5-Sep-11 19348 16444 80 6-Sep-11 40 7-Sep-11 19680 16527 18 8-Sep-11 19869 16616 13 Darryl will let storage drop a little, then switch to ONLY the new well Mon-to-Fri to do a flow test 9-Sep-11 20048 16684 13 Heron Rocks Camping Co-op Water Usage 2011 Usage and Camp Load Date Daily well production (gallons) Daily water consumption (gallons) Total People Daily consumption per person (gallons) Notes/comments 21-May-11 Meters installed, with initial reading of '10' imperial gallons on each. Number of people is a pure guestimate. Both tanks at/near full at start of day. Readings have been taken in the morning, so far. 22-May-11 6 830 35 23.7 Fire barrels filled during work party. 23-May-11 62 218 25 8.7 24-May-11 223 112 5 22.4 Uncertain about number of people, so just assume at least 5, until better numbers available. Cycle interval on the well pump is around 1.5 to 1.75 hours. 25-May-11 239 63 5 12.6 26-May-11 266 70 5 14.0 27-May-11 0 0 3 0.0 28-May-11 265 0 3 0.0 29-May-11 430 204 3 68.0 30-May-11 265 114 3 38.0 31-May-11 214 0 3 0.0 Storage now topped after work party barrel filling 1-Jun-11 251 122 3 40.7 2-Jun-11 246 104 3 34.7 3-Jun-11 138 33 7 4.7 4 campers + est 3 in mgrs 4-Jun-11 0 41 7 5.9 5-Jun-11 34 104 7 14.9 6-Jun-11 130 61 7 8.7 7-Jun-11 30 39 7 5.6 8-Jun-11 0 110 7 15.7 power out in pump house - not sure if we by-passed meter during gravity fed 9-Jun-11 58 189 6 31.5 3 campers in/4 campers out 10-Jun-11 154 37 6 6.2 11-Jun-11 243 83 6 13.8 12-Jun-11 297 131 7 18.7 13-Jun-11 198 176 7 25.1 14-Jun-11 117 112 7 16.0 New well brought 'on-line' - not 15-Jun-11 128 95 11 8.6 Power tripped in pump house, so no drawing from well for a couple of days 16-Jun-11 0 157 11 14.3 17-Jun-11 0 7 18 0.4 18-Jun-11 264 81 21 3.9 19-Jun-11 223 121 31 3.9 20-Jun-11 240 85 36 2.4 21-Jun-11 235 126 42 3.0 22-Jun-11 217 167 46 3.6 23-Jun-11 318 267 46 5.8 24-Jun-11 0 0 0 0.0 25-Jun-11 0 0 0 0.0 26-Jun-11 0 0 0 0.0 27-Jun-11 669 434 40 10.9 28-Jun-11 340 199 40 5.0 29-Jun-11 229 227 36 6.3 30-Jun-11 242 187 39 4.8 1-Jul-11 169 198 58 3.4 Confirmed new well not on-line 2-Jul-11 250 251 65 3.9 3-Jul-11 100 67 65 1.0 4-Jul-11 217 225 61 3.7 5-Jul-11 159 144 64 2.3 6-Jul-11 150 179 63 2.8 7-Jul-11 147 166 62 2.7 8-Jul-11 168 158 66 2.4 9-Jul-11 227 259 72 3.6 10-Jul-11 54 24 72 0.3 11-Jul-11 164 200 75 2.7 12-Jul-11 162 127 75 1.7 13-Jul-11 205 262 66 4.0 14-Jul-11 132 610 61 10.0 Power out at 10am as Ron wires new well 15-Jul-11 24 146 54 2.7 Power back at 4pm 16-Jul-11 34 84 59 1.4 17-Jul-11 110 145 66 2.2 Power was out July16-7pm to 9am July17th 18-Jul-11 197 40 71 0.6 Going to old well at 10:45am - manually switching between wells for a couple of days 19-Jul-11 198 200 69 2.9 20-Jul-11 117 99 70 1.4 21-Jul-11 241 138 70 2.0 New well only producing about 5gal/hour - pulled pump from new well 22-Jul-11 166 136 66 2.1 Posted conservation challenge 23-Jul-11 223 169 70 2.4 24-Jul-11 126 94 78 1.2 25-Jul-11 256 204 95 2.1 26-Jul-11 207 66 91 0.7 Experiment - moved 'camp' meter to old well head, readings at start 9500 & 11230, evening 9606 & 11342 27-Jul-11 278 n/a 80 n/a 230 out of well, 232 into tank - am reading 9730 & 11462, pm reading 9828 & 11533 28-Jul-11 158 n/a 84 n/a am lost 65 gal - 455/390 well/tank (9955 & 11620) - pm lost 89 gal 559/470 (10059 & 11700) 29-Jul-11 211 n/a 90 n/a am - 669 out of well, 544 into tank lost 125 gal - Meter returned at 3:40pm, reading now 11831/10225 - last well-head reading in am 10169 & 11774 - new well after 3 days rest gave ~82 gal (11913-11831) - bought water, 2 at 500 gallons each Date Daily well production (gallons) Daily water consumption (gallons) Total People Daily consumption per person (gallons) Notes/comments 30-Jul-11 220 128 87 1.5 Resumed water building measurements from 3:40pm on July 29th 31-Jul-11 190 151 83 1.8 1-Aug-11 232 202 88 2.3 Darryl reports new well gave ~40 gallons today 2-Aug-11 174 174 83 2.1 3-Aug-11 180 195 83 2.3 Ron installed the timer to run both wells 4-Aug-11 99 109 86 1.3 Betty reports a site or two with lots of visitors, like 10 all day. 5-Aug-11 198 176 83 2.1 Bought more water, 2 or 3 loads (i.e 1000 or 1500 gallons) 6-Aug-11 221 201 81 2.5 New line from old well installed 7-Aug-11 210 140 80 1.8 8-Aug-11 50 155 85 1.8 Pumps off for 14h … oops ! 9-Aug-11 60 190 86 2.2 Old switch on manual. 10-Aug-11 269 117 86 1.4 Darryl called in numbers. Have bought 6 or 7 loads of water. New well running 12-to-44 gal/day, perhaps. 11-Aug-11 476 237 88 2.7 12-Aug-11 0 0 0 0.0 13-Aug-11 254 289 84 3.4 14-Aug-11 241 132 90 1.5 15-Aug-11 216 133 109 1.2 16-Aug-11 205 170 107 1.6 17-Aug-11 237 230 99 2.3 18-Aug-11 226 201 103 2.0 19-Aug-11 217 150 99 1.5 Van Is. Health says stop new well 20-Aug-11 209 198 102 1.9 21-Aug-11 197 202 109 1.9 Have bought 9 or 10 loads of water - so ~4500 gallons 22-Aug-11 0 0 75 0.0 Power out, so no test 23-Aug-11 311 275 85 3.2 24-Aug-11 189 165 95 1.7 25-Aug-11 204 203 85 2.4 26-Aug-11 218 252 84 3.0 27-Aug-11 149 84 71 1.2 28-Aug-11 188 151 71 2.1 29-Aug-11 193 187 85 2.2 30-Aug-11 197 157 86 1.8 31-Aug-11 185 133 86 1.5 Bought two loads of water 1-Sep-11 259 226 74 3.1 Reading is from the evening, not the morning. Bought a load of water 2-Sep-11 277 209 89 2.3 3-Sep-11 195 93 84 1.1 4-Sep-11 229 167 80 2.1 5-Sep-11 142 37 80 0.5 Heron Rocks Camping Co-op Water Usage 2012 Raw Meter Data Well drilled in 1984 (tag 13953) is 75 feet deep Well drilled in 2011 (34975) is 165 feet deep. Both wells are 6 inch bore, so 10" is about one imperial gallon. Reading Date From wells Into tanks (gallons) Used From Tank (gallons) Total People Notes/comments 18-May-12 56101 31823 Friday's reading by Daryl 19-May-12 56458 31875 Sat 10:30am reading by Rob, tanks at ~650 gallon level, i.e. 1300 total. 20-May-12 56777 32145 8am Reading by Rob. At 2am, Daryl read 56670/32115, at 8pm Rob read 56945/33120 - Firebarrels filled Sunday of work party, tanks down to ~300 gallons. 21-May-12 57137 33136 Mon 9am reading by Rob, tanks at ~450 gallons 22-May-12 57506 33182 23-May-12 57828 33245 8:30am reading by Daryl. Tanks still not full. Bryn is around this weekend. Daryl will get a raw sample to NI Labs so we can get a sodium test. 24-May-12 58168 33322 25-May-12 Missed reading 26-May-12 59010 33509 27-May-12 59277 33549 28-May-12 59550 33576 Tanks are full 29-May-12 59679 33608 30-May-12 59882 33682 31-May-12 60047 33733 1-Jun-12 Missed reading 2-Jun-12 60276 33877 3-Jun-12 60487 33947 4-Jun-12 60487 33979 5-Jun-12 60708 34019 6-Jun-12 60868 34103 7-Jun-12 60868 34202 8-Jun-12 61104 34244 9-Jun-12 61348 34304 14 campers arrived 10-Jun-12 61348 34348 10 11-Jun-12 61550 34427 8 New well has been pumped off each day from 9th to 12th. Takes about 14 minutes daily. Pump is at ~155' and static level is ~23', so ~155 gallons in water column if left. 12-Jun-12 61766 34478 2 no campers 13-Jun-12 61766 34556 2 14-Jun-12 62012 34564 2 15-Jun-12 7 16-Jun-12 62166 34713 7 17-Jun-12 62382 34752 10 18-Jun-12 62578 34855 12 19-Jun-12 62578 34884 12 20-Jun-12 62772 35022 22 21-Jun-12 63141 35201 23 22-Jun-12 63141 35316 21 23-Jun-12 63422 35412 32 24-Jun-12 63705 35512 49 25-Jun-12 63916 35801 57 7pm measurement 26-Jun-12 35801 67 8am measurement, missed 'in' value as pump was running. 27-Jun-12 64407 36042 62 28-Jun-12 76 29-Jun-12 64903 36360 73 30-Jun-12 65250 36574 72 1-Jul-12 65380 36683 77 2-Jul-12 65551 36850 71 3-Jul-12 65812 37015 73 New well has been pumped off 4 times over the long weekend. Daryl plans to keep doing so, and plans to send more sampels to the lab tomorrow. 4-Jul-12 66057 37154 60 5-Jul-12 58 6-Jul-12 66585 37578 48 7-Jul-12 66832 37770 69 8-Jul-12 67101 37939 77 9-Jul-12 67359 38184 79 10-Jul-12 67603 38517 84 11-Jul-12 67811 38650 81 12-Jul-12 68117 38915 84 Reading Date From wells Into tanks (gallons) Used From Tank (gallons) Total People Notes/comments 13-Jul-12 68353 39101 87 14-Jul-12 68708 39388 88 Power out from 10:30pm to Sunday noon-ish 15-Jul-12 68744 39402 88 16-Jul-12 69022 39578 94 17-Jul-12 69316 39750 92 18-Jul-12 69513 39902 92 19-Jul-12 69807 40053 83 20-Jul-12 69987 40144 82 21-Jul-12 70257 40365 69 22-Jul-12 70432 40477 68 23-Jul-12 70669 40574 67 24-Jul-12 70872 40667 67 25-Jul-12 71118 40810 69 26-Jul-12 71348 40982 64 27-Jul-12 71639 41157 69 28-Jul-12 71806 41270 96 29-Jul-12 72065 41548 87 Noticing tank dropping, around 840 (US-gal) in each tank 30-Jul-12 72321 41783 94 31-Jul-12 72439 41829 98 1-Aug-12 72642 42016 90 2-Aug-12 72863 42270 97 3-Aug-12 73075 42467 98 4-Aug-12 73332 42687 99 5-Aug-12 73516 42826 94 6-Aug-12 73716 43046 102 7-Aug-12 73910 43212 110 8-Aug-12 74122 43434 104 Bought 1000 gallons (2 loads) 9-Aug-12 74314 43621 98 10-Aug-12 74500 43756 72 11-Aug-12 74705 43965 82 12-Aug-12 74908 44147 87 13-Aug-12 75085 44246 104 14-Aug-12 75286 44417 107 15-Aug-12 75474 44623 106 16-Aug-12 75663 44829 114 Losing ground on tanks 17-Aug-12 75852 44979 123 18-Aug-12 76049 45154 70 19-Aug-12 76237 45286 76 20-Aug-12 76487 45543 87 8pm reading 21-Aug-12 76585 45588 72 About 400 US gallons in each tank, will get another two loads of water 'soon' 22-Aug-12 76706 45731 84 23-Aug-12 76928 45871 80 24-Aug-12 77102 45974 67 25-Aug-12 77326 46112 73 26-Aug-12 77481 46220 68 27-Aug-12 77677 46404 68 28-Aug-12 77846 46519 70 Monthly treated water sample taken today and in tomorrow. Tanks are ~2/3 full 29-Aug-12 78013 46667 64 30-Aug-12 78206 46831 70 31-Aug-12 78375 47005 70 1-Sep-12 78545 47227 74 2-Sep-12 78711 47345 28 3-Sep-12 78878 47478 5 people does not include Daryl & Betty Heron Rocks Camping Co-op Water Usage 2012 Usage and Camp Load Date Daily well production (gallons) Daily water consumption (gallons) Total People Daily consumption per person (gallons) Notes/comments 19-May-12 357 52 0 Sat 10:30am reading by Rob, tanks at ~650 gallon level, i.e. 1300 total. 20-May-12 319 270 0 0.0 8am Reading by Rob. At 2am, Daryl read 56670/32115, at 8pm Rob read 56945/33120 - Firebarrels filled Sunday of work party, tanks down to ~300 gallons. 21-May-12 360 991 0 0.0 Mon 9am reading by Rob, tanks at ~450 gallons 22-May-12 369 46 0 0.0 23-May-12 322 63 0 0.0 8:30am reading by Daryl. Tanks still not full. Bryn is around this weekend. Daryl will get a raw sample to NI Labs so we can get a sodium test. 24-May-12 340 77 0 0.0 25-May-12 0 0 0 0.0 Missed reading 26-May-12 842 187 0 0.0 27-May-12 267 40 0 0.0 28-May-12 273 27 0 0.0 Tanks are full 29-May-12 129 32 0 0.0 30-May-12 203 74 0 0.0 31-May-12 165 51 0 0.0 1-Jun-12 0 0 0 0.0 Missed reading 2-Jun-12 229 144 0 0.0 3-Jun-12 211 70 0 0.0 4-Jun-12 0 32 0 0.0 5-Jun-12 221 40 0 0.0 6-Jun-12 160 84 0 0.0 7-Jun-12 0 99 0 0.0 8-Jun-12 236 42 0 0.0 9-Jun-12 244 60 14 4.3 campers arrived 10-Jun-12 0 44 10 4.4 11-Jun-12 202 79 8 9.9 New well has been pumped off each day from 9th to 12th. Takes about 14 minutes daily. Pump is at ~155' and static level is ~23', so ~155 gallons in water column if left. 12-Jun-12 216 51 2 25.5 no campers 13-Jun-12 0 78 2 39.0 14-Jun-12 246 8 2 4.0 15-Jun-12 0 0 7 0.0 16-Jun-12 154 149 7 21.3 17-Jun-12 216 39 10 3.9 18-Jun-12 196 103 12 8.6 19-Jun-12 0 29 12 2.4 20-Jun-12 194 138 22 6.3 21-Jun-12 369 179 23 7.8 22-Jun-12 0 115 21 5.5 23-Jun-12 281 96 32 3.0 24-Jun-12 283 100 49 2.0 25-Jun-12 211 289 57 5.1 7pm measurement 26-Jun-12 0 0 67 0.0 8am measurement, missed 'in' value as pump was running. 27-Jun-12 491 241 62 3.9 28-Jun-12 0 0 76 0.0 29-Jun-12 496 318 73 4.4 30-Jun-12 347 214 72 3.0 1-Jul-12 130 109 77 1.4 2-Jul-12 171 167 71 2.4 3-Jul-12 261 165 73 2.3 New well has been pumped off 4 times over the long weekend. Daryl plans to keep doing so, and plans to send more sampels to the lab tomorrow. 4-Jul-12 245 139 60 2.3 5-Jul-12 0 0 58 0.0 6-Jul-12 528 424 48 8.8 7-Jul-12 247 192 69 2.8 8-Jul-12 269 169 77 2.2 9-Jul-12 258 245 79 3.1 10-Jul-12 244 333 84 4.0 11-Jul-12 208 133 81 1.6 12-Jul-12 306 265 84 3.2 13-Jul-12 236 186 87 2.1 14-Jul-12 355 287 88 3.3 Power out from 10:30pm to Sunday noon-ish 15-Jul-12 36 14 88 0.2 16-Jul-12 278 176 94 1.9 17-Jul-12 294 172 92 1.9 18-Jul-12 197 152 92 1.7 19-Jul-12 294 151 83 1.8 20-Jul-12 180 91 82 1.1 21-Jul-12 270 221 69 3.2 22-Jul-12 175 112 68 1.6 23-Jul-12 237 97 67 1.4 24-Jul-12 203 93 67 1.4 25-Jul-12 246 143 69 2.1 26-Jul-12 230 172 64 2.7 Date Daily well production (gallons) Daily water consumption (gallons) Total People Daily consumption per person (gallons) Notes/comments 27-Jul-12 291 175 69 2.5 28-Jul-12 167 113 96 1.2 29-Jul-12 259 278 87 3.2 Noticing tank dropping, around 840 (US-gal) in each tank 30-Jul-12 256 235 94 2.5 31-Jul-12 118 46 98 0.5 1-Aug-12 203 187 90 2.1 2-Aug-12 221 254 97 2.6 3-Aug-12 212 197 98 2.0 4-Aug-12 257 220 99 2.2 5-Aug-12 184 139 94 1.5 6-Aug-12 200 220 102 2.2 7-Aug-12 194 166 110 1.5 8-Aug-12 212 222 104 2.1 Bought 1000 gallons (2 loads) 9-Aug-12 192 187 98 1.9 10-Aug-12 186 135 72 1.9 11-Aug-12 205 209 82 2.5 12-Aug-12 203 182 87 2.1 13-Aug-12 177 99 104 1.0 14-Aug-12 201 171 107 1.6 15-Aug-12 188 206 106 1.9 16-Aug-12 189 206 114 1.8 Losing ground on tanks 17-Aug-12 189 150 123 1.2 18-Aug-12 197 175 70 2.5 19-Aug-12 188 132 76 1.7 20-Aug-12 250 257 87 3.0 8pm reading 21-Aug-12 98 45 72 0.6 About 400 US gallons in each tank, will get another two loads of water 'soon' 22-Aug-12 121 143 84 1.7 23-Aug-12 222 140 80 1.8 24-Aug-12 174 103 67 1.5 25-Aug-12 224 138 73 1.9 26-Aug-12 155 108 68 1.6 27-Aug-12 196 184 68 2.7 28-Aug-12 169 115 70 1.6 Monthly treated water sample taken today and in tomorrow. Tanks are ~2/3 full 29-Aug-12 167 148 64 2.3 30-Aug-12 193 164 70 2.3 31-Aug-12 169 174 70 2.5 1-Sep-12 170 222 74 3.0 2-Sep-12 166 118 28 4.2 3-Sep-12 167 133 5 26.6 people does not include Daryl & Betty  Report To: Heron Rocks Camping Cooperative Rob delsanto Site 38 C60 Fanny Bay B.C. V0R 1W0 Date Reported: 3 Jun 11 Date Received: 24 May 11 9:28 Date Completed: 3 Jun 11 Certificate of Analysis Lab Number: 87914 Units Drinking Water GuidelineResultTest Sampling Date: 24 May 11 0:00 Sampled By: Doug 87914-01 new drilling well MPN/100mL>200.5Total Coliforms (DES) <1 MPN/100mL<1.0E. coli (DES) <1 pH Units8.9pH 6.5-8.5 mg/L570Total Dissolved Solids (conductivity ca 500 AO mg/L1.5Fluoride 1.5 MAC mg/L107.0Chloride 250 AO mg/L<0.1Nitrate (N) 10 MAC mg/L<0.1Nitrite (N) 1 MAC mg/L12.9Sulphate 500 AO mg/L0.568T-Aluminium 0.1 Operational Std mg/L0.0013T-Antimony 0.006 MAC mg/L0.0064T-Arsenic 0.010 MAC mg/L0.104T-Barium 1.0 MAC mg/L<0.00004T-Beryllium mg/L1.08T-Boron 5 MAC mg/L<0.001T-Bismuth mg/L<0.00001T-Cadmium 0.005 MAC mg/L1.09T-Calcium mg/L0.001T-Chromium 0.05 MAC mg/L0.00025T-Cobalt mg/L<0.001T-Copper 1.0 AO mg/L0.645T-Iron 0.3 AO mg/L0.0003T-Lead 0.010 MAC mg/L0.005T-Lithium mg/L0.3T-Magnesium mg/L0.01T-Manganese 0.05 AO mg/L0.0006T-Molybdenum Page 1 of 4 AO = Aesthetic Objective; MAC = Max. Allowable Concentration;  IMAC = Interim MAC > = Greater than; < = Less than Results relate only to samples as submitted. This certificate must not be reproduced, except in its entirety, without written consent from the laboratory. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines as listed on Dec. 5th, 2005 and are subject to 4/25/2012 13:53 Units Drinking Water GuidelineResultTest Sampling Date: 24 May 11 0:00 Sampled By: Doug 87914-01 new drilling well mg/L<0.001T-Nickel mg/L0.124T-Phosphorus mg/L0.4T-Potassium mg/L<0.0006T-Selenium 0.01 MAC mg/L5.2T-Silicon mg/L<0.00001T-Silver mg/L181T-Sodium 200 AO mg/L0.045T-Strontium mg/L<0.00001T-Thallium mg/L<0.0001T-Tin mg/L0.009T-Titanium mg/L<0.0004T-Uranium mg/L0.0064T-Vanadium mg/L0.002T-Zinc 5.0 AO mg/L4.0Hardness (CaCO3) 80-100 Page 2 of 4 AO = Aesthetic Objective; MAC = Max. Allowable Concentration;  IMAC = Interim MAC > = Greater than; < = Less than Results relate only to samples as submitted. This certificate must not be reproduced, except in its entirety, without written consent from the laboratory. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines as listed on Dec. 5th, 2005 and are subject to 4/25/2012 13:53 87914-01 Analyst DateMethodTest NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 5/27/2011Chloride NIsLEnzyme Substrate, APHA 9223 B -modified 5/24/2011E. coli (DES) NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 5/27/2011Fluoride NIsLHardness by Calculation, APHA 2340 B -modified 6/1/2011Hardness (CaCO3) NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 5/27/2011Nitrate (N) NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 5/27/2011Nitrite (N) NIsLElectrometric, APHA 4500 B -modified 5/27/2011pH NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 5/27/2011Sulphate EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Aluminium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Antimony EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Arsenic EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Barium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Beryllium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Bismuth EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Boron EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Cadmium EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Calcium This water sample, at the time it was taken, does not meet the Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines for one or more of the parameters tested.  Please refer to your results. This analysis is not to be interpreted as a Water Potability Certificate as this is beyond the authority of North Island Laboratories Ltd. For further information regarding sampling, lab results and well disinfection, please check our web site: http://www.nilabs.com.     For information on wells and ground water see:  www.wellwaterprotection.bc.ca We suggest the following Health Canada website for further information regarding the latest drinking water quality guidelines to help you assess your results: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/water-eau/drink-potab/guide/index-eng.php Total Coliform: The Total Coliform group (of micro-organisms) includes:  The fecal coliform (E.coli), which are common to the intestinal tract of both man and animals, and the non-fecal coliforms that are naturally present in soils and on vegetation. The precise sanitary significance of the Total Coliform test may be difficult to establish.  The test is offered as an indicator of bacterial contamination. E. coli:  The E.coli test has been shown to be an indicator of the potential presence of enteric pathogens in water.  Because it is relatively specific for fecal contamination, the E.coli  measurement is preferred for monitoring raw (untreated i.e. wells) water quality and for indicating the potential presence of pathogens at source.  Any untreated supply that contains E.coli should receive disinfection. We suggest the following Health Canada website for further information regarding the latest drinking water quality guidelines to help you assess your results: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/water-eau/drink-potab/guide/index-eng.php Page 3 of 4 AO = Aesthetic Objective; MAC = Max. Allowable Concentration;  IMAC = Interim MAC > = Greater than; < = Less than Results relate only to samples as submitted. This certificate must not be reproduced, except in its entirety, without written consent from the laboratory. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines as listed on Dec. 5th, 2005 and are subject to 4/25/2012 13:53 Approved By: Catherine Black, Owner/Operator EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Chromium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Cobalt EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Copper EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Iron EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Lead EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Lithium EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Magnesium EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Manganese EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Molybdenum EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Nickel EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Phosphorus EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Potassium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Selenium EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Silicon EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Silver EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Sodium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Strontium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Thallium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Tin EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Titanium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Uranium EXLICP, APHA 3120B Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Vanadium EXLICP-MS, USEPA 200.8 Exova Subcontract 5/27/2011T-Zinc NIsLEnzyme Substrate, APHA 9223 B -modified 5/24/2011Total Coliforms (DES) NIsLConductivity @25C, APHA 2510 A -modified 5/26/2011Total Dissolved Solids (conducti Page 4 of 4 AO = Aesthetic Objective; MAC = Max. Allowable Concentration;  IMAC = Interim MAC > = Greater than; < = Less than Results relate only to samples as submitted. This certificate must not be reproduced, except in its entirety, without written consent from the laboratory. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines as listed on Dec. 5th, 2005 and are subject to 4/25/2012 13:53 Report To: Heron Rocks Camping Cooperative Rob delsanto Site 38 C60 Fanny Bay B.C. V0R 1W0 Date Reported: 27 Apr 12 Date Received: 13 Apr 12 9:16 Date Completed: 26 Apr 12 Certificate of Analysis Lab Number: 94877 Units Drinking Water GuidelineResultTest Sampling Date: 12 Apr 12 0:00 Sampled By: 94877-01 Heron Rocks Campsite New Well 165ft Wellhead mg/L (CaCO3)290Alkalinity mg/L<0.05Total Ammonia (N) mg/L203Chloride 250 AO mg/L1.12Fluoride 1.5 MAC mg/L<0.05Nitrate (N) 10 MAC mg/L<0.05Nitrite (N) 1 MAC mg/L22.0Sulphate 500 AO Colour Units16Colour - True 15 pH Units8.4pH 6.5-8.5 uS/cm1260Conductivity -0.16Corrosivity mg/L732Total Dissolved Solids 500 AO mg/L7.5Total Organic Carbon mg/L0.4Total Organic Nitrogen mg/L0.056T-Aluminium 0.1 Operational Std mg/L0.0005T-Antimony 0.006 MAC mg/L0.0065T-Arsenic 0.010 MAC mg/L0.109T-Barium 1.0 MAC mg/L<0.00004T-Beryllium mg/L1.18T-Boron 5 MAC mg/L<0.001T-Bismuth mg/L0.00019T-Cadmium 0.005 MAC mg/L2.25T-Calcium mg/L0.0012T-Chromium 0.05 MAC mg/L0.00017T-Cobalt mg/L0.005T-Copper 1.0 AO mg/L0.253T-Iron 0.3 AO Page 1 of 4 AO = Aesthetic Objective; MAC = Max. Allowable Concentration;  IMAC = Interim MAC > = Greater than; < = Less than Results relate only to samples as submitted. This certificate must not be reproduced, except in its entirety, without written consent from the laboratory. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines as listed on Dec. 5th, 2005 and are subject to 4/27/2012 09:12 Units Drinking Water GuidelineResultTest Sampling Date: 12 Apr 12 0:00 Sampled By: 94877-01 Heron Rocks Campsite New Well 165ft Wellhead mg/L0.0006T-Lead 0.010 MAC mg/L0.003T-Lithium mg/L0.23T-Magnesium mg/L0.016T-Manganese 0.05 AO mg/L0.0011T-Molybdenum mg/L0.001T-Nickel mg/L0.226T-Phosphorus mg/L0.6T-Potassium mg/L<0.0006T-Selenium 0.01 MAC mg/L4.26T-Silicon mg/L<0.00001T-Silver mg/L320T-Sodium 200 AO mg/L0.074T-Strontium mg/L<0.00001T-Thallium mg/L0.0001T-Tin mg/L0.002T-Titanium mg/L<0.0004T-Uranium mg/L0.003T-Vanadium mg/L0.002T-Zinc 5.0 AO mg/L6.6Hardness (CaCO3) 80-100 NTU's3.3Turbidity 5 AO Page 2 of 4 AO = Aesthetic Objective; MAC = Max. Allowable Concentration;  IMAC = Interim MAC > = Greater than; < = Less than Results relate only to samples as submitted. This certificate must not be reproduced, except in its entirety, without written consent from the laboratory. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines as listed on Dec. 5th, 2005 and are subject to 4/27/2012 09:12 94877-01 Analyst DateMethodTest NIsLTitration to 4.5, APHA 2320 B -modified 4/13/2012Alkalinity NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 4/13/2012Chloride NIsLSpectrophotometer, APHA 2120 C -modified 4/13/2012Colour - True NIsLConductivity @25C, APHA 2510 B -modified 4/17/2012Conductivity NIsLLangelier Saturation Index, www.awwa.org 4/24/2012Corrosivity NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 4/13/2012Fluoride NIsLHardness by Calculation, APHA 2340 B -modified 4/24/2012Hardness (CaCO3) NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 4/13/2012Nitrate (N) NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 4/13/2012Nitrite (N) NIsLElectrometric, APHA 4500 B -modified 4/13/2012pH NIsLIon Chromatography, EPA 300.1 -modified 4/13/2012Sulphate EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Aluminium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Antimony EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Arsenic EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Barium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Beryllium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Bismuth EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Boron EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Cadmium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B -modified 4/19/2012T-Calcium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Chromium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Cobalt EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Copper EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B -modified 4/19/2012T-Iron EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Lead EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Lithium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B-modified 4/19/2012T-Magnesium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B -modified 4/19/2012T-Manganese EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Molybdenum EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Nickel EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Phosphorus EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B - modified 4/19/2012T-Potassium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Selenium This is a SUPPLEMENTAL report replacing the report previously issued under lab number 94575.  The Chloride result was incorrect in the original set of results and has been corrected in this report.  Cblack 26/4/12 Page 3 of 4 AO = Aesthetic Objective; MAC = Max. Allowable Concentration;  IMAC = Interim MAC > = Greater than; < = Less than Results relate only to samples as submitted. This certificate must not be reproduced, except in its entirety, without written consent from the laboratory. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines as listed on Dec. 5th, 2005 and are subject to 4/27/2012 09:12 Approved By: Catherine Black, Owner/Operator EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B - modified 4/19/2012T-Silicon EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Silver EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B - modified 4/19/2012T-Sodium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Strontium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Thallium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Tin EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B - modified 4/19/2012T-Titanium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Uranium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP, APHA 3120B - modified 4/19/2012T-Vanadium EXLExova Subcontract, ICP-MS,USEPA 200.8-modified 4/19/2012T-Zinc EXLExova Subcontract, APHA 4500-NH3 C -modified 4/20/2012Total Ammonia (N) EXLExova Subcontract, dried @180C,APHA 2540C-modified 4/19/2012Total Dissolved Solids EXLExova Subcontract, Ch.34 SSSA BookSeries5-modified 4/19/2012Total Organic Carbon EXLExova Subcontract, Ch.37 SSSA BookSeries5-modified 4/19/2012Total Organic Nitrogen NIsLNephelometric, APHA 2130 B -modified 4/13/2012Turbidity Page 4 of 4 AO = Aesthetic Objective; MAC = Max. Allowable Concentration;  IMAC = Interim MAC > = Greater than; < = Less than Results relate only to samples as submitted. This certificate must not be reproduced, except in its entirety, without written consent from the laboratory. Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines as listed on Dec. 5th, 2005 and are subject to 4/27/2012 09:12  84 APPENDIX III: Geochemistry Results !! Table 5: Geochemistry results and field data   1 - New well 1 - New well (2x) 2 - Old Well 3 - Pond 4 - Neighbour 5 - Spring  Unit       pH (field) pH units 9.18 9.18 6.30 7.96 9.03 -- pH (lab) pH units 8.65 8.65 6.70 7.15 8.76 6.99 Conductivity µS/cm 1020 1020 508 130 973 -- Alkalinity (HCO3-) ppm -- 268 91 85 353 182         Calcium ppm 2.114 2.273 17.774 23.707 2.867 47.138 Phosphorous ppm 0.134 0.123 0.041 0.053 0.050 0.032 Potassium ppm 1.242 1.345 1.141 2.113 0.236 1.042 Sulfur ppm 10.339 9.856 5.507 2.663 1.650 16.619 Aluminum ppm 0.032 0.033 0.006 0.018 0.005 0.012 Iron ppm 0.718 0.719 0.238 0.901 0.113 1.526 Magnesium ppm 1.066 1.046 3.287 8.026 0.525 13.204 Manganese ppm 0.045 0.044 0.099 0.122 0.014 0.112 Silicon ppm 4.630 4.592 7.190 5.377 4.041 7.186 Sodium ppm 200.32 208.95 37.13 21.85 194.72 40.27 *Chloride ppm -- 153.096 34.281 45.721 98.372 42.448 Additional notes: -- Sulphur odor, yellow tint Sulphur odor, yellow tint Clear Sulphur odor, very turbid Sulphur odor Sulphur odor         Notes:        *Calculated using mass balance  ! 85 APPENDIX IV: Previous Study Geochemical Results  Table 6: Geochemistry data used from Allen and Matsuo’s 2002 study   Seawater Rainwater  Unit   pH (Lab) pH units 8.3 5.6 pH (Field) pH units 8.2 5.8 Alkalinity (HCO3-) (Field) ppm 122 17 Conductivity µS/cm 34300 13 Total Hardness ppm 4230 1.2 Temperature (Field) °C 14.8 18.6     HCO3- (Calculated) ppm 87.74 17.01 Chloride ppm 16000 <1.0 Floride ppm 0.72 <0.10 Iodide ppm <1 -- Bromide ppm 63 <1.0 Nitrate ppm -- -- Nitrate + Nitrite ppm -- -- Nirite Nitrogen ppm -- -- Sulphate ppm 2320 1.1     Aluminum ppm <0.02 <0.02 Antimony ppm <0.05 <0.05 Arsenic ppm <0.05 <0.05 Barium ppm 0.007 <0.007 Beryllium ppm <0.0002 <0.0002 Bismuth ppm <0.05 <0.05 Boron ppm 2.96 <0.008 Cadmium ppm <0.002 <0.002 Calcium ppm 265 35.7 Chromium ppm <0.005 <0.005 Cobalt ppm <0.005 <0.005 Copper ppm <0.005 <0.005 Iron ppm <0.005 0.07 Lead ppm <0.03 <0.03 Magnesium ppm 866 8.04 Manganese ppm <0.001 0.15 Molybdenum ppm <0.006 <0.005 Nickel ppm <0.008 <0.008 Phosphorus (Orthophosphate) ppm <0.1 <0.1 Potassium ppm <1 1 ! 86 Selenium ppm <0.03 <0.03 Silver ppm <0.01 <0.01 Sodium ppm 8940 17.1 Strontium ppm 4.71 0.006 Sulphur ppm 767 0.5 Tellurium ppm <0.05 <0.05 Thallium ppm <0.03 <0.03 Tin ppm <0.02 <0.02 Titanium ppm <0.003 <0.003 Vanadium ppm <0.005 <0.005 Zinc ppm <0.005 1.05 Zirconium ppm <0.005 <0.005 ! 87! APPENDIX V: Catchment Area Calculations  Table 7: Catchment area needed for rainwater collection at HRCC  Average precipitation mm 1370 Catchment efficiency % 75 Precipitation collected mm 1027.5 Volume of water needed L 7500 Catchment area needed m2 7.3 

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